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Basics of Transformer Design Page 1 of 3

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Transformer Basics
Wes Patterson Seminar

Feb 1992 Transformer Seminar by Wes Patterson

This document is also sent to customers asking for basic information about transformer design

Westinghouse Lecture Series

1) Transformer Types and Applications NOTE: This is proprietary information

and should not be circulated outside of
2) How a Transformer Works the company.
3) Power Transformer Windings
This is a series of lectures on the Basics of
4) Distribution of Impulse Voltages in Transformers provided to Westinghouse
Power Transformer Windings employees in 1966, back in the good ole
5) Methods of Controlling Impulse days of typewriters and slide rules. They
Voltages appear to contain some good basic
information on transformer function.
6) Insulating Materials, Stresses,
7) Transformer Insulation Structures
8) Paper & Oil Insulation
9&10) Cores, Structure, Properties
11) Resistance, Reactance, Regulation
12) Calculation of Transformer Reactance

file://K:\Инженер\ABB Handbooks\1966 Westinghouse Lecture Series\Tr... 11/16/2010

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DatI July 15, 1966

SUDject Transformer Fundamental Course

We are now ready to complete the final arrangements of the Transformer

Fundamental Course announced to you in May, 1966. The original response to this
program was large and, as a result) several adjustments in the procedure and
contents have now been made to accomodate the wishes and needs of the participants.

1. The program will start on Tuesday, September 20, 1966 from 4-6:00 P.M.
in the Auditorium and continue each consecutive week for two terms of
12 weeks (24 in total). See the attached list for subject, instructor,
and dates.

2. Participation is being restricted to those who have technical back-

ground~ (E.E.; M.E.; I.E.; Math; Physics) since the course material
will be on a graduate level basis of understanding.

3. Extensive readings, home study and final examinations are scheduled

so a. scholarly atmospher~ and tempo can be anticipated.

4. Regular and prompt attendance will be expected because the instructors '. "'i
will be presenting course material necess.itating the full utilization of
the two-hour period. In many cases, time will have to be spent filling ._. ·'~'I;/'
' ..

in the information gaps through outside reading and research. :.,?:

5. We plan to record all the sessions on tape and then make the tapes
available, on a scheduled basis. for those who must be out of town on
business trips,. etc. We plan to keep these tapes on permanent file
for future use and. reference.

6. Extensive notes, diagrams, instruction materials, etc. are being

developed by eacn instructor and will be given to each participant.
Additional copfes will be made availabfe in the Engineering Library
for anyone:wfshing to. use'. this inaterial.
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7~ Bec.ausa the- res-ponse: to program was so great, it is deemed ad-
.. ' ;",.\tisable-'; limi.t.p.~cip-atiou'·~othis program to those who plan. to
enrGtI on. f"fUII.?artfc:ipaticn st~usrt·~. We' will, however, be receptive
~o' an. occasional" visitor':'wncr has-·a,.. p.articular interest in !!. specific
session. r£: you' areim this. category we do ~ need the. enclosed J;

questionnaire . returned~ . < .-

Transformer Fundamental Course Page 2.

8. ·It woulJ be advisable to equip yourself with a three-ring binder

and note paper prior to the ficst session.

9. " The sessions will start promptly at 4 P.M., and it is our intention
to stop at 6 P.M. or as the class dictates; you can plan your rides

10. Mr. E. C. Wentz has been retained as a consultant to administer

this program and he is now working with each instructor in the
preparation of the course material. Mr. Wentz will be available
on a scheduled basis after September 15 for private consultation
on any matter relative to· the contents or problems associated
with this educational program.

11. If you meet the general requirements outlined in the aforegoing

.material and wish to participate fully and contribute to this
program to the best of your ability, you are invited to return
the enclosed questionnaire by September 3, 1966. There is no
charge for this program; it represents a beginning series of
educational programs for the personnel of the Transformer Division.
You will be notified by bulletin board or direct notices as soon
as final plans have been completed on other educational programs.

12 • Mark your calendar -.!l2!. - using the accompanying schedule of

.""". pr.esentations as your guide.

2 J. D. Grewell
dustrial Relations



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,. . ..,
Westinghouse Lecture Series
1) Transformer Types and Applications
2) How a Transformer Works
3) Power Transformer Windings
4) Distribution of Impulse Voltages in Power Transformer Windings
5) Methods of Controlling Impulse Voltages
6) Insulating Materials, Stresses, Breakdown
7) Transformer Insulation Structures
8) Paper & Oil Insulation
9&10) Cores, Structure, Properties
11) Resistance, Reactance, Regulation
12) Calculation of Transformer Reactance
13) Losses and Stray Losses in Transformer Cores and Coils
14) Losses & Efficiency
15) Mechanical Forces On Short Circuit
16) Insulation Aging and Thermal Evaluation
17&18) Heat Transfer Theory
19&20) Application of Heat Transfer Principles to Transformer Cooling
21) Transformer Oil
22) Protection Against Overloads, Hot Oil, & Hot Spot Devices
23&24) Insulation Coordination
25) Detection of Faults in Transformer Equipment
26) Symmetrical Components
27) Equivalent Circuits of Transformers
28) Taps in Transformer Windings
29&30) Methods of Load Tap Changing
31) Designs of Preventive Auto Transformers
32) Design of Windings for Load Tap Changers
33) Regulating Transformers
34) Instrument Transformers
35) Testing ASA: Test Code, Test Schedule, and Equipment
36) Loss Measurement
37) Temperature Testing
38) Power Factor Tests of Oil Immersed Transformers
39&40) Economics of Transformer Application
43) Packing and Shipping
44) Installation of Power Transformers in the Field
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W. T. Duboc


Transformer Types and Applications ------------------------ Pages 1 to 4

Figure 1 Substation Transformer ------------------------- Page .5

Fi?ure 2 Substation Transformer with LTC ---------------- Page .5

Figure 3 Regulating Transformer (Small KVA) ------------- Page 6

Figure 4 Large Generator Transformer -------------------- Page 6

Figure 5 Autotransformer with LTC for Tie Between Lines - Page .7

Figure ·6 Furnace Transformer --------------~------------- Page 8

Figure 7 Rectiformer -------------------------.---------- Page 8
:./ Figure 8 Ventilated ASL ------------------------------~-- Page .9
Figure· 9 Sealed ASL ------------------------------------- Page 10
Figure 10 Network Transformer -------------------------~ Page 10 ...

Figure 11 Cutatvay of Core Form Transformer --------------- Page 11

Figure 12 Cutaway of Shell Form Transformer -------------- Page 12

Figure 13 Past Developments in Shell Form Transformers --- Page 13

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\J September 27, 1966 Lecture L


Since. the introduction of transformers in the first commercial

alternating current syste~ at Great Barrington, Massachusetts in 1886,
the power industry has grown to its present proportions. And it can be
expected to continue to grow at its historical rate of doubling every
8 to 10 y~ars indefinitely. In the process, the need for specialized
transformer types and chan:cteristics has also expanded and concurrently
the requirement for more creative engineering and ingenuity has likewise
expanded in order to s2.tisfy part:'cular specifications for each appli-

There is little point in dwelling at length on the details of all

the particular applications since many texts are available on this subject.
I would refer you particularly to Chapter 5 of the "Transmission and
Distribution" reference bookl and to Chapter 2 of Mr. ~ventz I s book2. It
is worth,,,hile, however, to examine a fe of these applications with respect

to their present limitations and the parameters which govern further


As discussed in the preceding l~cture, power is fed to the ultimate

user of relatively small amour.ts through distr~bution transformers. The
supply (high voltage) side of these units varies but is typicallY of'the
order of 13 kv though thare are still a number of 2400 and 4160 volt
systems in operation and a few at higher voltages. To feed these multiple
distribution loads requireS a more centrally located substation transformer,
such as sh,~wn in Figure 1, whi::h transforms power from transmission line
voltag~s to distribution feeders in blocks of perhaps 1 to 20 or 30 mva,
depending on the concentration of lOads. Quite frequently the practical
aspects of load variation are such that voltage variation is required in
this process to compensate for system impedance so the substation trans-
former is sometimes equipped with a load tap changer (Figure 2) on the
lines themselves, '...rith s.!:!parate regulating transformers (Figure 3) - the
choice depands on economics, personsl preference on the part of the
customer, tow the system has grown and the characteristics of the various
types of loeds served.

The transmission lines serving the substations typically operate at

voltages of 34.5 kv to 138 kv though occasionally isolated substations

lCentral Station Engineers of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,. Electrical "Transmission and Distr;i..bution"
Reference Book, R:~ R;~. D"onnelley &. SonS' Comp3ny~ Chicago and Crawfordsville,.
rndiana~ 1964 (fourth edition) o.

2Richard L~ Bean~ Nicholas Chackan, Harold R. Moore and Edward C. Wentz,

nTransformerst~ for: the Electric Power Industry, HcGraw-HiIl Book Company,
'--0. . Inc." New York, 1959
Lecture 1: - Page 1
m<"!y be fed from higher voltages. In some cases, too, there may be a
double stage reduction from a main high line voltage of say 345 kv to
Several sub.- transmission voltages of perhaps 115 kv or 69 kv.

At the higher voltages, the blocks of power are, of course, somewhat

greater with consequent increase in transformer kva, as well as kv,
ratings. Generator transformers have been built as high as 725 mva,
three phase, with larger units on order. As a rule, these units (Figure 4)
are simple two-winding transformers directly connected through isolated
phase bus duct to the generator. Voltage regulation is accomplished by
generator excitation together with LTC equipment (if necessary) at the
receiving end of the line and no circuit breakers are used between trans-
former and generator because the additional flexibility is not worth the
price for breakers which could handle fault currents in the event
generators of the size in use today were bussed.

The foregoing has described a simple radial system independent of

any others, which is seldom the case. In order to increase reliability
and minimize margin requirements in total generating capability compared
to peak load, many generating stations are tied together and, indeed,
neighboring systems are also tied together. The characteristics of such
tie transformers must be very carefully specified in order to effectively
control both reactive and real power flow and-maintain system stability
under possible fault conditions. These complications lead to all sorts
of voltage and phase angle control requirements,. both of which require
sophisticated load tap changer schemes. As a rule, too, these trans-
formers are autotransformers. Since the ratio of nominal voltages
typically varies from 1 to 1 (that is, phase angle regulator) to seldom
more than 3 to 1, the use of an autotransformer permits greater power
flow with a smaller unit in size - see Figure 5.

There are also a number of' even more specialized applications in

the power transformer field~ Electric arc furnaces require huge amounts
of. current at quite~low__ voltages and this imposes unusual design require-
ments. on the transformer (Figure 6) which supplies them. The aluminum.
and chemical industries frequently require large blocks of direct current
power at voltages of 1000- volts or less so the rectiformer (Figure 7)
has been developed.where the transformer and associated silicon recifiers
are packaged together. The transformer in this case usually has multiple
windings in various combinations of wye, delta and/or zigzag connections
to provide 6, 12 (or even more) phase voltage so that ripple will be
minimized and they must also be extremely rugged mechanically.

Finally .. there: are the transformers used in special situations at

the low end of the power transformer scale~ Industrial plants,. such as
the- Sha-roru, Transformer Plant,. reqUire substantial quantities' of power for
machine tools,., cranes, heating, elements, etc. Most 0 f these loads
require voltages of 440 volts or less. Since it is highly uneconomic to
distribute large blocks- of power at this voltage with acceptable line
droIt,.: transformers (typically 4160 to- 440 -or 208) are strategically

Lecture 1: ~ - page 2


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located throughout the Plant. Safety considerations rule out the use of
oil-filled units (interestingly, this is true in this ~ountry but not 1~
Europe) so the dry type, either ventilated (Figure 8) or sealed (Figure 9)
is frequently used. The same application holds for office and apartment
buildings. Another special application is the network transformer
(Figure 10) which is really different only in its application to a network
system which provides the ultimate in continuity of power supply.

So much for the application of transformers, what about the forms

and methods of construction? There are ttvO basic forms 'of construction
in use though variations of each tend to make it difficult to distinguish
which is used in some cases. These two, however, are core form (Figure
11) in which the windings surround the magnetic circui~d~ll form
(Figure 12) in which the reverse is basically true. As will be developed
later in this course, the core form construction is usually applied in a
fashion such that the various windings are concentric with each other as
well as the core, while the windings of the shell form - while concentric
with each other - are usually interleaved with each other. There is no
fundamental reason, however, why the high and low voltage windings cannot
be interleaved on a core form transformer. Then too, the core form coils
are generally (though not necessarily) circular in cross section while
shell form are generally (again not necessarily) essentially rectangular.
These considerations, though seemingly simple; have profound implications
in the ease with which design requirements can be met and on shop con-
struction practices.

Before proceeding to discuss these implications, the basic ground

rules for transformer design and manufacture should be examined. There
are just three fundamental considerations which must be kep·t in mind at
all times:

1. Of' overriding importance is the matter of reliability. Power

supply to the nation is accepted as being almost 100% reliable - when
power is interrupted on any significant scale (that is, the Northeast
blackout) serious disruptions iq essential services, even defense of the
c0ll:ntry~ and massive inconvenience result. It follows that transformers,
particularly the larger units~ which are an integral part of the power
supply system must be built for mean times between failure of tens or even
hundreds of years ••

z.. With reliability in mind, it. is,. of course, necessary that the
system requirements (that" is, voltage, kva, impedance, LTC, etc.) must be

3. Once reliability and performance requirements are met,. it. follows

that: these must. be: accomp-li'shed at: minimum cost if the manufacturer is
to· stay. in: business.

UnfortunatelYr none. of: these. three basic philosophies can' be

considered independently •. 'thus, while one desi'gn may have 1000%.. margin
Lecture r:'. - page. 3
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and is, th~r-=:fore, conceivably more reliable thun on,;: with 200/0 margin, i t
should probCibly be rej;;ctE.d i f it is significantly moroe costly since the
additional ~argin would most likely buy nothing in the way of increase~
life and woul<.l have no incremental value.

With the above discussion in mind, the application of shell and core
form construction can be considered. Until the introduction of the
interleaved (Hisercap) winding about 15 years ago, the core form winding
clearly had less i~pulse voltage strength than did shell form. It also
had (and probably has) less inherent mechanical strength to withstand
short circ~i~ forces and the tricks that were necessary to solve the
impulse voltage problem usually made the mechanical situation worse.
On the oth:r hand, in the lower ratings- both voltage and kva - where
sufficient nargin could be obtained, its inherently simpler insulation
structure and resultant cost advantage dictated its use in these appli-
cations. The shell form was thus reserved for those large units where
its inherently good me~henical structure and good impulse distribution
were particularly valuable.

Reliability, in this Cdse only mechanical strength to withstand

short circu:"t stresses, hCiS also dictated the limits on the use of core
form trans~o~ers with coils (and cere) of rectangular cross section.
The leakage flux in this type of transformer is such that it tends to
force the coils into a circle and if the coils are in some other con-
figura~ion, they must be braced to withstand this force. Gradually, ways
have been f~und to do this with osufficient margin so that the cost
advantage arising fron the better, insulation space factor can reliably
be used ~o advantage.

From a philosophic,al point of vieN~ the' foregoing very briefly

describes the need for sound, engineering applied without. preconceived "-,;;,

ideas yet wi~h mature judgnent and thorough attention to detail - the
latter twc cannet be over-emphas~zed when it is remembered that the final
proof of reliability is the fi~ld service record and no really significant
data can be acquired in this respect fer 2 to 5 years after a basic design
change is ~de. It follows t~at compiete; and if necessary elaborate,
tests must be substituted to assure that no subtle problem has been over-
looked in the development of a n~TN method or process.

Admittedly, e'lolutio!1ary dE:velop!Ilent of this nature is difficult

but it can be dene as evidenced by the curve in Figure 13 and it must be
conti!lued if this org=rnization is tc retain its leadership in the power
transfcr:ner fi~ld. It is the purpose of this course to enhance your
capability to do it. .

Lecture r-' - Page 4

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1jHl~ .. Fig.l Substation Transformer

Fig. 2 Substation-.Transformer
witn:LTC (SH-30218)

Lecture !'. - Paga 5

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Fig.3 Regulating Transformer

(SmallKVA) (SH-278l6)

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Fig.4 Large Generator



Lecture I - Page 6

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Fig.5 Autotransformer with LTC for Tie Between Lines


Lecture I Page 7
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Lecture I - Page 11
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Lec~re I - Page 12

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L~cture I-A



L. L. Wright
Engineering Manager, D & I Engineering






New Design Concepts




Potential Transformers

,.;-.. CUrrent 'I:ransforme~s

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,Through-Type Current Transformer!!

Sharon, Pa. September, 1966



The last link between the power-generation-complex and the

ultimate consumer of power is a relatively small and inconspicuous
device called a distribution transformer.

Yet for all its modest appearance, it is truly an unusual

machine in almost every aspect.

Reliability, for example, is taken for granted: One utility

company engineer: commented that "we hang them up and forget them: if
they break down or falloff the pole before 20 years, that's too soon!"

Efficiency must be near perfect: for the iron loss goes on

day and night continuously, and the "copper--loss" (or aluminum loss)
rises as the square of the load that is carried. So the typical figure
of 98% or better at full load is too good .
.. .. ..
t Stamina~ the ability to withstand abuse; must be phenomenal. The
various units on the system are scattered and unattended, they are sub-
ject to sun and wind, to rain and sleet and hail, to heat storms and
snow storms and sometimes to sandstorms; they are attacked by salt, fog
,I. and by corrosive: fumes from industrial smokestacks. Electrically they
are subject to swings of voltage-level, to surges caused by switching or
to direct strokes of lightning; and the load may be anything from zero
to short-circuit. Mechanically they fare little better; in fact some line
crews. have been known to unload them on site by kicking them off the t~il­
gate of the truck!

Cost, nevertheless, must be kept to a competitive level. All of

the features that make a distribution transformer last for 20 years or more
must be built in, but not at the sacrifice of profitability.

AlL this must be in the thinking of the engineer who designs

these devices--all this,· plus the technical problems of electrical and
mechanical functioning. The engineer must be more than a technician; he
must" be knowledgeable in many fields; . perhaps even an artist!

Lecture l-A - 1 -
)' ) Ft,"

To understand the different kinds of distribution transformers,

we break them down by type, depending on the choice of variable that is
to be considered. For example, ,ve may refer to anyone of the following
type classifications:

l. Kind of AC Circuit

a. Single Phase--The most commonly used by far in the

United States, both in urban and rural areas.

b. Th~ee Phase--Used mostly for industrial loads, or

rural loads where large AC motors are required.

2. Hethod of Cooling and Insulating

a. ,Oil-filled. This is still the most commonly used"

type. (Fig. 1) The oil has excellent insul~ting
qualit~es; it penetrates into the fibrous sheet
m~terials and improve> their.- electrical strength, and
" it flows by natural convection, thus transferring
hea~ from coil to tank.

[fr. Dry TyPe-. The electrical components may be filled· "

with a. solid material designed to exclude air, dirt
and moisture. This results in'a simple design; easy'
t·o handle~ sturdy mechanically, and free from any
explosion hazard, Fig •. 2.. This is the fore-runner of
th~ cast-solid coil design, to be described later.

3. Method of Protection

a. The "conventional" type. This has' no internar-protective

gear ~ When installed, it may be connected to lightning
arrester or fuse· cut-out, or both. Approximately half
of aLL:. units made- _a:re of. this type._

br.;.>nie. '"self~prot.ected''' t:ype. This may include::

1... A lightning arrester,.. for by-passing 'over-va I i::·'-


Lecture I-A - l

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2. A circuit breaker, for cutting off overloads
before they can burn-out of the transformer.
(To avoid customer outages as much as possible,
a warning light is usually provided, which turns
on well in advance of breaker trip-out.)

3. A specially-designed fuse called a "protective

link", that clears any fault that may occur within
the transformer itself. This link is, of course,
not to protect the· transformer, but to protect the
HV line against lock-out.

Tlle "Completely Self Protected" (CSP2. transformer includes all

these devices. (Fig. 3)

Forerunner of "beautification", this transformer enabled users

" to clean up the pole". (See Fig. 4) This took place 25 years before
public demand caused a.lot of excitement ab()ut this s.ubject. It is
still one of the b.est ways available to the user to improve appearance
of overhead!

4. Other types. Certain designations such as kind of magnetic

circuit (shell-form or core-form) and electric-curr.ent-cir-
cuit (Low-High, or Low-High-Low) will not be discussed here
because they are part of specific design detail.

Athens designations relate to the kind of service that is . ~ ".'

expected of the transformer. These types will be covered

in the section below.


Pole Mounted

In the past~ the most common application by far, was the pole-
mounte~unit which formed a. part of the overhead-line distribution system.
In spite of the exposure to weather, to lightning, and to storm damage, this
was long considered to be the only practical way, because it was the only
way that_ was acceptable in cost_

However~ within the past few years, new insulating materials have
been-developed and new methods of trenching invented, that bring the cost
of buried HVcircuits-within reasonable limits. Now we have a rapidly
growing market for transformers to be used with this underground system.
These have taken many different forms.

Lecture: l-A - 3 -
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One of the first to be used was "Pad Mounted Transformer ll • This

consists ofa 2-part steel' box, one part of which is closed and oil tight,
to contain the core-coil assembly; the other part that is fitted with
access doors, to contain the cables, bushings and all auxiliary equipment.
(Fig., 5) The whole structure is mounted on a concrete II Pad" , with cables
passing down into the ground through an opening in the pad. Such a con-
struction keeps the transformer above grade level, so there is no require-
ment for o?eration: \vhen submerged. It must be "kid-proof" since these
units are not enclosed with a fence as our conventional substations.

A more recent design is the combination of a transformer with a

street-light installation. The heavy concrete base for the light pole is
made in the form of a hollow vault, in which the transformer is mounted.
(Fig. 6) Above is a tapered section, which has window opening on the sides
'to afford ventilation, and a flat top to support the pole. This effectively
conceals the transfurmer, makes it safe against tampering, and yet provides
some cooling air. A new HV Bushing design, ,of plastic and rubber, makes
pos'sible a plug-in connection that is so well sealed tllat it can operate
when_s~b~erged under 10 feet of water.

Another variation of this installation is the Vault-mounted

transformer. (Fig. 7) Here the hole in the earth is lined with a cylindrical
tube made of asphalted paper or the like, and covered with a grating held
b'y penta-headed bolts. (The 5-sided shape ia used to discourage tampering)._ ')
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Tarcper 'shields 'are used under the grating to help control the flow of air,
and to prevent, ~ticks or wires from being inserted.

Most recent of a-lI,' and still in the planning stage', is the "Service-
Unit ll design. Here the concept is to bring the HV circuit. literally to the,
doors'tep: making the transformer either a build-in part of the wall, or
mounted on an outside floor just a few feet from the wall. For compactness
and convenience, the unit would contain part or all of the LV accessory
equipment, such as the Watt-hour meter and the LV Switches. (Fig. 8) For
safety it would contain no oil, but. would preferably be made with the
cast-solid coil design (see below).

Such a design overcomes many of the problems of underground

distribution,. eliminating secondary runs and the related voltage drop.
It places- the transformer in an accessible location and in, an environment
which is not detrementalto the' unit~

Since each unit:: serves: ana house il: does. not take advantage of the:
load, diversity which a: unit that serves several homes can do.



Lectur.e I-A 4
New Design Concepts

Not only the enclosing structure, but also the basic transformer
core-and-coil assembly has been changed recently by new concepts. A few
of the more important examples are as follows.

Capaciformer. The idea of using a capacitor in series with a

transformer winding, to produce a phase-shift which will regulate voltage,
is very old. But in the past, it was never ve~ practical to do this in
actual installations, mostly because of the difficulty of protecting the
capacitor. The trouble comes from the fact that voltage builds up across
the capacitor in direct proportion to the current, so that even a momentary
surge of current may break down the insulation. And if the capacitor is
built as part of the transformer, then a failure in this one part makes the
whole unit defective.

So this problem, and many others, had to be solved before it was

possible to build the combination that we now call the"Capaciformer".

In this new design, the capacitor is wound directly into the

HV coil~ so thac these turns serve both the function of producing voltage
and providing capacitance. A diagram of the circuit is shown in Fig. 9.
This makes it clear that there is no metallic circuit through the HV coil.
Instead, this protion of the winding (a strip of aluminum foil) overlaps with
another strip of foil, with a sheet of insulation between. The capacitance
obtained in this way is sufficient to carry the normal load current of the

. As was mentioned before, the voltage that appears across the capacitor
insulation may become high enough to puncture it. This will happen iI the
current exceeds about 4 times normal for even a fraction of a cycle. To
by-pass this current instantly, it is possible to design electronic gear
that will work, but the cost is prohibitive. Instead of this, another
device was developed of surprising simplicity. It consists of a closely-
controlled air gap. about .020" long, formed between the edges of heavy
copper bars, in combination with a strong field produced by permanent
magnets·.. Such a gap will break down at about 1850 volts. The are, once
formed, oscillates rapidly because of the alternating current direction, and
this~ plus the- effective coaling of the arc terminals by the copper "heat
sink.'" "" keeps. the- arc voltage up- high enough so that it is self-extinguishing
at about 1500 volts. This cut-off action, 'of course, is just as important
as: the breakdown action; the combination makes this simple device an ideal
protector for this particular application

Lecture l-A - 5 -
. _ _ _ _ _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ __ . ,.."1If:;.:"_ ."._ ... _
" ..
"----r-----" '"

Cast-Solid Coils The problem of encapsulating a coil in a solid

material is simple mechanically; but electrical it is most difficult. This
is because of the requirement to exclude eve~y particle of air, and to
accomodate. the changing dimensions of the conductor as it expands with
increasing temperature. It requires also adequate insulation at every turn
and at the outer areas; and it requires means for making terminations and
means for dissipating heat. All these problems are part of the development
of a coil wound wi~h enameled aluminum foil and then impregnated and
encapsulated in a special type of Epoxy resin. The appearance is shown in
Fig. 10.

Ne~., Appearance Design. Although the underground system is the

ultimate in improved appearance, yet much can be done to alleviate the
.unsightliness of the overhead system. The clutter of crossarms, fuse
cut-outs, lightning arresters, guy 'dires, and conductors at all angles
accounts for much of the trouble. If this situation is cleaned up, and if
the transformer is modified to blend in with the surroundings, a striking_
improvement can be obtained. One such proposed improvement is shown in
Fig. 11.

Future Possibilities. When the coil design is perfected, it may

be quita immune to the effects of water, .s~ it may be operated when sub-
merged in water. To use water as a coolins medium wou~d greatly improve
the cooling effect and thus further increase the permissible rating.

If we can. then combine this coil design with the new "die-formed"
precision core~ the assembly could be made to include its own terminations.
" .
Then it could be slipped into a form-fit box, the cover welded on, and the
transformer would then be complete. The name "ULTRAN 70" (Fig. 12)
suggests a goal and a date for the long-range development. objective.

Lecture I-A - 6 -
, ,I ~,~

,I }"if" .... )

.. .,.. ;


,~, .,f

. ~.,. ,,- I

. ",,'


"', .~ ,

fig, 1 ~ Pole T.YP~ Distribution Transformer Fig. 2 - Dry TYPe Distribution Transformer



" '

Fig, 4 -Appearance of Type S vs.CSP Transformer

Figure 6 -The SPB Pole Base Transformer

: ,


. ,


'. l,
jCXI Figure 8 Service Unit(House Powel") Trans.

BUS!·HNG ~'.··r~"·~

, .
.;; ....

j - : '" -";

1"1 _. ",;:.

UhH~: ~
;H~Pn ~
~.v. L.V.
~ , '
-! \ : ~ -.' ~ ~ •

• '< ',.,:,.\

~. • ~ j

Figure 9-
Capaciformer Circuit

. '-; '~,' ~
... ",C

,.' j

Figure 10
Cast - Solid Coils

Lecture I-A , Page 9

'. f . "t V '"t"' .f .;'.:"

-- . ;


j Figure 11
l' j New Appearance Design
1l, ;,
j:'- i1

Figure 12
The "Ultran 70"

·if "Ca; ·1S1Ctf
",,(r Ft· • W .... p···· '<" C' "r.,

'- . .-


Electric utilities derive revenue from the sale of electric power.

This power is sold to customer~ at various voltage levels and for various
periods of time according to the customers needs. In order to sell this
power, the utilities must be able to measure accurately and simultaneously
the power used and the duration of its use. Thus what utilities actually
sell is electrical energy measured in kilowatthours by watthour meters.

Watthour - meter technology has advanced to a point where up to

200 amperes at 480 volts can be measured directly from the line.

But where current and voltages above 200 amperes or 480 volts must
be measured, instrument transformers must first reduce the current and
voltage to a safe metering level.

The policy of the particular utility will dictate the maximum voltage
and current for direct metering. Some utilities, for example, will limit
direct metering to 100 amperes at 240 volts and requir~ instrument transformers
for all metering applications above these values.

Instrument transformers are needed for use with ammeters or voltmeters

if the line current or voltage is higher than the instrument rating, and they
are also used in connection with r~laying in control and protective circuits.

Thus the main applications of instrument transformers are in metering

and relaying.

Functions of Instrument Transformers

Instrument transformers, both current and potential, perform two

primary functions:

1. They provide secondary current or volta'ge in values suitable for

standard instruments and meters. These' are normally 5 amperes and
12.0 voltsw

Z... They insulate the instruments and meters from the line voltage.
FoX" the: safety of both the instrument and operating personnell
the secondary circuit must be grounded.


" ;

Lectqre l-A - 11 -

, "
Po:e~tial Transformers

Voltage or potential transformers are connected in parallel with, or

across the line, in order to transform line voltages down to the standard
meter or relay ratings, 120 volts. A voltage transformer core and coil is
practically the same as a small distribution transformer 1 Distribution
transformers are sometimes used as potential transformers in the lOlver voltage
-classes, but the principal reason for wing a potential transformer generally
is that it costs less, and because it is not actually as large a transformer.

The exact measurement of power requires that the secondary voltage

be proportional to and 180 degrees out of phase with the primary voltage.
Actually this relation is never exactly obtained; the secondary voltage is
slightly less than would be predicated from the turns ratio, and is slightly.
out of correct phase position. The deviation from correct magnitude is called
ratio error; and the deviation from correct phase position, phase angle. These
errors are caused by the voltage drop across the through impedance of the
windings; which in turn is determined both by the magnitude of the winding
impedance and the load current through the impedance.

The best design for small errors in a potential transformer will be that
wi\:h low through impedance. This means ~ow winding resistance and reactance,
which can be achieved by designing for a relatively high volts per turn to
minumize the number of turns required. -~ "

.Westinghouse produces potential transformers from 10 l<.v BIL' (Basic

Insulation Level) through 1300 BIL for use on circuit voltages from 120
volts through 345 KV. Potential transformers through 150 BIL are butyl
molded, and the high ratings utilize an oil paper insulation system.
Figures 1 & 2 show potential transformers typical of these two types of

Current Transformers

Current transformers in order to step down line currents to values

suitable for use with standard meters must be connected in series with the
lines. Consequently, current transformers are independent of line voltage
insofar as their turns ratio (primary to secondary) is concerned. This ratio
is determined entirely by the relation of line current to standard meter or
relay currents - almost universally 5 amperes. ......

The exact. measurement of power- requires that the secondary current be

proportional to and 180 degrees out of phase with.the primary current. As in
f;he p<>tential transformer, this'relation is never exactly obtained. The
secondary current is slightly less than would be predicted ,from the turns

'j o·
Lecture l-A - 12 -
. . .'. ~: .~. ~ :.' ;./'.
-r·',,·C""';-- . y.i
, '
.,.c;· ~ ".-' 1") ··....titi.pf_

ratio and is slightly out of phase. These deviations are termed ratio error
and phase angle respectively, but in the current transformer they are due to
the fact that the secondary current output is deficient because of the ampere-
turns lost in magnetizing the core.

A current transformer is entirely different in its operation than a

potential t~ansformer. The primary current in a current transformer is
whatever is flowing in the line. The secondary winding tries to put out the
same ampere turns that the primary winding puts in, and the secondary voltage
rises qccordingly to whatever is needed to force this current out through the
meters and leads connected to the secondary. The reason the secondary winding,
tries to put out the same ampere - turns is that if it falls below, the surplus
ampere -turns in the primary winding induce a magnetic flux in the core which
induces a voltage in the secondary in the proper direction to produce the
ampere - turns. This phenomenon is described as Lenz J s la,.,1 T.vhich states that
if a voltage is induced in any coil by a magnetic flux the current produced by
the voltage tends to flow in a direction so that the ampere turns oppose the
change in magnetic fl'ux.

But if a magnetic flux does have to flow in the core to induce the
secondary voltage required to circulate the secondary current out through the
meter, t.hen there will have to be some surplus of primary ampere - turns over
) the secondary ampere - turns to produce this flux. This surplus of , primary over
secondary ampere - turns actually appears as a deficit in the secondary, and'
we do everything we can to make this deficit as small as possible, because a
current transforme~-approaches perfection when the secondary ampere-turns,
representing current output, approach most nearly to the primary ampere turns,
representing input.

In order to reduce the ampere - turns required to magnetize the core

to the lowest possible value current transformers are designed with a.low
volts/turn to keep the core induction low. A high quality core is most
impQrtant, and the resistance and reactance of the windings, which are of
major importance in causing the drop in voltage in a potential transformer,
have relatively little to do with the error in a current transformer.

Westinghouse produces cu~rent transformers from 10 KV BIL through

1800 BIL for use on circuit voltages from 120 volts through 500 KV. Current
transformers through 150 BIL are butyl molded, and the higher ratings utilize
an oil paper insulation system. Figures 3, 4, & 5 show a 10 KV BIL through
type current transformer, a 60 BIL outdoor butyl molded wound type, and an 650
BIL oil insulated unit respectively.

./ Lecture I-A - 13 -

- ... -
~ - ., -,'.

!:'" . i::;'i:t,;q:;<;-;~;i/ <;: ,

Through Type Current Transformer

Figure 3 is an example of a through type current transformer. This

transformer doesn' 't have any primary winding at all, simply a hole for the
customer to pass the primary cable through with the magnetic circuit carrying
the secondary winding surrounding Jt. It might seem that a straight conductor
through the core is only half a turn, but it mlS t be remembered that the
primary conductor comes back to the source some~vhere, however far removed from
the core, and eventually forms a complete turn around the core. This is such a
handy arrangement we wonder at once why we don't use it for all current

The limitations of through type current transformers will be explained

more throughly in the section on Instrument Transformers. For our purpose
.it will be enough to intutively accept that the smaller the input ampere -
turns to the transformer, the more difficult it is to reduce the core
magnetizing ampere - turns (error) to any given percent of the input ampere -
turns. Since the through type has only one primary turn, the input ampere
turns are dictated by the current rating. In general through type transformers
are not used below 200 primary amperes for typical metering burdens. This
does not mean that through type transformers cannot be built for low primary
current because they have been. If the impedance of the burden is low,
the errors will be low. A through type transformer will work at any low
current. if the burden is low enough. . ) .
: ..

In this brief. introduction t.o Instrument Transformers we have seen that

the primary reason for their use is that meters to measure high voltage or
-.. , current directly would waste more energy and would cost more to buy and use
than the present. combination of transformers plus meters. Instrument
transformers are such handy devices, and relatively so cheap that they are
used everywher~.

.... ,

Lecture I-A 14
-7'~ -~'5i6e to:: ' r --eriz" -pteN" ··ffUEZ·'iMk-jy ..,.,," 7:"---

\ -
-.... -.

;, ~ . '-

Figure I - (SH-26923)
Butyl Molded
Outdoor Potential Transformer Type PTOM-IS
15 KV Class, 110 KV BLL

. ,

_.,. - .,..

Figure 2 - (SH-19437)
Oil Insulated
Outdoor Potential Transformer Type APT
- - - -........_".;..,..".........-=.;.~_ _ _,U5~K\l..cta5~-:--5-5Q-.KV;"Blt.~---~---.:--~cture,-1-A_,--Fage~15

~;:. ,<....

Figure 3 - (SH-27323)
Butyl Mulded
Outdoor Through Type Current Transformer Type CTR
600 Volts Class. 10 KV BIL, 400:5 Amperes

, )
Figure 4 (SH-26922)
Butyl Molded
Qutdoor Wound. Type Current. Transformer Type. CTOM-5
"'"4.COl.l5:o.,.~-,. 6<Y KV ~IL ~c 5-'~._re-re·s----==-=.=_~-===·Lect'1:1rE~=1'''A:~-Page~l1l~::","
at.., -) 'Ss--' rl(j,;,~~t tb

- "-,
.. ::. ............ --..



