Andrographis paniculata

August 15, 2010 at 7:02 pm · Filed under Class: Magnoliopsida, Family Acanthaceae,Order: Lamiales, Superorder: Asteranae

Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees Recent Synonyms: None relevant. Status: Exotic; Naturalised. Growth Form or Habit: Herb.

Hougang; Cultivated; 2010.

Hougang; Cultivated; 2010.

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OCIMUM SANCTUM (TULSI) FAMILY :-LAMIACEAE LOCAL NAME :-TULSI Kingdom: Division: Class: Order: Family: Genus: NATURE: It’s branched erect herb about 80cm high, and hairy all over. LEAF :-leaves opposite, about 6cm long, margins entire. hairy on upper as well as lower surface, dotted with minute glands. FLOWER :- small, purplish or reddish , in small compact clusters on slender spikes. FRUITS :-Fruits small. Seeds yellowish or reddish. LOCATION :- Mostly this plant grows in houses, gardens and most probably in temples and often found as escape. MEDICINAL USES :-this plants seeds and leaves are medicinal. Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Lamiales Lamiaceae Ocimum

From leaves oil obtained the property of that oil to destroying bacteria andinsects. the liquid of the leaves useful in bronchitis, digestive complaints, it is applied locally on ringworm and other skin disease an exotic east African of this genus namely guarke. It has been cultivated in India inKashmir. Utter Pradesh, west Bengal Mysur. its seeds give internally, relive constipation and piles

Eurycoma longifolia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Eurycoma longifolia Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Sapindales Family: Simaroubaceae Genus: Eurycoma Species: E. longifolia

Taxonomy( Kacip Fatimah)
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Domain: Eukaryota (

) - Whittaker & Margulis,1978 - eukaryotes

Kingdom: Plantae (

) - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants

Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae (

) - Cavalier-Smith, 1981

Phylum: Tracheophyta (

) - Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants

Subphylum: Euphyllophytina (


Infraphylum: Radiatopses (

) - Kenrick & Crane, 1997

Class: Magnoliopsida (

) - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons

Subclass: Dilleniidae (

) - Takhtajan, 1967

Superorder: Primulanae (

) - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996

Order: Myrsinales (

) - Bromhead, 1838

Family: Myrsinaceae (

) - R. Brown, 1810 - Myrsine Family

Genus: Labisia (


Specific epithet: pumila - (Blume) Fern.-Vill.

(Hydrocotyle asiatica) B. Sathy 1 , R. Uthaya Ganga 2 ABSTRACT

Centella asiatica is a profusely branched prostrate herb consisting of active principles such as Vallarine, Asiaticoside, Sitosterol, Tannin, Oxy –asiaticoside. Asiaticoside is used in the treatment of leprosy. Sitosterol and tannin possess antiprotozoal & spasmolytic property. According to Siddha literature, its leaves are used in the treatment of syphilis, all types of fever, children’s abdominal disorder, elephantiasis and hydrocele and these features are highlighted in this article. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES CLASS SUB –CLASS SERIES ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES : Dicotyledenae : Polypetalae : Calyciflorae : Umbellales : Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) : Centella :asiatica



: Indian penny wort : Vallarai,Yoshanavalli,Chandaki,Pindeeri : Mandookaparni : Brahmi : Tholkari : Artniya –e- hindi : Kudakam

1 III B.S.M.S, Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, T.N. India. 2 III B.S.M.S, Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, T.N. India. HABITAT :

Centella, a genus of about 33 species of herbs inhabitating tropical & sub tropical regions.The generic name has been derived from the Latin word “CENTUM = HUNDRED” referring to profusely branched prostrate herb which is a native of Madagascar .It is commonly found in rice fields along the bunds of irrigation channels. HABIT: Perennial herb ROOT: The plant consist of vertical root stalk STEM: Stem is prostrate slender, creeping with long stolens and nearly glabrous or hairy on young parts. LEAVES:

Leaves are cordate or hastate or orbicular or reniform or sub entire or palmately lobed consisting of long petiole and small stipules. Crowded leaves can be seen at nodes, consisting of very long stalks and sheathing leaf bases Leaf blades are dentate, crenate with thick radiate veins and dark green in colour Leaves are glabrous on both surfaces. FLOWERS: Flowers are small, sessile and dark pink in colour. They arise as simple umbels of 3 – 6 flowers at the ends of slender peduncles arising from the axils of leaves and much shorter than petioles supported below by an involucre of 2 –boat shaped membranous persistent bracts. FRIUTS: Clusted at joints. Carpels oblong, sub – cylindric curved and less in length much laterally compressed, readily separating into 2 indehiscent halves (mericarps) united by a very narrow plane of junction. Vittae are seen in the furrows of each mericarp. The fruits when bruised have an aromatic odour, pungent, nauseous and bitter taste. SEEDS: Solitary in each mericarp, pendulous embryo, laterally compressed. PHARMACOLOGICAL FEATURES: Parts Used in Medicine : Whole plant Taste : Acrid, Bitter, Sweet (Thuvarpu, Kaipu and Inippu)