1 .



Figure 5 - (SH-24012)
Oil Insulated
Outdoor Wound Type Cur cent Transformer Type ACT-650
138 KV Class, 650 KV BIL, 100 x 200:5 Amperes

Lecture l-A ~ Page.. 17

'---- -.--.-- ---.------- .. ... '-"'-----'7"~-.",-...............- -....~~==~==="=""'====~"="".........................- - - -
.--~--"' =~-'""

~;c,.iI~c$f~;~1t.;ti~;i;,~g;;b;oc '::.;" . _ -~--- ,,fi;E~

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Od:'X i ,



I; TRANSFORHER - ::. electric device, without continuously-

moving parIJs., .... :,ch by electrcm2.;;netlc induotion trans-
forms electric 6~~~gy £rom one or more circuits to one
or more other ci::·::,·..:.iJc;s at the same frequency" usually
with changed values of voltage and current.
2. DISTRIBUTIONTRANSFOR£iSR - any transformer having a
ratangoe'c;\ieen j ana ?UU KVA inclusive" and all net-
work transfor~ers.
3. pmmR TRANSFORrvIER - any transformer having a rating
aoove ";X50KVA., except ne'c~'iork transi'or ..,·ers.
4. AUTOTRANSFO.R:>:ER - a transi'ormer in \':hich part of the is COlT'~'1:0:l to both prir.-.a.ry and secondary circuits.
A single-winding transi'orr:er.
5. NET'tTORK TRA.'l-ISFOru.'fER - a distribution transformer suitable
\. for use in a vau~~ to feed a variable capacity system of
..J interconnected secondarles~

-.> 6. SUBSTATION TP~NSFOR!ljER - a transformer of the free-stand-

ing type" a'"S""dl.i'i'eren_ciated from Unit substation Transformer.
The terms substation and Power are very often used inter-
changeably ..


T. .UNIT SUBSTATION - a transformer which is part

----~or_a_unit-subs_cat1.onana mechanically- and electrically-
connected to and coordinated in design with one or mor~
switchgear or motor-control assemblies. or c'ombinations~
a. Secondary Unit-Substation Transformer - a transformer
which 1.5 useO in a unl ~-st.:osta'i:;lon and has a low-vol t-
age rating of 1500 volts or'below.
t _
b .. , Primary Unit-Substation Transformer - a transrormer i
Which ia useO Ln a. w~~£-subs~aYlon and has a low-volt- . !',
aglarating of 1501 volts or above.
8 •. POLC-TYP& TRANSFOru·ffiR - is a transrormer with 125 KV BIL

(18 KV busning volt;age rating) or less l 167 KVA and smaller"

sing~e-phase" 150 KVA. and sma11er~ three-phase" \'Thlch is
·su1.table· ror- mounting on a pole or similar structure.

) I.

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·-~'="~')'!"..... '"", " .... " ... t . t1

· · · - 1 , 1 1 •.• · - - - . _ - _ .. -

'- --
Ic.JlL 1J(

::.;'.,', , : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10. EIL - Basic Impulse Level (also referred .to as full-vlave ..
impulse test) is reference insulation level, expressed as i
the impulse crest voltage of the nominal 1.5 x 40 micro-
second I.'lave.
(1st number is the time from start of the '.'lave to the
instant of crest value, and the second number is the
time from the start to the instant of half-crest value
on the tail of the via ve. )
trans:rormer wnicn incorporates a step regulator as an
integral part of the unit and normally maintains a con-
stant low-voltage with system variation of i 10%.
TRANFO UNIT - I-T-E trade mark for an integral.secondary
unit su~tion, norrrally utilizing a molded-case circuit-
breaker panel on the secondary side. A T&R division product.
13. NEMA - National Electrical 11anufacturers I Association -
a:ilOrganization ot: electrical-equipment manufacturers whose
object is to promote the standardization of electrical
apparatus. .' .
14. ASA'- American Standards Association - a national organiza-
tlOn made up of a composite ot: committees from other
standard associations; such as, N~~, National Bur~au or
Standards, AIEE, etc.

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_._, ''"-''-'





E. C. Wentz

(1) How a Transformer Works Page 2

(2) Performance Characteristics Page 6

I . ,~



This isa course of study written for the express benefit of

engineers working in the field of transformer design. However, it is
not essentially a textbook on how to design transformers. It has
been prepared to give the engineers a coordinated, unified, technical
background in the fundamental principles \Vhich include the design and
operation of. transformers.

As an introduction to the material\Vhich will follow, \Ve might

first consider \Vhat a transformer is. The user of a simple transformer
may well consider it to be a "black box" with t\Vo input terminals and
two output terminals. The input terminals are connected to a source
of a-c power at one voltage, and the output terminals are connected to
a load which is to operate at a different voltage. The black box with
the connected load is shown in Figure 1. The user's principal interest
is in the po\Ver delivered, and in the voltage at which it is delivered.
He is also interested in the reliability of his black box in with-
standing all of the assaults of time, \Veather, overloads, and over-
voltages. He has no apparent interest in what is inside the box.

Figure 1. An idealized external view of a transformer. The

user is primarily concerned with the transformer as seen from
the outside, while the designer is concerned with the inside
of .the Hblack box".

The designer of the transformer, on the other hand, thinks of the

transformer as the structure inside the box, as_ shown schematically in
,I Figure 2. He sees the input terminals which he calls the "primary"
I connected to a coil of wire wound around a core of iron, and a second
coil logically called the "secondary'" wound around the same core. He
directs his: attention toward designing these elements so that the
maximum power will be transformed from the primary to the secondary
coil and delivered to the secondary terminals,. remembering that they must
perform this- function reliably during continuous assaults by the condi'--
tions mentioned above. He has no--apparent interest in the origin of the
external conditions, but he must know what they are if he is to make a
satisfactory design.

Lecture 2~ page 1
Figure 2. The transformer as seen from the inside. The
simple transformer consists of an iron core with t~"o
separate windings that are wound around the core. When
the voltage EI is applied to the turns of the primary
winding, the voltage E2 is induced in the secondary turns
by electromagnetic induction. If the voltage induced in
the primary winding at any instant is directed from H2 to
HI, the voltage in the secondary winding will be directed
from X2 ·to Xl, because the winding from X2 to Xl goes around
) the core in the same direction as the winding from HZ to
HI. We say that HI and Xl have the same polarity, and the
designations HI and Xl are assigned. according to the ASA
Standards to these terminals because they have the same

The actual conditions of design and use of a transformer are not

nearly as simple as has been implied. Both user and designer will
benefit from mutual knowledge of both the internal and external condi-
tions governing operation of a transformer.


The answers to the current and voltage relationships in a trans-

former and to other simple questions are taken for granted by many
engineers, but a real understanding of the answers to these apparently
simple questions is basic to the understanding of transformers in
general. Many engineers consider that such questions need not even be
asked~. much less. answered. The· importance of a clear understanding of
these basic concepts,. however,. justifies. a detailed discussion and

a_ Equilibrium between Magnetic Flux, Induced Voltage and

Exciting Current_ When a voltage is applied to the primary terminals
of the transformer of Figure 2, a current will flow in the primary
winding, and a vol~age will be induced in the secondary winding. The
current that flows in the primary ,,,inding is mysteriously limited by
the presence of the iron core. If a load is connected to the secondary
terminals, a current will ,flO\~ in the secondary winding. The' primary
current will increase at ,the inst~nt that tpe secondary current begins
to flow. Th'e-'reas6n fc)t~,,-th~'s' ac't~on is' riot' apparent.

h. The Transformer with D-C Voltage Applied. It is easier to

follow the r,~lation 'be~e~).'1 current and voltage in the windings if we
first study what happenswhen'w;e apply a continuous direct voltage to
the primary terminals rather' than 'the usual alternating voltage. This
will also help to explain the:'more comp~icated transient relations
which will be discussed later. :

When a voltage is C:pplied to the'pr'finary termina~s, current

starts to flow in the primary winding. CufrJent~ "flowing, in the' winding
produ~_es_a_I)Jg_gnetic flux in the i~on cor~-J/
..... .-- .--- _._----- --~;.-.~/

The flux in the core will increase until the ~urrent has
reached its steady~state d-c value •. , Tb.e'fa~t'that tIre flux is increasing
means that a v~ltage is
induced in the turns of the winding by electro-
magnetic induction. By Lenz's law, the induced voltage is in a direction
opposing the current that causes it,i~, the first place. This opposing
effect ~~1l let toe'current increase just en-otigh ,to" keep the flux
increasing sufficiently to induce the opposing voltage ,to balance the
applied voltage. Figure·3 shows the four quantities that are in a four-
way equilibrium:, 0) ,applied v?ltag~~,; (2) curr.ent, (3) rate of increase
~ . r
of flux due to the .. cu;rrene, and; (4) ~onsequent induced vol tage.
..: ~
When a d-c yolta'ge is first applied to the coil terminals, onIy'
...... a small current i~' ,,~· to' produce enough flux to induce the counter ~:,:~
voltage equal to the applied voltage. After the current has increased ....of,

sufficiently, the voltage required by the ohmic resistance of the ..;~
winding will become appreciable'.' ,When- the flux has' increased to approach
the saturation value,of the core,' the- current required to cause further
increase of the flux will be mUch'larger; somewhat as shown by the curve
in Figure 3. After the maximum flux, ';'(almos't, the saturation point) has
been established, the induced voltage disappears ,and' the current will
be equal to the applied Vol tage- divided b~ the ohmic resistance 'of ·the
primary winding. ,T~e magnetic. pro'perties of the core and the mathemat-
ical relations of flux, .current,.. turns~ and voltage will be covered in
more detail in. la ter: lec~res. . - , ,; "
", .•..

f c. Equilibrium with A,lternating Voltage Appliecf.' Now it will be

I easier to see What happens ,if an.·;:rl.ternating ,voltage, is applied. Again
I a curren't sta~ts. ~o ,f~~w»' _~~jshown~,ino Figure 4, and again the ·rate of
k~, " "., ,
"~ :~~:~:",'~-.,:- ~<'::',~~.' ,,~: ~",:" . ~~.".

. (lrt· is assumed'that:, the- reader understands the! basic ideas of electro-

'irur(netism; how current flowing in a coil produces magnetic flux, and how
this increasing magnetic flux induces a voltage in that coil. The ideas
expounded here a,re in. some respects. over-simplified' in order to make a
beginning. " >

~. . '" .. . - ,Lecture 2, Page 3

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o 26 48 10 12 14 16 18 20
Magnetizing Current
Figure 3. Four-way equilibrium when. direct current ~s
applied to the primary terminals., A small current is
required to produce the flux to induce the co~nter
voltage equal. to the applied voltage when the direct
I ' current is first applied to the primary terminals.
Aftel! some tima tt the flux :tn the core approaches the
saturation value,. and at time tz the current has., ,

increased several times. At time t3 the core is nearly
saturated~ and the. flux stop •. increasing and the
curren~ isc limited:, only by the ohmi.c- resi$.tance of the-
primary winding.. trp ta time tl the' current is limited'
principally by the induced voltage. Afte~ t2 the current
is limited' principally by the ohmic resistance of the
I winding~ _

8-. Current-flux- saturation curve
b. Induced voltage = rate of change of flux x 15 x 0.8
(for this problem)
c. Resistive volts = IR = current x 0.15 ohm
(for this problem)
.dr Magnetic flux:
j e. Induced'voltage plus resistive voltage = applied vol tage.·
Lecture ~ ~ page' 4.',
iQcrease in magnetic flux induces an opposing voltage. The applied
voltage, the current, the rate of change of flux, and the consequent
induced voltage are again in four-way equilibrium. The difference
between the a-c and the d-c condition is the flux reversal. Although the
flux continues to increase as long as the a-c voltage acts in the same
direction, it starts to decrease as soon as the a-c voltage reverses,
because the rate of change of flux corresponds to induced voltage. Thus,
the flux is also alternating, as shown in Figure 4, but is 90 0 out of
phase with the voltage. Transformers are always designed so that the
flux never saturates the core, and the no-load or exciting curre!F is ,_~.

always very small. v"'/~. ~ ?



Figure~. Equilibrium between current, flux, induced voltage,
and -applied voltage when alternating current is applied to the
primary winding. In this figure the resistance in the winding
. is· aS8~ed to be negligible, an assumption justified by the
facts in .ill transformers used i~ the electric power industry~
The applied a-c'voltage is balanced by the voltage induced by
the flux in. the. windings.

Lecture 2~ Page 5

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- - - - - - - - -... -

d. Iguilibrium when the Transformer Is Loaded. 'Closing 0 f the

switch in Figure 5 will conn~ct a load to the secondary. A current will
tend to flow in the secondary circuit, corresponding to the secondary
voltage divided by the impedance of the s~condary circuit. However, the
current flowing in the secondary coil tends to produce a flux of its own
in the core. We have seen that the primary circuit will supply any
current necessary to ITLqintain the flux in the primary coil of a value
sufficient to induce the primary voltage. Therefore, the primary coil
in effect 3ens~s the current flowing in the secondary coil because the
secondary current t~nds to change the flux in the core, permitting
primary curr~nt to flow in suffici~nt amounts to maintain the primary
coil flux 2t substantially the original value. The result is that
additional ~urrent flows into the primary whan the secondary is connected
to a load.

Th~ primary current then increases until it is greater than the

secondary current ~y such a value that the difference in ampere turns is
able to maintain the same magnetic flux. There still exists a four-way
equilibrium; the primary ampere turns are greater than the secondary
:lmpere turns by an amount that the difference between primary and
se~ondary ampEre turns will force snough magnetic flux through the core
to induce sufficient voltage in the primary (with the ohmic resistance
voltage drop in the primary) to balance the applied voltage. Figure 5
shows this Equilibriu..'Il. This t::quilibrium explains ~.,hy the transformer
will draw additional primary current only ~.,hen the secondary is connec-
ted to a load.


Many other things !:ire happening within the transformer at the same
time. Tlie vortage is stressing the insulation on the turns of the winding.
The core expands and contracts ever so slightly each time it is magnetized.
This expansion and contract~on produces the audible hum associated with
transformers., Currents are induced in the iron of the core itself and
cause part of the input power to be lost as eddy-current loss which adds
to the hysteresis loss; the surne of which is known as iron loss or no- ...

load loss. The currents flow through the resistances of the windings to J
produce copper foss~ or load loss, and the magnetically opposing nature
of the currents, as. in Figure 5, causes some of the magnetic flux to leave-
the core as leakage flux which in turn causes, stray losses in both core
and windings. The leakage fl~x also is lost to the secondary coil and
does not induce voltage in all its turns, having the same effect as if a
reactor were introduced into the circuit. This leakage reactance
together with the resistances of the windings cause a loss in voltage at
the secondary terminals known as regulation. l Current flow in the 'windings
causes then ta repel,eaen other by electromagnetic force.

lFigure 5 is oversiniplified in: that it does not show the leakage flux or
any drop' in secondary voltage when the load is connected.

Lecture 2~ Page 6

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of primary

Figure 5~ Variation of current and voltage when the secondary
switch is closed. When the secondary current starts to flow,
the primary current increases. The primary current is
greater than the secondary current so tha_t the difference in
ampere turns is able to maintain the same magnetic flux in
the core.

Because of all the losses the windings and the core both begin to
heat. Care must be taken to dissipate this heat and to design the
insulation so that it will not be damaged by the temperature rise which
finally results. -

All these performance characteristics must be understood by the

user if he is to specify them correctly and obtain a transformer which
will adequately supply power to his load. They must be even better
understood by the designer if he is to design transformers which will
have adequate characteristics.

The changes in temperature, the mechanical forces, the vibration,

and the natural influences such as lightning and all types of weather
tend to cause deterioration of one or more elements of the structure.-
The characteristic which might be called serviceability is difficult to
measure, but it is of utmost importance. All these charac-teristics are
discussed in more detail in subseque~t lecturea. They are discussed by
transformer designers,. but the intent is to aid the users of transformers
in understanding what goes on inside the transformers they use_

Lecture 2, Page 7

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(1) Assuming that you know what a transformer is', make a list of

the service conditions which you think will be important for the desig~er

to cons ider.

(Check later in the course to see that they are all covered.)

(2) Make a list of the performance characteristics which you

would specify for the designer to work to assuming nothing to be


(Check later in this course to see that they are all covered.)

(Check later in the course to see how many were covered that you

didn't even think of.)

Lecture 2, page 8

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Lecture 2
Elementary Theory

Answers to Questions

(1) Service Conditions

a. The line to be connected to the primary:
l. Voltage, rated or nominal.
2. Frequency.
3. Phases.
4. Grounding.
5. Possible overvoltages.
(a) Rated frequency.
(b) Switching surges.
(c) Lightning.

b. The load to be connected to the secondary:

1. Voltage, rated or nominal.
2. Frequency.
3. Phases.
4. Grounding.
5. Possible overvoltages.
(a) Rated frequency.
(b) Switching surges.
(c) Lightning.
'~ 6. Loading and duty cycle.
c. Tertiary - same factors.

Location and environment:
1. Pole-top, surface, underground, underwater, etc.
2. Atmospheric condition, indoor, outdoor, altitude, ambient
temperature, etc.

e. The cost of power.

(2) Performance Characteristics to be Specified

If the service conditions are specified, and if there are no standards,

about all you can do is to tell the designer to design for maximum economy
in light of service conditions. You can't specify KVA, temperature rise,
noise level, BIL, losses, impedance, or anything unless you have standards.
You must specify wye or delta, neutral grounding, and taps.

Not many people got this idea but perhaps the questions were not too

The indifference to the number of phases is amazing.

E. C. Wentz
,(1:. ~i< ... , . , 'j" ';.


Earl W. Tipton


... '.~
··;·r . ). , + S


Page No.

I Defini tions ...........•••.....•...••••.••••.•...........•... 1

II Primary and Secondary Functions .......•..•••.............•.. 1
III Types .....•.•................•.............................. 2
A. Classification by Coupling Configuration .............. . 2
B. Classification by Shape ......•......................... 3
C. Classification by Turn Arrangement .................•... 4
IV Winding Design ....•.•.....•..•.•...••.••....•................ 5
A. Round Concentric Layer Wound Windings ........•.••.•..•. 5
1. Cylindrical .•.....•.....••.•..............•.•..... 5
2. Lowgrocap ...•..........•.............•............ 16
3. High Vol tage Layer ............................... . 18
4. Pozaryski .•............•....•..................... 21
B. Round Concentric Disc Windings ........................ . 24
1. Continuous ....................................... . 24
2. Double Section .......... : ........................ . 28
3. Hisercap .•...........•..••...•...................• 29
I. Twin Interleaved ...•.•..•-..•...............•. 29
II. Single Interleaved •.•...•.••.......•......•.. 32
III. Daub Ie Inter leaved •••.••.••...••.•.•.•....•.• 33
IV. Mutually Twin Interleaved ••.....•..•.••..•... 34
V. Mutually Twin Mixed Interleaved •.••.......... 36
VI. Mutually Single Mixed Interleaved ........... . 37
C. Round Concentric Spiral Windings .•..........••••...•••. 38
1. Heli tran Daub Ie Group •.•••.••••.....••••.•••••.•.• 38 - ..
2. Helitran Single Group ••••.••.•••••....••• ~ •.•..... 42 .-:>:
D. Round Concentric Combination Layer-Disc Windings ...... . 44
1. Round Wire Would Coi Is ••••••.••.•••.•••.•.......•. 44
-2. Basket Windings •._•..••••••• ~ •.••............•...•••. 46
E. Rectangular Concentric Layer Windings ..•••..•..•...•... 49
, 1. Strap Wound ..•.••.••...••••••••.•••••.••.....•.•.. 49
2. Sheet or Foil Windings ............................ . 51
F. Rectangular Interleaved Windings .•• ~ .•.............•..• 53
1. S trap Wound •.•......•...••.•..•.•....••...•.•..... 53
2. Sheet or Plate ••..•...•..••••.•.....•.•..•......•.. 61
3. Spiral •.•••.••.••.••••••••.•.•••.••.•••..•..•....• 62
4.. Roebel ••••••••..••.•.•••.••••..•••..•.••........... 63
G. Round Interleaved Windings •.•.•.••••••.•.•••.•...•..•.• 68
1. Core Form •••••••••••••••••••••••••.•.••..••.•..••. 68
2_ Shell Form ••••••••••••••••.•••••••.••.••••••...••• 69
V. Photographs (Figures No. 1 to 20)- •••••••••••••••.•..•••••• 71
VI. Appendixes •••••••• _ .-••••••• ~ ••••••••• ~ •••••••. ' .•.•••..••••• 75
1. Surge Voltage Distribution Continuous Windings .• 75
_2~ Surge Voltage Distribution - Lowgrocap Windings .•. 77
3. Surge,Voltage Distribution - Hisercap Windings ••.• 78
VII. Bibliography ..••••••••••••••••• _ ••••.•••••••••••••••••.•••• 80
VIII • Prob 1 ems ................... '......................................................... . 82

.. ~ --.;.........
. he 'if' _\:').i~.'';';''':' sl-·· n 's "'wW-'
}'" .' ""Ct'd"!

Transformer Windings

I Defini tions

A brief review of transformer fundamentals will be useful in intro-

ducing the subject of transformer windings. In its simplest form, a
transformer consists of a magnetic circuit closed on itself into a loop,
which is capable of containing a strong magnetic field. Linking the
magnetic loop are two coils of current conducting material. The Odd
Fellows Lodge three link emblem is also a good transformer diagram \vith
the center link being magnetic material and the two outer ones being
electrical conductors. The two loops of current conducting material are
called the transformer windings or coils. One of the two windings is
connected to a source of voltage supply and this is called the primary
winding. The second winding is connected to a load and this is the se-
condary winding.

II Primary and Secondary Functions of Windin~s

A transformer winding has two primary functions:

1.To carry current.

2.The primary winding to induce a magnetic field in the magnetic
circuit with an induction proportional to the supply circuit
voltage and to the number of turns in the primary winding.
The secondary winding to have induced a terminal voltage pro-
portional to the induction in the magnetic circuit and to the
number of turns in the winding.
The second of these two functions although expressed differently for
the primary and seco~dary windings ~s really the same function, since
'the transformer is capable of operation in reverse with the functions of
the two windings interchanged •

A transformer winding has a number of important secondary functions,

which must be successfully performed to enable it to perform its primary
functions. The more important of these secondary functions include:

1. The winding must maintain electrical insulation between turns,

sections, laye~s, other coils and to ground. This insulation
must be good enough for manufacturer's test voltages at power
frequencies, operacing voltages at power frequencies, and also
for high frequency voltage disturbances, which occur in service
because of lightning or switching operations.

2. Windings have electrical resistance to current flow and are loss

generators when carrying current. The winding must dissipate
these losses with a temperature rise limited to a value which will
. not damage the electrical insulating materials.

- 1 -

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. . ; .••. .•... " ',' .,. --.--, ... - ..~ .. ,.....•. ..:- ....

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_.<,·r ;c'r'

3. Transformer windings operate in a strong magnetic field when

loaded. This field causes losses due to eddy currents and
circulating currents over and above the losses due to the d.c.
resistance of the conductor material. The coils must be de-
signed to have an economical minimum loss.

4" When one ,,,inding of a transformer is short circuited, the

windings may be subjected to very high mechanical forces.
Windings must have sufficient mechanical strength to withstand
these forces without dama~efor a time long enough to permit
protective equipment to operate. In practice, this means that
the coils as a ,,,hole and all its parts individually must not
move nor distort under the short circuit forces.

III Types of Windings

There are a great many ,vays of classifying transformer winding. The

one which will be used here is distinguished chiefly by the fact that it
is just one of the many 'vays. A fundame-ntal classification can be based
on the method use to obtain close magnetic coupling bet,veen the primary
and secondary windings.

A Classification by Coupling Configuration

1.· Concentric Windings. Figure No. 21

2. Interleaved Windings. Figure No. 22

Concentric windings, as the name implies, are those in which one

winding fits inside the other and is coaxial with it. Figure No. 21
shows a typical example with round low voltage coil placed around a leg
of the magnetic circuit or core and a round high voltage coil located
around the low voltage coil. The term is used also for rectangular coils
where one coil fi ts inside the other. Concentric ,vi ndings are typical
of the core form construction although interleaved windings are also used
to a limited extent. With few exceptions, only one group of high voltage
and one group of low voltage coils per core leg are used in power trans-
formers .

Interleaved windings are characterized by a single s~,ck of coils

with alternate ·groups of high voltage and low voltage coils as sho\o/TI in
Figure No. 22. These windings are typical of the shell form of construc-
tion, al.though concentric wind ings- are used to a I imi ted exten t. The
more groups used per w~ding, the better the coupling and the lmver the
reactance of the transformer.


- 2 -
\. ~.~:J ,


High Vo1tase

, Low Vol tage


•,:':",. !!i ;."

, !.'
'" ':! 0', ,it"

' ",
.".,-- --
( .".-- ..... - - - - .... --~----
/ '
~ ~1~
I H.V. t.v.
, I
I' , ,
'I. I
,........ _-----.,..- -",
J ,
J [
... -- -- .. ~

FIG. NO. 22 - INTERL~1yt1~~frp.I~G
B. Classification by Shape

1. Round
2. Rectangular
3. Oval
4. D-Shaped
Transformer coils have been wound on moulds of many different shapes
and the list above is not all inclusive. The great majority of windings,
however, are either round or rectangular. In Westinghouse, power trans-
former practice rectangular interleaved windings are used for shell form
transformers, which is the standard design for transformers rated 30 MVA
or larger. Round concentric coils are used for core form power trans-
formers in the size range from 2.5 to 30 MVA. Smaller core form power
transformers, up to 2.5 MVA, use concentric rectangular coils.

At one time a line of single phase transformers were made with D-

shaped concentric windings. When two such windings were located back to
back on opposite legs of the core, the transformer fitted well into a
round tank.

C. Classification by Turn Arrangement

1. Layer Windings
2. Disc Windings
3'. Spiral Windings
4. Combination Layer-Disc Windings.

In a layer winding the conductor turns are wound side by side in a

tight spiral on a mould. Over the first layer of wire is placed a layer
of insulation and then a second layer of conductors as in a bobbin, A
coil may consist of from 1 to 20 or more layers of wire. Some specific
kinds of winding of this classification are cylindrical, Lowgrocap,
Pozaryski, and high voltage layer windings. These will be described in
detail later.

Disc windings consist of a stack of disc shaped ,vinding sections

separated by spacers. Each section is a flat spiral winding made with
a rectangular conductor wound in a tight spiral, like a watch spring.
The' thickness of the disc being the same as the insulated width of the
conductor. The complete winding may consist of from one to 100 or more
discs. Windings, which fall in this classification are the continuous
panc~ke. basket.and Hisercap windings •

.In external appearance, spiral windings look like disc windings in .

which each section has. a slight pitch. The conductor consists of a rec-
tangular group of rectangular straps, all of which are in parallel. The
) group of conductors is wound on edge in a spiral with the turns separated
by spacers.

-- ----- ,. _.~4'.-_._

'. .' C~. , : '•• •c>J:~7'>': ~;:/,~;·;{t:f.~~~.~,~-.;:<, ;:' .~'.:~~:.. . .. -

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Each turn is shaped like a spring lock washer. Windings of this type are
the single and double group Helitran coils.

Some windings consist of a combination of the 1ay~r and disc type

windings. A small coil of the layer type is wound in which the axial
dimension is small compared to t~8 mean radius. The conductor may be either
a round wire or a small rectangu1£r wire. The complete winding consists of
a sta:k of these coils in which each coil is separated from the adjacent
one by spacers. Examples are round wire coils and part coils used in rec-
tangular windings.

IV Winding Design

In the following discussion the various types of ~vinding ~vill be con-

sidered one by one from the design view point. The design problems and
appropriate solutions for each type of winding will be given under the

a. Construction f. Taps
b. Current and Voltage Limits g. Cooling
c. Insulation h. Mechanical Strength
Voltage Stresses 1. Advantages
." \ Minor Insulation j. Disadvantages
" Major Insulation
d. Limitation of Losses
e. Transpositions

ARound Concentric Layer-Wound Windings

1. Cylindrical Figure No. 4

a. Construction

Cylindrical coils are wound with from one to sixty or more flat
copper or aluminum straps arranged in a rectangular cross section from one
to three straps thick and from one to twenty straps wide. The turn dimen-
sions vary between 1/32 and 1/2 inches in thickness and from l/a to 5 or 6
inches in width. The turn is a butted
spiral wound on a cylindrical insulating
tube with from 1 to 6 or more layers.
Commonly, the coils have two or four
layers so that both leads come out at
the top of the coil. Since the winding
is spiraled, the axial length of a layer
is equal to (n + l)W., where n is the
turns per layer and W the insulated

,..,....,.... ..
r ) '.---~~.-.-

Figure No. 23

- 5

. ~., '
width of one turn. If the turn becomes quite wide, o~ it does for heavy
currents, the lead may be split so that one half is taken off on one side
of the coil and the other on-the'side diametrically opposite.the first.'
By thi,smeans, the axial length of the coil becomes (n + 1/2)W. The two
halves of the lead are than connected outside the coil •

b. Current and Voltage Limits

Cylindrical coils do not have any serious limitation because of

current rating. Turns may vary in size from a single round wire to a
turn 1/2 x 6 inches. The width may go up to perhaps 10 inches with a
split lead. Current may vary from about 2 to 5000 amperes per turn.

Westinghouse practice limits the use of simple cylindrical coils to

a maximum of 15 KV with a basic impulse level of 110 KV full wave impulse
test. Because of the electrostatically induced voltage on the end of a
low voltage coil when the high voltage coil is impulse tested, the cy-
lindrical coil is not used when the high voltage exceeds the 69 KV class.

In service transformer windings are subjected not only to the low

frequency (60 cycle) power voltages but also to impulse voltages due to
lightning and switching. Lightning voltages are high frequency pheno-
mena. The standard test voltage for defining a transformer's resistance
to lightning is a wave rising to crest value in 1 1/2 micro - seconds and
falling to half value in 40 micro seconds.
The basic impulse level is the maximum
crest value E, which the transformer is
designed to withstand when tested r- _.
with such a wave.
Unlike the power frequency
'voltages, which are uniformly
distributed across all turns of I



i - - ' - - --_.-
I __
_. -----._- +--
the winding, impulse voltages .- H"'.-7'
are non-uniformly distributed. 1-" 4-i).,~ ... _.;::-
The inductance of the winding Figure No. 24
acts like an open circuit or
infinite impedance to an impulse wave because the inductive reactance is
equal to 2nfL, and in comparison to the 60 cycle wave an impulse represents
a frequency at least 2000 times as great. As a result, an impulse wave
distributes across the winding in accordance with a hyperbolic function of

ex = -..JCG/CS Where:
CG = The winding capacitance to ground.
Cs. = The series capacitance through the winding.

-,6 -
The higher the value of a the greater the proportion o£ the voltage that
is concentrated across the turns near the end of the winding. It can be
seen that it is desirable to keep CG as low as possible and Cs as high as
possible. These last two paragraphs are included here because impulse
strength is a primary factor in coil design. These facts should be ac-
cepted on faith until the mathematical and physical development is made
later in the course.

There are a number of mechanical limitations on cylindrical coils

required for manufacturing reasons:
Maximum single conductor strand .182 inches thick
Maximum width of single conductor .580 inches
Minumum square wire .091
Conductors on edge: minimum thickness .144 and not more than two
sizes from square
When the conductor is more than one strand thick the width of each
strap must be a't least t\vice the thickness and not less than .204
inches. The width of the narrQ1;vest strap not more than t\VO sizes
less than the widest one.

c. Insulation

In discussing coil insulation, 'it is convenient to refer to minor

insulation covering insulation between the internal parts of the coil,
such as turns, layers~ sections, and to major insulation referring to the
insulation fro~ ground and other windings.

There are three minor stresses to consider in cylindrical coils:

strand to strand; turn to turn and layer to layer. Considering power fre-
quencies, all windings are tested by an induced voltage of twice the nor-
mal volts per turn. Even in the largest cylindrical coil this would seldom
exceed 100 volts. The layer to layer, stress is equal to:

2n x 2' VT = 4nVT Where

n = turns per layer
VT = normal volts per turn of the winding

Stres's between strands of the conductor is very low being only that due to
eddy currents.

When impulse voltages are considered, the coil capacitances become

important_ The capacitance of a condenser formed by two metal plates:

- 7 -
C = .224 A K where
C = capacitance in micro-micro farads
A = area of the plates in Sq. In.
d = Separation in In.
K = SIC of the material between the plates
"":-"V=-, '" -r""!lk'l :..

· I d' I L A'fER I ~I C=::l r==l,r:::=:1, r::=::::J c=t,

Loo k ~ngat a cy in r~ca sCOeri;es LAV~", ,,//t:::::0i' ,," ,'t:::::r"'I::::::::::J' c:::::J' L--1
it will be seen that the ~ ~n ~
capacitance turn to turn along
the first layer is quite low. Figure No. 25
The area of the plates is small since only the edges of the turn are ad-
jacent. Also all the turns capacitances are in series so that the series ~
capacitance through the layer is inversely proportional to the number of
turns in the layer. From layer to layer the area of the condenser is large
and all the capacitances add since they are in parallel.

When impulse voltages are applied, the stress across the first layer is
non- uniform and the turns at the line end may have several times their
proportional share of the voltage applied~ The voltage between strands of
the conductor may be considerable but will be less than the turn to turn

From layer to layer, the insulation is usually made strong enough for
the total impulse voltage applied to the winding.

The major stresses to ground are equal to the applied test voltages
both impulse and power frequency.

The turn to turn insulation in cylindrical coils consists of layers of

paper tape applied to the individual conductor strands. For mechanical rea-
sons a minimum of .018 paper is used between turns and strands, ea~h con-
ductor being taped with three butted layers of paper tape .003 inches thick.
_This insulation has a breakdown strength of 8.5 KV at. 60 cycles and an im-
pulse strength of 25 KV~ which is more than adequate for transformers :1.1'1 the
8.7 KV class.

Layer insulation consists of sheets COI..!.AR

of pressboard, which are wrapped around
the. coil between layers. At each end of
the layer is placed a collar of insulating
ma'terial which fits ,the pitch of the winding
and. is's'quare "at the other end~ This collar
is made long enough to stand the major stress
to ground. Layer insulation is wide enough
to extend to the outer end of the collar.
This provides a strength against creep
around the layer insulation from layer to
layer at least equal to the puncture strength of the layer insulation.

d. Losses

In coil design,the losses which are a problem are the stray or

eddy losses, which are due to the leakage flux which cuts through the
conductor; or, to circulating currents in parallel paths through the winding.
The size of the individual conductors is limited by the forces required to
wind it into the coil. As a result, several strands in parallel must be.
used for heavy currents. Each of these strands must have the same impedance
if the current is to divide equally~ Consider a cylindrical low voltage
coil wi th a lo~.; vol tage turn made up of
two layers of wire in parallel. The
reactance of the winding is proportional
to its distance from the high voltage
winding. It can be run then that the
layer next to the high voltage has a lower
impedance then the second layer and hence,
will carry more than its share of the load •.
To correct this situatio~, the strands of
the conductor must be transposed so that
each has the same average spacing to t~e
high voltage. Figure No. 27

Methods of Transposing

To reduce eddy losses the turns in cylindrical coils are made up of

individual strands which usually are not over .182 thick. The total turn
may be made up of from one to four of these strands, one over the other. IQ
order to be effective the turn must be transposed so that each layer of
strands has the same average spacing to the other windings. There are many
ways of doing so in cylindrical coils:

1. By paralleling layers
2. By paralleling section of layers
3. By twisting conductors at the center of layers.
4. By turning the conductor over between layers.
5. By a Helitran transposition between layers.

(1) Paralleling layers

Figure No. 28 illustrates this method. The coil consists of four

layers of conductor only one strand deep. By connecting at the layers end
between layers I and 4, and layers 2 and 3, then layers Land 3 can be para-
lleled with layers I and 4 because the average spacing to the high is equal.
OQ single phase transformers a similar effect is given by paralleling the
two legs.

- 9 -
· es18"

\ -~ _,

1 2

FE 1 2 3 4 HV HV

Figure No. 28 Figure No. 29

(2) Paralleling Sections of Layers

In Figure No. 29, a two layer coil is illustrated. Each layer is but
one conductor high. Half the first layer is wound then a lead is brought out
through a slot in a collar between the two halves and the turn is cut. A se-
cond layer is wound over the first and at the center of the coil it drops down
and forms the lower half of the first layer. Finally the conductor is welded
to the finish of the upper half of the first layer and another half layer is
.wound on top of the bottom half of the first layer. When completed, the two
layers can be paralleled.

(3) By Twisting Conductors at Center of Layers

This type of transposition is made in two ways depending on the dimen-

sions of the conductor. When the thickness of the two strands is about equal
to the width of each Figure No. 30 applies. The transposition is made at the
center of each layer by twisting the turn 180 0 so that the top strand becomes
the bottom. Allowance must be made for a thickness equal to the diagonal of
the conductor.

If the two strand turn is wide compared to its thickness the transposil:ion
is ·made by bending the top strand o~t a~d. down, then under the bottom one.
Allowance, must be- made for an extra strand width in the length of the coil.
See Figure No. 31.

- 10 -
·=j·-''ct,:..·iW..f.:-... :.~:;I.<'"" ;:":;'·61S,~<n:t~ait"'~·,;,l, ..·,.'·ti·"irt-· "iff JPii,..+ee:i;"} , '; 'rai!::?'
- -'".. " >-. ·":'·¥W)f$·~;k:'Dt"h
, jl. " ..t.j<-"":'·cjc
' . Jib ·z:...:g"·'it?m"·' • !:
... ' :;::;;;;;;=
: ::_• =_~'_ .. _ .::::::!::__ :;..iri'~
.;~;.-~i=:i.~'.:.;~t.:'~:1"'~::<ji."i> _ . .~-~;~~.-
_ __ _ ~ "r·;·
••• . h •

~" <.-.;,.;;..~~:....... ~ ·,~ ... ~\*af~t'


__., 1i.

Figure No. 30
EE h c

Figure No. 31
'2 III ;-
I, ;
I '
'----L-J I I
i i
(4) Turning Conductor Over Between Layers
This transposition illustrated in Figure No. 32 is a very good one, but
rather expensive since the'wires must be cut after the transposition and re-
brazed. As shown, after the last turn of the first layer is wound the con-
ductor is bent out parallel to the axis of the coil, folded back on its sel£,
again bent at 90° and the next layer started. The inner strands of the first
layer become the outer strands of the second layer.

This transposition can be used for turns with any number of strands in
thickness and width. It has a mechanical advantage in that when the second
layer starts the conductor is already raised to the proper level and there
is no scissors action tending to cut the conductor insulation.

b a

Position of strands
before and after
Figure No. 32

- 11 -
(5) He'litran Transposition

~ ~IA B
Figure No. 33

The helitran transposition is made at or near the crossover between

layers. Two strands wide and t,-lO high are illustrated in Figure No. 33.
Mechanically, each transposition is made by shifting the top strand from one
group to the adjacent group and at the same time moving the bottom wire of
the second under the first. When this is done twice, the top strands have
been moved to the bottom. The strands of _the conductor must be arranged so
that they can be divided in groups of t,-lO or/ and three in width and all
strands within a group must be of the same width.

This is a good- low cost transposition. It requires an allowance for

one extra strand in thickness. Conductora do not have to be cut.

f. Taps

When the. cyliiidtical coil is an outside winding,- the taps are most
conveniently taken out at the center of the outside layer., With transposition:
made at the end of the layer taps always partially short out: the transposition.
If taken in the outside layer this effect is minimized since this layer is in
the weakest part of the leakage field~ This location for taps alsa has the
least effect on the tt:ansformer impedance. It permits the taps to be taken
directly to the tap changer or terminal board.

For inside coils the best location for taps is at the center of the
first layer. They then can be brought out in a duct between the insulatirig
tube and the first layer to the end of the coil. Since they must thus cross
the line turns of the coil they must be taped sufficiently to withstand the
full surge voltage of the winding.

- 12 -
· . -.. -. .
,. t·-¢..j·e"' ., 4¥r,--':"-··§tt4amztrl"e rt?tft :" ·:,,£'a..;;t ""M


I : It is not good practice to bring the
taps out of the layer adjacent to
the high low space since this in-
creases the space high to low required
by the thickness of the tap. Also as
taps are taken out in operation the
T impedance increases because the ef-
A fective space high to low becomes
LV larger.

Figure No. 34

g. Cooling

There are two 105$ sources in a transformer ,.;inding, one due to the
12& loss calculated with the dc resistance of the winding, and one due to
stray losses from circulating currents caused by voltages generated by the
..~ . leakage flux. These losses must be transferred to the cooling oil and the
j "'... temperature rise of the winding must be limited to a value which does not
damage either the winding or its insulation. To accomplish this the coil
mus-t be ventilated to limit the watts per square inch of coil surface. In
cylindrical coLIs the ventilation consists of providing oil ducts between
layers of the winding. Normally one side of each winding layer is exposed
to an oLl duct •.

Ventilation ducts are formed by using strips of pressboard about S/S

wide, by the duct thickness. These strips called vertical spacers-are the
same length as the completed coil and are located parallel to the coil axis
"at equal spacings around the inside perimeter of the duct.

Figure No. 35

h-. Mechanical Strength

In a transformer which is subjected to a short circuit the windings'

are subjected to high mechanical forces. The ASA standards for power trans-
formers require the transformer to be capable of withstanding a bolted three
phase short circuit on one winding with full voltage maintained on the other
winding and for a length of time based on the transrcinner impedance. The

- l~ --
·, " • '7
"= "d ," "-d'

maximum mechanical faeces are exerted on the first loop of short c~rcuit
current, which is nearly always displaced from the neutral axis.

Transformer windings must be designed with adequate consideration for

these mechanical forces. The principal force if one of repulsion between
the primary and secondary windings. Since taps and building variations re-
sult in vertical displacement of the electrical centers of the windings,
there are components of these forces which tend to move one winding up and
the other down.

Consider a cylindrical low voltage coil which is located inside the

circular high voltage winding. During a short circuit the repulsion force
between windings subjects the coil toa uniform radial load directed in-
ward. The winding is s tressed like a submerged cylindrical submarine. This
makes it necessary to space the vertical spacers forming a duct close enough
together to prevent the coil layer failing as a beam and collapsing into the
duct. It also puts limits on the amount of subdivision of the conductor
which can be used. If the copper is wound in one conduc tor "w" wide by .'I.t"
thick, its strength·as abeam=K t 2 W.
However, i f it is wound with t,vo cor:-
ductors W x t/2 the area will be the
1<- W -1 r-=-W-j-L
-I.)IN CJ E3
same, but the .Ream strength is reduced i
to K2 {}:(t/2)2..J = Kt 2W.
2 Figure No. 36

The vertical forces, which tend to move the Winding.

either up or down., make it important to wind the coil
under high tensionr Cylindrical coils are wound with
flat strap conductors with the thin edges of one turn
adjacent to the edge of the next turn. If one turn is
loose, it can be seen that it would be easy for it to
climb over the adjacent one when subjected to'a vertical
force. This is even more apparent when it is considered
Figure No. 37 that ~e edge of straps .062 and less in thickness is
made half round in shape. So, it is important to wind tightly and to moderate
the amount of radial sub-division of the conductor. To help counteract this
tendency for turns to te1esc9pe the outside layer is taped with glass tape
covered with a B stage epoxy. When the toil is dried out, the epoxy sets
up and serves as a strong. circumferential bond.

Vertical forces in these coils may become quite high, up to 10000 psi
between turns. alld the end collars _. It .is Wes.tinghouse practice to make the
collars at the edge of each layer of a high strength material such as micarta.
The to~ collars are made oversize in width. After the coil is wound, it is
clamped between steel plates with steel tie rods.

- 14 -

~~ ____ ~~.~.~.~ __ ~~~ __ __________

~ ~~ __ ~-'~~~_P-.~P_._~~~ ______ ___~________~~~~~~~~

.- ....- .
-~ -; -.~';:;~~:.~.~'~~.:,i'"
k' e ',i,


On each tie rod a heavy steel spring is

C l-!..AR
placed and the tie rod bolts are pulled
down until half the spring compression
is used up. These plates remain in place
when the coil is oven dried and the springs
;V·. ,) I IV (.
take up any slack between turns to make
. the winding tight in the axial direction.
After the coil comes out of the oven, the
excess collar is sawed off even with the
winding tube.

Figure No. 38

1. Advantages

The cylindrical coil is low in cost and easy to wind. It has the
advantage of being very flexible in arrangement for series-parallel windings.
It can be made to almost exactly the length desired by choosing the proper
combination of wires. It is suitable for almost any current rating. Cylin-
drical coils. are easily made with both leads at the top so that they do not
have to come up from the bottom paSt the high voltage coiL The vertical
cooling ducts are efficient and cylindrical coils have low gradients. Trana- .. "~,,

position is effective and simple so that eddy losses are low.

j. Disadvantages

In the past, these coils were considered weak against mechanical

forces. However,tne methods now used as described above have resulted in
coils with adeq~ate stx:ength. In larger transformers forced oil cooling
is used with the oil being mechanically pumped through the coil ducts. Up
to the present time~ no method has been found to make cylindrical coils,
which will cool in this manner. Apparently, the oil flows freely through the
smooth coil ducts in laminar flow without the required turbulance for good

If the high voltage winding is for a voltage over 69 KV, the low voltage
winding is not made to use cylindrical coils. When the high voltage winding
is impulse tested, the electrostatic potential induced in the low voltage
coiL results in high stresses dn the thin square corner of the cylindrical
coil end~ This condition can be improved by the use of shields in the cy-
lindrical coil but these must be of high resis'tance material to reduce heating:
caused by· the transformer leakage flux.

- 15 -
..- ,,'.
.. :~ ....Ff "%r22"t' ... • bi _. , »

In cylindrical coils the impulse voltage distrib~tion across the first

layer may be very non-uniform and the stresses between turns near the line
is quite high. For high voltages the number of layers required to keep the
layer to: layer stress down becomes excessive and results in a coil with a
poor space factor.

2. Lowgrocap Winding
a. Construction
Lowgrocap is a coined word formed from the initial letters
of the phrase, "low ground capacity." The coil construction is the same
as described for cylindrical coil with one exception. Next to the line
layers of the coil. is placed a shield separated from the layer by the same
insulation that is used between layers. The shield is a sheet of metal

Line Line Line Line

aper Filler'

Shield Shield

Cylindrical Coil Lowgrocap Coil

Figure No. 39

foil backed up by a sheet of pressboard. It is cut back at the top and

bottom edges to be slightly narrower than ··the coil layer so that the sharp
edges of the foil are shielded. 'In addition, a piece of paper is folded
to form a channel over the top and bottom edges of the foil. A gap in the
foil is provided to prevent it from being a short circuited turn. The metal
f0.1.l is connected to the line lead of the coil.

- 16 -
b. Current and Voltage Limits

Lowgrocap coils have the same current limits as cylindrical coils.

Shielding the line layers improves the impulse voltage distribution

and permits the use of the Lowgrocap winding for voltage classes through
46 KV (250 BIL). With the shield this type of winding has very nearly a
linear distribution of impulse voltages.

All the mechanical limitations given for cylindrical coils apply to

Lowgrocap coils also, as do the limitations on the maximum voltage of the
high voltage winding used.with it.

Use of the Lowgrocap winding for voltages above 15 KV has been

limited because the large number of layers required tends to make it un-

c. Insulation

Turn to turn insulation is .018 minimum for mechanical reasons the

same as in cylindrical coils.
) Layer insulation is applied in the same way as in cylindrical coil.
The thickness of insulation is chosen to have a breakdown stength equal
to 1.5 x 2 xUnp~e test voltage. This corresponds to 1.5 times the stress
NL .
if the voltage distribution were uniform.

Major insulation is the same as in cylindrical coils.

Use of the shield eliminates the piling up of impulse voltages be-

tween the end turns of the line layer. A glance at Figure No. 39'will
show that the charging curr.ent for the ground capacitances CG are supplied
from the shields and do not flow in the coil turns. The series capacitance
Cc is large because each shield and each layer acts as a condenser plate
with a large area.

d. Losses
e. Transpositions

See write Ull for cylindrical coils.

f... Taps

The tap problem is the same in Lowgrocap windings as it is in

cylindrical windings. There is one small complication. If the taps. are

I .•..

- 17 -
-_________ ",.....,~_"........o_._~=,,_---.-

"~.. ~,. .
.-.. .
?...._ " " " " '_ _ _ _......

- :
~~ ,_ _ ~ ___ ~~.~~~_"_

..;;. .:~~~,
.... ~ r-.·~.'. .~".. ...:.: ...:~ ':'-~ .. _ .. ~.,.;:::--.' .

.,:.;6~&4\~~~~~-.-·~~~~*:~i~:~;k~~k~~!mii~Wt~~~~:**::~,Cc.;!'~:~c. ,'.~"."J.·A1:C'0"$.fh'~ .;,;5;.,."'~.,?'t.,.SfJ~,P,i.,~~~;~l;Zft

. '0; " c 'i'b't"""; ····P5Ctriiee Y"Yd*'· ,--' • " "#' r· "c' ' .... 0 · · ·

located in a line layer then a circumferential gap must be left in the

shield to bring them out. .

g. Cooling h. Mechanical Strength

1. Advantages j. Disadvantages

In general there are no differences between the Lowgrocap and cylin-

drical coils except that the Lowgrocap winding has a near linear surge
voltage distribution and can be used with less insulation and for higher

3. High Voltage Layer Windings

1 b
~ Line
, ~
~,1 Shield

LV k' "
1 1.-..1. _.,'

Sketch A



High Voltage Layer Winding Sketch B

Figure-No. 40

a. Construction

Tlie layer wound high voltage.coil is used by some American and

by a number of European manufacturers for high voltage transformers. It
is particulary suited for grounded neutral wye connected windings. Normally
each layer of the coil is wound on a separate tube or roll of paper insu-
lation" then by one means or another- -the tube is flanged out over the ends
of the winding. Gee Figure No. 40J There are a number of ways of "doing
this. "

- 18
" ."tt"· t ...· "-.. "."" "' i sX" p' "w"" ts )"

1. The tube may be made of turns of paper wh~ch extend beyond the
ends of the winding. After the winding is complete,'the paper is slit
from its end down to the wi,nding into narrow widths with the slits stag-
gered in adjacent layers. The slit portion is then flanged down at right
angles to the tube.

2. The -tube may be made of turns of creped paper, which can be

flanged down without slitting.
3. The tube may be made the same le~th as the winding and a sepa-
rate angle ring used to form the flange. lSee Figure 4lJ
Angle Rin
The inner layer is the grounded end
of the winding and each layer is then made
progressively shorter until the outside
or line end layer has sufficient distance
to the yoke for the line voltage. Short-
ening of successive layers is equivalent
to a large corner radius on the winding
in relieving voltage stress concentration
on the end of the winding.
Figure No, 41
From high voltage to low voltage, the distance need only be sufficient,
to withstand the voltage at the end of the first layer of the high voltage
winding. Since each layer is ventilated, this type of winding is favorable
to the use of solid insulation in the pigh to low space.

Connections from layer to layer are usually made from the bottom. of .
one layer to the top of the next layer in order to reduce the maximum
stress between layers to the voltage of --l2EL... ~ E 1-...
one layer. [$ee Figure No. 42~ This
may be done by two different methods.
The connection can be made ,between
- I 1- I 1-
T 1 1:
the layers as in Figure No. 40, Sketch '
A, or all the connections can be brought
out of the coil ends and the connections
made outside the coil as tn Sketch B.
1 11 L
-i o~ -1 t-

Figure No. 42

b. Current and Voltage Limits

By definiti.on,. the· high voltage layer winding has its chief ad-
vantage for high voltage transformers, perhaps 138 KV class (650 BIL)
and.up~ It is doubtful that it would be suitable for high currents above
perhaps 500 amperes. While such a coil could be designed for a delta

- 19 -
'n· z-Yrl± <

connected winding, it would lose many of its special. advantages whLch are
peculiarly adapted to wye windings with grounded neutrals.

c. Insulation

Paper tape on the conductor for the turn to turn insulation is

normally used. The thickness must be calculated to withstand the impulse
stress •.. A line layer shield is used and the voltage distribution will be
similar to that in Lowgrocap coils.

Layer to layer stress consists of a paper or pressboard tube which is

flanged over the ends of the layer plus an oil duct. Again the stress
layer to layer on impulse must be calculated and the tube plus duct made
to withstand the calculated stress. Collars to obtain creep at the ends
of the layers are not required.

With a grounded neutral winding the major stress high to low is re-
duced to tha.t required for the maximum test vol tage occurring at the un-
grounded end of the first layer of the winding. Distance to yoke at the
outside layer must be sufficient for the test voltages applied to the

d. Losses

Limitation of stray losses i~ the same problem as in cylindri-

cal coils except that the maximum current in much less and there usually
will not be parallel paths wi thin the winding.

e. Transpositions

Several of the methods used in cylindrical coils could be used notably

methods No.3, No.4 and No.5. The. most suitable might be by u~ing the
Helitran (No.5) transposition at the center of each layer. In many cases
a single strap conductor will suffice and no transposition would be required.

f. Taps

Taps in the high voltage layer winding are a problem. From an

insulation view point, the best location would be at the center of the in-
side layer with the leads brought out in the first duct. When this ia done,
however, the impedence increases ra pidly as the taps are cut out of the
winding. The effect of cutting out turns next to the low voltage winding
i~ to increase the effective high to low space and this increases reactance_
All things considered probably the best to place the tapS"· in
an interior layer between the center and. inside layers. Because of the ease'
wt.thwhich the taps can be carried. to the terminals, it is tempting to place
them in the outside layer. The objection to this is that it is .too close
to the line and a no load tap changer would require full line insulation
to ground.

- 20 -
_.~ 0_ .;L..., "7'';'''';' ·tiC··z, Oft ·s··S·d····:· ;",..>-··'WW . . b"~;.*{Wei.( "'n- -"'y'd".'t;l: -w"·

g. Cooling

Cooling of high voltage layer ~vindings is the same problem as-

in cylindrical coils. Each layer is exposed on one side to an oil duct ..

h .. Mechanical Strength

These windings would normally be outside windings and the stresses

due to horizontal short circuit forces would be taken by tension in the

To withstand vertical forces, the coil turns should be drifted tightly

as they are wound. Each layer can be bound circumferentially with a layer
or layers of glass epoxy tape to prevent climbing and telescoping of turns.
The angle flanges at the end of each layer must fit tightly against the
turns and be made of a high density material. At the ends of the column
the flanges 'of the angle ring must be separated by radial blocks of a material
such as densite ,vith a high compressive strength.

i. Advantages

This type of winding has many theoretical advantages. For

g~ounded neutral windings maximum advantage can be taken of graded insu-
lation in which the quantity of insulation is graded from a. minimum at the
ground end to full insulation at the line end.

The layer winding is well adapted to the use of solid high to low in~
sulation which permits a minimum separation bet~een windings which has a
snowballing effect on reducing. transformer size and cost. Winding costs
are low and the winding can be made by winding it directly over the low
voltage coil eliminating set up and assembly operations.

A shielded layer winding has good surge voltage distribution and the
insulation parts are simple. Only the angle flanges at the layer ends are
high in cost.

j. Disadvantages

Maximum advantage' of this type of winding is limited to wye

connected windings with a grounded neutral. Bringing out the taps is more-
difficult than in disc type windings. Considerable care is required to
obtain adequate.. mechanical against short circuits. ',. ""'.":'~

J. PozaryskiWinding See Figure No. 43

a.. Construction

The Pozaryski winding is a layer type winding which can have advantages
for auxiliary regulating windings or for low voltage windings with multiple

,_~_ _ •_ _~_~.
2L - _oliO ........ _.~ •...,.._ .. ''H ==*--=---------=-=~~..;;.~~~_:.,.:; ..


series parallel sections. A rectangular conductor made up of a number of

rectangular straps is wound spirally on an insulating tube jU$t as in a
cylindrical winding. In this case however, the number of subdivisions in
the width of the turn must be the same as the number of tap sections de-
sired in the winding. The radial subdivisions may be from 1 to 3 depending
on the current required.
~6 'IE E.g '2B
I 18 5B 78

\ ~rVl I lA <3 ,lA JE +A4.8 IA £''(3 GIl G} 71"178 ;1'\ PS .9


Figure No. 43

. I
// .
.~ •

'J.A:JIt"A &Po iA!7

I n SA 'fA cases, t h
many · d·~ng w~. 11 cons~st
e w~n . 0fon l ' 1 ayer b ut more
y one
than one can be used. Construction details are the same as for a cylin-
drical winding.

If the winding is a regulating winding.all the grGUps of conductors

will be connected in series by connecting 2A to 2B, 3A to 3Betc. and
taking off a coil lead at each junction. F0r series parallel-use,all the
leads. are taken to a terminal board arranged for series and parallel con-
nection. The winding as shown in Figure No. 43 has eight sections of 3
turns each. If. each section is for 10 volts, the winding can be connected
for 80-40-20 or 10 volts~

b. Current and Voltage Limitations

Current limits are more. severe than for cylindrical coils be-
cause for really heavy curren.t: the turn would become too wide. Normally~
heavy currents are not: required since the principal use of the winding is
fora regulating winding at about 10% of the main winding K!VA. Currents
above 500 amperes would begin to produce problems in design.

- 22 -.
'Art . t r ~"""') so,,' , -

Voltage limits are also on the low side. Mostly the winding does not
apply above the 15 KV class.

c. Insulation

Major insulation is the same as is used for cylindrical ~vindings.

Turn to turn insulation is quite a different problem. For lot., vol-

tages, it is not too difficult to insulate each of the turn groups for the
full impulse voltage of the winding in one way or another, either by heavily
taping each group with paper tape or by winding in a pressboard spacer be-
tween groups. Impulse stress between turns can be reduced by placing a
static layer next to the winding but separated with wrapped pressboard layer

d. Loss

The problem of stray losses is identical to that in cylindrical


f. Taps

No taps between leads are used.

g. Cooling
. ~..: -.
Ventilation problems are solved as in cylindrical coils.

h. Mechanical Strength

Solutions as used for cylindrical coils.

i. Advantages

Pozaryski windings are well adapted to regulating windings in

transformers with load tap changers. They make it easy to bring the re-·
gulating taps out because they all come at the end of the layers. Also,
taking out taps does not unbalance the winding and cause high vertical
stresses. No matter how many taps are out, the remaining portion of the
winding still occupies a full layer.

j _ Disadvantages

The chief disadvantage is in the various limitations of the con-

ductor si~e. The number of strands wide must be a mUltiple of the tap
voltage required and of volts per turn.


- 23 -

I,' •
With this width, the thickness is set by the current rating. At the same
time, the width and number of turns per tap must be such as to evenly fill
out a coil layer in length.

B. Round Concentric Disc Type Windings ~ee Figure Nos. 5-~

1. Continuous Pancake
a. Construction

Continuous coils are wound with from 1 to 4 or 5 rec-

tangular copper straps in parallel. The individual conductors vary from
.204 to .580 inches wide and from .025 to .144 thick. Each section of the
coil consists of a flat circular disc whose thickness is equal to the con-
ductor width. The sections are connected alternately start to start and
finish to finish. Like cylindrical coils, continuous coils are wound on
a micarta or pressboard winding tube. Over the tube are placed longitu-
dinal spacers of pressboard which form a duct between che tube and the
coil sections. The complete coil made of from 20 to 60 or more sections
is wound of a continuous copper conductor without brazed joints.

The winder first winds one section with the start next to the mould.
When the first section is complete, the wire is carried down to the mould
and a second section is wound. After completion of the second section the
first section is collapsed and reversed by hand which leaves two sections,
connected start to start. This process is continued rewinding every other
section by hand until the coil is complete. ~ ____

Section to section insulation is formed bj oil ducts. The oil ducts

" ~.

are maintained by equally spaced rows of radial spacers. The spacers are
made of a high density press-
board and are keyed to the verti-
cal spacers back of the winding.
See Figure 44. Major insulation
to the core or inside winding is
provided by the duct and the insu-
lating tube on which the coil is
Spacer wound. The winding is made shorter
than the tube and the space from
the end of the winding to the end
of the tube is filled with high
density pressboard blo cks formed
Radial Spacer by cementing together coated
radial spacers. ..-..::;'

Figure No. 44 ...... -: .

. ....

If the voltage is over- 33 KV a static plate is placed on the end of

the column between the winding and the collar.

- 24.-

It serves to distribute impulse voltage stress across the turns of the
first section, and because it has a radius surrounded with solid insu-
lation, it reduces the concentration of the major stress on the corners
of the column. The static plate is made of a 3/8 inch thick pressboard
washer covered with copper foil, then taped with a 3/16 inch thickness
of paper tape. The foil is connected with a pigtail lead to the line
terminal of the transformer and must have a radial gap.

When the voltage is 69 KV or over, angle rings are used at each

column end. An angle ring· is flanged cylinder of pressboard. The cylin-
drical part fits snugly inside the winding tube and the flange extends
out across the ends of the winding just outside the static plate.

b. Current and Voltage Limits

Continuous coils are suitable for currents in a range from

about 10 amperes up to 500 amperes. They can be made for voltage classes
up to 138 KV 650 BIL although Westinghouse practice is to use inter-
leaved Hisercap windings for voltages above 69 KV, 350 BIL

c. Insulation

Turn insulation is obtained by taping the conductor with layers ~

'7Y of paper tape. The thickness of tape is determined by calculation. The
distribution constant is determined as a function of the series and ground
capacitances, and the voltage across the first duct as a function of the
distribution constant. The turn to turn stress is then a function of the
section to section stress. The turn insulation· is uniform throughout the
winding. In practice most coils up to the 69 KV class need only .014
which the minimum permitted for mechanical reasons.

Section to section stress is insulated by means of oil ducts. Th~

thickness is calculated for the stress across the first pair of sections
calculated as above. Up to 46 KV, a 3/16 duct, which is the mechanical
minimum is sufficient for most designs. At 69 KV, 1/4 ducts usually are

High to low insulation is made up of alternate tubes and oil ducts.

The stress divides between insu1ation~in series inversely proportion al
to the SIC value for the insulation material. In oil and pressboard
barriers, the volts per inch in pressboard is about 1/2 of that in the
oi·l~ Since the strength of an oil duct in volts per inch increases as
the duct size decreases,. it is advantageous to use many thin barriers with
small oiL ducts between them.

d~ Losses

s.tray losse;; in continuous coils are low and the conduc·tors

usually are subdiVided in the radial direction to keep them low.

- 25 -
.. _. ----------------- _. __ ... . . .
_ '-'-;.-' -

..-.- . ~- .- -. -, - - -~ .- .-... .~ ---

e. Transpositions

The transpositions required are simple. Only one type of trans-

position is made at the start to start connection between sections. It re-
quires no extra space and costs no more to make than a regular series con-
nection. Figure No. 45 looking at the inside circumference of· two sections
at the start-start connection shows how the outside conductor in one sec-
tion becomes the inside in the next.

Figure No. 45

f. Taps

In continuous windings taps are taken out as nearly at the center

of the column as possible. As shown in toe notes, taps at the center have
a minimum effect on reactance and on the short circuit forces. The tap is
brought across the face of the section to the outside of the column and then
extends about 1-1/2 inches to serve as a terminal on outside columns. It
is taped and shielded with pieces of pressboard to insula~e it from the sec-

On inside columns the tap may be carried to the duct outside the coil
or: to that inside the coil. It then extends up in the duct to the end of
the coil. Where is passes the end
of the column it must be insulated
for the full impulse voltage of
the insulation class. This requires
heavy tnpe and large ducts. As a
result, we do not usually make in-
side columns with taps for voltage
classes over 33 KV.


fi) ,
- 26 -

--.- ----------------:-- --_.. _-_.- .

The construction of continuous coils is very weIr adapted to good
cooling. A vertical duct behind the winding @ee Figure No. 41J and
horizontal ducts between sections give good cooling and low gradients
above the oil temperature •

Continuous coils also give excellent cooling for forced oil cooled
transformers. In such a transformer a pressboard tube or· wrapper is
placed around the outside of the coil leaving a duct between the coil
and the wrapper. Pressboard boxing at the bottom forces the oil to flow
upward around the coil sections between the outside tube and the winding
tube. In each section between turns a duct is provided by means of corru-
gated pressboard spacers.

r ~/

1/ I
I "
I "


~ Oil Flow

Figure No. 47

Oil through the ducts spreads out in the area bet~veen sections then
must eddy to enter the duct in the next section. This promotes turbulent
flow and gives: excellent cooling.

h. Mechanical Strength

As in. cylindrical coils, continuous coils are subjected toa radial

outward and inward force and to an axial force directed upward or downward~

When used as an inside winding, .the horizontal forces are directed ra-
dially inward. The strength of the coil- as a circular arch against buckling·
must b~ calculated and in some cases it may be necessary to use thicker

. - 27 -
--," :'"

-4 '&""'1o""-;·,O'w . ','," :.: 'r-

copper strands or less subdivision of the turn to obta~.n the required strength.
If used as an outer coil the stress is taken by tension in the conductor
material and in moderate sized transformers this is not a problem.

Vertical forces are more troublesome in continuous coils. Normally

the coils after winding are clamped axially bet~.,een steel plates and then
are thoroughly dried by the vapo-therm process in which the coils are heated
by the condensation of a low boiling point vapor in a high vaccuum and then
are impregnated with transformer oil. The hot dry coil stack is then loaded
in a hydraulic press with a load equal to the calculated short circuit force.
Extra radial spacers are added or subtracted to obtain the calculated height
at the short circuit load. The coils are then placed on the core and after
the core is yoked are again pulled down to the same length as before. Such
a man~facturing process makes certain that there will be no further compression
on short circuit and hence no motion. High density pressboard must be used
for the radial spacers to limit the compression under load.

i. Advantages

The continuous wound coil th-ough slightly more costly than

the cylindrical coil is still a low cost winding. It has a good space factor
and when removed from the winding machine little coil assembly time is re-
quired. Mechanically every turn is locked in place and the coil is strong
and 'easily braced for short circuit stresses. Stray losses are low and temp-
, ...... erature gradients also are low. It gives excellent performance for forced
oil cooling.

For voltage classes above 15 KV the. space factor is higher than that
of cylindrical coils. Taps are easily brought out.

j. Disadvantages

A'simple continuous coil has a poor surge voltage distribution

and requires extensive modifications for voltages over 69 KV. It is limited
to currents not over 500 amperes although higher currents can be handled by
paralleling sections of the coil.

2. Double Section Pancake Coils

a·. Cons truc t ion

When completed, such a coil appears to be identical to a con-

tinuous coil except. that the finish-finish connections instead of being con-
tinuous with the winding are a coil assembly·operation. In winding,
a single'section is wound then the mould· is reversed and the conductor from
the reel is brazed to the start of the first section and another section is
wound spaced by a. duct from the first section. The pair of sections is then


- 28 -

,_~_.~,_,:'~ __ ~:~~~:-.~.:..;.'~~.-c,:. •. - <---.. .
removed from the mould and another pair is wound. ' When enough are completed
for a complete coil the coil tube is set up with vertical spacers taped to
it. The pairs of coils ar~ then stacked on over the tubes with radial spacers
between all sections. After stacking is complete, the finish-finish connections
are brazed.

All other details of construction are the same as for continuous coils.

b. Current and Voltage Limits

c.' Insulation
d. Losses
e. Transpositions
f. Taps
g. Cooling
h. Mechanical Strength

All these problems have the same solutions as given for con-
tinuous coils.

i. Advantages

There are few advantages as compared to continuous coils and

the double section winding is no longer used by Westinghouse. One possible
advantage for future use is the possibility of using, it with solid high low
insulation. A wrapper can be wound over the low voltage coil and then the.
double sections can be assembled over the wrapper without a duct next to the
coil sections. With solid' insulation and a small high to low distance it is
important not' to have an oil space next to the coil. The solid material
(oil soaked pressboard) has high dielectric strength but due to its higher
dielectric constant" it shifts the stress to the oil when oil ducts are in
series. Failure then occurs in the oil duct. For this reason continuous
coils which are wound over spacers forming a duct cannot be used with solid
high to low insulation. '

j. Disadvantages

At the present time double section coils used with oil and
pressboard barriers in the high low space cannot compete with continuous
coils in cost.

3. Hisercap Windings

I. Twin Interleaved ~nglish Electric's Stearn Patent] :..~C· f~G- IJ<: ~l

a.. Construction

After the coil is wound and the end collars put in place~
the winding has the same appearance as a continuous disc type winding. Most
of the, construction details are the same. The winding process is, however,

- 29 -

quite different. Two reels of wire are

set up and two straps are wound into
I. 1~ 17 3c.
the coil at one time (§ee Figure No. 48 -9 6 e.g:
- "2.4
which shows the turn sequence of the /5
winding]. After the first section is
2- 18 2>1
wound with a double strap to give half /0 7 '2~
as many turns as finally desireq the 14 19
conductors are dropped to the mould
and a second section is wound. Then (p 27
the fi~st section is collapsed and .is
reversed by hand. At this point one
of the straps from the reels is cut
~o. 8 in Figure No, 4~ and the turn Twin Interleaved
is reconnected to one of the two wires English Electric
at the finish of the first section Stearn Patent
@o. 9 in Figure No. 48J. This process Figure No. 48
is then repeated until the desired num-
ber of series turns is obtained.

(b) Current and Voltage Limits

This particular winding is limited to the current rating of

the largest single strap which can conveniently be used; in Westinghouse
practice about .114 x.S80. This permits currents of 80 to 100 amperes.
Higher currents may be used, by paralleling winding sections. One connection
which is particularly advantageous for grounded neutral wye windings is to
' '
wind the top and bottom halves· of the coil stack in parallel with the line
lead in the center. When this is
, I"
done, the insula'tion at the end of
~____________________________~ the column has only to be good for
the neutral insulation level and
the static plate can be om~tted.
The line voltage then appears only
at the center of the column where
;::::::::::::==:= =J-----
Line the voltage gradient to the low
voltage is uniform. Improved vol-
tage distribution is obtained and,
the current capacity is doubled.


The tower limit for voltage is about 450 BIL because the extra winding
labor for the Hise~cap winding costs more -than the gain obtained from better -
'voltage distribution. In ~eries.windings, however, the Hisercap winding may

=-- "to.
, t".' ., ... "

b~ economically used to obtain high series capacitance:for low voltages. So

far as is known, there is no upper voltage limit considering present commer-
cial voltage systems.

(c) Insulation

Paper tape turn insulation is used as in continuous winding.

As can be seen from Figure No. 48, the turn to turn insulation must be good
for the 60 cycle test voltage across .the total turns in one section. Turn
to turn impulse stress must be calculated from the distribution calculation.

Section to section, the voltage across the start-start connected

sections is twice the turn to turn stress and across the finish-finish
connections is three times the turn to turn stress. This permits a big re-
duction in duct size over the continuous type of coil. In most windings,
regardless of voltage class, a 1/4 inch duct is sufficient.

Major insulation is the same as for continuous windings.

d. Losses
e. Transpositions
f. Taps
g. Cooling
h. Mechanical Strength
Solutions of these problems are the same as for continuous
windings. With only one strap, there are no transpositions required.

i. Advantages

This type of Hisercap is the lowest in winding labor cost of

all the interleaved windings. It also has the most ne2rly uniform voltage
distribution. For high voltages, it is economical.

j. Disadvantages

Winding labor time is considerably more then for a continuous

winding and the winding machine capacity for production is reduced. There
have been cases where the turns in the first half of an interleaved group T:e-
come so numerous and large and the inductance so high, that their turns do
not come up to the surge voltage rapidly enough to permit the interleaving
principal to work.

Interleaving the turns of two sections increases the turn tc turn stress
and more insulation must be- used on the conductors and this in turn decreases
the turn to turn capacitance and consequently increases the turn to turn streSs.
This is a snowballing effect.