Unmetabolized Pharmacologically active ingredient: cool natured (Thatpa veeriyam) Metabolized Pharmacologically active ingredient: Sweet (Inippu) CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS : Vallarine Asiaticoside Hydrocotylin Pectic Acids

Steroids Hersaponin Bacogenin Monnierin Triterpene Tannin ACTIONS OF ACTIVE PRINCIPLES : 1) VALLARINE : A bitter principle which is present in the leaves and roots of this plant is an oily liquid of a pale colour, soluble in alcohol, ether and caustic ammonia. It is believed that it’s active properties reside in this principle.

2) ASIATICOSIDE : Asiatoicoside has been shown to be active in the treatment of leprosy. It probably acts by dissolving the waxy covering of bacillus leprae. The bacillus thus become fragile and may easily be destroyed. . Leprosy nodules are broken down, diffuse infiltrations do disappear. Perforating ulcers and lesions on the fingers heal and most remarkable of all, eye lesions are cured if treatment is given before the posterior chamber of eye is involved. These improvements are seen in cases of anaesthetic leprosy and it is not really evident in tubercular leprosy. 3) OXY – ASIATICOSIDE : It is prepared by permanganate oxidation of asiaticoside. Along with asiaticoside it is employed in the treatment of certain types of tuberculosis. 4) SITOSTEROL, TANNIN : From the alcoholic extract of the herb, an essential oil green in colour possessing the strong odour of herb which is known to have antiprotozoal and spasmolytic effect have been reported. CENTELLA ASIATICA –A PANACEA DRUG Centella asiatica is an all healing drug of mighty potency and capable of rejuvenating the

system thus enabling to live for ages. When centella taken as a panacea drug, it is said to have remarkable power in increasing intelligence. GENERAL ACTIONS: Alterative Stimulant Refrigerant Soporific Emmenagogue Nervine tonic Cardiac tonic Stomachic Carminative Diuretic Some practical applications of Centella asiatica. 1) For Syphilis : When internally given, the leaves have a effect on syphilitic skin diseases and in secondary and constitutional syphilis especially in those cases where subjacent cellular tissue are principally affected.

2) As a memory tonic : when the leaves are taken as a tonic, it increases memory power. It is also taken as tablets for increasing intelligence quotient (I.Q.) 3) For Dysentry : The root of Centella asiatica when given with milk and liquorice arrests dystentry.

4) For all types of fevers The leaves of Centella asiatica, Ocimum sanctum and pepper are grinded and are made into tablets and are taken twice a day. disorders: 5) For Children’s abdominal

The ghee of Centella asiatica and the decoction made out of fenugreek and Centella asiatica leaves are reported to have a good effect.

6) For elephantiasis and


Its leaves are grinded and are applied on particular area.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) The wealth of India Vol II – Page No. 110 Author : Murugesa Mudaliyar Page

2) Siddha Materia Medica – Part I No.792

3) Medicinal Plants and Raw Drugs of India dhiman 4) Indian Medicinal Plants - Author: Orient Longmann Page No.52 - Author: Dr. P.N.V. Kurup Page No.61 - Authors: Purshotam kaushik &Anil kumar

5) Handbook of Medicinal Plants 6) Medicinal Plants

- Authors: Robert Bentley and Henry Trimen Page No :117

7. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

- Author : E. John Jothi Prakash Page No.18.