- 31 -
_ _ _ _-'"-_~,...;;.o.....",.;..;..........._.._..._ _~~_ _ _ _ _ _..............._ _T"Z"=;o.F~_...
- _ _~"'."='_-'o.. '-"-.--:.--". ... '"'~
...--~~".---~ - ..:-!--;<:~:'S""

- '"'1. 4.
";_'; _'; ;"_;' "'; _; -~; ,;.i; ~·
__ -;,,;-';,.""";.,.'.,;,'0:...
. .; ~ ;. ·.- ;~:,; :~; .; .; ~;. ;#" ~:w; :~.-; :~; .:~' j, ;~:; 2'-;j~;: ;:~ l-;. ',~'Q; ;~·;.:~· ~, o~
_ ;,-_,... ..· ... ..._: ....
•. . ; . . •
. ,_ '_ _._ ~",;,,
, •_ _. ,•;•, ..,;.,. ____
• _';".,;.,'_.,;.,' ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~_ _·,~;~"-'t:,-~':_·;~" ", ~ ~ ;i~
• • _••

II Single Interleaved (Siemens or Dr. Stein Pate:nSJ [5ee h& NC$ Ie t. lej
a Construction

This winding differs from the preceeding one in that the inter-
leaved group includes the turns of one sec-
I~ J7
tion instead of two. [See Figure No. 49]
The winding is done as before except. /2. 2.1
that one strap is cut at the top of the /5 18
first section and after it is reversed II G(
this turn, now at the bottom, is re-
connected to the second turn from the 14 19
top. The sketch shows that a top to 2.3
bottom connection is required for each 2.0
section. It must be insulated '-lith
paper tape and with tough pressboard 2.4
channels which protect it from mechani-
cally dama~ing either of the adjacent Single Interleaved
sections~ ~ee Figure No. 50J Siemens or Dr. Stein
I l Figure No. 49
Inte rleaving b. Current and Voltage Limits
Inside Co~n ection
Channe 1. The current and voltage lfmLt~
are the same as for the twin inte~-·
leaved winding.
Outs ide c. Insulation
The 60 cycle turn to turn
I r./ ·stress is reduced to the test
voltage across one half the turns
·Figure ·No. 50 in the first section. Section to
section stress is uniform and e-
qual to four times the turn stress. Ducts 3/16 inch thick can be used for all
voltage classes.

d. Losses e. Transpositions f. Taps

g. Cooling - h. Mechanical Strength

Al! these- problems are as descr.ibed for the preceeding winding ..

i. Advantages

While: this winding has theoretically a poorer voleage dis-

tribution, .the reduction in turn- to turn stress permits using less insula-
tion on the strap and in turn increases the capacitance to the point where

-·32 .~
the winding is comparable to the twin interleaved. It~ performace is ex-
cellent. The reduction in turn to turn, and section to section stress im-
proves the space factor and the material saving more than offsets the in-
crease in winding labor cost. It appears that interleaving the turns of
only one section is more nearly at the optimum size for an interleaved


The winding time because of the welded interleaving connection is

greatly increased)two times that for a twin interleaved)and three times
that for a continuous coil. Production per machine hour is materially re-
duced and more investment in machines and labor is required for equal pro-
duction quantities and times.

III Double Interleaved Hisercao

a Construction

In this type of winding the interleaved group is only half

the turns in the first section.
Two sets of cross section inter-
connections are required an4 two
sets of protective channels as
described for the preceeding
winding. Other features are the

b Current and Voltage

Limits 15
These are no differ- 18
ent than in the single IS
interleaved winding.
c Insulation J4
Turn to turn stress
at 60 cycles is only J~ s~ 37
that portion of the
test voltage app~aring
. 'across one· quarter· of Double Interleaved
the turns in a section. Figure No. 51
Stress from section to section is uniform and is equal to 8 times the turn
to' turn. stress.

d Losses e Transpositions f Taps

g Cooling h Mechanical Strength

- 33 -
'. <··-·r R' .....-........,.....

These problems are unchanged from those in the preceeding types

of Hisercap winding.

h Advantages

If taps are located on turns in the center of an interleaved

group, the capacitance relationships are changed and high voltages occur
on impulses. This means that taps must be taken out only on finish leads.
This makes it nec.essary to distort the tap sections to obtain the right
number of turns. With double interleaved sections, there are two places
per section for taps and less distortion of the turns.

i Disadvantages

The winding time and labor cost become prohibitive and this
winding is used only for tap sections.

IV Mutually Twin Finish-Finish Interleaved

a Construction [see Figure No. 52]

~is winding permits winding two conductors in parallel. Two

reels of conductor are required. The first section is wound with two straps
and then one connection to the reel is cut~ the other conductor is brought
down to the mould and wound with a strap from the cut reel to form a second
section. Then the first section is reversed by hand and a cross connection
made between sections at. the top. Some of the s.tart-start connect~ons must
pass under two intermediate sections arid this is done. as shown in Figure No.
53. There are no inter-
leaving connections across
the faces of the sections A AI- Ale.. AI3 . A14~'
but one line lead must be
brought out from a coil '57 B~ E/~ ]3lg
start. It will be noted A2. All AI4 A?.'!>
that the "An circui t goes
through each section like BB I 551320 ]/7
a continuous. winding. The A3 AID AI~ A~1
B circuit enters each even
numbered section at the .B.9 B4 <132.1 BJ(p
bottom then loops back one
A4 AS AI~ A'll
BID B3 B'2.Z 'B/S
:.811 .. B~· ." ~23. .. BJ4
-A~ A7 . AlB AI9
:B 1'2.. "- 81 12.4 :313 .-
Mutually Twin Fin-Fin Interleaved
~ig~re No. 52

- 34·-
;: " ...~ -: ."-'.""""."f,;'

,' •. ;., .. ". ""ina:"' ';" aa': ¥ '1¥6,-'ti'q-":': ,)i';..;~.:.:':'; d': '.~ .,,-. 'a+·· 'fs~Sa)t"~\;f-# '=W;-~rl;-h" ~'f#td"'t- ¢,;," ""dVth"-m< 'r:'&"')'·" ~-_}izi.eL <'~)L,+> : aia.~;;·mb\>fA;.f..-t

---=--=Z__- - __; __ .7 ~---

~.-:-------- ..--.-.-- - .-----------------------.-------~

Figure No. 53

b Current and Voltage Limits

Since two straps may be wound in parallel, this winding doubles

the current rating of the previously described Hisercap windings.

Voltage limits are not changed.

c Insulation

Sixty cycle turn to turn stress is equal to the test voltage

across half the turns in one section. Across alternate ducts, the stress
is twice and four times the turn to turn stress.

d Losses e transpositions f Taps

g' Cooling .- h Mechanical Strength

These require no new solutions over the previous types of

Hisercap coils.

i Advantages

_Over the previous types, this winding has the advantage of

doubling the current rating~

j D-isadvantages

Winding time and labor are high~

- 35
·.~=-=]E-~~T·""·~_~~~~ ~~~=~~ ..--.. ....",,-""':

. --."" --_. ---'" ~.- . . ....·.3i,;;;il

V Mutually Twin Mixed Interleaved
l, - A
AI I AIL A?4~ A 13_
B7 : 'Be, B/8 :£>1.9
A,- AII-l A23 AM-
B8 I
I ]5 J3 )7 B20
A3 AID A'22. AIS
119 B4 BIG, :821
A4 A9 A2/ Alb
BID B3 B1,£ :B 22.
AS A8 A2.0 AJ7
1311 B2. J?14- F23
BIZ- i.-
E/ :813 '$24- B
Mutually Twin Mixed Interleaved
Fi~re No.·. 54

a Construction

In the mutually twin'Finish-Finish interleaved winding, we have

seen that one circuit ~ circuit, Figure No. 5U
'gees str.aight through each
section with crossover alternately at the top and at the bottom. The other
circuit enters each even numbered section at the bottom and then.loopsback
through the odd numbered section preceding •. In the mutually twin mixed
interleaved windings, the A circuit Q?igure No. S41goes through tw~ sections
in series, skips a section, goes through the fourth section then loops back
thro~gh the third. Circuit B enters the second section at the bottom, loops
back through section one then goes straight through sections three and four.
Each circuit then goes straight through two sections then skips one, enters
the next and loops back through the skipped section.

b Current and Voltage Limits

Same as for the previous winding.

c:: Insulati on

Sixty cycle turn to turn stress is equal to the test volta:ge

across-half the turns in one section. Across alternate ducts the section to
section is equal to twice and then three times the turn to turn stress.

- 36

.. -~.;:~ .: .~'" ..

... -.:- .
d Losses- e Transpositions f Taps
g Cooling h Mechanical Strength

These problems require the same solutions as in the previous


i Advantages

Over the preceeding winding this one has a single advantage:

the maximum section to section stress is reduced from four to three times
the turn to turn stress.

j Disadvantages

The winding is more difficult and expensive to wind.

VI Hutually Single Mixed Interleaved

B3 - Elc. _]/5 r- :824 B

AC; - '--
A~ - AlB - I- All ,.--
B'2. -"Ell Bit 1523
AS A8 AI? A20
BI :B 10 L-.:..-
13 13 1522-
oAf '-
A7 It. li.o !--
B~ '-
- B9 ])8 r- I - - o B21
A3 AI~ - .--
Aft A(,4- A
BS B8 1317 "H2O
A2.. All AI4
B4- '- '"--
137 B If> ~ '---
A AI AJO f- '-
AI3 A'2.2- 1-.

Mutually Single Mixed:lnterleaved

oFigure oNe. 55

.a' Construction

Your-reels of conductClr are needed to wind the mutual single

mixed interleaved.'winding but no section has to be reversed after winding.
First, two straps:are wound together to fGlrm a half section then sne of
the straps is drapped.down- to the mould. A wire from the third reel enters

- 37-
... ~-~~~=-~--~~-=======~~==~~~~~~~~~---

.,~"::-:-.;,.;!;:t.~22t1~~~t':~~~:~'.'.L .; :~; .:, . .....--. .._. ... ·c,-:5.~

the first section at the center and a wire from the fourth reel enters the
second section at the bottom. At this point, the top "half of section one
and the bottom half of section two are wound simultaneously. This cycle
is then repeated. It will be noticed it has three interlacing connections
across the face of the coil.

b. Current and Voltage Limits

This winding has the same limits as the the windings previously
described in the preceding paragraphs IV and V.

c. Insulation

Turn to turn stress is equal to the low frequency test vol-

tage across 1/4 the turns per section plus one turn.

Section to section stress is equal to the stress across 3/4 the stress
across one section

d. Losses e. Transpositions- - f. Taps

g. Cooling h. Mechanical Stresses

These problems are no different than in other mutually inter--

'~ leaved Hisercap windings already described.
C. Round Concentric Spiral Windings

1., Helitran - Double Group [See r,g lA.res /'Ie 7 -a~c{ No 8]

a.- Construction

He-litran coils are wound on a micarta tube with .vertical

spacers next to the tube to form a duct between the tube and the inside of
the coil. The turn is composed of two groups of rectangular conductors wound
side by side. Each turn is spiral wound with a single layer on the tube.
The stacked height of the conductors becomes the radial build of the coil.
Each turn of the coil forms a spiral disc similar, except for the pitch, to-
the sec·tions of the continuous wound coil. Between turns are ducts main-
tained by radial spacers keyed to the vertical spacers between winding and
tubes. In such a coil column the number of sections must be equal to the
number of turns or a multiple of the number of turns.

·The leads on helitran coils are brought out from the winding in an
opening in the collar. The collar serves to prevent uncoiling of the wind-
ing by bracing the lead. Most leads are brought out vertically, a few on
'outside columns are brought out horizontally.

- 38 -
".. ",
. ~~'~~~"~'~~~*~<;~'~"~#'~'~'ri~'~~"~~e~y~_~".6~;~~_·~·~:~t.'~~'.'~R~··ftr~'~·;'W.~·'~&%~)·~··~<,~'·dl~'~'~'k~"~~~~~"~'h~'~*~'_'~"~'~'~'~'~~~~'~'~'~)~"'~i~~:'~*/~"~~m~<~"~l~k~t,>~,~~,'i~'3~';b~/~~jW~?M"'a"WH~~'aW~~~":'

- The ~vinding is shorter than the
Radial winding tube and heavy collars
Spacers of micarta are placed at the ends
~ V ------ of the winding and are riveted
to the winding tube to brace and
prevent unwinding of the heavy
One I
coil leads .. Leads come out through
Turn I a gap in the collars and a layer
y---.. Vertical of glass epoxy tape circumferentially
-- - - !

wound around each collar holds the

.7 Spacer
lead down in the gap between the
V//////L'L///// . . > .... //j')~be collar ends.

Figure No. 56

b. Current and Voltage Limits

The helitran coil is limited to windings where the number of

turns can be wound in a single layer withQut an excessively long coil. With-
in this limitatien it can be used for any current up to about 3000 amperes.
It is not limited by voltage although the maximum current in high voltage
core form transfermers is not great enough to call for helitran windings ex-
r'\, cept, perhaps, in series windings.
c. Insulation

Each strand of the conductor is insulated with paper. This

paper insulates only for the voltages which produce eddy.currents. Turn to
turn insulation consists of oil ducts formed by radial spacers. There is
only one layer so no layer insulation is required. Major insulation to the
core or tube inside the coil is obtained with the tube on which it is wound.
The is shorter than the tube and the end insulation consisfs of heavy
collars of micarta. When used with a high voltage winding over 115 KV some-
times a static plate is used on the end of the column after the pitch of
the first turn is leveled off with radial spacers. This static plate serves
to reduce the concentration of the major stress on the corners of the coil.

d. Losses

Helitran windings can be effectively transposed and the stray.

losses easily controlled. Radial subdivision of the turn usually do not ex-
ceed .129 inches to limit the losses.

e. Transposition

Only one type of transposition is used; the helitran trans-

position named after the type of winding., This transposition is also used
in most cylindrical coils. At each transposition the top conductor of the

- 39 -
.. -,.,. ,

,,"~~:i'!!i:~i"~~2!:S£~w~ .
" '

. .J. .... 4,
left hand group is moved over to the top of the right hand group: and, at
the same place, the bottom conductor of the right hana group is moved OV2r
to the bottom of the left hand group. See Figure No. 57, where the solid
lines indicate the top two conductors and the dotted lines the bottom two.
This same transposition is made
at sufficient equally spaced
points so that each strand oc-
cupies each radial position
in the turn for equal portions
of time.

Figure No. 58 represents a coil

Figure No. 57 in which each turn is two strands
high. "A" represents the strands
before the first transposition at T-l, B after this transposition, etc.

2 Tl
2 1 -
ffiB2 43

A B c D E

Figure No. 58

1 2 6 1 5 6 4 5 3 4 .z 3 1 2

6 3 5 2 4 1 3 6 2 5 1 4 6 3

5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 6 6 5 5 1+
tr 1 T2 T3 T4 h'5 T6
A B c D E G

Figure No. 59

Figure No. 59 represents the relative position of the strands when the
turn is three strands high.

If we let:

S= No. of strands in each group of the turn

T= No. of transpositions
N= No. of turns in winding
n= No. of turns between transpositions

- 40
It is evident

T = 2S
If each strand is to occupy for equal times every position in the turn the
number of turns between transpositions must be equal to (n) where:
So if a 15 turn winding is made with a turn 6 strands high the first trans-
position must come at the end of 1-1/4 turns (n = N/2S = 15/12 = 1-1/4)
and another transposition every 1-1/4 turns thereafter.

The only allowance in dimensions required for the helitran transposition

is a radial allowance equal to the thickness of a single strand.

f. Taps

Theheli tran ~·'inding is used for low voltage, heavy current

windings and taps are seldom required. Taps can be provided by bringing
out the finish of the turn just before the tap and the start of the turn
following and brazing both to the tap lead. In such a coil it would be ne-
cessary to make a complete transposition between each tap and between each
end tap and the line. On inside windings, taps can be provided by brazing
on flat copper strap and by bringing it up in a duct between. the winding and
the winding tube.

g. Cooling

Helitran coils are well ventilated in the construction des-

cribed above and have low temperature gradients.

h. Mechanical Strength

Helitran coils are subjected to the same stresses and con-

tinuous disc coils and are processed in the same manner. They are pressed
in a hydraulic press after drying with a load equal to the calculated short
circuit stress.

i. Advan tages

He1itran windings are particularly suited to windings with

heavy current and only a few turns. They have good short circuit strength,
low stray losses and low gradients. When forced oil cooling is used they
give excellent cooling and may be ventilated by ducts formed with corrugated
pressboard wound into the radial build.

- 41 -
j. Disadvantages

Because of the requirement that each section be a turn there

is a rigid relation between coil length and number of turns which makes it
inflexible to design. The minimum strand width is not less than .144 inches
and preferably more. The type of transposition requires a number of in-
dividual transpositions which twist the wires between winding machine and
wire reel carriers. This requires frequent shifting of the reels. The
large number of wires in parallel require many reels of wire and a com-
plicated reel strand. Costs are higher than for cylindrical coils.

2. Helitran - Single Group

a. Construction

This type of Helitran coil is wound exactly as was the pre-

ceeding winding except that the turn is made up of only one group of con~
ductors all stacked one above the other. All other construction details
are as previously described.


No. 60

b. Current and Voltage Limits c. Insulation

d. Loss Limit Stress

Same as for double group Helitran.

e. Transposition

Transpositions are made by periodically dropping the top wire

of .the turn down to the bottom position in the turn. This is done by making
a 90° bend edgewise of the strap then a 90° flat bend at the top then re-
peating these operations at the bottom See Figure ~o. 61.

42 -
" . ..''. ..
' . . - - - - _. __._---- ..

f------ _.------

1 2 3 4 r
3 4 2
r----- ~--
3 4 1 2 3
4 Tl 1 T2. 2 T3
3 T4 4

Figure No·.. 62

Let: S = No.-ofradial strands in the turn

T =. No:- of transpesitions
N = No. of turns in winding
n = No. of turns between trarispositions
T =S
If each strand occupies for equal times every position in the turn,the number
of turns between transpositions must be equal to (n) where :

n = N N
T =S

If a 15 turn winding is made with a turn 6 strands high, the first trans-
position must come at the end of turns I n = N/S = 15/6 = 2-1/2 turns and
another transposition every 2-1/2 turns. J

This transposition involves a top to bottom connection across the face

of the coil which is insulated by pressboard channels as described for single
interleaved Hisercap windings.

f. T:ips g. Cooling h. Mechanical Strength

These problems are no different then in the double group


- 43 -
----- ---------- ~-.=~-------------~-~,--=======
i. Advantages

This winding has all the advantages of the two group Helitran
and requires fewer transpositions. Since it is only one strap wide in the
axial direction, the turn can be made narrower and more turns can be placed
in a given axial length.

j. Disadvantages

The transposition is" more complicated and harder to insulate

then that used in the preceeding winding.

D. Round Concentric - Combination Layer-Disc Winding

1. Wire Wound Coils

a. Construction

Wire wound coils are made with single wire conductors

of round ,,,ire from . 010 to .102 inches in- diameter. They are disc type
coils from 7/8 to 1-1/2 inches thick and from 3/4 to 4 inches in radial
build. The coil is wound on a micarta ring with the same length as the
coil thickness. Each section is wound individually with several layers
back and forth like a bobbin. Bet,,,een layers near the outside of the coil
are wound segments of micarta tubes equally spaced around the coil.

After winding, the coils are connected start to start in pairs and
the pairs are then assembled into a column over a micarta tube. When all
are assembled the· finish connections are made.

Radial spacers of press-

board are used between in-
dividual coils and one of the
segments under the last layer
of the winding is located
directly in line with each
vertical row of radial spacers.

Segment of
hG-ure No G3

- 44
------" --"-" -" --~-"---...-"--~=--~~====
b. Limits

The current limit for wire wound coils is about 9 amperes.

They can be used for any voltage class. Their use is mainly in testing
transformers and in high voltage oil insulated potential transformers.

c. Insulation

Turn to turn insulation is in the form of an enamel coating

on the wire and or layers of paper tape. The coils have a good voltage
distribution because of the high capacitance from layer to layer.

Two types of layer insulation

are used, crimped paper and
sleeves. Crimped paper layer
insulation consists of strips
of paper with the edges folded
back and forth to form a collar
Figure No. 64 to hold the turns laterally in
~lace. See Figure No. 64.

Sleeves are also made of strips

of paper which are folded over
the first and last turn in each
layer (as shown in Figure No. 65)
Figure No. 65 to anchor the edge turns.

Coil to coil insulation eonsist$ of oil ducts forme9 with radial

spacers keyed to vertical spacersm aduct between the coils and the tube
on which they are assembled. The segments in the outer layers are spaced
so that they line up with the radial spacer columns and take the clamping
pressure off the wires.

Major insulation is provided by the tubes and duct on which the coils
are assembled and by collars at the ends just as for continuous coils. For
higher voltages static plates and angle rings are used. In addition, the
coils near the line end of the column use static rings one on the inside
and one on the outside of the coil. This ring distributes the stress across
the turns of the first and last layers and also increase the coil to coil
Static The inside static ring is
.- _. _._- --.
Plate connected to the start-start
~~ __________________ ~~~~ _____ Line
connection. . The outside one
to the line.

Figure No. 66

Static. ../~

- 45
d. Loss Limitation

These windings use small conductors and have very low stray

e. Transposition

Windings use only one small strand of wire and no trans~

position are required.

f. Taps

Taps may be placed on any turn and carried out across the
layer then radially outward across the coil. Taps and pressboard strips
are used for insulation.

g. Cooling

Wire wound coils have many_buried turns and normally have

high temperature gradient to the oil. By making the thickness of each
coil small and using more coils, some improvement may be made.

h. Mechanical Strength

This type of winding does not have good mechanical strength

but in most cases the short circuit forces are low. No hydraulic loading
is used. The radial spacers span the coil and form a bridge from winding
tube to coil segment which supports the wires.

1. Advantages·

The winding is suited to small current,high voltage'trans-

formers with low short circuit forces. They have a good voltage distri-
bution of surge voltages and a good space factor.

j. Disadvantages

The temperature gradients in wire wound coils are high and the
coils must be worked at low current densities. They are subject to turn to
turn faults because of wire defects. Because of the coil assembly time the
c()st is high. The small wires required are also high in cost.

2. Basket Windings

s. Construction

- 46 -
-...... "--,~- 7" -=:-~-~--..--==-
--- ------'
B Basket wound coils are in some ways
similar to double section coils ex-
Section l' Section 2
y - - - h Ar-_---.
cept that each section consists of
r------,v' r-+------. two discs instead of one. They are
wound by t . .V'o different methods. Fig-
ure No. 67 shows a single coil of two
sections with two discs each. There
are 10 turns per section or five in
the radial build of each disc. ' Num-
bers on each section show the turns
in the order in which they are wound.
Line from A to B is the path of cur-
rent through the coil. This results
Figure No. 67 in an approximation of the layer
wound coil with two turns per layer.
A large number of crossovers between discs is involved and each of these
requires tape and pressboard strips for mechanical protection. To prevent
all this extra insulation piling up and making a big projection on one
side of the ceil the distance between crossovers is made less than one turn
by the distance between rows of radial spacers. This staggers the cross-
overs around the circumference of the coif.

If the current is large enough that two conductors in parallel can be

used a modification of the above procedure will produce the same results
in the same manner. The winding procedure is as follows:

1. Section M is wound and the wire cut.

2. Section N is wound over t~e start of section M.
3. Wire is connected to start of
A B section N and section R is wound
over start of section M.
1 1 4. Wire is connected to start of
section M and section S .is wound.
C; 5_ 5 5 5. Sections M and S are connected
4 4 4 4 in parallel with sections Nand R.
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1

Figure Mo. 68

b. Current and Voltage Limits

- 47 -
The current limits may be made as great as 150 amperes by
winding three parallels in the manner shown in Figure-No. 68 for two
parallels. The winding is uneconomical for voltages below 92 KV and has
been largely replaced by Hisercap windings for higher voltages.

c. Insulation

Turn insulation is the same as in continuous wound coils.

The insulation between the two discs of one section is an oil duct formed
with radial spacers. The size is fixed by mechanical and ventilation
considerations since the stress is low. Between sections a large duct
must be used because the st~ess corresponds to that across four sections
in a continuous winding. The average of two small ducts and one large
one is not greater than the equivalent distances in continuous coils.
Turn to turn insulation must correspond to the stress of three turns in-
stead of one. In the parallel type of basket winding as in Figure No.
68, the turn to turn insulation is the same as in continuous coils ex-
cept that surge voltage distribution is better. The section to section
stress in the first duct is quite low, and in the second duct corresponds
to voltage across twice the turns in one section.

This winding quadruples the series capacitance across the coils. In

many cases it can be used by using three or four basket coils at the line
ends and then changing to straight continuous sections in the body of the

d. Losses

Same analysis in continuous coils.

e. Transposition

Not used.

f. Taps

Not normally used. Could be applied much as they are in

continuous coils. Usually the tap sections are continuous.

g. Cooling h. Mechanical Strength

Same analysis used for continuous coils applies.

i. Advantages

Used at the line end of high voltage coils, the series ca-
pacitance is increased and the voltage distribution is improved. Con-
sidered as an electrode at line potential the inner end of the first two
sections is doubled in thickness. This results in a lower concentration

- 48 -
of stress at the end of the winding.

j. Disadvantages

Hard to wind and high-winding cost.

E. Rectangular Concentric Layer Windings

1. Strap Hound

a. A Construction

The analog between this winding and the cylindrical coil is very
close except for the shape. In essence, it is a cylindrical coil wound on
rectangular tube.


,'-_ _ _---J)

Figure No. 69

The turn is one or more rectangular straps grouped into a rectangular sec-
tion and spirally wound in a tight spiral layer. Pressboard collars fill
out the ends of each layer and sheets of pressboard the full length of the
coil provide layer insulation. Corrugated pressboard is used to pTovide
ducts.Jngeneral ducts are provided only at the ends of the coil which pro-
ject outside of the iren eircuit and only a few ducts are used in the por-
tion of the coil inside the iron opening.

From one up to 12 or more layers may

be used.

The high voltage or outer coil is

wound directly over the low voltage coil
reducing assembly time. At the corners
.where the wire breaks sharply around
the corners a strip of pressboard is used
to prevent cutting through the layer in-
sulation. Figure No. 70

- 49 -
For voltages above about 15 KV, a static layer is used across the layer at
the li~e end as in Lowgrocap windings.

b. Current and Voltage Limits.

Rectangular coils have been developed for voltages through 46 KV.

Current limits in strap wound coils are sufficient for the maximum KVA rating
for which the construction is used at 2500 KVA, three phase. Mechanical
strength is inadequate above this rating.

c. Insulation

Paper tape is used for turn to turn insulation. The minimum thick-
ness of .014 is set by mechanical consideration. Layer insulation is of
pressboard sheets, or oil ducts formed with corrugated pressboard. Major
insulation is the same as in cylindrical or Lowgrocap windings.

d. Losses

Stray losses in this type of winding are not a problem.

e. Transpositions

The types of transpositions used in cylindrical coils can be used.

f. Taps

Normally taps are placed in the center layers of the coil and are
brought out at the tap end of the coil.

g. Cooling

Ventilation of the winding is by means of ducts or partial ducts

between layers.

h. Mechanical Strength

. . Rectangular concentric windings are weak against short circuit

forces. Normally the low voltage coil is a sheet coil as described in the
following section of the notes. In this core the vertical forces are very
small. However, the horizontal force of repulsion between the windings
causes trouble. The inner winding can be blocked to the iron circuit but
the outer coil has no strength against this force and tends to distort to a
round shape. The space between phases is blocked with pressboard and across

- 50 -

--------'--~-----~- ... -~.<--.--.~

the flat sides of the outside phases
is placed a steel brac~ ~hich is
bolted or welded to the end frames.
The ends of the coils, because of a
corner radius on the mould, become
roughly semicircular and do not

Figure No. 71

i. Advantages

This type of coil is low in cost and has an excellent space factor
in the opening. Space factor is defined ~s the percent of the area of the
opening through which the windings pass, which is occupied by the winding
metal. A high space factor goes with a low cost.

j. Disadvantages

Its inherent weakness to short circuit forces is the chief


2. Sheet Wound [.Re Ftr;.\,M-e Ne 3J

a. Construction

For 1mV' voltages and high currents the rectangular coil is wound
with a metal sheet conductor in which the turn extends the full length of the
layer except for a collar at the edges. The lead is a bus bar which extends
down into the end of the coil. The sheet conductor is brazed
Bus Bar
1 i',.'
~ .. t

Co lar

.t ,)

Figure No. 72

or welded to the edge of the bar as shown in Figure No. 72. Each layer is
a turn. Layers are separated by pressboard sheets or oil ducts as in the
preceeding winding.

b. Current and Voltage Limits

- 51 -
Current ratings up to 2 or 3 thousand amperes are possible. The
voltage rating is usually not over the 1.2 KV class because the number of
turns becomes too large.

c. Insulation

The layer insulation of pressboard sheets or oil ducts formed with

corrugated spacers forms the turn insulation. Major insulation is no dif-
ferent from the preceeding.

d. Losses

Stray losses are high for this type of winding. At the coil
ends, the leakage flux cuts across the inner winding into the core. With
flux cutting through a wide sheet, the loss which is proportional to the
square of the dimension perpendicular to the flux becomes quite high, as
great as 40 or 50 percent of the l~R.

e. Transpositions

To date no successful method of subdividing and transposing in

the axial direction has been found. Radially the conductor is subdivided
into sheets not over .040 thick but no transposition is available.

f. Taps

Normally not used.

g. Cooling

Ducts between layers are used.

h. Mechanical Strength

Use of a sheet winding for the low voltage largely eliminates

vertical forces because the current distributes itself across the width of
the sheet to balance it with the other winding. Otherwise the coil be-
haves as does the previous winding.

i. Advantages

Has the advantages of the preceeding winding plus elimination of

vertical forces on short circuit.

j. Disadvantages

The chief disadvantage lies in the high stray loss.

F. Rectangular Interleaved Windings

1. Strap Wound SCI: fiGIA~ No. /3

a. Construction

Strap wound interleaved windings are typical of shell form trans-

formers. I t should be printed out here that "interleaved" is used in d'
different sense. Up to this point, turns within a coil were interleaved.
Here we mean that the complete windings are interleaved. The coils are of
the disc type but are wound on a rectangular mould with a small radius at
the corners. The individual conductors are rectangular in section. In an
interleaved type of transformer, the leakage flux direction is perpendicular
to the width of the conductor and as a result, the strap is subdivided in
the direction of width. Up to four subdivisions
are used, however, after they are all taped in-
dividually, then the four are taped together to
form a rectangular strap as shmm in Figure No. 73.
In thickness, any ,number of such subdivided straps
may be wound in parallel depending on the current
rating. Figure No. 73

The coils are all wound individually
and then assembled into stacks. Com-
pared to concentric windings, only
I a few coils are used per "iinding.
,.' t;=--:;'. - Each individual coil is a tight flat
. 1/ disc rectangu1a~ in shape as shown
Start in Figure No. 74. The thickness of
the disc is the same as the 'insulated
width of the conductor: W in Figure
No. 73. Dimension LB in Figure No. 74
corresponds to the radial build in a
circular coil and is called the
limiting breadth of the coil. Comparee
to the dimensions of the coils used
in concentric windings the coils are
enormouS in size. The A dimension
in Figure No. 74 can be as great as
ten feet and the limiting breadth
up to 2-1/2 feet. These are extremes
Figure No. 74 but at any rating the coils are rela-

tively larger than in c0ncentric windings.

The coils are assembled into phase assemblies with alternate groups of
high and low voltage coils. Any number of groups can be used but normally

- 53 -
two or four are used. These are known by the number af spaces high to low
as two high-low or four high-low designs. [SeE' FiGvf?eS No JS"-lfP.J

The more groups that are- used,

L.V. L.V. the better the magnetic coupling
Coils Coils between windings and the lower
H. V. Coils the impedence. Also, the poorer
the space factor and the higher
the cost.

'___--.. ~ H - L Spaces 7
Figure No. 75
Two High-Low Interleaved Winding

L. V. /i
Coils: Coils
H. V. Coils L. V. H. V. Coils

Four High-Low Interleaved Winding

Figure No. 76

Normally the low voltage limiting

breadth is greater than that of the high
voltage. Figure No. 77 illustrates how /.
a two high-low phase assembly fits in, Lv. L.V
the opening of the magnetic circuit. For f'
'~, \Xl
the. high voltage the clearance to ground :;; -.J
"X"· greater than the low voltage
coil clearance :·"Y". However ;~·,the mould'
sizes are selected in such a manner that : ~~
the mean turn of the two windings is the
same. The center lines of the limiting ;.<:?-'.//</~ ~/7:;f,'/~//f>;/:0~.,--:.-=::;.i
breadths coincide. Figure No. 77

- 54 -

rfrrr ,.... ~,
I"l r-r ,
fj iT

I! I ........
l i\
""i ~ i'- ............

--- - '-'- '--- -'- '---
Figure No. 78

Figure No. 78 illustrates how the individual coils are stacked and
connected into a phase assembly group. The connections are alternately
.. "'" start to start and finish to finish. These connections are made using
the wire of the coil which is formed and brazed at assembly. A static
place with the same shape as a coil is used next' to the line in the high
/./ ( « ( I t ( , ~
1 ' voltage winding.
< '" < < ( ," /' / ' " ... <'

k Figure No. '79 illustrates

two devices which can be used in
assembling and winding the coils
to reduce the winding size and
II cost.

When two coils are connected
start-start, there is no voltage
between the coils on the inside
lW of winding. At the outside, how-
ever, there is the stress of two
sections. By slightly dishing
alternate coils, the space on the
inside can be made small and that
at the outside equal to the dis-
I'~ •• ,'." . ." .< .,,'
/'."' • ,"
.' .-

tance required for the stress of

Figure No. 79 two sections. This reduces the
average spacing with no loss in
insulation distance.

- 55 -
."--~-~~=~-'-'-=:';=- .--~ ...
For grounded neutral winding the voltage stress to-ground decreases as
the distance from the line increases. At the line coil, full insulation
distance "X" is required from the coil to the iron. As the winding progresses
less and less distance is required until at the ground end the distance "Y"
needs only withstand the test voltage on the neutral. Each coil as one moves
from the line end is wound with a greater limiting breadth than the one which
preceded it. This type of construction is known as graded insulation.

b. Current and Voltage Limits

This type of winding is used in the largest transformers ever

built. The large dimensions of the individual coils and the multiple high
1m·, grouping which permits paralleling coils are favorable to heavy current
windings. For furnace transformers, this type of coil has been used in
winding for currents up to 80000 amperes.

Interleaved concentric windings are also suitable for any voltage class
which has yet been built or seriously proposed. Designs have been made for
345, 500 and 750 KV.

c. Insulation

Surge voltage distribution in this type of winding is in-

herently uniform. The large coils and small number of coils in series re-
sults in high series capacitance. The analysis of surge voltage distribution
is analogous to that in Lowgrocap coils in which the coils represent the
layers in Lowgrocap construction. When a static plate is located by the
side of the line coil, the impulse is distributed across the turns of the
first section and then the- cap-acitance from coil to coil is large.

Turn to turn insulation, as in the preceeding types of coils, consists

of' paper tape applied to the conductors. The individual strands of sub-
divided turns are insulated with two layers of .002 paper then they all are
taped together with tape to stand the calculated 69 cycle and impulse test
voltages between turns.

With the rectangular interleaved windings a shell form core is used

which surrounds the coils. Consequently, the coil to coil and major insu-
lation is made up of pressboard washers, angles, inside and outside, corner
channels and inside and outside corner angles, which box each coil and each
group, of coils.

Figure No. 81 shows one way that these items are applied to a coil
group containing four coils and a static plate. The limiting breadth of the
coils is shortened in the figure with a break bet~.,een the inside and out-
side channels. Each channel covers or partially covers an area 2 to 2··1/2
wide at each end edge. The turns between the edges of these channels are


- 56 -
supported by a pattern of pressboard blocks which are-glued to the washers.
See Figure No. SO.

Inside Corner
Outside Corner Scarfed Joints Channel
Channel - - fifI
. ------------- l l~ J
,l ~
Blocks, ,{7(l
~ ~
/ I -- ¥I/


____- 4 -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

. - ----------

Figure No. SO

Detail construction of the washers with blocks and of inside and out-
side corner channels are shown on Figure No. S2.

It will be seen that the channels and angles fold closely around the
edges of the coils where the voltage gradient is highest and forms the coil
to coil and coil to ground insulating function. The plane of the insulatiol
is at right angles to the plane of the principal voltage stresses and this
eliminates creepage surfaces.

As with other types of winding the sixty cycle and impulse test voltag
are set by the BIL of the winding. Series and ground capacitances are
calculated and the voltage distribution is determined and from these calcu-
lations, the necessary insulation thicknesses and distances are determined.

d~ Losses

In interleaved winding the direction of the leakage flux is

perpendicular to the width of the conductor strap. Since eddy losses are
proportional to the square. of the width, the conductors must be subdivided
in the width direction. A maximum of four subdivisions are used. To limit


,i i
I '

/' ~
~ C""l N
. . . . ~, I
[\ ,"

1\ 0
0 0

~ I

0 f-' r-

0 l- n.
~ ,

- \ I I-
I- r-
~- I ,I- L
' Washers
\ I

\ '\ \
~ r.. /.'
'\ ~
;;i' ~Th
I.t- I-
' '

\ i\ ~ 11 \ ,-'
~ Ffl ,1
[\ t '\ / I


"- ~ '\

,/ ~
/ '/ "-

~i; ·l-J
l~ 111 'I

1\ ~ ~
ld 1\ \ .,,
-- ,~ ~
5! ... ,........ . '

~ II t:


I i
Figure ,No. Bl
.... - ". -.- . --
- 58
CO~'1 Tvasher

Wi,th Blocks

."orr" -6'" CENTERS "

- j i ] WIDE BLOCKS,..t; . Tt.O' 'iUTm:

LOIW-JG~8~LO~C~KS~._ _._ __
.' hT. . ISU' P"OIl Co
. ~A
,;, MAX Ut I -4!!l
I.I!!!X 2-3-3 :.::
USE I ,,2, - 2 ..... 2I '____ ~__

'de Corner
AU - -- --- ..
'de Corner

Figure No. 82 .
the losses there is a tendency to use square wires or eyen to wind the
individual straps on edge. Stray losses run from 12 to 25 percent.

e. Transpositions

When conductors are subdivided, they must be transposed in

order to benefit in loss. In shell form transformers each subdivided con-
ductor is twisted 180 0 at a point half way through the coil. Usually tQis
is done at the bottom of the coil. When more than one subdivided conductor
is used in parallel, the transpositions are staggered to reduce the size
of the hump in the coil. Such a twist permits the subdivisions of the strap
to reverse from side to side of the coil.

I i 2.. ! 3 14-1

.1'4 ,i 3 .i 21/
I i,
Figure No. 83

f. Taps

Taps are made from thin,flat

straps of copper and brazed to the
coil turn at the top of the coil.
In very large transformers, it is
necessary to carefully transpose
the strands of the taps in order
to reducing the heating which
other~Yise would damage the insu-
lation on the taps.

Figure No. 84

g. Cooling

Each coil has an oil duct adjacent to the coil surface. Thes·e
are formed by the blocks glued to pressboard washers between the coils. The
ducts are vertical and the coils cool excellently by either thermosiphon flow.
in"self cooled transformers or by forced oil flow in forced oil cooled ones.
When the oil is forced up through the boxing around the coils, the spacer
blocks in the ducts interrupt the flow and change the directieu frequently
and abruptly. This induces turbulent flow and gives geod coaling.

h. Mechanical Strength

Designing for short circuit forces in interleaved coils is no~

as difficult as in concentric windings. The large coil 'area results in unit
stresses only half as great as in a corresponding concentric winding. The
principal force is one of repulsion between the high and low voltage windings.
- 60-
Most of the mean turn of the coils is confined in the ~agnetic core and is
packed tightly in the opening. The part of the coil outside the iron at

top and bottom is braced by a
'\ formed channel welded to the inside
Tank Co~lS of the tank wall.
A pattern is used for the
.. blocks between coils so that ~very
\ turn is supported at intervals
Iron' short enough to prevent failure
as a beam. Each phase assembly
is built up complete and is clamped
and dried by vapo-therm process.
Coil The iron circuit is then built up
tightly around the coil phases.

Figure No. 85

i. Advantages

Rectangular interleaved coils are ideally suited to heavy

current designs. By using proper group arrangements, impedances can be con-
trolled over a range of values. They have good surge voltage distribution
and can be used for the highest voltage classes. With the vertical ducts
and block spacers cooling is excellent for both therm0siphon and forced
oil cooling. Such coils are. easily and effectively braced for short cir-
cuit forces.

j. Disadvantages

For small currents the coils are flimsy and not easily handled.
A great deal of formed pressboard insulation is required which is e~pensive.

~r [S"ec: FIc,.LAr~ NJ 14]

2. Sheet Plate Coils
a. Construction

Used mainly in furnace

transformers for very high currents,
sheet coils are made by welding
plates of copper into a coil form as
shown. Each coil forms a single
winding turn. The width of the plate
is the limiting breadth of the coil.
Large bus bars extending upward are I
used for leads.
Figure No'. 86

- 61 -
b. Current Voltage Limits

This winding is used for high currents up to 80000 amperes

with several such coils in parallel. Usually the voltage is low, 600
volts or less.

c. Insulation

Boxed pressboard insulation as described before is used al-

though channels and angles are not always necessary between coils.

d. Losses

Usually the thickness of individual coils is kept dmm to

1/8 inch to limit stray loss.

e. Transpositions - f. Taps

Not used.

g. Cooling - h. Mechanical Stength

Not essentially different from the preceeding winding.

i. Advantages

Suitable for high current windings.

j. Disadvantages

Can only be used when the number of turns is small: 1 to

perhaps 7 turns.

3. Spiral Strap Coils

a. Construction

As in the plate coil just discussed, a spiral coil forms a

single turn. From 1 to 4 or more turns are wound in a spiral like a rec-.
tangular Helitran coil. Conductors are formed of rectangular straps and
all. the conductors in the limiting breadth are in parallel. This type of
coil was once used for moderately heavy currents in small transformers.
These windings are now made with concentric windings and the spiral rec-
tangular winding is seldom used~

- 62 -
Figure No. 87

b. Current and Voltage

Used for heavy current and 101;<7 voltage in small transformers.

c. Insultaion - d. Losses - e. Transpositions

These problems are no different than in the previously described

strap wound rectangular interleaved winding.

f. Taps

Taps are not used in these coils.

g. Cooling - h. Mechanical Strength

See for strap wound coils.

i. Advantages'

For moderatelY.. heavy currents this winding is lower in cost

since it eliminates a number of brazed connections and other assembly operationE

j. Disadvantages

Useful only when a one turn coil fits thecurrent.rating desired.

4. Roebel Windings CSn hG-\.4reS /VosJ7f" ,D]

a. Construction

The turn is made up of a rectangular conductor made up of several

strands in width and two strands deep. This conductor is wound flat around
a rectangular mould and a strip of corrugated preasboard of the same width
as the conductor is wound between turns forming a duct. This forms a rec-
tangular coil as in the preceeding windings but considerably thicker. See

- 63 -.
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rx q e/2- 7 to - 4I .23
/0 II 13 ';'

, ,

, ;, ..


Schematic Of Roebel Coil Showing Rotation of Wires

Figure No·.',.8~
Figures No. 17 to No. 20 and Figure No. 88.

b. Current and Voltage Limits

The winding is used for voLtages up to 250 BIL and for current s
requiring 0.4 square inches of conductor or more.

c. Insulation

Strand insulation consists of enamel applied to the conductor

strands. Turn insulation is an oil duct formed by strips of corrugated
pressboard. Major insulation and coil insulation is by means of washer,
channels, angles and blocks of pressboard as previously described.

d. Losses

In the width direction individual strands are kept as small

as possible by winding the strands on edge, for example .129 x .182 on
edge. Since the coil is wide in the direction perpendicular to the leakage
flux strands of the conductor must be carefully transposed.

e. Transpositions

A transposition similar to that used in Helitran coils is necessary

as shown in Figures No. 89 and No. 90. Referring to Figure No. 90.
The conductor consists of an odd number of wires. The space of one wire is
needed to make the bend without bulging. Between the two transpositions
this space is filled up with a pressboard strip "P". After each transposi-
tion the location of the wires change as shown in Figure 2 (one full trans-
pOSition 360 0 clockwise). The distance "S" depends on the number of trans-
positions needed in a coil. The minimum for "s" is about 3 inches. The .
vertical bends and the horizontal bends are made over a short distance and
very accurately so that the wire is moved exactly one wire height up or down,
or exactly one wire width to one side. This can be done for each vertical
and each horizontal bend by using an adjustable pair of bending pliers. The
fact that all horizontal bends are identical and all vertical bends are iden-
tical, and that the bends are dependent only on the wire size and not on
the number of wires used in the conductor, also simplifies the problem of
building a transposing machine. By bending each wire exactly, the wires
have lost their tendency to spring out of the conductor and a uniform con-
ductor is obtained with equal dimensions "A" and "B" (see Sketch 2 Figure 1)
across the whole length. Very important is the space "E" between each ver-
tical and horizontal transposition to slide back and forth when the conduc-
tor is bent flat even over a small 2-inch radius. Thus, no spring tension
is created between wires and the transpositions have no tendency to come
apart. In addition, the space -"E" insures that two wire edges never cross.
This eliminates essentially the d'anger of wire to wire shorts.

_ 66 _
. \,-

FOR". 28577


"'" '"
'''I "l'" ~
!~j' ~ "''<1 I.,

tI. , ..... .., 'l-

I ..

fII' 1)..'\ t..

")~ 1.,,,
~ll ' 0..'- ...
,,("l I~ t.,'<l

, '0.. ~ ... '0

"1"J I~t.,

~m ~ lOt.. '<I

, I\j "l~ t.,

TEM 11027
!figure No. 90 ". • .... ;.... _ 1. I ••

"... ,6T '"" .~.- ........ " • I. ~ t. •

:" -." ,~, <•• '.~
f. Taps

There has as yet been no necessity to try to work up a

tapping'design for these coils.

g. Cooling

The ducts through the coil are shown on Figure No. 88 to-
gether with the direction of oil flow. The cooling in actual designs has
proven to be adequate for both thermosiphon and forced oil cooling.

h. Mechanical Forces

It is important to have a tight winding because the force is

parallel to the layer direction and the turns must not climb one over the
other and telecope the coil. Also it is necessary that the corrugated duct
former be able to withstand sufficient compressive force to prevent it
from deflecting and le~v~ng the layers unsupported.

i. Advantages

One of these coils replaces 2 to 4 standard coils. Thus

fewer insulation parts and oil ducts are required and a considerable re-
, ." ~ ..-..... duction in winding space results. It is estimated that on 100,200 and
360 MVA generator transformers a savings of 5% in total weight can be made
.... by replacing the standard coils in the low voltage \vinding with Roeble coils~

j. Disadvantages

Its economical use is limited to large transformers.

G.' Round Interleaved Windings

1. Core Form

a. Construction

This type of winding has been used for low voltage core form
transformers when complicated impedance relations are required. They are
suitable for low voltages only and several high low groups, 6 or more are
req~ired to obtain normal reactance.

Coils are wound as double section round coils DS previously described.

These are then assembled into alternate groups of high and low voltage coils
with the finish-finish coil connections being brazed at assembly. Usually
the high and low voltage coils have the same diameter and radial build.

----- ------, .---. -.-------~~~~-~-~--~--=======

b. Current and Voltage Limits

The construction described is limited to a maximum of 15 KV

and to current ratings of about 500 amperes.

c. Insulation

Paper tape turn insulation is used. Bet,veen sections an oil

duct formed by radial spacers and in the space between windings a com-
bination of radial spacers and pres·sboard washers. All coils are assembled
on a pressboard tube with a duct between the tube and winding as in double
section disc type windings:

d. Losses

Stray loss is a function of the width of the conductor which

must be kept as small as possible by. subdivision.

e. Transposition

These are made as in rectangular interleaved strap wound

coils by twisting. the conductor

f. Taps - g. Cooling h. Mechanical Strength

These problems are solved as in the double section disc type

of winding.

i. Advantages

The large number of high-low groups makes possible transformers

with winding to winding reactances to meet special paralleling requirements.
Also series parallel windings are easily provided.

j. Disadvantages

Confined to quite low voltage transformers when used in the

simple form described.

2. Shell Form

a. Construction

One manufacturer, the Allis Chalmers Company, makes a unique

coil design using round coils in an interleaved design which parallels the
rectangular interleaved strap windings described above. The principal
difference being that the horizontal core leg, which runs through the coils is

- 69 -

. ""

.' .. ..,:, ~:·i·~;;"""":··· .

uniform in shape to fit a round coil. Box type insulation using angles,
channels and washers are used but ,made to fit round coils.

This winding will only be mentioned as above since the design problems
require the same or similar solutions as for the rectangular counterpart.

- 70 -

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/--_-;II-~ Consider Figure No. A, a dia-
I", gram of a disc type coil of 6 sec-
<..3 tions. When a surge voltage comes
~~ CSL
in on the line it is a high fre-
quency voltage and the inductance
of the wi~ding acts as an infinite
/----;, /----; reactance or open circuits to the
0' CS3
flow of current. As a result the
voltage surge distributes itself

It- -----=t.--. through the winding by means of
the internal capacitances. The
1---1' H-'---T_ ... __ _
Cs4- coil for analysis can be replaced
with a capacitance network as in
I -.Il - - ----r----'
<3 c;- Figure No. B. In this figure, the
- capacitances CS1 ' CS 2. ' CS 3 -----
t-----III-----1 CS5 represent the capacitance from
----~ ~-------------~
section to section which are all
in series to'ground. Each section
also .has a capacitance to ground
all of which are in parallel. These
F·igure No .... A are shown as CGl' CG2, CG3 +---- CGG'
Consider now C~l. The charging
] of all G ground capacitances ·flow .
through it causing, lets say, 6
~I;:=:c, units of voltage drop. Consider
now Ca2, it has only 5" units of
voltage drop. Like sinc,e CSS' has
but one unit of voltage drop. As
a result most of the voltage is
--r--Co concentrated between the line sec-
11-----'----1 tions as shO\vn in Figure No. C.
The voltage instead of distributing
~=C~4 uniformly across the ~vinding as
shown by curve C distributes as at
curve D. As shown, approximately
1 50% of the impulse voltage is im-

pressed across 10% of the winding
at the line end. The insulation
at the end must be designed to with-
I('~--' stand these voltages.
Figure No. B

- ~--
- - -.. -- ----~----.,~====

JL!. .- ......... t!"- ..S"'9_. ~. z .. y " • "._t >. • • ,..; ~




0 50

0 30
-"' .j..l
,/ ~
<II 20.:


0/ 10 20 30 40 60 70 80 90 100
Percent of Winding From Line



-llb -
f1! ~



A lowgrocap winding is a layer wound coil with only a few closely spaced
layers. Solid sheets of insulation or a relatively thin oil duct are placed
between the layers. The result is that each layer is exposed to the next one
over a large area and at a relatively short distance. Since the layer to
layer capacitance is proportional to the area and inversely to the separation,
this gives a high series capacitance which is what is wanted •. In addition,
a static cylinder which is a sheet of metal connected to the line is placed
ar~fie ou ts ide<Yf-t-ne-c-o-rr:-"See Figure -Nb-:--n-:The ground capaci nne-es
are-t'hentranSferred so that they connect between the static cylinder and
ground. With this arrangement, the charging currents for the ground capa-
citances are supplied through the static cylinder and do not flow through the
winding. This has the effect, so far as voltage distribution is concerned,
of cancelling the ground capacitances. The capacitance circuit across which
the impulse voltage initially divides is as shown in Figure No. E. As can be
seen, the series capacitances are large and the ground capacitances are charged
through the static cylinder and the charging current does not flow through
the winding. The initial voltage distribution then approximates very closely
to Curve C of Figure No. C.
+r-'- r___
l.,. ,tv! !-l'Iyr(J.


Cs'1 Ct

("I C'GoS

("1 t-


Figure No. D Figure No. E

- 77 -

-----.'--...,.--~~~--- ----- .....--:---

--~-~ -;-----:~.-----
The lowgrocap windings have the advantage that t-hey give a straight
line distribution of surge voltages and eliminate voltage oscillations
without complications of the coil structure. The static cylinder is a
layer of conducting material wrapped over the outside layer of the coil
and separated from it by solid layer material the same as that used be-
tween layers. It does not complicate the ventilation of the coil, nor
effect the major insulation between high and low voltage coils or from
high voltage coils to ground. The mechanical strength and mechanical
bracing of the winding are unaffected. These things permit accurate cal-
culation of voltage stresses through the coil and insuletion can be applied
uniformly throughout the winding. The result is a coil with minimum di-
mensions which is simple in structure and which is strong against both,
dielectric and mechanical stresses.



.. - --,I J_
r-r========r--,-I_I 1-')

Figure No. F Figure No. G


____ ~__ 78 -=----~_~=====,

. ::::
• • pt*

( l - - - - - - - T " I ~-,.,.. - - - " --v L
I I Cs = k '8
2 __________ ~i ___________
L = average length
3----+£---- of one turn
4--------=r~------­ Cs = Series capacitance
r ----I+--------- of coil
7 T"
S -r

Figure No. H

Series Capacitance Equivalent

of Arrangement in Figure No. F

Turn 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

Figure No. J Cs =k 4L
Series Capacitance Equivalent
of Arrangement in Figure No. G
In order to reduce the turn stress and decrease the insulation distances
and material required, designers are increasingly making use of interleaved
windings to increase the series capacitance. One such winding which shows
the turn sequence is illustrated in Figure No. G. This type of winding is in
line with U.S. Patent 3090022 issued to Dr. G. M. Stein.

Figures No.. H and No. J illustrate the gain made in series capacitance
by use of an interleaved winding. In the interleaved winding the first four
turns lie side by side with the second four turns and it has 32 times the
capacitance of the straight disc type' winding. Referring back to Figure No. C
of Appendix No.1, the Hisercap winding would have a surge voltage distri-
bution like Curve E.

- 79 -

.. x ..•. :. ",f .....


1. Winding Space Factors Core Form Transformers - Transformer Engineering

Memo TEM 1151

2. Insulation Clearances - TEM 218

3. Cross F101v Roeb1e Coil - TEM 1027

4. Basket Coils U.S. Patent 2347009

~. "Shielded Concentric Cylindrical Windings in High Voltage Power Transformers",

by H. D. Stephens, General Electric Revielv, December, 1942.

6. "360000 - Volt Power Transformer", by J. R. Meader, General Electric Revie,v,

December, 1948

"Layer - Type Windings for High-Voltage Transformers", by G. N. Leech,

A.E.I. Engineering, March, 1961

8. Static Shielding of Transformer Windings U.S. Patent 2905911

9. "Interleaved Transformer Windings", by J. B. Price, Electrical Review,

December, 1959 (British)

10. "Improved. Core Form Transformer Winding", by E. J. Grimmer and W. L. Teague,

A.I.E.E. Paper 51-178, Transactions Volume 70,1951.

(11. "Design of Power Transformers to Withstand Surges Due to Lightning, With

\ Special Reference to a New type of Winding", by Chadwick Ferguson, Ryder
'. and Stearn, British lEE Paper No. 987 Supply Section, December, 1949

12. Transformer Windings U.S. Patent 2725538, E. J. Grimmer

13. U.S. Patent 3,090,022 - G. M. Stein

14. Interleaved Windings U.S. Patents 2453552, 3044031, 3008107, G. F. Stearn

15 .. British Patent 850645- G. F. Stearn

16. Westinghouse Design Manual Pages 1157.02 to 1177.18

17. Westinghouse Insulation Specifications

Cylindrical Coils I.S. 61558, I.S. 61564 and I.S; 61579
Basket Coils I.S. 347679

Round Wire Wound I.S. 61568, I.S. 61566 and 1.S.· 347620

• I /

- 80 -
Double Section Pancake I.S. 347618
Continuous I.S. 347610, I.S. 347611 and I.S. 61580 .
He1itran I.S. 61594
Hisercap (Twin Interleaved) I.S. 472003
Rectangular Concentric I. S. 553631


- 81 -

-"---"-~-'.-= ~-"--~ -"---=-~=-.-=-'

~-. - -"'-- .. "-
. . ,:.:;:-::-"-""~

Problem Assignment

1. Given: 5000 KVA - 3-phase - 60 cycle - transformer high voltage

13800 delta, low voltage 2400 delta. Concentric round-
coils. Design a low voltage cylindrical coil using the
.following parameters:
Watts per pound l2R in copper at 75°C = 9 to 9.5
Length of coil over collars 39 ins.
Inside diameter of coil tube 14-1/4 ins.
Use 4 layers and 68 turns
Design to answer the following:
Low voltage current
Number and s:ze of rectangular straps in conductor
Bare and insulated dimension of turn
Conductor cross section area
Resistance of winding C3-phases)
Weight of copper C3-phases)
l2R loss (3-phases)
Length of average turn (mean turn)
Length of winding including 15 ft. of leads (3-phases)
Wound diameter of coil
Number, size and location of ducts
Thickness, location of solid layer insulation
References: Class notes - D.M. 1100.60 and 1100.61 for wire
data. D.M. 1159.10 to 1159.15 for design data
D.M. 1500 for general formulas.

2. What type of high and low voltage coil for each of the following three
phase transformers? Why?
A 2000 KVA, 15 KV delta high viltage, 480 volts delta low
voltage, self cooled
B 2500 KVA, 69 KV delta high voltage, 2400 delta low voltage,
self cooled

C 12000 KVA, 138 KV delta high voltage, 2400 volt delta low
voltage, self cooled

D 12000 KVA, l38KV wye high voltage, 2400 volt delta low
voltage, Forced oil cooled

E 3750 KVA, 92 KV delta high voltage, 480 volt delta low


82 -

..... :
3. In a cylindrical coil having a winding length ~f 36 In., a mean
diameter of 24 whay is the capacitance between two layers separated
by a 1/4 in. oil duct. Use a speci~ic inductive capacity of 2.

4. A two group helitran winding has 27 turns, 11 strands per group.

a. How many transpositions?

No. of turns between transpositions?
b. Same questions if there is a tap on the 9th turn.

5. In a cylindrical low vol tage coil, why ,vould you prefer not to bring
taps out of the outside layer?

- 83 -
T1' 'lns [()nnel- [lInd ,1IfI~nt.ll::
POT.'er Transfonner Hindings
Lecture No. 3
Solution of rroblcms

Problem 1.

Low voltage current KVA 5000

3 x EKv 3 x 2.1:
Copper cress section
~.[at:ts per P'::'.tn,J AL cC'ppe1.- crose:; section

9.25 0.36G Sq. In.

Turn Dimens il.)ll S

Coi.l ha'S 68 tllru3 in 4 l:J.ycr-~. 17 turn per L:1),':r.
Hinimum co1Lll-, Say 1" DH 1159.11 Coil 1cn,sth = 39"
Dimcrl3icn O\7S1' cO[.lper = 39 - 2(1." collaT) 37"
Allow [~'l- 18 t'Jrll.S 37/18 2.06 width ()f lm:n
HinimTJm cultduc t,_, l' .018 IJN 1159.10

Area _366
Approx. thicknes.s ---
Width 2.06

Designer used 10 102 x .365] all,l .024 tape 2 deep - 5 wide
Bare turn .204 x 1.825
IusulateJ turn .252 x 1. 945
Cross section area :;: 10 x .03641 .3641

Layer Arrangl;.ment
SholllJ have at least Ol,e side each layer exposed to oil.
Should r.ct have a duct directly l!.ndcr layer r..ext to high lo~v space.
Designer used 2 dlJcts l/4"thick bet~veell lay<-~rs 1 & 2 and 2 & 3~
Designer used 1 s()lid layer of insulation @ee DM l159.l:U
Material 2(.030)p.n. Allow .076 Duct allow .265

Radial Dimensions
Tuhe 14-1/4 ID x 14-3/4 OD 2 ~~
First coil layer .252
First duct .265
Second coil layer .252
Second duct .265
Third coil layer .252
Solid layer insulation .076
Fourth coil layer -252
8.989 x 2 :;:
17.978 a 18-'1/8
.. \ .. .,.

Mean turIl 0.375 + 0.'Ji{C] 11 51.5

Conductor length for 3-phase 3 x 51.5 x 68 = 876

Add 15 ft. £0r h:aJs 89l feet.

Resistance = -L - x .00<1906 = .89l x .0091106

.024 ohms
1000 AH .3641
Weight 3.85 x AL 3.85 x .3641 x 891 1250 pcunds
694 2 x 024 = 11GOO watts

Probh'm 2

A. Less 'than 3750 KVA. Cs(.! n:ctdllgular COllccntxic ,:,_,i13.

Higb v<.lt:age - Layer \,lL'ullci ~Jith sCrap.
Low v()llage - She.e t '-lcun.J.
B. Round coils because vUltage is over 34.5 KV.
High voltage - C'!l1tinuous pancake.
Low voltage - Cylindrical
c. Round coils
High voltage - Hisercap [Ahove 69 KV]
Low voltagt;! - Helitran [Cylindrical I~,O t used for HV over 69 KVJ
D. Round coils
High voltage - Hist!rcap
Lvw voltage - Helilrall. , ~Ylindrical not used for £,=,rccd oil coolin~
E. Round coils
High voltage - Hisercap
Low voltage - Helitran Dligh C\lrr,,~nt and high high vc 1 tage]

Proulem 3
.224 A K
C =

A = 36 x rr 24 2720
K = 2
d = 1/4

c = .224 x 2720 x 2 x 4 4875 Pil farads

Problem 4

T = 25 - 1 = 22 - 1 = 21 n = 2S-1 21 1 6/21 1-2/7

u = 9 = 3/7
n =8 6/7
Problem 5
As taps are taken out high to lC)\Ii,disto.llce incre.:.lses and 'impedance
increases. . -,-- •
.--.--~-~~=== ....:~.-'-.~-=--.-.:--.-.=.::;;.--:..---- ...- - - '_ . - - - - '

, ..


Gerhard M. Stein




., ....
... _- .. -._--_ ..... -----------------------_.-..._--_._------_.. _.- ro" .,'

LecturE 4

Lectures 4 & 5
"Distribution of Impulse Voltages in Pmver Transformer IHndings"

Additional Notes


Lecture 4. Analysis of Surge Phenomena in Conventional Windings

Page No.
A. Introduction............................................. 1

B. Methods for Determining the Impulse Voltage Distribution. 5

1. Impulse Distribution Tes ts of Ac tual Trans formers. . . 5

2. Calculation of an Impulse Voltage Distribution...... 5

a. Core Type Transformers................ ..... .... 6

b. Shell Type Transformers........ ...... .... ...... 6

3. Impulse Distribution Tests of Models................ 7

C. The Initial Surge Distribution in Core Type Windings..... 8

1. General Considerations.............................. 8

2. A Basic Analysis.................................... 8

3. Insulation Grading ................................. . 12


4. Properties of the Impulse Voltage Distribution in a

Pancake Winding.............. ..•........ ........... . 12

Lecture 5. Methods of Controlling Impulse Voltages

A. Introduction ..•.......................•.................. 16

B. Shielding ............................................ -.... 16

C. Interleaving of Turns (Hisercap l.Jindings)................ 17

1. General Considerations......... ..................... 17

Z. Surge Calculations .......... ,....................... 19

3. Design Phenomena ...................•..............,... 22

Additional References........................................ 24
Figures 1 to 23.......................................... 2S to 27
- 2 -

.-':' /.1'".;: .. ,1: ..:,!,.::ac:5 ___ y. _ :,,,'Yfi-2?". 4U*?/;! hyq;:: .!l! __,+_:::p$gw:s .!pC spt?R .. !b~.~Z;!i!!(!l_;? .
,- -~ ~ ,.... . .- . .,-
" ,. ',",
_ _~_..........,.........-~"'-0.......
' _ ......w
· ...
, ......

Lecture 4

Lecture 1/4
Analysis of Surge Phenomena in Conventional Windings

A. Introduction

Transformers are exposed to lightning surges. Hmvever, this effect is

mostly indirect. Actually, lightning may strike first a transmission line
and create traveling Haves ,vhich later appear at transformer terminals, enter
",indings and create here elec tric stresses. Traveling ,vaves are like tidal
Haves which may be generated by an earthquake in one part of the world and
cause great destruction on distant coasts thousands of miles a,vay from their
place of origin.

Other disturbances in trans former \vindings ,n:E'! caused by s\vitching

surges. These transients are similar to lightning surges, but of longer dura-
tion, and shall not be discussed in this lecture any further.

Transformer \vindings are tested for checking their ability to \vithstand

lightning surges. The ':!aves applied for this purpose to the transformer
terminals have been standardized, as shmm in Figure 1.

The traveling wave is simulated by the so"-called 1-1/2-40 ps full wave

,·,hlch rises to its maximum in 1-1/2fs and decreases .from then on steadily to
reach one half its crest value after 40 rs. As a first approximation, this
full ,-lave may be mathematically represented by a lfeaviside unit function
which rises instantaneously from zero to its maximum value.

Since frequently bushings, ~od gaps or lightning arresters may flash-

over while the lightning enters the winding, this condition is also simulated
on the test floor. The corresponding standard ,vave is the so-called chopped
wave shmm in Figure 1. The flashover occurs a fe,v microseconds after the
wave has passed its crest and acts like a second full wave in reverse. This
second full wave is, in general, much steepe~ than the first one. Therefore~
the chopping can cause greater stresses in the winding than the original wave
but in opposite directions, so that both gl."OUpS of stresses some,-lhat cancel
each other after the chopping. Th~ mathematical analogy of the chopped wave
is the combination of t\·70 unit functions ~hmm in Figure 1.

If lightning strikes the transmisiiol line close to the transformer ter-

minals, the ,"ave appearing at these terminals is less attenuated so that it
becomes bigger 'and steeper, and the flashover outside may cccur before the
wave has reached its crest. Such a condition is simulated on ~he test floor
by the so-called steep front ,.,ave shown in Figure 1.

It may be pointed out that the tes t \Vaves Figure 1 Simulating the effect
of lightning surges are measured in microseconds. That are transient phenomena
about 1000 to 10000 Eimes as fast than nOL~al op~rating frcquencios so that,
also, the response of the windings to these high speed transients is quite
~ different than the response to low fr~quency test"voltages.

* The numbers 1),2),3) etc. refer tr) the h;i)lir)~t"!lphy fur-ni.shed '-lidl the
original notes, or at the end of these notes.

-. 3 -

..t .' '.. + $i.O::~,. :d6¥._ q ._ • __ y.~. _ _, .. 4 &.owu ._. 54> ...., j. :;<)>2"'. _ ( .AliU .ki; .&_::S:ZwP.7. . 9
Lec tun: 4

The response to the lightning surges, also referred to as impulse voltage

distribution, shall be discussed for the concentric or core type winding and
for the interleaved pancake of shell type ~"inding ~vhich are the two principal
'windings used in the design of power transformers.

For discussing the impulse voltage distribution in core type coils, the
core and coil assembly shown in Figure 2 for a t~.;ro-winding unit shall serve
as an example of two principal core type windings, the layer wound or cylin-
drical winding appearing on the inside (L.V.) and the pancake or continuous
winding found on the outside (H.V.~ Surge voltages may be applied on either
one of the two line terminals (1) or (2) of the winding (H.V.) to be tested
with the other terminal grounded or also sometimes left open. Both terminals
of the other (L.V.) winding are grounded together with the core and tank. "

The corresponding impulse voltage distribution in these windings is

actually a function of electric and magnetic fields continuously distributed
through the coil space. This field problem has been converted into a circuit 1
problem of lumped capacitances and inductances already in 1915 by K. W. Wagner. )
In a more recent work on this subject 2) to 9)a winding is represented by two
separate ne t1;vorks ~.;rhich are a capaci tance ne twork and an induc tance ne twork,
as also shmm in Figure 2. In practice, it is difficult to make such an
approximation, because :

1. No definite paths can be defined for-capacitance currents and magne-

tic fluxes.

2. Extremely high eddy currents in the coils modify resistances and in-

3. The determination of inside winding stresses requires highly section-

alized networks.

A further distjnction has to be made in a surge analysis between the con-

ditions appearing in relatively short and long times.

At short times, current flm.;rs much faster into the capacitance network
than" into an inductance network so that the capacitance network becomes excited
first. Then the voltage distribution in this network will be the same as in
an electrostatic field if all winding turns are metalically disconnected from
each other. Such a condition could be generated also by a mere D.C. excitation
of the network and is in general referred to as the "initial surge distribution".

At longer times current flows also into the inductance pnd resistance net-
work so that the surge generates oscillating voltages to ground with D.C. com-
ponentsof a straight line distribution usually referred to as "axis of oscilla-
tion". Since these oscillations start with the "initial distribution" and
have to be symmetrical to their D.C. value, the axis of oscillations together
with the initial distribution approximately determines the size of the crest
voltages to ground at any point in the winding.

- 4 -

..... : -.r~~;.:'.;"::.
.:., .." .,\11 ., G.-.. O:::Z:;; .....
• "0 __ • c·
.. , 01",-:

Lecture 4


B. Methpds for Determining the Impulse Voltag n Distribution

Hm-lever, the above method of determining impulse voltages in _windings from

the initial distribution and the axis of o£cillation alone is frequently not
accurate enough particularly because it does not include any damping and is
confined to the voltages to ground while voltages across ducts and between
turns are even more important to know. A more accurate and more complete de-
termination of the surge voltage distribution can be obtained either by a test
of the complete core and coil assembly, or by calculations, or by testing re-
duced scale models of the actual unit.

1. The Impulse Distribution Tests of Actual Transformers.

Such tests were formerly made with high-voltage impulse generators

so that their accuracy was limited by the methods available for testing frac-
tions of the applied high voltage appearing at different winding points. Use
of this technique was further restricted that flashover voltage of a rod gap
and the corresponding chopped wave change widely from test to test.

The accuracy of measuring impulse voltages was greatly improved with the
introduction of the electronic operated repetitive impulse generator ~'lhich
furnishes an applied surge vol tage of only feyl hundred vol ts. The technique
has been recently further advanced with the possibtlity of measuring small
voltage differences between turns •.

However, all test methods have the disadvantage that the transformer has
first to be bui~t before it can b~ tested, and are, therefore, not a complete
tool for the design engineer.

2. Calculation of an Impulse Voltage Distribution

For practical purposes, the designer needs methods of calculating impulse

stresses before a design is released to the factory. This is a formidable
task, as demonstrated,for instant, by the great amount of literature generated
on this subject through the years. An example is found in a paper of P.A. Abetti 22 )
in which he lisis a total of 69 previous publications on surge voltages with-
out even including any contributions of competitors.

The calculation of impulse stresses is the method predominantly used by

Westinghouse for the design of high-voltage windings.

The calculation' requires equivalent capacitance and inductance networks,

.is shmvn in Figure 2. Their analysis is fundamentally based on the first law
of Kirchoff that the sum of the currents at certain selected junction points,
called nodes, between the two networks has to be zero. The capacitances and
inductances have to be lumped in the parts of the winding lying between each
two successive junction points •. The corres12onding linear differential equations
are solved by matrix algebra and computers. Z) & 3) .

- 5 -

.:vas~.~ .Wi. liE' tl.
-; " . -'c····

Lec tUrE 4

a. Calculation of Impulse Voltage Distribution in Core Type


If these principles are applied to the calculation of impulse voltages

in core type coils 3)1 winding resistances have to be added to the inductance
network, as illustrated in Figure 2 for the outer (H.V.) pancake winding.
The ultra high frequencies encountered in the surge transients profoundly in-
crease the resistances and decrease the inductances, as compared ~vith the
values obtained at operating frequencies 3 ). The network shown is actually
not 'complete, since the mutual inductances between neighb"oring pancakes have
to be considered in the calculations. Because of the loose coupling between
all pancakes, air coil inductances have to be used.

The capacitance network, on the other hand, is complete as shown in

Figure 2, and, therefore, easier to calculate. The other (L.V.) winding is
usually, but not necessarily considered as a grounded surface if both terminals
of this winding are grounded.

Examples of a calculation of the surge distribution in core type trans-

formers under full wave excitation are shown in Figures 3 to 5 taken from
TEM #965. 3 ) The calculated voltages to ground, sho,vn in Figure 3, are in
fair agreement with test results if resistances are considered, but exhibit
quite different oscillations if resistances are neglected, although the fund-
amental frequency became about the same in e{ther calculation. A similar re-
sult is obtained in Figure 4 in a comparison between test and calculation of
the voltage. across the line duct. Omission of the resistance, however, changes
here not only the amplitudes but even more the frequencies of the calculated
oscillations.. Figure 5 continues the comparison between tes t and calculation
made iu Figure 4 to longer times and only where resistance is included.

b. Calculation of Impulse Voltage Distribution in Shell Type


The'calculation of the impulse voltage distribution in shell type trans-

formers on the basis of equivalent capacitance and inductance networks has be-
come the standard method used by Westinghouse for design purposes and has been
programmed for use with computers 2). Figure 6 illustrates the relative loca-
tion of the interleaved H.V. and L.V. pancake coils in a shell type transformer
and the corresponding form of the two equivalent networks. Consequently, these
networks are similar to the ones introduced in Figure 2 for surge calculations
of the concentric core type coils, except that the shell type coils have a
much closer inductive coupling. Therefore, leakage inductances can be used in
the computation of the inductance net~vork and the coil resistances can be omitted.
As compared ~vith the core type design, it becomes, also, easier to include
several windings, like the H.V. and L.V. windings into the surge calculations.