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Nama Saintifik & Tempatan
Di sini disenaraikan beberapa jenis herba yang menggunakan nama tempatan mengikut senarai abjad. Nama tempatan disenaraikan bagi memudahkan anda melihat dan mencari senarai herba dalam senarai nama saintifik dan kegunaannya. Sememangnya sukar untuk mengingati nama saintifik tersebut tetapi ianya sangat perlu bagi mengetahui spesis-spesis tumbuhan tersebut supaya difahami oleh semua orang sama ada tempatan atau antarabangsa. A Akar Som – Talinum paniculatum Akar Seratus Ati-ati Merah – Plectranthus scutellariodes Aji Samad – Jackia ornata Asam Jawa/Celagi – Tamarindus indica Avacado – Persea americana AraTanah / Gelang Susu, Keremak Susu – Euphorbia hirta Ara Songsang Akar Cerita Akar Manis Akar Sapuk Tunggul Akar Tengkuk Biawak – Fagraea acuminatissima Anggerik Kesumba

Ara Beringin – Ficus benjamina Asam gelungur – Garcinia atrovirdis Asam Paya Ara Bumbong Agav Sisal / Fukria – Agave sisalana Alamanda Kuning – Allamanda cathartica B Bawang Mas / Tembaga Susu Balik Angin/Tampin – Mallotus barbatus Bangun-bangun – Plectranthus amboinicus Bebaru / Baru-baru – Hibiscus tiliaceus Belimbing hutan Bakawali Batang Wali Belimbing Buluh – Averrhoa bilimbi Belimbing Tanah/Tongkong – Oxalis barrelieri Bemban – Donax grandis Bebuta/Buta-Buta – Excoecaria agallocha Beluntas Paya – Pluchea indica Bayam Duri/Bayam Hutan – Amaranthus spinosus Bayam Pasir/Keremak/Pudoh – Alternanthera sessilis Bunga Kekwa Bebuas Batu Jin / Pecah Batu / Bayam Karang – Strobilanthes crispa Bunga Kantan Bunga Loceng Bunga Melor – Jasminum sambac Bunga Cina /Susun Kelah Bunga Tanjung – Mimusops elengi C Capa/Sombung/Mambong – Blumea balsamifera Cekor/Cekur Hijau/Cekur Jawa – Kaempferia galanga Cekur Batik / Cekur Hutan – Kaempferia elegans Cekur Manis Gajah/Perupong – Glyptopetalum quadrangulare Cempaka Puteh – Michelia alba Cempaka Kuning -Michelia champaca Celaka Biru / C.Bunga

Cina Maki/Gelam Bukit/Serai Kayu Wangi – Leptospermum flavescens Cekak Manis/Tarok Manis – Sauropus androgynus Celaka Merah Cendana Cemara Celaka Puteh/Celaka Bukit – Plumbago zeylanica Cekur Buluh Cengkih – Syzygium aromaticum Ceremai Cengkian/Cemkian/Jemekian – Croton tiglium D Delima – Punica granatum Dokong Anak/Amin Buah – Phyllanthus urinaria Durian Belanda/Durian Mekah/Nangka Belanda – Annona muricata Daun Dewa / Dewa Raja /Sambung Nyawa – Gynura pseudochina Daun Kesum – Persicaria coronarium Depu Pelanduk – Wikstromia ridleyi Daun Sehelai Setahun – Nervilia punctata E Ekor Anjing – Plantago major Ekor Kucing – Acalypha hispida Ego/Peniti/Jemuju/Ketumbar Jawa – Eryngium foetidum Elek Besi / Itah Besi – Smilax myosofolio Elek Tembaga / E.Dawai – Smilax calophylla G Gajah Beranak – Goniothalamus macrophyllus Geli-geli – Lasia spinosa Geli-geli hitam – Cyrtosperma lasioidies Gelenggang Padang/Gelenggang Kasar – Senna alata Gandarussa Hitam – Gandarussa valguris Gandarrusa Puteh – Justicia gendarussa Ganda Suli Gelam Tikus Gelenggang Daun Besar – Cassia alata Gadum / Ara Geraham Badak – Phyllochlamyswallehii Galak Tua

Getang Guri Ginseng Gunung Gambir Laut/Gambir Paya – Uncaria lancea Gelam/Kayu Putih – Melaleuca cajputi Gajus/ Ketereh/Janggus – Anacardium occidentale Ganda Rusa Hutan H Halia – Zingiber officinale Halia Hutan /Rimba Halia Bara Hempedu Bumi /Pokok Cerita – Andrographis paniculata Hujan Panas / Bela Puteh – Breynia racemosa Hempedu Beruang/Seburut/Telinga Kalawar – Thottea grandiflora Hanuman /Jelutah/Pokok bajang beranak – Schefflera simulans Halban Halia Kesing / Pepijat Haji Samat/Setunjang Bumi – Prismatomeris tetrandra I Inai – Lawsonia inermis Isi Raja Satong / Kepala Beruk J Jarum Tujuh Bilah – Pereskia grandifolia Jerangau – Acorus calamus Jarak – Ricinus communis Jarak Merah / J.Belanda Jeruju Puteh Jarum Mas (Rumput) – Striga asiatica Jering – Archidendrum jiringa Jenjuang / Lenjung – Cordyline fruticosa Jambu Batu – Psidium guava Jintan puteh Jeruju Hitam – Acanthus ebracteatus Jintan Hitam – Nigella sativa Janggut Adam – Tacca intergrifolia Janggut Baung – Homalomena rostrata Jarak cina Jintan / Oregano – Origanum vulgare