- 6 -

. "~'- ':::'.

Lecture 4

A comparison with lest results is shmvn in Figure 7 for the example of

a network ,vith 10 nodes taken from Figures 9 and 10 of McWhirters Paper2)
\vi~h the applied I·lave on node 1. The comparison with test results looks
fair and duct voltages can be obtained by the same method.

3. Determination of the Impulse Voltage Distribution by Testing Models.

This method has the disadvantage that a model has to be created before
the design of the particular unit is completed. The model itself may consist.
either of an equivalent-circuit like the one used for calculations, or the
model may represent a scaled down version of the transformer itself or a
combination of both forms.

The equivalent circuit model has the same limitations as encountered i~

surge calculations, particularly for concentric core type ,vindings. These
limitations are caused mostly by the difficulties to compute the inductance-
resis tanc·e net,vork and not so much by the accuracy wi th ,vhich an analogous
capaci tance net,vork can be calculated.

In the scaled down model, sometimes also referred to as "The geometrical

model"S) & 9)_, all inductances L and capacitances C are reduced at about
the same rate as the dimensions. This increases the natural frequencies F
because of F = 1/ (2rrYLC) so that the response of the scaled dmvn model to
:standard impulse- waves applied in the test is different from the response of
the actual transformer coils.

For this reason Mr. P. A.- Abetti 8 ) has suggested a combination-of the
scaled down model and the equivalent circuit model ,vhich he names liThe Electro-
magnetic Model". This is the method used by the General Electric Company for
their high-voltage concentric coil designs. The scaled down model is used
in this electromagnetic model essentially for obtaining the required inductances.
For this purpose, the number of turns in the model is raised so that its in-
ductances become equal to the one in the transformer. The capacitances, how-
ever, are supplemented by an equivalent circuit connected in parallel with the
model coils and dimensioned to raise the resultant capacitances to the ones
in the actual transformer. Since the required resultant lumped capacitances
can be calculated vlith a fair degree of accuracy, the electromagnetic model
can be made to be a close analogy of the actual winding.

This is ,vell dem0ns trated in Figure 8 by the comparison of tested surge

voltages to ground and across a coil duct, obtained \-lith an electromagnetic
model, with the·results of measurements of the actual unit .. These curves
are taken from Figures 6 and 7 of an AlEE-Paper of Abetti 8). According to
these curves, the maximum stress across a duct can be determined by Abetti's
method with an accuracy of about 10%.

- 7 -

: ¢!E ".5..44£. . ' ' l .. _ •• -_ ""_ I ._'(OZ •• WS •• , .& ........... __ ~5 _

-. '
c "-, >'·,e ,-, .. - -'.,

LecturE 4

.c. The Initial Surge Distribution in Core Type Windings.

1. General Consideratio'ls,

The general methods discussed previously for determining ,the surge

distribution in a coil are particularly intended for use at longer times
where the inductance-resistance network becomes indispensable, If, hmv-
ever, the calculations are confined to relatively short time intervals after
the start of the impulse, that is to the so called "initial surge distribu-
tion," vhere only the capacitance net"lOrk has to be considered, the problem
becomes easier accessible to calculations and a more detailed analysis can
be made of the internal voltage stresses.

This discussion shall be confined to the concentric cylindrical and

continuous core type windings, as sho,vu in Figure 9. A series capacitance
cs and a ground capacitance Cg with corresponding voltage 1/2 e and E can
be associated with each element in the corresponding capacitance network.
The elements themselves represent either layers or pancakes. In either case
the same equations apply in a surge analysis so that the vord element shall
be reserved for both, layers and pancakes. The concentric pancake winding
will serve as an example in all numerical cal~ulations.

Since the relative voltage distribution in the capacitance network

does not change with time during the initial period under consideration, the
surge calculation is reduced to an electrostatic problem. However, such a
distribution can only be generated if charging current flows from the line
into the winding and between its elements. Therefore, the metallic connec-
tions to and between these elements remain significant.

This is explained in some detail in the closing remarks for the AlEE
Paper #64-l9 6 )with reference to its Figure 25 for the example of a two-ele-
ment pancake winding with three turns per element, Since this literature
has been enclosed in the original notes, it shall be afterwards shortly re-
ferred to as the "Paper".6) From the discussion of its Figure 25, it can al-
so, be concluded that the capacitances of each inside inter turn space of a
pancake, like, for instance, between 1 - 2 and 2 - 3, is the same as if these
turns would be disconnected from each other.

2. A Basic Analysis

On this basis the voltage riistribution of e and E in the capacitance net-

tvork, Figure 9, can be derived, as \ViII be shmvn with reference to Figurl' 10.
For this purpose introduce:

X'= Distance of an inside \.Jinding point P from the line end A.

I x = Axial spac~ occupied bv a single element.

L = Length of winding.

- 8 -
. ._.-
_ - - -- ._-"'.:..--------_-:. -.-


," "
.4i, ...... ,. -,
.... _-_.- -...... ----_.. -_. __ .. _.... --_._.. ------_._- ~-'--~~- .......-'.....; ,
.. ~-~-~-..,.......-~-~---"'.,..;; .....


Lecture 4

N Total number of pancakes in winding.

E Voltage to ground at point P.

~ E Voltage across the element at point P.

e = ~E = Maximum duct voltage at point P.

El ; el = Values of E and e at line end A.

I Current to ground at point P.

i Winding current at point P.

Lumped ground capaci tance bet~.,een any junc tion point be tween two
elements and ground.

Cs = Lumped series capacitance across each element.

Cg N cg Total ground capacitance of Hinding.

Cs = csiN = Total series capacitance of winding.

,...-") t = time

p =d A differential operator.
Because of Kirchhoff's first law:

~(currents) = 0 at junction point P,


I = i (x) - i (x +D. x)

filhere I and i can expressed by the vol tages

E and e = -2LE at P according to

I = CO'
P E; i = 1/2 Cs p e

'Because ofi.:lx = L/N, this furnishes

i (x) - i (x +.:. x) ,
= i
i = L
~ x
(' (1)

.. -s
-- -- ------------------ ---- - ---.-------------~--~-
-+".;. =.t" ~ ;-

LectUrE 4

If the c~pacitance net,vork Figure 9, is divided fine enough so that it can

be considered as continuous, the equations (1) may be written:
dx (2)

Because of

di =

the quantity p in equations (2) may be eliminated so that both equations

may be combined into
2 d 2E
E ( -L ) -2
N dx
or, by introducing the total winding values C and C ,
g s
Cs d2.=E:...-..~
E (3 )
g d(x/L)2

Solutions of this differential ~quation are known to be the exponential

functionse +u(x!L)1nde -a(x/I)for
which the hyperbolic functions

+a(x/L) -a(x/L) +a(x/L)+e -a(x/L)

sinh a(xlL) = e 2 -e i cosh a( xl L) = --~2---

may be substituted. Consequently, the solution of the differential equation (3)

may be written in the general form

E = A sinh a (x/L) + B cosh a (x/L) (4 )

where Ai B and a represent constants to be determined.

For obtaining (i, substitute equation (4) into (3) and find:

1 = Cs u2 or
0; =\ '.3 distl-ibution constant (5)
which may also be writt~n

u = cg N = N '-;!; \!hcre
c sl N ~s

= ~ =(i!N distribution cons-tanL (6)

/ Cs /


. . ' ... • ~. '. ,-. .4%.

_ .S
. .....
:: _._'
____ . __ -
"_"~~'_V . __ .• _. _. _ _ • __ ... iA' ~ H j ...... .......


Lecture 4

is another form for the constant characterising the hyperpolic functions forming
the solution of the differential equation (3). The distribution constants a
and : are important quantities since they will be found to be indicative for
the accumulation and corresponding size of electric stresses in a winding and,
therefore, are a measure for the quality of the design.

The other constants A and B in equation (4) are to be derived from the
boundary conditions that a voltage E, is applied at the line end A in Figure 10
while the other end B is either grounded or left open, that is

E(x = 0) E
l ; E(x = L) = 0 (B grounded) (7)

E(x 0) = El;
dE (8)
i(x L) 0 or, by equation (2), dx (x = L) = 0
For the conditions (7) the equation (4) becomes

El = B; A sinh a + B cosh a =0
which furnishes A = -El cosh a/sinh a

so that equation (4) assumes the form

E = El
sinha cosha(x/L) - cosha sinha(x/L)
' or )
sinh a --- . -

E = El
sinha(l - x/L) (liB" grounded) (9)
sinh a
For the condition (8), the equation (4) furnishes:

A cosh a + B sinh a = 0, or A = -E l sinh alcosh a

so that the equation (4) becomes

E = El cosha coshax/L - sinhalsinhax/L ., and

cosh a

cosh a(l - x!L)

El cosh ex (B open) (10)

Corresponding expressions for the duct stress e may be derived from equa-
tions (9) and (10) as shown in connection with equations (2) and (3) of the
"paper". Consequently, the duct stress e is determined essentially by the
slope dE/dx of the voltages E to ground. According to the properties of the hy-
perbolic functions in equations (9) and (10) this slope has its maximum at the
line end A of Figure 9~ This can also be explained by the current distribution
- ;.n the capaci tance net~.,ork since the ground currents I have to be supplied
./ hrough the series capacLtances Cs and, therefore, load these series. caracitances
Cs much more on the line end than in the rest of tIle winding.

- 11 -

- ~' •• p • ... ,.=:>. < -,"

, ';' 'tnet---

Lecture 4

3. Insulation Grading.

As mentioned, the duct stresses e are about proportional to the slope of

the curve of the voltages E to ground in Figure 9. The fact that this slope
decreases from the line end towards the interior of the winding, would, there-
fore, suggest to decrease the insulation between pancakes ~vhere the duct
stresses are lower. This, however, becomes self-defeating since the change
of the insulation in one part of the winding has a material influertce on the
existing stresses in another part of the winding, as explained in detail in
the "paper,,6) under "Graded Insulation" and illustrated in Figure 11. The
distribution constants al and a2 in these curves are a measure for the insu-
lation clearances provided for on the line end and in the interior since, ac-
cording to equation (5), a large a corresponds to a small series capacitance
Cs ' that is to large clearances. Consequently, for decreased inside c,learances,
that is for eX2 <aI' the duct stresses at the line end are increased in Figure 11
and vice versa. This condition is much more critical for small values of 0,
like for 0 = 2, than for large oneS, like for a = 10.

4. Properties of the Impulse Vol tage Distribution in a Pancake Hinding.

For a'more general analysis, the capaci t9-nce net~"ork Figures 9 and 10
of the series capacitances Cs and ground capacitances Cg associated with each
element shall be named the major net~?ork. AS illustrated in detail in Figure 12
by a picture of the individual elements and their turns, each series capacitance
Cs represents the lumped value of another capacitance network assigned to a
i single element. This new net,vork is named minor network and is formed by inter-
element and inter-turn capacitances c e and c t associated with each turn. The
whole winding is represented by a series of such minor networks dove-tailed
into one major ne~vork. This simplifies the calculations since each type of
network can be treated separately. An analysis of the major network furnishes
the ground and duct voltages E and e. The minor net\vorks supply the series
capacitances Cs to be entered info-the--major network and furnish also the inter-
element and inter-turn voltages V and v.

As an approximation, these calculations are reduced to two dimensions with

coordinates x and z in the direction of the major and minor networks.

In an analysis the boundaries of the net\vorks are preferably chosen along

equal potential lines. The ground in the major net~vorks represents such an
equal potential boundary. In a minor net~vork, hmvever, this kind of line can
only be established under certain conditions. For instance, if the corresponding
major net~vork is uniform, that is, if its capacitances do not change ~vith their
location, the center lines between adjacent elements are on equal potential for
reasons of symmetry. In an ordinary coil, this uniformity is maintained only
on its inside, but is lost towards the ends, like at· the left coil end B of the
circuit in Figure 12. In a pancake coil, in particular, one side of such an
end element is practically open since the ground is relatively far a\Vay.


- 12 -

" ", P{~ "";;"

• <
..H ' ?' . -:r%rt :"'rtZ-'-

Lecture 4

The end element can be converted into an inside element by the addition
of an outside metal surface connected to the line end, like on the right coil
end A of the circuit in Figure 12. Such a metal surface is commonly known
as static plate in a pancake winding and as static layer in a layer winding
and shall, in general, be called a shield. If such a shield is located where
the next centerline bet,yeen elements ,.,ould be found in a uniform extension of
the winding beyond its ends, the whole coil can be treated as uniformly in-

If the end element remains unshielded like on the left coil end B of
Figure 12, the surface of the next inside element may serve as its approxi-
mate equipotential boundary according to field plots shown in Figure l5C.

Under these conditions a number of voltage distributions E and e in a

m~jor network and V and v in a minor network are plotted in Figure 12 below
the network against their respective location x and z. The major network
in these plots is shielded so that its distribution depends only on its num-
ber of elements N and on its capaci tan~e ratio cgl Cs which are_ combined in
the distribution constant a = Ic
g s.
Likewise, the distribution in the
minor net,york changes with its number of turns n and its capacitance ratio
CiCt which are combined in another distribution constant 0= nt'ce/ct.

'---'1 The duct and turn voltages e and v are given in those curves by the
-' slopes of the corresponding ground and inter-element voltages E and V in the
major and minor networks. This leads to the following relationship between
the two types of voltages in the major network if a surge is applied at one
coil end A and the other end B is either grounded or open. Then the relative
distribution of the ground voltage E for a grounded terminal B becomes identi-
cal ,yith the distribution of the duct voltage e for an open terminal Band
vice versa. The distribution of the t,yO voltages in a grounded major net-
,york and the corresponding distribution of the two voltages of an unshielded
end element become identical if their constants a and (( are the same, as
shown in Figure 12 for 0: and 0= 3. The addition of a shield, however, changes
this and makes the minor voltage distribution somewhat symmetrical to the
element center.

According to Figure 12, all voltages E, e and v reach their peak value
El em; Vm at the line end. These end stresses increase also with 0: and
and are important since they largely determine the insulation of the ,yhole

For a shielded winding the analytic end s tresses V m = ~m/2 and v across
an element for x = a or turn for z = 0 are, therefore, plotted in Figure 13
against 0: and' in form of nonlinearity factors Rand r taken from Figures 5
and 13 of the "paper" in order to shmV' their close relationship. These factors
Rand r represent the ratios of the peak stresses ~TI_and V to their respec-
tLve lin~ar values ElfN and liln and go over into 0: a~d~for large values of

-.13 -

. ... ~;:: . .. ~ .•. -_.JS.-. _" .. J?- .

. - .---.--.. -"..
~. ---~.
.. ......."w

LecturE 4

'these constants. By applying these results to the line end of a shielded

winding with a given number of elements N and turns n, th.e max. voltage
V = Vm across the element becomes proportional to 0: while the maxi-
mum turn to turn voltage v = vm in the whole winding increases with the pro-
duct of both constants 0: and),''-.

These end stresses Vm and vm become more complicated functions if shielding

is omitted. This is illustrated in Figure 13 by plotting the shielding effect
upon the actual end turn stresses vm and the series capacitance cs in form of
their ratios with and without shields against~: Consequently, the shielding
causes a considerable increase in the series capacitance Cs and in the corres-
ponding voltage V~ acro~ the line ele~nt, but only a moderate reduction of
the turn to turn stress vm at a given Vm particularly for a larger number of
element turns. This means that the effect of.a shield upon the maximum turn
to turn stress Vm at the line end is rather indirect since a reduction of this
turn stress is mostly due to a decrease in the voltageVm across the line ele-
ment rather than due to a redistribution of voltages V within this element.

Further insight into the shielding effect is obtained in Figure 15, A to C

by a comparison of the calculations with analogue field measurements. For this
purpose, a cross-section of the winding has been simulated on resistance paper
with small metal pieces representing the individual turns. In the example
shown, voltage is applied bet~veen the terminals of a t,vo element coil vlithout
considering any ground surface. This is done for the three conditions of a
coil with two end shields, without any shields and with just one end shield.
/ The numerals I to 6 distinguish the individual elements. The corresponding
voltage distribution, that is the voltage between an inside point and the left
coil terminal, is plotted below each field against the location in the coil and
compared with calculations. The contrast between the two outside fields and
the center field in Figure 15 demonstrates the great effect of shields upon the
field distribution.

, If, instead of this, .those shields are interpreted as simulation of equi-

potential centerlines between adjacent elements, the fields at the left in
Figure 15 appears as a two element cutout from the inside of a multi-element
winding. Likewise, the field of .the right two elements #5 and 6 becomes the
symmetrical half in a coil ~vi thout end shields, but wi th four elements 115 to 8,
two of ~vhich are not seen, except in the voltage distribution shown below. Con-
sequently, the field distribution of an unshielded coil changes fundamentally
if the number of its elements is increased from tvo to four. In a t~vo element
coil, the equipotential boundary in the field of a line element becomes the
centerline of the adjacent duct for reasons os symmetry. The potential of the
four element field, however, varies little in each inside element #6 or 7.
Therefore, the surface of either one of these inside elements may be used as
an approximate equipotential boundary for the net~vork of the next line element,
as illustrated by the calculated voltages.

- 14 -
-' , ........ "
, .~. ~':~ .• :.--: ..
A&r± ....-~a ...;.-·

Lecture 4

This property of an unshielded ~.;rinding is maintained if the number of

elements becomes greater than four, as shown in Figure 19 of the "Paper,,6)
for a six-element coil ,.;rithout ground. Again, 'the voltage in the first in-
side element #2 or 5 is nearly constant. The addition of shields reduces,
in this case, the voltage drop in the line elements from about 40% to the
linear value of about 16% of the applied voltage.

If the picture of an actual transformer is completed by the presence of

ground surfaces~ as shown in Figure 21 of the "Paper,,6), both distributions
in the six-element model are distorted considerably. For instance, the effect
of the ground raises the voltage drop in the line element from about 40 to
87% of the applied surge in the unshielded coil and from about 16 to 29% in
the shielded winding. Furthermore, the potential in the element 2 of the
unshielded winding and in the elements 3 and 5 of the shielded coil increase
in the direction from line to ground in place of an expected decrease appearing
in the a9alysis. As a rasult, the voltages at the back ends Dl, DZ' D3 of
the elements cannot be found by the analytic methods developed while test and
calculation agree quite well at the front ends A2 and A3. Likewise, the com-
puted voltage distribution within the line element coincides fairly close
,.;rith measurements in both cases.


,/'"" ,

- 15 -
~ I
, "
.- -' ;,
_ ... - ;
• J;'J ~'" '." r --




The proper application of insulation is one of the most important

phases of transformer design~ and it presents some of the most difficult
problems. It is important because the life of the transformer~ to a large
extent~ depends on the insulation. More failures result from jnsulation
troubles than from apy other cause. Insulation problems occur jndesign because
of the difficulty in evaluating voltage stresses accurately; the inherent
erratic nature of insuJating materials; and the variations in strength resulting
f~om processing j foreign materials 1 aging or deterioration.

Insulation must often serve more than one purpose in a transformer.

In addition to its function as an electrical insu1ator~ it may often have to
act as a mechanical support and also as a thermal-conductor o Such re~uirements
oft.en diet·ete the choice of the dielectric materials to be used.

The problem of insulation of transformers may be divided into two

generEl, parts - voltage stresses and insulation characteristics, Before the
proper insulatiuu can be determined for a transformer 1 tha voltage stresses in
the various parts of the I'rinding must be known or assumed. Hence, voltage
stresses in transformer's wiD,' first be considered o

10 Voltage Stresses in Service

The ultimGte criteria of a good design from an insulation viewpoint is
that ':,he transformer must stand the voltage stresses that it gets in normal
operc.tion urlder actual service conditions. These voltages may be divided into
three types~ continuous voltages 1 switching surges 1 and lightning surges,

The-long time? or continuous voltages 1 to which the insulation is

subje~t€d determines the insulation design from a thermal viewpoint, These
·:on"tinuous '101 tf: €:es are t1s1'ally ra ther definitely known, Iiiost continuo'us O'ier~
vol tages ar,e for reg 1;lation requirements and are generally of a loV! value, in the
ord'3r of 10 to 20 percent. Runaway overvoltages may also be considered as long-
time f:itresses. They may reach tw::i ce the values given for regulation, RUI'1away'
overvol'tages affect insulation design only indirectly~ in that tb.ey may fix the
minimum rating of protective equipment that can be used, such as lightning
Switching operations due to sudden load changes that may set the system
in cscillation and combine with reflected waves may result in surges of long
_( duration = up to several hundred microseconds. Tests that have been made cn
/ systems indicate that the magnitude of such waves seldom go above four times
normal voltage to grotmd. 11 few cases have been measured that showed five
times normal i and it is thought that six times norm&l is the very highest that
can be expected .from si1itchingl_or from arcing grounds.
, '

-.. ~ ... ,"";:~ --: ~-.: :-

Lightning voltages resulting from direct strokes near the transfornler or
from traveling waves along the line have a relatively short duration~ usually
less than 100 li1icroseconds~ but may be high in magnitudeo The-lightning voltages
are often limited by the insulation strength of the line or by the protective
equipmento These lightning voltages are by far the most dangerous to transformer
insulation of any of the overstresses to uhich it is subjected 9 and usually set
the insulation design levelo Lightning voltages may occur as a steeP uave
choppsd on the front9 as in the case of a direct stroke; as a chopp·ed rrave 9 such
as when a traveling wava flashes over a line insulator on the tail of the nave~
or as a full TIaV8 9 such as a traveling uave that does not flash overo In
magnitude lightning voltage_s may go up toJO .tC)_.2Q, times normal operatillg voltage
to groundo Uith unequal voltage distribution within the winding the overvoltages
between parts of winding~such as co:Hs and tur~s7 may go exceedingly higho
Overvoltages of 100 to 300 times normal in such places arc CO!!!1!lon o Predet9rmining
these tra.nsient voltage stresses presents the greatest problems in the dcsi:;n
of insulation in transformers o

2u Jl.ielectric Tests to Simulde Service Conditio"21

One of the greatest aids in recent years to the design of insulation fc~
transformers has been the ·standardization of insulation le76ls and the est~bli~h~
ment of standard dielectric tests for the various voltage classeso Both impulse
and commercial frequency tests are specified to represent service conditions o
These tests set a definite level to use as a basis for the insulation designo
Hence from these levels the voltage stresses at the terminals of the various

windings are definitely known o

a o lmEulse Tests

A standard impulse voltage wave to simulate lightning in~rvice has

been defined by the American Standards Association (A~) as one that rises to
crests value in 105 microseconds and decays to half value in 40 microsecondso

Steep Wave 9 Chopped on Front C:e~· _c,- .

100% ---:-1-1 Standard Full Wava

For z.. 1=l/2 x 40

K ::.. _
i et K1"" 0 01.65_

I K2~ 3j)8
~ \7 t ~ T1J;;.:l in/{seCa
o ·!i:~:v~'J---.~---..:.l.I1"!"--~:---'i"'---OOO;-~--:P4- ..

o ! 10 20 30 40 ;0 . 60 70
\i"C:, t" !
Time in Microseconds
' .
. $-.- ..... _ CP. . '_,~"5." - -..(-"..4_-._,\ ._c ".- __ .!i' _ ... s._
... _.. _ -_.. - ..
... ----~-.-------~ ........
-~~~-'-'------- .........

E::L~t}18:"' 0. PCSlt-:'-:3 C: ci. r~egative pcl&rit,y· ~~a."'II:'"e rna:r ba ·.lSeu'3 b.:.t negati't18 is
fer cil-insu1a ted and pcsi ti ve for dTy=tYPE: -::qu~pm:;n t.
.,-........ _......... _---------._-.-....-
The standard ASA impulse tests consists of o~e application of a
redu:,ad vo::tage full wave} and biO applications' of a chopped wave.9 follmvsd t-y
C!i.3 application of a full wave. The reduced full Have is So to 70 percent of
tha final full vlave and is intended as a pattern wave for comparison purposes
i.i~ fault detscticn. The chopped Haves are chopped en the tail in not less than
l k: 3 rr.icrcse:,onds depending en the voltage class j and are int,ended part.i8u~
larly to test the line and pcrtionef the Idnding~. The final full=\·rave test
penni ts time fc!' id.nding oscillations to develop so that the interior parts of
the windir~g are also stressed. During impulse tests} the transi''Jrmer is
ex:;i "':ed at nermal voltage and the impulse applied on the_cre1?t ~f_the_nc~a.J­
voj.:tage of oppcpi te pola....~ ty. Excitation may be<";c.;rri t ted by clltual- a.greement. '"\

In additien to the ASA ~~pulse tests as outlined above, the National

E1.s::':;ic }fan~facturers Association" NENA, has included Hfr?E:!-::_QL":'.r.:l'§.:y~_i..'Ilpuls_e
tssts li fo!' tri3nsformers. In these tests the voltage i'Jave is chopped c;,-. 'ihe
-::-:y-:::t:-before it reaches the crest by a rod gap in air. Since the :r.agnit.ude of
these voltage·s is set at a higher value than for the cho:::c;ed i"ave test::::, and
tr!8 rate of change of voltage may be greater j the3e tests more severe on the
li::e tcr:-.s and ceils than any of the other tests describe.::!. Usually the frcr.t~
ef=wa7e tests are made without excitation on the tranSfC:1iler to facilitate r
7cltage measurement. /
j The ',{estinghcuse !!"Q-~ali ty Control Impulse Testsf! for pCiler trans=
fcrmers consist of t"jO chopped I'Taves folloHed by two full waves t-nthout ex(:ita~
tic:t:.. Bot.h the chepped and the full wave tests are made at 9S to lOS percer.t
of the ASA levels. These are streamline tests that can be made on a porduetion
basis tc simulate service conditions and to verify quality in the transfo~ers.

Transformers are designed to meet standard ASA impulse and NEMA

fro.:t=cf-wave tests unless otherl-.'ise specified.

b. Low=Frequency Tests

Long before impulse testing was developed j tr~isformers were given

a lew-frequency test to verify their adequacy for service. These tests now
cO!"~3i5t of an applied voltage test follcvled by an induced vcltage test. The
applied test fcr each class above IS kv is at tw'ice normal line voltage plus
ene k7 rCll:-rded off to the nearest S kv. For IS kiT class a:1d belor the tests
i·;-:re set special and are semevlha.t higher than by the above rule o The indu.ced
test fer fully insulated windings is at twice the normal Hi.nding voltage.
O=iginally the induced test was intended primarily to verif,y the insulation
between turns and coils but it is too low to have much value for this pU~pCS9
a3 :::cmpared to the impulse test. However, this is alt-lays the last dielectric
test applied to a transformer~ and it does serve a useful purpose as an extra
:::he·:;,k on detecting any trouble from previous tests and in testing across parts
of "'i.ndings $ and even between ccils where theTe is considerable voltage such a3
in shell~fcrm transformers.

- --- .. _-------------
., .;. .,,:.. ,...: .. "%' . ,.,.;1', .... )

In graded insulation designs for grounded neutral scrvicc~ the

principal lOTI frequency test is a special induced test at a hjgher level. When
the insulation level corresponds to the line voltage the induced test is made
at 3046 times normal voltage to ground. Sometimes the insulation and the
lightning protection level of a system is set one voltage class lower than the
line voltagco For instance, a 138 kv system will be insulated and protected for
a 115 kv level. In such cases the induced test for graded insulation will
correspond to that for the insulation class. (

Since the induced test overexcites the transformer, it is necessary

to use a frequency high enough to avoid an excessive exciting currento ASL
Standards recommend liMiting the exciting current to about 30 percent of rated
load current. To meet this requirement usually a frequency of 120 cycles or
more is rec;.uired. V1het: frequencies higher than 120 cycles are used the
severity of the test is abnormally increased and the duration is reduced in
proportion to the increase in frequency. For frequencies of 120 cycles or less
the duration of the induced test is one minute; and for higher frequ-:mcies the
tima is reduced to give a test of 7200 cycles.

Graded insulation windings are also given an applied test prcviou3

t.o the induced test corresponding to the voltage class of the winding at the

The impulse and low-frequency tests for the varjous voltage classes
\ of both distribution and power transformers are summarized in Table I.



,< ~::... q:r .~. ..;.' f:-.. .. ......... ~<

<+ .. "". . . it " ..w.,.' ,i,; ... z' "ob -·'eO·· .' i'


it NEUA Front=of~

BAS! St!lldal'd Tm. u159 Tests j :Lo"; Test
i Impulse Tests LI Chopn~d Ilava
~!in.Time Full Wave
Time to Oil I' Dry-
Class Vol tag~ i Kv to FO 10 5x40 L!S
FO . Immersed Type

Tr?!'lsfo:cmal'S 15 Xv or Less and 1)00 Eva or Below ~. Distribut.1.on

102 'I
r --- - :1 36 1 00 30 ., 10 4
5" 0 I
- I
I 54
10 5

~:~5 . ~i: J: ,1~~ i:~ ~~~1 I ~i
. ~ rrarormers ~1_15 Kv or Less and Over 0500 Kvo. =1 p~~p.r I
102 L 75 00 54 105 45 I 4
l 20' P
= - I ,

~ - = 15

8 66
1,5 0
0 ~ii 165
~iJ 1qr;
00 ;
,o,,? d
I 88
11 110
2 0
- 95
III . 26

Transformers Over 15 Kv and All Kva Ratin~s ~ Power
2; 175 150 1 50

I 580 0 58
20 0
400 0
350 140
1 i ~~ .. .
I 710
0 0 71
960 0.96 750 650 275
. 12LO
1 0 07
1 U
'_ 3 Q &;
I~oo 11:40
1210 .
1785 1550 600

._- - - - - - - - - - - - - _ ... ~o._'_. _-_ _ -=-_-=*_0-0-"- ___ 0 _ _ _ _ -'-:'. _

.....' ".. ' ,':'.";

'. ,'00 :'{#0:~ .;::.:~~:-.;:.,t:~S;::,~:- 0

. I" .' ~ ... .... •_ , ""'" ,~ -' .• 0 ;::.'_;:: ~:".o... ~ c•• _ ....:_ ':.!~:.':F4o,;~:o-:',~~...~~~-f;;;t~~:,,&:\~::,-~
- .... ~ " '.

.- -""----"------

From standardized dielectric tests~ tt.,e maximum voltr.:ge stresses at the

line terminals of the various windings of a transformer are definitely knm7Ilo
Ons of the chief problems in the insulation design is to determine ho'l"1 the
stresses under the differcnt conditions of tests and service uill be distributed
in the various parts of the windingso In general the lo,,-frequency voltage
distribution presents no problem since it is usually a matter of Itvolts per turn"o
Houever~ special attention oust be given to cases involving series windings,
pre7entive autos, and special winding arrangements where the voltage division
is determined by the imp~dan~es of the v£rious parts and may be further complicated
by induced effectso In the case of graded insulation designs, it is essential
to determine just how the induced test will be - which winding to excite
from; what point in each winding to ground~ and the polarity of each winding -
before the design can be medeo A voltage diagram based on the conditions of
test will shol'l clearly the low-frec:uency voltage stress conditions in the various
parts of the trr.nsformer o These test conditions must then become a part of the
design information~ since the insulation design may be determined by the con-
di t:3..ons of teste In genere.l the IO\/~frequency voltage distribution problems arc
simple cOli1pared to those for imp.l1se, or transient voltages o

40 a o IprouJ,.s'e Vol taQ:e Distribution = Ini tiel Distribution

The impulse or transient voltage distribution in a winding can best '.
be studied by considering first the electrostatic or initial voltage distrib".ltiono
Strictly speaking$ it is the distribution resulting from abrupt changes ·in
voltage In practice the initial distribution gives the voltage when steep waves

strike a winding, or when a ~ave is ChOPPA~ either on the front or on the tail.
The initial voltage distribution deDends UDon the relative caoacitance throu h
atween coil elements as comoared to the c."oacitance from the coil
ground 0

A transformer winding may be represented as in Fig. 2. Since the

inductance of the winding does not affect the initial~ or electrostatic distri~
bution·the circuit may be simplified"as shown in Fig. 3. If the series and shunt
capacitances are all e~ual the relative current distrrDUtion during the charging
time at the instant the surge strikes the winding will be given by the number~ ,
in Figo 30· The resulting voltage distribution to ground wjll then be represented
by the numbers in Fig. 4. This initial voltage to ground is now plotted in
Fig, 5~ Curve A. It can be seen that the current required to supply the shunt
~apacitance elements causes a large voltage c'!rop across the line series elew.ent o
It is to ~oun~ that pulls the curve downward and results in high
voltage concentration at the line end of the winding. II there were no ground
capacitanco 9 the voltage distributicn would be uniform as shown by the straight
line)? B? in Figo 50 Hence) to get good initial voltage distribution, the ground
capacitance should be made as small as ~ossible~ and the~~~acitanc~
relat~ii'ely Iarge o A shell=form trsnsformer wit."h wide coils and a shorrcoil
s~-gooavoltage distribution as compared to a core-form transformer ~ith
coils o~narrow radial build and long coil stack o

Another method to improve the impulse voltage distribution in a

winding is to design with capacitance from the line to supply the current to

ground required by the shunt cap8.citances. If these shieJdiI'!g capacitors could
be accurately proportioI'!ed to supply the ground current as indicated in Fig. 6~
perfect or uniform voltaEe distribution would result. However, such a remedy is
sometimes more haz&rdous than the fauJ.t it is intended to correct. The quest jon
of shielding is in jts final analysis, o'!e of economics and ;::racticability in

From the above discussion, it is seen that the initial voltage dis-
tribution depends on the capacitance relationships in the windinr. In
practical design, a distribution constant: .

0< =V ~t
is first determined

0<. = Distribution constant

Cgt = Total Coil capacitance to ground

Cst = Total series capacitance from one

end of coil stack to the other
.. ---.., The capacitances can be calculated sufficiently accurately by
) applyi!1g the" basic plate condenser formula, C = KK' A , ..hich reduces in practical
units tOg d

C = 0.224 KA

C = Capacitance in micromicrofarads
A = Area of plates, average, in sq. in.
d = separation between plates in in.
K = Dielectric constant
For oi19 K = 2013
For oil impregnated pressboard or
paper~ K = 4026
For a combination of oil and PoB. as in
winding-to~ground, high-to-Iow and
coil-to-coil spaces~ K = 3.0

With the voltage distribution "factor, 0(" , known.J the voltage to

ground at any point in a winding made up of a singJe group of uniform coils, for
either a core or shell-form transformer, may be calculated by the following
relations 8

--- ---------------


...,..~." _.*-
, For neutral~ or O!1e end, groundedg
- .-/

e :::: e sinh
x 0 sinh (~

For neutral~ or one end i freeg

ex = Voltage f~om point x to ground

eo = Voltage of applied surge

= Percent of duct space from the point
of winding in question to grollild

~ Distribution factor ~~ V :~

For development of the above relations refer to notes by Paul

Narbut~ October 2l~ 1949.
These formulas can be used for multi-group windings also by first
calculating the voltage at the series connections from the group'cap~citances and
then applying the formulas to the line groups of coilso In calculating capaci-
tances judgrne~t may be used to simplify the procedure and yet to approximate
actual circuit conditions. For instance, in shell-form coils the turn-to-turn
capacitance may be neglected because it is soall compared to the coil~to-coil
capacitance whereas in core-form strap conductor windings the turn-to-turn
capacitance is usually appreciable and should be included. 110re details regarding
these practical considerations are given in the Design Manual and the Insulation
Data Book for various types of windings. All of the practical design data for
obtaining the electrostatic voltage distribution as given in the Design Manual
and Insulation Data Book are based on the above fundamental formulas.


bo D~.E"" !m,! 'l,jm8. ,;t n t:axj_IftUil Vol taqe to Ground
and Oscillations
The maximum voltage to ground at any point in a t~ansformer
winding involves a consideration of any possible oscillations in the windingo
If the initial distribution varies greatly from uniform, or final distribution,
the winding is apt to go through a series of oscillations before reaching it~
final stateo The insulation to groQ~d at eve~ point in the winding must bs
adeGuate to withstand the maximum crest of the oscillations occurring at thE!
pointo In oreer to determine the maximum stre~s bGtween any tvo points in a
winding resulting from o[JcilJations, it is necenssry to eotimnto the ma7.:ir.'nm
volts per tu.-u for the section of TIinding baing considered, or elsQ to plot the
voltage to ground against time for the t~o points and to take the difference
in voltage at the time the voltage i;:; maximUIilo There" is no shortc'U'c, accurate,
and simple method for determining the maximum transient volts per tUZ11 or the
volts to ground at any point for a given timo,o The actual must be
considered, and from its arrangement and constants it must be represen'tca by
some idealized circuit that is practical to solve matheoatic~llyo Then tho
capacitance and inductance constants of the circuit Buot ba ovnluatca. ?h~
final solution can be no more exact than the accuracy ill reprosontin:; thG
winding by en equivalent circuit and 1n evaluating the constant!]. Henco, good
judgment is required in setting up the problem. At b30t, the co@plete solution
of such a circuit is usually a long, tedicus, time-consu~ing, and to soms deg~eo
an approximate process. The designer is continually faced with the ~conomic
problem of spending extra time for a more complete and exact calculation of
1\ voltage stresses, er the use of greater insulation margins to cover ~der vari-
" ations resulting from ~uicker and more approximate methods.
Practical approximate m~thods have been developed for plottinz
voltage against tice at any point in a winding br graphical means from thG ...... ~-

,.,;,1; initial voltage distribution curve and the distributed inductance and cap~oi­
tance of the winding. Since the inductance of a winding fixes the axis about
which the winding oscillate~, it is desirable to change the abscisoa of the
initial distribution curve "from percent duct space to percent inductanco, or
turn~ squared. The variation of the initial cistribution curve fron a straight
line is first plotted and gives a composite oscillating ~ave. This coopoaite
wave is broken up into a fundamental and even harmonic waves. The periodo of "~
the fundamental and various harmonics can be calculated. Then the voltage for
any point in the winding can be plotted against time by recombining the harmonica
which appear at the point and superimposing on the axis of oscillation for the"
point. The voltage between any points in the winding can be obtained by plotti~z
a voltage-time curve for these points.
Since time and space limits the discussion here, reference is
given below to rather complete discussions and analyses of voltage di~tributiou
in transformer windings:
Manual of Surge Stren...~h Analysis for ShI311-l?ol'n
Transformers bY' R. t. Brorm, Eng. weco No. lS"2"o
Calculation of Surge Stresses in Cora-Foro T~n~£orGer~ -
An Approximate Graphical llethod by B. V. ~ipteu,
Eng. Memo No. 216.


'i'ransient Voltr,gc3 in ST..wetricaJ. tU..':1ped l!et:::ol"'!w
by P. L. B311c.chi and A. J. Palemo, gng.-none no. 2270
(This is a mathematical (I.nIl11sis~ and applic3 to oithai'
core or shell-form transforooro). .
Analytical Studiea of Surge Voltage O;:;ci11ationo in.
Sholl-For-r:t TI~ndinglJ by Paul Uerbut, EnJ. l1c~Q 110. 3400

c. J1.nfln of 11.15J.~,r',l D'-nt.:Ij.bJ-'tiojLC".,,~l'l t.,;') i1')~0~m~t'l'L/\~·\.:."}A~r'\.1"J

Oscillation Volt:CC;:1:1
fhs initinl or electrostatic volt~gc diotrib~tioll C~-VG in n GO~~
tool for uoe in estinating the voltage otrsGccc ill uindincoo It 10 roluti7~ly
eo.01 to calculato and C~!1 be predet~:n.~,-,ln~c1 r.:'-thel" Qccur::i:.;:;l;-. C2'~::a it 10 i l l
that 1::; noedod to estitlat~ tho ilJpulDO volt.'l[£O stres:JcD in n \7inl11::;. ~;J?
inDt~co, in Q ~1nple core-fo~ trcnofor=or if tho coil-to-coil c=i tho turu-~
tu!"~ iooulation nt the liI:~ end io provid~d to uith::lb. r..d ./(,00 vol~'~~o .l".?c:J t~::>
initial d1st~ibut1cn end the reotriction is inpoDcd in the desicn rcquiriu~ t~~t
all t~a and all co11 Dect10ns oust have the a~o in~ulatio~ uo et tho li~J
end, than the turn and the coil in!lulat1on C3n ro fixed fro:! t};o initial voj.t. ..:::;J· . ',~

distribution cur7O. Also, the m~i~ volt~g~ to ~Torzd ~u bo eo~o~~ic:~ ~~

tho illi tial diotribution curve.. Refer to Sketeh F:1S. 70
125 1:,.1 , ,-~,"'0,
I ,
", I ,

,, D-1;\
~Drl.ow:1 VoltnD
100 -:' 1_

., .
to Grouzl

r-I FiC. 70 ,l::lT.1.r::::l C;:,~i1loM.c~
~ ;0- Fron Ini t:1o.1 Volto.;::;::> Dle- .
A , tr1b'.lt1cnp:::~~.?:;J l:.pplicd t.~,
0 COo !Jld ot Dinuma wi th G~c~
Q) Elld Gi-ounded 0
- . •' • • !

. -- . • .• ,. ~..\
. ,\
~"-e..., ..... ,.h;'\ .

o "i
100 75 50 ~; 0
~ Percent Duct Spco .
- rrrrrnrrtrrrrD0-:L
_.. .< i ' - - - - - - .'. ---,
- .. 11 ' . '7

,4 J
...:, ........... ,.. ':.. -, ':'"'' ",' - . ' .-~ -,. ..'<!: • - . ~ ":': r"'
The initial voltage curve, Ii, ,'fill oscillate about the straight line. The
maximum voltage to ground at any point will be represented by the envelope curve,
B. Each ordinate on B is as far above the straight line as the corresponding
ordinate on A is below the line. Curve A h£s a distribution factor, c!. , of 3.
It is seen that it just oscillates up to 100 percent voltage to ground. Note
that curve D which has a distribution constant, C>( , of 6 may oscillate up to
.~25 percent of the applied surge. The winding could reach 125 percent only if
the applied wave were rectangular, or had a very long tail, so that tho point,
P, uould remain at 100 percent until the.uinding had time to oscilJate to its
maximun valuo. In practice, dua to losses, windings will not quite sniug up to
the theoretical value but experience indicates that the damping is not ve~y great.
Consider another application where the two ends of a 'l'?indir..:; arc
impulse tested simul·~aneously. This l'lOuld repreccnt a delta ..:1r.1:1116' in servic~.
tiith traveling uaves striking t-;;o bushings at the same instant. Ref;;r to Fig. 8.

t-f? !~:J.Ximum Pyssiblo 'VoH,:;.g;; to G::.'Ound


125 llaxinUlll Vol t:lca to G:;round
J at Timo ';jhcn P has Di'cpped
/ E to 5~ Vn1uoo
..... ~."
.... ~
:0as 100 ,
,. ...
~ #

~ Fig, 8. Eaxic~ Oscillation
-14.\..,. from Initial Vol~ga Distribu-
50 __ "tion Cu...-va 0 S'Jl"Go f.pplied
....... B to Eoth Ends ot winding Simu-

o ~.~----~----~~-----?----~~
100 75 50 25 . a
-==::::::J Percent Duct 5:pce . '.

(. .~otYr«~
I ·to'

-12- -....-.

-. '-~-.-,;~~<~:':~~'" ,"
- - - - - _. ~~.~~:::::> .. ,~, ..
-.. ... ..
::.;.'. ,. '-.,. *.. ·W"'~~~':"··'';'5:\'js:'1':;<'WW*·% -··M"'·~.

Tho :ini tisl 'Voltage disti.'ibution can be obt2.incd by plotting t7.'O CUl"\"GG t::'..n1 B
ll.S though the surge struck each end \7ith the other groun:1cd, and by adding
curves 11 rr..d B to get curve C. If P \1ere held at 100 prCf.li1'c. -U'iltil the s..-ing of
the ~indin6 roachad maximum value, the voltage uould approach 160 parccnt as
shovn in curve p. HOllever, the point, P, 'I'1ill decrease with the of the
wave. tilth a Dtandard Y.'8ve P ..ould be at 50 percent i'! ~.O nicro~occnds. If
the period of the uinding \1ere 80 microseconds so that it uould reach ~aA~mlli~
value in 40 microseconds, the wi~di~g would s~ing up to 110 percent of the applied
uavo as sh07ln by the dotted curve Eo Hence, it is necessary to calcUlate ths
period of the Ilinding ill ordor to e:>tir:ate the r:::a:ri1ru:n vol b. G':; to p·ound.

rho period can. be readily calccl.o.tod fro:) the c:lrcui:~ cO;:Jot::nt.o t.;,'
o08bining tho distributod inductanco OLd capaci~nco .into l~ped conot8nico
The pariod for a single group of co110 ac at tha middle of a cOTo-fo?~ c~l~
of COils, or at tho contor of D. sb.oll-foro gl"OUp of coilJ, G t';7o"r.JGcil not7.'oz-:':
~1th ·outu::.l 1::.duc;tl.lcO coupling ::lO inil:1cJt:::d in l"igo C) ~ou2d OJ t::.:Jt!."

Fig. 9. Period for ~~o~

Mesh Net~ork TI1th
Inductive Couplingo

, ..

... ....

!G Period of uiriaing at X in rn1crosacondo

G Capacitance as shown in sketch in ~icrc~icrofD.rads

e S3lf-i~ducta!'lc3 of the groups in eonriCJ$ .

C g L12 -(Ll + 12) = cutual induct~nca bctneen
2 groups in henries

Lt2 = selr-i~duc~~~ce of the t~o groups toge~~ero


If two groups of windings are separatec like tHO' col~'1s in a ty;O-

leg core-forZl transfo~~r, or two grouos 'of coil;) in a ~hell-roril Ylinoing, tho
outual inductance, U, may be neglGctedo The paric~ at the series connection
bet~een the groupe F~Y be celculated by the folJo~ing formulas ~n1ch refer to
the cireu1t in Fig. lao

·: .. ,'.-
___ _ , . _ •• _ •• P _ _ .·.·, .... .t:_:. ___ :...~::~ .•• ____ ..• ___ ~_".~--"' _ _. _ _ _ _ •


T ~ Period at series connection X in mlcrococon10

01, C2 and Cgl = Capacitances as shown in sketch in microoicro~econdso

L1 and L2 = Salf-inductance of groups in h3nrieso

'" This method of calculating the period cay b~ extended to ,thre3 or

more mesh networks o With the initial voltage distribution and the calculated
period the general suings of the winding can be predicted very clo06lyo ,r-O?
instance, a transformer with a load tap changer by means of a series t~~n~formor
presents a probe 1m in determining the voltage at Xp see Fig. 110

Hl , ...... -:..:- - .. "'"\ X

« t, \ I 1\ "
/ I "
, /

CIS 1001 \
~ \
7; \
50 \
134 \ A
Fig. 11. Initial and Maximum -
Voltage Between Series and
Regulating Transformers at Xo
If tlla cou:Jtants are such 8.S to' gi va an initial distl'H.,-ution so that point X nill
be nt 11, thon X tl.ay sning up to 130 or 140 pGrc""nt 8.t, Bo IIO\;,evel'~ if Cl Co.11 1;3
increased to bring X up to D1 then the winding Vlill swing only up to 100 percent
at E. This method of increesing the capacitance across the serie:.> tranoforI!ler
by special winding arrangement to limit the Siiing at X ha~ been used in actunl
design and the distribution date. obtained to verify the reaulto o

In eOf1e typ~s of problems th·:; 'Voltage stres:::'.3!:J c:.u pZ'] bee'Go

bo appro~i8ated b.7
cou8id~rin3 the rnaxioil3 volts per turno An &uto t~ngZor~or
vith a voltage r~tio that appTo~~~CS unity prosents u very d1fricul~ insulntiou , .
problem. Refer to circuit in Pigo 120

Fig. 12. Series Uinding

of Auto~Transformero


Since the characteristic impedance of the tI'ans3i~.:J1on line at !:l

is usually 10';7 200 to 500 ohms ... as compared to the lwpedanca o~ the series

winding~ the surge voltage from Hl concentrates across the ~eries uindin3~
causing an excessively high volts per turno The high volts'pe~ t·~ m~y c1:0
be transferred to the closely coupled parts of the other w-i!::UngJ ~:.11.J 0

arrangement presents a difficult protsction and design problo~ th~t hnc net
yet bsen coopletely and satisfactorily sol.ado Syst~m prot~ction problc~c erG'
involved Each problem is special? hut adequate insulation to stand tho volta

per turn must be provided. Estimating the volts per tu...-n 10 the c.:!st ap~ro~e~o

Another oimilarproblem is e~countared in the caoe of Q rocrolati~3
transforrier as shoun in Fig. 130

.", ~ .. .."",.-""'...r<...,..• .,.,.,.=·_'-.,..,,.,-.""'...""'..;.."...........---,..,;...-..~~...- .......""":.--..........."'""'........- ...~."~,.,~.::.,~..',.?.:....:-'...,... ,-..""-_.:-'.7,.-......':"".~~-::-• • . ..,...."""._""'.~......, ..•""-7C',.-C.""'."".-,,~""'.,......-..,~.,~.."......,.."....~,....,.,..,..".-.~-~~-,.~
;"., ,'. ~
- .• ".,--_ ..- ............... ..
-:...:--.--...:...~~--...:........- . -----....-- ·k C~·"' er£ ,;> '. >~ -·k· .., ••• >--4 y. ih·- '.:';;:. ., r 17"

L ~-----P ~---------------4~-----~ S

Fig o 13. Isolated Windings

in Re..ot:"Ula ting

If a surge strikes the series winding from the L side and the S side is grounded
. through the line impedance r.hich is equivalent to 200 to 500 ohms ~ a relati'~~ly
large volts per turn may appear across the high-voltage side of the seri(;'J
j . transformer" Since the series transformer may have p ~ta';j=\1p ratio p in this
case 1 to 51 the voltage would be stepped up; and in th~ tapp3d windin~i
acting as an auto=transformer, it may be still further st~pp~d up. Du~ to
damping, coupli~1 a?d oversuings the voltage would notnocesss·r~]y to stopped
up in the ratio of t:.::e turns lI but it1>'O'Uld probably be hi~h enough to ruquiro
protect~ve equfF~ent to limit the voltage a~d set a kno~ level for th~ primary
of the series transformer and the tapped delta winding. At the present tin!),
one corner of the del~~ would be grounded and deion arresters.applied as ind1·
cated in the sketch. The voltage stresses in these windings will be determined
mostly by the protection level. The best approach in determining the stresses
is probably by estimating the volts per turn.

e.. Experimental Data on Vo1tage Distribution :in Typical i'lindJn'1~

Voltage distribution curves obtained with a cathods-ray oscil~

lograph on four different transformers will aid in visualizing the response of
a winding in soae of the examples discussed aboveo
1'hefirst set, Figo 14~ Tlas obtained on a lO\1c»voltage uinding
in a shell-form transformer. It was a t~o h1gh-lo~ design arranged as sho~ in
the sketch.. In Ca) both ends of the winding were tested simultaneously and
the oscillogram shous that the middle of the winding sT1ings up to 25 porccnt
/-\ overvoltageo In (b) one end of the u1nding lias tested u1th the other end


grounded. 'Ine midpoint of the winding only oscillated up to 5Q percent of tha
applied wave.

* * '* * * '* *"

In Figo 1; a similar conditj.on~ except the 10';7 voltage of a core
form transformer is shown. Both ends of the r1inding were impulse tested
together~ and the 8.t the middle oscillated up to 85 percent above the
applied volb.g·3o The reaSon it went to a higher value than the shell-forn is
that the initi~l dist~ibution for the core=form transformer i3 much poorer th~
that for the sholl for~o

The surves in Fig. 16 are for a line group of ~holl=for.3 tranc=

for~er coils as indicated o The applied nave and the volt~ge~ at tho Derion
connections bet·;ie.:m coils ereshoi7no These cu:rVGS i:ihoi7 hO:1 tho ...~vc::: p:'o8'l".:lG:J
through the winding 0

In Figo 17 the response of a core~form tra.nsformer winding io
shoTIno The oscillations in the winding are clearly shown. The curves ~it~
·expanded time scale in (b) show how each pair of coils is subject~d to streeD
as the surge prograsses through the windingo These curves shou ~hy tho coil-to~
. coil ins'iletion cannot be reduced appreciably in the bedy of the uinding o Th0J
also verify the nesd fOl" full line clearances from line leads to t.:l.p;J lo~tcd
25 percent or more uith1n the windingo


b 8 1 /1


H. V. Winding

10 ~1
/ Voltage at Lo 170 Series COlmoction'
Applied Dave

(a)o Both Leads 9

and 10 Uere Surged
i I I I I iii j i
o 10 20 30
Time in Microseco~ds

~ Applied Wava .
100 , Voltage' at LV Series Connection

50 (b)o Lead 9 was Surged

and 10 was grounded.

o 10 20 ·30
Time. in Nf.icroseconds ..

Fig. 14. Voltage at LoVo Series Connection in Shell Form Transformer,

10000 KVA;; 1Eh. ~ 60N ~ Ho Vo 50 0 8. KV for 88Y9 LV 1302 h..'V ~
Experimental Voltage Distribution on Impulse Tests.
Os cillo grams CSHB = 3130

--"7~ ..-.....".~,.---....".,.----,.....,...
..... :...
.• """"~."""
..,_- ..;.~:•."".~.,-.,.:.;,""~:~._-
.....-:;" . .....,.,.. ..,...
.. -.. "p.·=·:.7~::··~,,,.~-"·,,~,{:··,,,,,';..,""";:,,~""'
.. :~".,..:.....
: ..,.,~t·-~·;".~~·2,.""'3't~?'~""I:.-_
.....- :....... ::.~:-,:.!,,-.<:.•~_-~•."'"':,'~_,...,.
t.;:...... ..-:-
Ho V. Winding
1;\'4 Dri1 11 ,
I 54.3 :3n 2
< t#
f '

f9fJ I~ Fr-
Ho Va

-1J ;

LoV. Tap3

L. Vq tIinding

II ,~
2 -

_ _-.or 185 _L ___'

Voltage at LoVo taps

..... 100_
50 -'


Time = nleroseeond~

Voltage at Lo V~ Tap Changer in 111ddle of Uindina of Cora PO?J

Transformer. 6000 gwao ll :3 P"no p 6(j;Yf) novo 69-.%.05 !Ivo Uy:J~ LoVo
1302 avo Deltao ~~I:inontal Vol~~: Diotribu~ion ou !=pul09
'.rest. Oscillograms C~B - 4050

-----~.--- -----.._------.:--

~ t.\ il.
_____3...:;/\ H:i.
~ filII

&fI j : ~ ~ G:~ r r~ I
B C :
- I.

T ~:I,'I! · I /1 ~r: I
III, v. l~ Lo Va Ho
:.JI~ ~.-.JII

[I 10 (3
I .0:
iI I
!~ Pf -'
~~-. ~-!T.,--------=:::-.~:.::...:=----~-------!:=::------~~---Y-2T
-=- 4V'\'..L_·--=:::::J===-~____2_~_5V_T___....Ip:,J,-·_11_1·~_2tVT H~_ ..S-I!" 'i/,


U:i:th .:30;~\3-6C<
Timing S:;'.,ep<,

,-----. G)
1lO. 50

0 i ,
0 ld 20 30 .A '~e"·"'" c.


(b). With 10 "'\SeOo


T:i.rn.i:::; C:-.-::::::p"

<D 50

0 ~

0 2 4 6 8 10 »..seco

JF~go 16. Voltage Distribution in Line Group of Shell Porm Auto - Tren~rormero
65000 KVAo 9 1pho 9 6QA1 s HoVp 15807 for 27) KaV. Ip L.V. 7602 for
132 Ko VoY9 To Vc> 1302 A Os,:dllcgrel!:3 E "" 238

--- "':' .. '.-,'



H... l
Ho Va />,'-14
~ 1278
LoVa~ 15

.~.-. 680
..... ;, n X2-=-

Voltage Distribution in Hoi" Uinding of Core Form T1"an$forme:-~

Type SLo 250 !vao>, lPho 17 60IVH oVo 69 A'7o fo:rA!.oVo 702 [vo
for 12047 K70 Yo
Wire Wound. Coils ... 0064 Wi:re Mo To "" 55 71 0

~ ~ 12 Oscillog~ams CSH=ZP613o
See Pages 22 and 23 for Voltage Distribu~ion C~veso

~,,,, .,,- .
.-:5",.:. . . .'OW
,-.... ",... .'6,_" _.• IIt . . --; ....
.~ .. -'~

... ".,.:.-.,......... ',.

L .,_
.,-~:~ ... --.~ ...

' "<. ',,; """'"

I:I. '. ',~,

70j, /S ea.) , Vt>/fetse /J/.s1(i4·~~+li~~rJ !h t~JI,


, 'WlncJ/n!/. L)(t?I.7:l 7)n1c?, Sc~/e,-lal) !

/.-1 sec. See P"!je 1.z I tr COirIflef£e r
I ~.J
&i""'~"\. . T/f/e Ci'1c/ SI< etch Si~ow/n.:J W1n.c//p):] :11
t:?.!'c;IIOfr~ n1S
'''f)~. 11 r'(a.l1j e cSI/- tTJ '. I!

II ; ,
I ~~ I
,I /Jee! ~/C( ve i" )(.;, II

,ec>~! I I '.....
! 7/
'1r .- 'I!!
QJ I')D rtl"lr-.I \ 'l'. " : . I
"I '" •

. . ~r
I _
. . . .- tatn'
' /:)I'D 't' .,_~
", I n " I 'I
'1 ,; "
.... l}!
-.:~ ,.. _I _ H ~ .",1

~ ~D, ,
;, I
\' t
j ~~
I '~
c. .·

" ,~

~ ....

T,'me in

--',"" (
(, '
, . r.(
-, ~.


: j r~
Figa 15. (b) Voltage Distribution in Ho V. Winding. Expanded Time
Scale - 36 Hicroseconds. See Page 21 for Complete Title and Winding ,:~
Arrangement. Oscillograms CSH-A-6130 i~


=-t-l~II"I~ I T r I
100 / ---.... r-·-J,- ,

:1 ~-~ !!',;
'__ I-I . '. I. fl-I,-I,-I'
90 I i
1 ......
' . . ---,-
' . 1----.

fl' I ;
I 1
I i,:

~:ji #-
80 i

~-3 'I "..--.~
- ,I'== _ L.2::.:
I~- T N-::--:.- ~-.,J
I /
/ / .1 . 11-' -
lk-I~ - J; 111>r~;':E7i:=-~' '~+:0~'I~F;; :·1
I :I::-"'I~t -I)~";'~I' :r:'.!-~I:"~~C-:::'::
~ .[ o
co, !
..t-. . 5f) i'Ie,! (- ~;!.

r7 -:J '~18~9~;~LJ-17/-'
tV ,.I / .I

II .,

~,I l '.:

_/rLI~I'. I I It /'<-1[0-11 I 71 Il.

:"1 z
1<:; /II
I::1 .~~
[ij .!'
I; / ,: ~

,I,. Dr-c--~r~·· f....l:-.-!Ii 1_ 71 L.·· /;r!2~13I--rJ(

~ .

~-.I·..,.--o..]~_I-:-;::-I- I ~I ' r7~'I'~--1J ~::::=:r(,~rl~


_0 I - , .i"'I>'"""••

----. - -
[,. '---, ....-~----. -- j~ ""'" _ - 'M 1 ... - . . I 11~=15 :i~

....::.' -., ~~ ~-~
...... ~~.I:.-~~, ..... ~~~~.' .- -'-=---.' _. _I~":"-:~J
- ...~:......~,~.7o:tr..:lOCl;:n:;:(;: ,- .-ncc-,""""- r
....;-t.t&dk-M..~ ... -~~_·""'r.\:O:-.;:-!j,.,..;~;-~ ____ ..:,::.....~'-.='.M ..;:.;;-.::I':a.:;a';;:,.: •.• ~
. .............~~

{.J 2 4 6 8 10 1:: 14 16 H!~'O~~"'-·'21. 26 28 .30 :32. 34 36

;1 ~

Tlmo in Mlcrostl.'lconds

(' \ (, '\ I..:·

l r''':: .-

t~ oil~insulated self-cooled shel1~form transformer. rated at lO~OOO leva., single

pha.oe p 60' cYC).SS9 69=kv delta to 13 8 k"v delta is shO".'m in sketch belo-:f o

In this problem c=nsider the high=voltage winding onlyo

The high=' \"finding; cOr:i.sis·cs of' eight rectangula.r pnncake coils 3/S-inch thick.
The limitin;; of e",:Jh con is 12'1 s.nd the r:',Quld. is 22:.1 :;0: ~6" ...-rith h:o inch radii.
The separ<::tiG::l be7\:een ::;oi:'s is Ol1e inch llnd from line coils to stc.tic pl:::.tes ons-half
The h.igb=to=low space from SoPo to SoPo is two inches o
The iron diI:1,:msions are as follow~ g

Opcnir",,; =: 15 VJ
Haight inc2u.ding tongue wedges ::: 411:
Tong~9 inoluding gap ~ lSn
1~OIE8 lI.3Gleot tilG t~i.r:l'='''~c~turn capa:.itan:;so

In :::::::.lculz.:::'ng -:;:-.'3 gr:;vn:l cap9.citan':'J consider the perimeter of iron tongue e.s ociplate
al':.d the coil n'.ou..!.u as t;;,e othsl"o .A;3sume the ground capa;)itance i'rc=. the outsida rim of"
the coils to iron and t~~ equal to that of the inside coil rim to iron tongueo

. Jo Speoify tha ASA impulse and Im.-i'requency te~~o .

.J "'. :"; 20: Calculate the '701tage distribution conste.nt , ""\,J and plot !L'1 initial voltage
distribution curve using percent duct space a~ abscissa and p~rccnt voltage
as ordinate o
30 l1hat is the initial voltage stress in percent?
aQ From static plate to inside of line ceil o
b o Across ooi1 duct from ceil 12 to 110 .

I ~fo4-
'. '.

Wo Lo Teague
. :;--

1. "Das Eindringcn einer elektromagnetischen Welle in eine Spule mi t

Windungskapazitaet" (The penetration of an electromagnetic wave
into a coil ",ith ~vinding capacitance),K.H. Wagner, Elektroteclmik
und Maschinenbau (E&?:-l). Vol. 33, 1915, pages 105-108, Vienna ,Aus tria
Text in German.

2. "Determination of impulse stresses \vithin transformer ~vindings by

computers", J.H. McWhirter, C.D. Fahrnkopf, J.H. Steele, AlEE Transactions,
Part III (Po\ver Apparatus and Systems), Vo1.75" 1956, pages 1267-74.

3. "Surge analysis of continuous coils by computers", G.N.Stein

TEM #965 of 12.18.1961.

4. "A new method of calculating the electric stresses in .s. winding

subjected to a surge voltage", P. Waldvogel and R.Rouxel, Brown Boveri Revie\v,
Vol.43, No.6, 1956, pages 206-13. Switz~rland.

5. "A study of the initial surge distribution in transformer coils"

G.M. Stein, TEH #1032 of 8.7.1962 .
6. "A study of the initial surge distribution in concentric transformer
windings", G.M.Stein, IEEE Transactions, Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 83,
1964, pages 877-93, copy attached.

7. "Abstract of a study of the initial surge distribution in concentric

transformer windings", G.M. Stein, TEM #1125 of 3.20.1964

8'- "Transformer models for the determination of transient voltages" "

P.A.Abetti, AlEE Transactions, Fower Apparatus and Systems, \01.72,
Part 111,1953, pages 468-80.

9. "Electromagnetic models for transformers", T. Hurter and G. Ecklin,

Brown Boveri Revie~." Vol. 45, No.9, 1958, pages 410-18, Switzerland.
Abstract in the Engineers Digest, Vo1.20, No.2, 1959, England.

10. "Transformer Engineering", L.F. Blume and others, book, Chapter XVII,
John Wiley & Sons, London - Ne~" York.

: ... . . - .~ . .-.
."'_ 0-
-~~.-~~-~.~:..: .

11. "Design of po.wer Transformers to withstand surges due to lightning,

with special reference to a new' type of windingll A. T. Chadwick,
J.M. Ferguson, D.H. Ryder, G.F. Stearn, lEE Proceedings, Vol.97,
1950, paper # 987, pages 737-50, England .

. 12. "Interleaved transformer windings", J.B. Price, Electrical Review, 1959,

pages 927-30, England.

13. "Transformer windings", J.F.Stearn, British Patent ft587,997 and

United States Patent #2,453,552.

14. "Improved core form transformer winding", E.J. Grimmer and W.L. Teague,
AlEE Proceedings, Vol.70, 1951, Paperjfo 178.

15. "Calculation of initial surge voltage distribution in Hi-Cap coils for

core form transformers", E.J. Grimmer, TEM #653 of 9.18.1950

\ 16. "Impulse stresses in transformer windings", R.A. Zambardino, Electrical

Times, 1960, pages 3-8 and 81-83, England.

17. "Design and impulse calculations of single conductor interleaved

concentric windings", Reference Westinghouse Design Manual pages
# 1159.23 - 25, 29, 30, copy attached.

18. "Electrical inductive apparatus", G.M. Stein, U.S. Patent if 3,090,022.

-19. "Graded insulation in interleav~d windings", G.M. Stein, U.S. Patent

4ft 3",246,270.

20. "Oil insulated Hisercap strap ~.,ound pancake coils with single or
multiple conductors", Westinghouse insulation specification # 783,071 .

• .1._. .... :;. ~.

G. Jr. Stein, Ft'llow lEI,'/:,'

Summary: Certain proper( i~~ uf transfnrlllcr windings in their any tran~ipnt phCnOIll('li:L I,,'yond casp;;. where the till\(' frum
responsc to lightning surges are investigated by a systematic the start of t ht' applied 1\":L\'e and the COnSN]Upnt. curreHt. flo,,'
study of the initial surge distribution, that is, by excluding the
time e/Tcct. The investigation is further confined to stresses for charging the ('a[la('itanl'(~" are "hort eHough "0 that no "ub-
between Iay('rs or pancakes and between turns of concentric staritial magnetizing rurwllts can d(~\"l'lop alollg thc ('oudu('-
. "'illdillb'S and to the voltage di,trii>ution between such windings tors of thc winding. ,\ccording to K. W. \Vaguel· 1 the wind-
and groundc(l parts. Insulation grading is considered. The ing voltages form, undt'l" this ('ondition, a ~o-called initial
./ i~fluen~'e of static shields at. the linc ends is given special con- surge distribution for which only the elc<"lrir fidel with it:;
Bldemtmn based on !l. new an:lly~is of the series capacitance.
By comparing: the calculations with measurements of the electric equil'a.lent capacitanec nl'twork remains to be analned bl'
field distribu tioll on resllitance paper, some limitations in re- reducing the windinf!: to all clectro"tatie model. 1:hen th~
placing the actual field problem by circuit problems are un- highest stre:;"p" will appear insiuc (he eoil at the "amp time
covered and Hllitable approximatiuns are developed for ubtaining that the applied voltage reache,; its maximuill. EX[ll'ripnce
a praetical Rolu tion.
shows that the above approximation is frequ('lltly ntlid only
within about 0.1 miC'ro"econd. This is a much "horter
The in~tda t iOIl of trall~iorlller winding..; ha.s to be dimensioned time than normally encollntered in commercial te~t" ami actual
to with;;talHllightning ;5ulge~. Thi" is an important problem, field service a.t the peak of the applied I"oltage. Howe\'cr,
ilceall,.;{' mo!'t of the winding; ~p:t('C is not copper, but insula- the initial di::;trihution i" indicati\'e of the effect of thc roil
tion, ,.0 t.hat the answer larg;pl~· determines the size of the size and shape on the I"olt:q:?;p ~Lresse" under stl'ep front wa\"cs
appar:lt II,.. and on the amplitude of the \"ollUge o~cilbtioll~ at lon~er
LightniJl~ ,t riking a transmi~~i()llline ercates tr:welingwaves
times. 6 The analy..,i" Ill:Lcle will abo furnish the lnmpt'd
which lllay l'nH'r equipment slich as tran"formers a.nd gen- capacitances to be u~ed in computer calculations where coil
erate \'nltage in the windings. c\:; illustrated in Fig. inducta.nces ure included.
1, the,,<.' wa\"C';; appear at the t<.'rminai:; in form of full W:l.ves, or, The discussion will bE: further conTIned to the concentric
if cut off b~' arrcstel"li, as chopped wa\'es which may ha\'e a layer and pancake windinr;s {llustrated in Fig. 2. 'Whcn the
very l't<.'eP front if the lightning strik<.'s close to the nnit. analysis of the two types of windings becomes different, special
TIl<' volta~e ~tresses are the result of l'l('.·tric and magnetic consideration will be giwn to pancake windings. Since the
fields whiC'h apJl<.'ur in a winding under ~\lI"l!;e conditions and indiyidual layers and pancakes correspond to each other in
thus hecome functions of location and time. This fieldprob- surge calculation~, they "hall be both referred to :1" winding
-lem hai' been conn-rted into a circuit pl"Oblem in which the elements.
response to the surge i~ replaced by that in a continuous The problem i~ to find thc \"oltagc ~trp;:"e" bd\\w'n e!leh
network of indud:mee" and capacitance,;.' By using this
·methorl, lllll.lly attempts ha\"e been made with varying success
to prerleterminc the \"oltage transient" by the help of computers
or modeb.:-" CORE
.\" a fir!'t ~(('P for a fundamental study, thi" paper will neglect LV LINE


TIME ---- TlME- ...J


rig. I. Surge 'voltage waves


Pal",r 64-19, rt'c·u"ulumoed h~' tht' IEEE Tran8forrners Committee

and approved hy the I1::EE Tec·hni .. al Operation" Committee for
preo;ent.ltion at tht' IEEE Winter I'o\\"t'r :\Iecting, ~ew York, N. Y., DUCTS
Fehruary 2-i. 1!11l4. :\lanus,'ril.t suhmitted July 29. 1963: made DUCT
a,·ailahle for prilltillg Dt'Cemher 5. I!Jli3. LAYER

G. "I. f';n:ls i~ with the Wc:<tillghou,;c Ele .. tric rorllOtation, Sharon, /

The allthur wishes to acknowled~.. the eontrilmtion oC the field me:t-
mad .. h~" L. E. Saller with results shown in Figs. 11l-21. Fig. 2. Concentric transformer windings

f';F:PTF.Ml ••CI. WI;'!