Jejarum Jeruju – Acanthus ilicifolius K Kekabu Hutan – Bombax valetonii Kaduk/Sirih Dudoh/Bugu – Piper sarmentosum Kaduk Hutan -Piper stylosum Kapur Barus – Dryobalanops aromatica Kacip Fatimah – Labisia Pumila Kacang Telang – Clitorea ternatea Ketumpang Air/Rangu-rangu – Piper pellucidum Kulim – Scorodocarpus borneesi Kemunting Cina – Catharanthus roseus Kemangi Hitam Kenerak – Ghoniothalamus umbrosus Kemboja Puteh Kemboja Cina – Plumeria rubra Kerbau Amok – Schefflera ridleyi Kayu Manis – Cinnamomum zeylanicum Kunyit Hitam – Curcuma aeruginosa Kunyit Emas/Temu Kuning – Curcuma zedoaria Kunyit Puteh/Temu Putih – Didymocarpus crinita Kunyit – Cucurma longa Keladi Cantik – Alocasia denudata Keladi Tikus – Typhonium flagelliforme Keladi Hutan/Keladi Birah – Colocasia esculenta Keladi Kemoyang – Homalomena sagittifolia Keladi Sebaring – Alocasia macrorrhizos Kecubong/Terong Pengar – Datura fastuosa Kepala Sari / Akar Teriba Kancing Baju / Jelita – Bidens pilosa Kancing Baju Jantan/Rumput Teki/Rumput Serapat – Kyllinga brevifolia Kecupu – Garcinia prainiana Kucing Galak/Ceka Emas/Lis-Lis – Acalypha indica Kemangi/Ruku/Selasih – Ocimum tenuiflorum Kembang Semangkuk – Scaphium macropodumKelutut Puteh Ketapang Kiambang – Pistia stratiotes

Kemuning Putih – Murraya paniculata Kenanga – Cananga odorata Kedondong – Spondias pinnata Katak Puru/Nam-nam – Cynometra cauliflora Kerbau Duak Kayu Kapur Kayu Arang/Sangkak – Diospyros buxifolia Kelapa Berok / Naga Stong – Hydnophytum formicarium Keruing Mempelas – Dipterocarpus crinitus Kekunyit/Akar Kuning – Fibraurea tinctoria Keman Air/Keman Gajah/Kangkung Puteri – Neptunia oleracea Kurma – Phoenix roebelinii L Lidah Jin/Sansiviria – Sanseviera trifasciata Larak – Fissitigma latifolium Lempoyang / Lempoyang Wangi – Zingiber aromaticum Lempoyang Hitam/Bola Hitam – Zingiber ottensi Lempoyang Anjing/Tepus Kecil – Zingiber puberulum Lemba/Kepala Puyuh – Molineria latifolia Lidah Buaya – Aloe Vera Lengkuas – Alpinia galanga Lengkuas ranting/Lengkuas Kecil – Alpinia conchigera Lemuni Hitam/Leggundi – Vitex negundo Lemuning/Legundi – Vitex trifolia Lada Pahit – Brucea sumatrana Lada Hitam – Piper nigrum Lelipan Larak Tepong Larak Bengk Limau nipis – Citrus aurantifolia Limau Purut – Citrus hystrix M Mas Cotek – Ficus deltoidea Mata Ayam – Ardisia crenata Mambu/Pokok Nim – Melia indica Misai Ali – Schizaea digitata

Misai Kucing/Ruku Hutan/Kumis Kucing – Orthosiphon aristatu Mengkudu – Morinda citrifolia Mengkudu Hutan/Mengkudu Jantan – Morinda elliptica Mengkudu Gajah Memali Duri – Leea aculeata Memali – Leea indica Mahagani Mengkunyit – Coscinium blumeanum Melada/Selada – Capparis micracantha Medang Lansor – Elaeocarpus mastersii Melinjau – Gnetum gnemon Mentulang Merbau Mata Pelanduk N Nilam – Pogostemon cablin Nyior Lemba Naga Buana/Naga Jumat/KayuPutih – Phyllanthus pulcher Naga Stong / Kepala Beruk – Hydnophytum formicarium P Patawali/Putarwali/Petawali/Batang Wali – Tinospora crispa Payong Ali Palas Tikus/Palas Rewang – Licuala triphylla Pecah Periuk Kuning Pecah Periuk Puteh Pecah Periuk Biru / itam Pegaga – Centella asiatica Pegaga Embun – Hydrocotyle sibthorpiodes Pegaga Gajah Petai Belalang/Ipil-ipil – Leucaena leucocephala Panah Arjuna / Paku kikir – Tectaria crenata Paku Gajah – Angiopteris evecta Paku Tanduk Rusa Paku Tunjuk Langit – Helminthostachys zeylanica Paku Laut / Paku Haji – Cycas edentata Paku Langsuyar – Platycerium coronarium

Penawar Hitam – Goniothalamus giganteus Puding Emas – Codiaeum variegatum Puah Pungah/Balai-balai – Aralidium pinnatifitidum R Raja Satong Sarang Semut Rumput Sambau Raja Berangkat/Cagau – Goniothalamus curtissi Rempah Gunung Rempah Padang Rumput Buluh Rumput Cina Rumput Misai Adam – Themeda arguens Rumput Jari Lipan – Limnophila aromatica S Sakat / Semun – Asplenium nidus Senduduk/Cong Keradak – Dissochaeta gracilis Senduduk/Kenduduk/Sekeduduk – Melastoma malabathricum Senduduk (Puteh) – Melastoma sanguineum Senduduk Baldu(Ungu Tua) Sembuluh Serapat Susun Kelapa / Sisik kelah – Tabernaemontana divaricata Susu Kambing Setawar Kampung /Sedingin – Kalanchoe pinnata Setawar Hutan / Setawar Bukit Setawar Air – Costus speciosus Sesudu – Euphorbia milli Saidina Ali – Clerodendrom deflexum Sedawai/Tampang Besi/Tembaga Suasa – Smilax calophylla Sambung Nyawa – Gynura pseudochina Serai wangi – Cymbopogon nardus Sawi Rusa – Erechtites valerianifolia Serapat Pandan/Siak-Siak Rimba/Sempit – Mapania cuspidata Sekentut/Akar Bukit – Paederia foetida Sekunyit – Coscinium fenestratum Siantan Hutan/Menjarum – Ixora concinna

Siak-siak/Siak-siak Jantan/Meroyan Bungkus – Dianella ensifolia Sirih Hutan/Sirih Tikus/Sirih Pacat – Piper caninum Sirih Harimau/Kerakap Rimau – Piper porphyrophyllum Susuh Ayam Hutan Susuh harimau/Baka – Artabotrys suaveolens Sanssiviria – Sansevieria trifasciata Sri Kaya – Annona squamosa Sungkai – Peronema canescens Sundal Malam/Sumpa Bulan/Penggeli – Aglaoenama simplex T Tongkat Ali – Eurycoma longifolia Jac Tongkat Ali Hitam – Polyalthia bullata Tongkat Ali Mas/Gajah Tarik – Strychnos sp Tengkok Biawak – Fagraea acuminatissima Tebu Hitam – Saccharum officinarum Teh Manis – Stevia Rebaudiana Teh Hutan/Teh Kampung – Acalypha siamensis Teja/Teja Lawang/Medang Teja – Cinnamomum iners Tapak Kuda – Bauhinia purpurea Tapak Gajah/Banal Hutan – Phyllagathis rotundfolia Tutup Bumi/Bersih Hitam/Tapak Leman – Elephantopus scaber Tarom Hutam – Didissandra frutescens Terung Kemar/Mentimun Tikus/Akar Putih- Cyclea laxiflora Terung Maranti Terung Pipit/Terung Rembang – Solanum torvum Terung Pipit Putih – Solanum indicum Tepus Putih/Lengkuas Hutan/Lengkuas Angin – Alpinia javanica Tepus Merah – Curcuma phaeocaulis Tepus Tanah,/Tepai/Tepus Halia – Zingiber spectabile Temu Pauh – Curcuma mangga Temu Kunci – Boesenbergia rotunda Temu Hitam/Kunyit Hitam – Curcuma aeruginosa Temu Lawak – Curcuma xanthorrhiza Temu Kuning/Kunyit Emas – Curcuma zedoaria U Ubi Gadung/Ubi arak/Taring Pelandok – Dioscorea hispida

Ubi Larut, Sagu Bemban Putih – Stachyphryniu griffithii Ubi Seratus Ubi Jaga/Dedawai Berisi – Smilax myosotiflora Ulam Raja – Cosos caudatus

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