.. .,.-
.,.":.' 1'5

elemcnt and groulld as well as bl'twccn dements and between

turns, particularly at the line cnd. These "tresses depend on
'--.--.---- -- L - - - -
L_____ x .----- -'-6X-1
-- --I

I i
jJle &,lribution of the continuous electric fidds out,side the I (!~I

:lductors. In accordance with previous practice, and as an I i 'Z
·;J.jlproximation, which will tum out to have its limitat.ions, this A, _ I ~
I 8
_._ t.

field proulem is converted into a circuit problem by the intro- 1 _11_

LINE I e, - --- e -
duction of IUlllperl capacitances. In general, the lumped ca-
pacitance networks thus obtained are in turn assumed to be (A)
L1~ ELEMENTS~ iI lI l '
I'll I
I , , I I
~ubdidded finl'/lellough to be treated as continuous so that l ii'
the stre~~e~ ('an be a~sociated with individual winding points : I :
and l'l'prcsented by analytic funl'tions.
This procedure requires that t he actual windings have to (a)' E,: I, K
I <. II'
he rCl'i:tced fin::t by a ~ystem of l:tlpacitances which has the I I
~ame dielectric properties under the condition of an initial liNE

\'olta~e di~trihlltion. Since the arl Hal respon~e of the winding

E, I 1 1 "I:
lC) 1,_ rKg Kgr GROUND
to t he applied impulse voltage i" a transient phenomenon I
from the beg;inning, for which the e1ectro~tatic treatment is liNE A Ks B

only an approximation, the metallic connections between the

ends of the individual elenwnt" rf'main an important part of Fig. 3. r,'ajor capacitance net';;or!( of a winding wiih uiliform
:1ily e'luivaiPnt capacitance network. .\ccording to Fig. 2, insulation
lI'indings ollly will he con~idercd where adjacent ends of
A-lumped ground capacitances from each element to ground
clements are alternately connected together.
and lumped series capacitances between the ends of
T1", all:t!Fi~ oi these structurc~ is ~implifiet! by distingushing adjacent elements
Ld ";cen the major \'oltage eli::: I I'ihntion, repre~entillg the volt- 8-Single lumped capacitance
:lc;e levels at t he connections between adjacent elements, Fig. C-Equivalent 1r, consisting of capacitances K •• K.. K.
2, :cnd the minor \'oltage distribution indicating the voltage
changes over the ~Ul'face of a single element. These two
problems require different capacitance networks. The first
or major network consists of the lumped ground capacitances static shields. Certain properties of the roltage distribution
from e::\('h e]f'ment to ground and of the lumped series capaci- in such a network are knolVn. 1,s,7 Others ha\'e not been men-
,-,-q,llces lX'tween the ends of adjacent elements, us shown in tioned yet, 50 that a detailed cliccussion shall be included in
);s, 3(.\) and 7(A). These series capacitances will b~ .ob- this analysis.
t;ined from a solution of the second problem where the ground For this purpose, consider a winding of the length L and the
capacitances are omitted and each element is represented. by tot:l.l number of elements N. Let a surge voltage El be ap-
a minor capacitance network consisting of lumped capacitances plied at the coil end A and distinguish between the two funda-
, between turns of adjacent elements and between consecutive mental cases that the other end B is either grounded (E=E·,
turns, us shown in Fig. 10. .\ solution to problem 1 will e=eO) or open (E = EO, e =eO). The voltage E to ground at
furnish the voltages to ground at the junction points ootween any distance x from the line enu A and for a coil length L is
elements and the element-to-element voltages between ad- then given bys.7
jacent junction points. The turn-to-turn stresses will appear
in an analysis of problem 2, but will actually depend on both E-=sinha(1-x/L), ~=cosha(l-x/L), a=Nv'cg/c. (1)
voltage distributions. ' El sinh a E, cosh a
Windings with uniform insulation and with an 'insulation Of particular importance is the element-to-element stress
graded according to the voltage distribution are co.nsidered. e between adjacent junction points since its value is also a
This will include also the effect of shielding the first line ele- measure for the turn-to-turn stres!', and sufficient insulation
ment. has to be provided between elements and between turns to
withstand these stresses. At point x obtain either by the
The Major Voltage Distribution chord or difference of E(x) or, for sufficiently small values of the
For computing the major voltage distribution, distinguish space Ax occupied by an element and its insulation, approxi-
between the fields outside and inside the winding. As shown mately by the slope or gradient of E(;t):
in Fig. 3(.-\), the outside field is represented by the voltages F1 e-E(:z:-,u)-E(x+Ax) by chord of E(:z:)
and ground capacitances c, from individual elements to ground' dE L dE
while the inside field corresponds to the voltages e and e~-2,u dx = -2 N ;;; by slope of E(:z:) (2)
series capacitances c, between adjacent junction points of
elements. The ground surface appears in Fig. 3(A) as a. Ax=L/N
straight line and represents the cqu:l.l potential surf:u:es of the Repeatedly throughout this paper, se',ernl equn.tions
core, the tank wall, and other grouqded parts including neigh- will have common factors. This will be shown us one equa-
_p.oring windings. tion, and the factors which are different will bQ distinguished
by brnckcts I I. By using this symbolism, derive ",;th ~qua­
_~;;I~ORl[ INSULATION tion 1,
All clements of 3. uniformly insulated.inajor network, Fig.
3(:\), have the same ground and series capacitance'S CII and Cr. - =2 ~osh
e· o:(l-x/L)

This includes the elements at the end points A and B. The E 1· sinh a X {Sinh il by chord of E(;r;)}
condition proves true in a winding where all duets or-all alter- eO sinh a(l-x/L) . ~ by sTope of E(x)
nate ducts between elements are alike and the coil ends have Et cosh a

8i8 Stdn-Surge DistributiOn in C01ll:enlric TTan~jo"71ler Winding. SSPTnIln;:n 19M


whe!'l' sillh (3 a~ well a:; f3 can be u. factur in the equation for

e·,'I~"l orco/J~"l'
The <tuallt iLies {3 alid a shall be rl'ierrl'd to as major di:;tribu-
tioll ('()n~l:l!:ts :lne! b(:comc Sillce the distribution of R u!'d c in ('(Iuat inll () i< ;ndl'IH·rHlent.
1-- ~-
of fJ [ietording to equation I, it fIl:Ly 1)(' ,(tiriied by pInning
a= V C,/C" .6= v' c~/c.= ("(lY (4) the yoltage ratio,,· ag!lin,t x,"L for different \·:tIUl:~ of a, as
shown ill Fig. 4. Bec:ltl~e of
if (J u=.\" C g and C s = c,/Y re]l("(.·"(,I1( the total ground and scri(~s
('apacitallc·(· uf the winding. Xote that {3 depends onlv on the EO E' sinh axiL
- - - =2 ---'-- (9)
size of the indi\·idual clements and their clearance to' ground E. EI sinh 2a
while a = N {1 is determined by the dimensions of the whole
coil. For ;;ufficiently small valucs of {3, the chord and slope the stresses for an open and· groullded coil elld B practically
forms of equation 3 become alike. For larger values of {1 they coipcide in Fig. 4 for large values of a, for instancc for a = 5 or
diller in both cases, that is, for g!'Ollll(IL'd and opcn coil end B, 10.
by the !"ame factor 1 ;:;;; i3!"inh {1;;;; 0.85 for 0 ~ (3 ~ 1 where {3 = 1 In order to examine tIl(' conditions near the line clld (xIL«
i~ a ~omewhn.t extreme nJ.luc. 1), de\'elop equation 1 and the chord form of equation 3 into
The maximum value of c apl)(,!lr~ at the line pnd .1. Dis- E' /E'} _"I/L. f 0 I-I .
tillgui~h b('tl'."e(·n the actual ntlue CI = c(x= LIN) which ap- EO/EI =f +2 t l=Ff''''J slIlhax/I.
pcar,; hl'tw('en the first two ekmcnt s and a fictitious value eo= (10)
e(x=O) which represents an extr:lpolatiun of e(x) to point A. eO/Ell . "/L i t-
e O /E,(=2 smh {3[e- T -2tl=Fe 2"'J lcoshax/L]
By e(jllation 3 obtain then
CI' /E,·="2 cosh (a -P')/sinh a
clo/EI=2sillh(a-fj)/coslia X~'fJSillh{3 b}"chordOfE(X)} (5)
(11 )
eo /E, = 2 dllh a ~ by slope of E(x)
eoo/E I =21.nllha
where (he minus ~igll in the hracket ( 1 belongs to the calcula-
WhCll ("oll1ilinrd with equatiun 3 and rOlilparcd with equation tion of E" and c' and the plus sign is to be u~ed for EO and eO.
I, tlll':-'c qU!lntitips furnish fnr til!' ('hord and slope form of ?\ear the line end, th:tt is, for x«l, and for ;;ufficiently large
e the identities valuc? of a = N {3, that is, for a relatively long winding, the
stresses obtained for an open and grounded end B arc reduced
to the same \'alues.
e E.
e' EO - =2 -Slllhfj fora»landx/L«l (12)
cosh a(l-x/L) el E I· .
) el' EO(x=L/N) cosh (a-fj)
(7) Let e(} '" represent the value of eo for a.n infinitely long coil and.
sinh a(l-x/L) find also
sinh (a-p)
Consequently, the distribution of the initial stresses e between
elements can be obtained by a test of the initial stresses E to
ground which can be read with greater accuracy, In this tech- Consequently, these voltages become independent of the eon-
niquc, the distribution E(z;) and only one value of e, prefer- nection at B and of the length L of the coil 01' its number
ably its maximum el =e(x = LIN) across the first duct, are of elements N, In particular, note
mea~ured in per unit of E, and furni;;h for any other point x
(see E'qtl:ltion 8): (14)

where ellEI becomes proportional to IX.

As a result, an increase of the winding 1€'llgt It makes the rela-
tive stresses el El near the line end larger as compared with a
linear distribution elE I = 2/N while the actual ~tn~:\S cremains
10 approximately the same. This effect can be d ..:<r.ribed by a
nonlinearity factor R=Xe/(2E1). Its YUIlle HI ;IL x=Q for a
grounded (Ro = Ro 0) (mel opcn (Ro = Ro 0) ('nil end B is obtain('ri
by the chord form of Nluation 5 as
~ 0.6

Ro o· = sinhfJ
-fJ- a {ctnh a \"'. -N sinh fJ for a») (15)

where the pIns and minus signs in the exponent of the braeket
{ I are to be associMed with Ro' and Ro 0 rp,;pectiwiy. These
02 values of Ro are plotted against IX in Fig. 5 wlH're tlll'Y increa!;e
OJ proportionally with N or IX for large values of a. The intro-
duction of Ro also permits the calculation of the strei'ses e
Fig. 4. Major at any point x according to
0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
X/L - - -
surge voltage dis-
_ _ _ EiE • eO/e' tribution in a wind· e=2(Et/N)no(e/eo) (16)
° L 0 ing with uniform
------ElEL • e'/e~
Insulation where eleo and Ro are given by equations 1,6, and 15 or call he·
Siein-Surae Distribution in Concentric Tran8/ormer Windinas 879
.. ~Z' . "

.. ~-·o=:::-::-::~~--:· :'=~-.----=:'.,,-=.....:..:...:..--:-= =-_. __ _

6r-~----------~------~~ fig. 5. Non- e eush a( l-:rl 1.) -(Ed R I ) cosh ("xl I.

linearity factor of -=2 -- X
EI Rinh ct
a major surge
voltage distribu- hy chord of E(x)'
L \ (20)
tion at the line \'.\' slope of E(x)f
4 end of a winding
with uniform in- For E2=EI th('~e ('(FIn,tions go O\'el' into the ('a~c that thc
sulation "amI' surge voltage is applied ~ill1\llt:1npow.;ly to both ends of
the winding. 4
In other conditions encollntpred Jat!,1' ill this analysis, the
coil end B is grounded through a l'apal'itance. In sitch prob-
lem:; the "oltage al'ross the ('oil will he dctermin('d fir~t and
the corresponding ';ultage::; HI and E2 at thc coil end:; .1 and B
will be used for romputing the "ollage di,tril!1ltion inside the
winding aCl'ordinc; to equations 1!J ;tnd 20. If the applied
5 "oltage £1 i:i gin:n, E~ lIlay be found by n:p!a<.:in;;;! net',vork of
elements, Fig. 3(.\), with a ~ingle Illmp(:d or ('ntran('c e:1paei-
lance K, Fig. 3(13), normally obtained if the network is
grounded or open, or in general with an equin,lent 7r consi,-;ting
of the cap:lcitances K~, Ie, [(~; ~ee Fig. 3(C). T~lese lumped
capacitance:; are 0.1:<0 u"eful in eire-nit !'ah:llbti!Jns im'oh'ing
taken from Fig~. -l: and 5. According to these figures, note ~erics and regulating tr[\n~formers.
eO>eo ;:0 thaL the initial stresses e for a grolmded coil end Bare
For finding these lumped capacitanl'es, con:-iiuel' Llw wind-
;;cnerall.\· more oevere than for an open end. ing as divir!cd into many ~mall element::; with CV«I's ~o that at
In the p:,r( ~cllIar c[tse of el/ F:t, equation 1t can be <':011- the line end.t their \-oltage e l':ln be rOlllputed by the .',!;,'adient
wrtpd into ,he nomographic form:8 form eo/ E, of equation ,5, the current in Cg Illay be neglected,
'I( el/ EI \ fl j J-'--,( a) g(J3) = D lC(!3l (17) :!lld the cUITcnl in C s becolllcs identieal with the line <:lllTPnt II.
Since the ;;arne eurrent II flows into l'ith('r kind of network,
with Fig. 3(.\) or 3(8), obtain
D (21)
l+(alb)csch 2tJ
where p =d:'dt is the operator fOl: the differentiation against the
(18) time t. Distinguish also l\. = K = for :nfinitely long coils and
findT for a grounded (J(=KO) and open (K=KO) coil end B
by equations 5 and 21:

a~ ;;hown in Fig. 6. The values of u 0, so, and" 8 correspond K·=K"'ctnh a=C, _ct_>C.
Q, Q
tanh ct
to a grounded and open coil end B respecth·ely. They repre- (22)
tanh ct
sent straight scales of the variables eJE and ex with consta.nt KO=K'" tanh a=C, ---<Cv
.'pacing D and scale factors a and b, while w is a. curved scale
of the mriable (3 with variable distances f and g from the 3
:lnd u scales.

While this nomograph, Fig. 6, has been primarily designed
::'! 0.50 0

for computing the voltage el between the first two elements, it
may be u~ed also for finding the voltage across any other num-
0.45 ...._ _ _ _ _ 0 _ _ ._
ber J[ of elements next to the line end by substituting Jf{3"
for 13. In this way, also, the voltage e between any two ad- ~ 0.40 0.5
jacent elements inside of the winding can be able to be I-

obtained as the difference of two "oltages towards the FE 0.35 ,,

line end. ~ ,,
The two fundamental cases of a grounded and open coil end
B in Fig. 3(.\.) can be used for deriving the voltage distribution I
zO.3O ,,
<) ,
also for other conditions at B. As, an example, two separate ... 0.25
voltages EI and E2 are applicd at ..1 and B. Then any voltage . -~
E to ground inside the coil is the sum of E(x) resulting fl'om a ~ 9< 0.20 ti
:,ource EI at ..t with B grounded and of E(y=L-x) obtained
..- US
in· a distance y from B for a source at B with A grounded.
Consequl'ntly, write
0.6 ...~
0.55 .J
(c; E"(.r) E2 E·(y=l.-x) <.>
, ,:. = --
-.Cl EI
+ -

~-C.4S 0
:tnd find by equation 1 , a:

E sinh a(1-.rIL)+(EdEI ) sinh axiL

EI sinh ct
Fig. 60 Norncgr .. ph for cO~!,:Jtil'lg surge volt&;l! stressos~in
By eqnation 2 find then between eleml'nts a winding

SSO Strin-S"r~ Distribution in Con~entric Trans/o'''''I'!r Winding. :';EP't'EMUEI< HIM

II hi,·1i for a»l ill both l'a~('~ redllce:' to

J{ = }\"= 'V'CgI,', = ~ for ,,=.\"13»1 (23)

('''lI-('qll('lItl~', in !'e1atin'I~' IOllg; coib with a bl'ge llUlllb('j of

,·I"lIll'lIt:'.\', tll(' CnlntlH'(' capacitance J-i. h"('Ollle:i indcpClldl'nt
"I' t It" ('()i1I('II~tlll_likl' tIll' \'oltag,' di,-trillltlion of cqualioll 1:2
Ilt':ir tlt(' Jill(' ('lid.
FIJf obtainillg the equi\'a!t'nt ".. of F:,~. 3(C) rhange thi~ lIel-
, -'---x-
\I (Irk illto Fig. am) :l('('ordingto i L-
1--,--' ,-, ,-, L-'

(24) -PART 1- - '- ' PART 2 GROUND


:!Jld find h~' t'quation 22 (8)

! I
+iJ2 ~ , I

a 1 tanh a/2
A K~I P K2
K =J(~tallh-=-Cg--- < 1 ('0 GROlJ'IID
o :!:J a/2 2
(25) -'-PART 1 ,-PAR72 PART3'-!

J( = - - - = 1 ' , - -
~illh ('(
, sinh ClI
< (', (c) E~ f
P, K~
Kg, lE3 ~

.\c(·ordill,!! to Fig. 4, the stres:-;es E and c decrease rapidly Fig. 7. Major capacitance network of a wincHn::! with graded
il'Olll the lillt' pnd A, parti('ularly in ]l:lll('uke coils with a largc insulation
di"tl'ibutioll con:<taut a. This l'llgge"t,- all investigatioll of the A-Sectionalized network
p!fcet of r('dll(;ing the insulation ekaranc'es in a certain dis- B-Lumped capacitances of a 2·part network
tune!' from the line end. If the raJlacitall('C~ C g and c, ha\'e to C-Lumped capacitances of a 3·part network'
1)(' ehung('d for thi,; purJlo~c to any l'xtent, the voltage dis-
tribution llla\' be materially altrl'ed in the whole winding. insulatioIl ..;;hall, therefort', be ref('rrt'd to the maximum ~tre~:;
This distl'iJmtion "hall, therefore, bc analyzed for the condi- eo at x=O in a ('ol'l'e,;ponriing; winding Il'itl! uniform in:,uiatioll
tion:' that l' 9 and c, and the cOl're"ponding quantities of -Y, L, (C9=;gl, c,=c", 13=13,). For n. pancake cOllstrul'tion, the
('g, Co, K, K~, Kg, K., a, and p haw different \'alues di:;till- winding is usually long cnou(.!;h (a = p,.\'» 1) to permit the
,!.(ui"hed by :;ub~cripts 1, 2, 3 in different parts 1, 2, 3 of the approximation eo, 1:'. ~eo"'/ E" which is indcpendent of the
;"inding, a,; indicated in Fig. 7,n.nd that ('gand C, are uniformly winding length L Thus develop e/eo~= (e/E,) (E,/ea~),
...... ,
di,;tributed in each part. Likewj"c, \'oltage::: EIJ E 2 , Eo to and find for jln.rt 1 by equation" 13 and 20
ground "hall appear at the :;tart (A, P, Q) of each coiI part
~"hile N'=.Y,+.vZ+N3 and L=L,+L,+L 3 remain the total ~=-~ [eOSh a,O-x/L,)-l!.: cosh a,:C/L,] in part 1 (28)
\\"indin~ \':llues. eo~ sinh a, E,

where Ez/E. a"sumes the values E,"/EI and E2 o/El given in

equation 27 for a grounded and open coil end B. For part 2
In the case of two coil parts iIIuI"trated in Figs. 7(A) and obtained by equations 3 and 13
(B) obtain with pquation 24
e" E'cosh(l-x/L)a,LIL:
- =--- (26) eo" EI sinh ClI, sinh {3,
E, K,"+K, X - - inpal't2 (29)
, eO E.o sinh (I-x/ L)""L/L, sinh.81
whel'c 'K 2 lIlay a,,;;umc the value~ K~" or K/', depending cush a.
on whether the coil end B is open 01' g:rollnrted. Equtltion5
As a numerical example, e/ea'" i" plotted in Fi~. 8 agn.inst
l!l. 22, and 2.'5 fllrni;;h th!'n
x/L for X=50, .V1/,'i=L1/L=O.I, ('gl=Cg'!, anrl a !lumber of
. lEI} = [ ('!Ish
a, +-
.. ' ""
Slllll I dnh "" 1-'J-'
- (27)
values of C'I/l'"= ({3t/{3.) 2= (K 1"",'K,"')2 and of {3, correspond-
ing to a, = {3, = {3,.V = 201' 10 ill a uniformly ill~uln.lI,t1 winding,
This "holl"!; that th!' st re"se bl'lwf'l'n ('Iemrut" i,dncl1':\s{'d in the
With lhc voltage:; E. and E, thus determined at the ends A
already hi!;h-,.;tre~~ecl purt 1 and lo\\"prt·d ill thc low-stressed
:luc! P of the two coil parts, the voltage distribution within
part 2 if a reduction of the clearanres in part 2 is aecompanied
(':Il'h part can be found hy ('on"ide\'in~ it to be a complete
by an inerea"e of C,z. Larger ('Iearanrcs in part 2 havc the
winding by ibdf "'ith volta~(':; EI and E, applied at the ends of
opposite efred. The~c eonditiolls arr al~o illustrated in Fig. 9
I 'art 1 and with E2 applied on onc end of part 2 while its other
by plottin~ ('.·('o~ at the "tal·t of parts 1 and 2 a!,':linst. e.l/cl'!.
"lId is grounded or open. 111C mllles of E/E. and e/E. in part
As a result, in:-:ulation grac~ing; j" of limited mlue "inc{' it may
I :lrc then found by equation:; 19, 20, and 27 if a, {3, ancl L
increase the already exist ing rli1T('reJlcc~ ill the ,"oltagc >ltre;;;:e:;
:II'l' replaced by a"
{J" and L(. In part 2 fin;t compute E/E2
in different part:; of the wilHling.
and elE~ according to equation I by ;,ub,;tituting a2, {32, x- L, Further e\·jdencc of this effl'ct is found in the di:-:continuity
:tnell.! for cr, {3, x, and L. This gi\'es (EIEI ) = (E':E2)(7~·:/E.) appearing in the function e(:r) n.t point P in Fig. 8. This dis-
:uIII e/E. = (e/E2) (E2/E I ). continuity i" the J'f'~llit. of an ahrupt change in thc valuc,; of Cg
In a prnetical application, part 1, located next to thc linc
and c. at point P in Fig. i and becomes for {3( n.udI3-1«1 by
1'1111, mny reprcsent the fully insulated portion of a winding
equationR 27 to 29
Wh08C insulation clcarances would ha"e to be u,,;ed uniformly
in the whole coil if they were not reduced in part 2. For com- e(z=L,-O) K,""sinhi3,
C.,! for 131 anel .8::« 1 (30) ,
parison purpo"e", the stre~ses e in the winding with gmdcd e(z= L,+O) = KI~ sinh i'3" C ...:...


Fig. 8. Major dis-

tribution of the ele-
ment-to-element volt-
a!Zes in a winding with
graded insulation of
two coil parts 1.2
.. 006
0 2 4
C::;;l/ C ___ .__ _

Fig. 9. Effect of insulation gra::lng with tv;o coil parts upon

the maximum '/oltage stress beto.'1een elements in each part

xtL -

howewl', part 3 normally !i('." far :twav from the lill!' end .·1 ~o
that only a ::mall fraction of the apI;lil'd -ur;;c w,itag;e EI will
penetr[J.te to this part unless the distriotllion con,tant:-; al
fIJr c'ilher :m opr:n or grounded coil end B. In [J.ddition to and a,! are relatively 5mall. This i" _-omc\\·hat illu~tl'ated in
.::rl':!ting this uniavorable initial voltage distribution, this Fig. S. If, therefore, the \o:dlle of a~ i~ rdati\Oely hrr,,'C, the
cL'cuntinuity may also trigger extra voltage oscillations later distribution constant {33 may be repl:LC'e<i by i32 in ,~ ('alcubtion
011 in time. of the stl'e~:,cs in parts 1 and 2 ~o that the st raet lire is reduced
to Figs. i('-\') and (B) for t\\"o coil p:J.rts.
The Minor Voltage Distr:bution
The "nalysis of the effect of a graded insulation with three
·-:i p.lrts becomes similar to the analysis. made for two coil In order to make minor networks accessible to an analytic
.Lrts, Fig. i (.\.), if the corresponding capacitance network is treatment, the calculation will_be confined to the conditions
I~placed by the lumped capacitances shown in Fig. 7(C).
where a separate network can be ~soeiatcd with each ele-
Equation 24 furnishes then ment, as shown in Fig. 10. For this purpose an equipotential
surface appearing as a straight line in Fig. 10, has to be estab-
'E, K.. E. K" E. (E.)(Ea) lished between adjacent elements, similar to the ground in a
E, = K,"+K; EI = K1-+K,"-K,i.E./E.(E;,= EI & (31) major network, Fig. 3(A). However, while the ground is
always an equipotential surface of known physicul dimensions
which becomes by equations 22 and 25 for K3 = K~" or K."
which usually can be approximated by a straight line in a 2-
dimensional analysis, a corresponding surface in the duct be-
tween the elements can only be °found under ~pecial condi-
E. [ K.'" sinh at _(
- = cosh al+--; - . - - cosh aa--
Ea)]-l tions. Examples are cases of symmetry, as, for instance, a
uniformly insulated winding where all ducts or all alternate
EI KI smh aa . E.
ducts are alike. Equal alternate ducts appear, for instance,
By again referring the voltages : between elements to a if the space on one side of each element is filled with insulation
common value eo'" at point .4. in part 1, their ratio e/eo'" is and becomes a cooling duct on t he other side, as shown in the
given in part 1 by the same equation 28 as in the case of two inner coil of Fig. 2. Further examples of equnl potential
coil parts. For part 2 find, according to equations -13 and 20, boundaries are metallic ~nrfnce;; introduced a,: static i'hields or

sinh {3!
sinh {31
sinh aa
a condition where the sl\1'face of :tn element it~elf is approxi-
mately at a constant potential.
These various cases can be co\wedby the analy~is of the

cosh a,(I- X-LI)_~ c~sh a:
L~ Ea X-Lx}
in p:11't 2 (33)
model, Fig. 10, with equal alternate ducts so that, [OL' reasons
of symmetry, the centerline::; a'a" and b'b' between adjacent
elements are at a constant potential equal to that of the junc-
:l.I1d for part 3, according to equations 3 and 13" tion between them. The capacitance network of olle clement
cosh (l-x/L)aaL/L, extends then from a'a u to b'b u with (Ii~tribution::; of V
sinh a, and V-V which assume the ~ame inaximum value V at each
in part 3 (34) end. Then the analysis of the minor \"oltage distribution in
sinh (I-x/ L)aa£/La
Fig. 10 becomes similar to t,hat of the major voltage distribu-
cosh aa· tion in Fig. 3 by letting the inrlivirlU:1.1 "lements in the minor'
;llere E.IE" E3!Et, and EalE, may be COIl:lputcd by equations network b~ ~rtlliv!!!ent to the ..... hole winding in the mf\jor
31 and 32 by introducing Ea·IE,· or E 3 °(E,O, depending network and :!l50 by the individuai turn in the minor
on whether the coil end B is open or grounded. network correspond to the :-ingle element in the major
.-\ graded insuL'\.tion with three coil p3.rts could be applied to network.
3. dcltaoConnectcd 3-phase winding in which both coil ends have Similar to the fields outside :lnd insi(ie the wimlin~ repre-
to he heavily insulated:md any reduced insulation has to be sented by the major network, Fig. 3, distinguish in the minor'
('onfincd to the center section of the. winding. In this ca..~, net"'ork, Fig. 10, between the outside field in the space be-
". ;c
tWl'en clements and the iu;;ide field between turns. These Flo:;. 10. Wnor
fields are described by the external voltages V and f"r- V at c::pa cit Ll nee
eapaeitall(,p" ka :.lond /';b per-unit element length and by v and kT networks
[)t't \\"een adjacent turns respectively. Only single conductor
turns willlJl' considered. The di~cussion shall be further con-
fincd to uniformly insulated minor networks. These are net-
\\"o;'k~ of elements where all conductors and tlH~ir insulation arc
the same and the fringing effect at the ends is neglected. For
this rcason, the specific capacitances ka are equal as well as kb
and kr and can be able to be replaced by total capacitances
Ca, Cb, and CT between elements and between turns re-
Under these conditions the voltages V and v at a distance z
from the element end b' in Fig. 10 actually become functions of
the two variables z and x. However, in each element, that is,
in each minor net\york, consider x = constant so that V and !I
can be treated here as functions of z only. The introduction
of a dependence on x may, therefore, be confined to the maxi-
mum ir = V(z=O). The corresponding function ir(x) is then
obtained from the calculation already made for the major
network by substituting {3/2 for {3 and V for e in equations 3,
5, 10 to 18, and 20, and in the nomograph, Fig. 6.
As function of z in the minor network, Fig. 10, of elements
with the height Hand n+ 1 turns each, the, distribution of V The corresponding extrapolation Vo to z = 0 may be written
is shown in the Appendix to be
Vo. [l-cb/ca Cb/Ca ]
-=.=2 9mh "Y/(2n) - - - ctnh "Y+--- ctnh"Y /2 (40)
V l-cb/ca sinh (l-z/ H)y . V l+Cb/Ca l+cb/ca
-=--- T
sinh "Y For 'Y»I and 'Y/n«l these values are reduced to
Cb/C~ [ sinh (1-2Z/11h/2]
- - 1+--'---'-"':"":"=-
l+Cb/C" sinh ,",(/2
(35) ii Vo
-=~-::.="Y/n for "y»1 and "Y/n«l (41)
V V .
with a minor distribution constant 'Y and its normalized form Because of the similarity of equation 3D and equation 5 for
'Ya given by e·/Et, the value of ii/V can be computed by the nomograph,
Fig. 6, for the grounded non line end B. For this purpose the
'"'(= V2(ea+cb)/cT=2A'"'(/Z, "Ya= VCa/CTI A= V(l+cb/ca)j2 (36) quantity 'Y/2n is replaced in equation 39 by P in both terms,
while ex is substituted for 'Y in the first term and for 'Y/2 in the
where ).. is introduced as a measure for the dissymmetry of
second term.
c" and Cb. For reason of symmetry, only values 0 ~ Cb ~ Ca will
have to be considered.
In the extreme case c" = Cb, that is, when the element is sym-
metrically insulated, the first term in equations 35 to 40 dis-
The tum-to-turn stress v is obtained either by the chord or
appears so that the second term is reduced to -
difference of VCz) or, for sufficiently small values of the turn
thickness x=H/n, by the slope or gradient of V(z) in the ~ = ~[1+ sinh "Ya(1-2z/H)]. :'.. = cosh "Ya(I-2z/H)
form ' 17 2 sinh ' " ' ( a V o cosh "y~
V= V(z-~z/2)- V(z+az/2) by the chord of V(z) V cosh "Ya{l-2z/H)
(37) V sinh "Ya
. h "Ya (42)
HdV ii cosh (-Ya--fa/n) Sill - by chord of V(z)
v~ - - - by the slope of V(z) X 11.
n dz -V= sinh"Ya {
"Ya/n by slope of V(z)
which become.~, by equation 34, V=ctnh "Ya

~ =[l-cb/ra cosh (l-z/H)-y + Cb/ea cosh (1-2z/11 h /2]X

For Cb=Ca
V I +Cb/ra sinh'"'( 1+Cb/ca sinh "y/2
In the other extreme case Cb = 0, that is, when one of the two
2Mh 2. by chord of
V(Z)}' (~)
element surfaces is open, the second term vanishes from equa-
{ tions 35 to 40 and the first term is reduced to
"Y /n by slope of V(z)
V sinh "y(I-z/11) :'..= cosh "y(l-z/H)
This result is similar to equation 3 for the stress e between ends V= sinh '"'( Vo cosh 7
of clements in a major network. v cosh '"'(I-z/H)
For Cb ~ c" the maximum value ii of v appears at z = H /2n and
becomes, by the chord form of equation 38,
-v= sinh 7
ii cosh (,",(-,",(/(211.)) 2 sinh 2. by chord of V(z)
X 211.
ii. [1-1:6/1:" cosh (,",(-,",(/211.) V= sinh '"'( {
-=.=2 Sinh ,(211.) - - - • h + ,",(/11. by slope of Vez)
V 1+c,./c" Sin '"'( Ua
-y==ctnh '"'(
C./ca cosh ('"'(-7/n )/2J (39)
l+ct/ca sinh ,",(/2 For 1:6=0
SEPTEMBER 19,,-1 Stein-Surge DiBtn"bul:ion in Conuntric Tram/OrTner Windi>tU8


.", .....: .. , ~ ~.,.. .


Fig. 11 (left). Minor Fig,13(ri!lht). Non-

distribution of ele- linearity factor of
ment-to-element volt-
the minor voltage
distribution at the
end of an element -' 'r'"

:2 .


-~ -".,.

--c ~c
b 0

(he \'alue~ of ro am! Ro illCl"ea"e proJlort ionaIIy to f a and a for

hr!!;e yalut's of fa and a re~pectin'ly.
Fig. 12_ Mir.or dis-
tribution of turn-to-
The diffcrpnce betwccn the extreme condition" Co = c a , wlwn
turn voltages the element i" :;\'mmetric:llly insulated, and Cb=O, whpn olle
l'lement ~urfa('e 'is open, can also be iIIustratl'd hy dl'l"i\'illg
from equation" 42 and ·!3 thp mtio
1'/ r(r&=O) _'J siuh y':!",a/I! ctnh V:!",a - t'luil (-.a/llli \. '}
- - - ' - - - : - ' - ' ' - - - - - - - .. _-
> i' / l"( Cb = r,,) - - sinh "2",'; n dnh 'i<l-trlllil 'ialll
plotted against fa/n for diffcf"{'nt ndllP~ of'Ya in Fi~. 14.
The actuul amount of the tum-to-tllrn "trc~" /" ma.\' he
computed for any n,lllc~ of ! and x aee'OJ'ding to

,..1 0.2
l.'=~ E\ (V)(t.)
I 0
Hurl) (46)
- - - - cesco
The quantities ~,.. o and Ro are found hy equation;; 1. ii. and
15 by slIh:;tituting: 13/2 for 13. The mlues of t'. '1'0 and ro are
gin'n fOI' C"b=O and I'b=C a by equations 42 to 44.
The maximum values vo". and ii", of u appt'ar at the line
For Cb=C. the values of V and I' of equation 42 and also the end (.r=0, z=O) \\'here equation 46 reducE'S to
second term of {''luations 35 and 38 show a certain symmetry
with re~pect to z=H/2. This abo heromes apparent if V/ii' V"I llom ay
-::::> .. '::::> -'. for ,,»1: ;3«1; ,»1; "Y/n«1 (47)
n.nd vll'o are plutted against z/H, as ~hown in Fib'S. 11 and 12 E, E, n.\
for ~en'ral values of 'Y ... Con;;equentlr. the maximum turn-to-tum "tl1''''' t' '" inerNlses
For Cb=O the volt..'1.ges "", V, V, and t'o ill equations 43 for the apllroximately "'ith the product of the t\\"o di"trihution COll-
minor n{'twol'k and also the functions in'the fir>it term of equa- :-;tants Ct and 'Y in eontrac':nction to the maximum elemt:>llt-
tions 3.5 and 38 to 40 ean be made identical to equations 1, 3, to-element stre~s el whi('h, :.~" 8ho\\'n by equation 12, increa~es
and 5 for thl' (·ol'l'E';<Jlonding voltagl's EO, eO, e\ and eo in the
0, 0
'"ith onh' the one distribution con"t.ant a,
major netwol'k. FOI' this Jlurpo;;e z/l/; 'Yand 'Y/(2n) are re- n,·
usin .... the ,·olta ....e di"trihution of Y and t' in equations 35
p\art'd by x/L. Ct. und B fE':~pectivl'ly, This shows that for and '38 th; lumped ~~rie,.; papacitanec C, a!'~o("iated wit.h {'aeh
Cb=O the minor nl'twork. Fig. 10, is reducl'd to the shape of element may he computed in terms of the slim of th(> total
thl' major network, Fig, 3, and the cun'(',. of v/f' and vivo in capal'itancl' C"~ hd\\'eCn tll"O adjacent dement~ and CT Ix·tween
Fi~. 11 and 12 a:::'' 111111' the same form as Eo/g\ and eO/eo in all turn" of an (·It'mellt. This lumped rapaeitanee C", i.~ a
Fig. 4, Xot{' also that analogous to eleo, as giwn by equations function of "Ya und Cb/ea and repiac(';< the minol' net-work, Fig.
1 and 6, thl' chord .and slope fOlms of ['.'1'0 1X'('ol11e identical in 10, in the major net,,'ork. Fi1!:. 3. Gncler the"'l' ('ouditiolls nh-
r'llIut ions 42 and 43. tain, as "hown in the .\ppcndix,
Fig. 12 shows al:;() that for C&=Ca the turn-to-turn stresses 11
at both endi" of thl' ('leml'nt arl' much gn'ater than in its
c(,lltl'r, and that for ('b=O these "tre,:~s are highest at one end.
'11 Ii,. {'ffpet can Ill' stlllli('{1 more in dt-tail by int.roducing a non-
'''-:l'arity fucto!' r= n I'/f' wit.h r= ro for z=O which for the slope
;j"ill of ('(t'tatiolls 42 und 43lx>C'omes '48,
("la+ dnh -.~) for fb=Cq ur h= 1
r9= 11:;: = )"Ya dnh 1'" _ ror {"to =ral • (44)
-y':! ('tnh y::?-." for rt =0 or ;\.= IIv':?
Y /-y':!-." clnh Y2,.. for l"b =0 f If ploited :1.l-1!-ill"t 'Y" for diff('rent vdu(>;; of 'Ya.."n, :1.,- ~h(I\\'n in
Whl'n plotted again:<t 'Ya in Fig. l:l, til(> (11I:mtity ro of the Fig. 15, the quantity C"b. '(I',,+CT) rcache~ a maximum of 1.:H2
minol' network cxhihit.~ propertit's simii:u- tn 8 0 of the major at l'b = l'1I and 'Y~ = ::?AI-l.:L-~li;'1f''' its lowe;:t "alu('!' at ('~ = O,and
lli'twork in eqlla.tion 15 and Fig. 5. Thwc, in both nctworJss ,':uiei" \\;thin a ratio
-.-.---',:..........--.~- ........ -.- ~-
.•. . ,r.,. 'G'O?' "'95'

-..--- i'a+ctnh 'Ya If, therefOle, the analy~i~ prt'scntcd in the pr('\'iuu~ ,:cction
c,(rb =0) v'2 ctnh y2'Ya is to be used for investi~util!f, the ~hicldill;':; effpc(, an approxi-
mation has to be introciuc('d for the lllv;hieldcd 01' nonuniform
\\'hieh i;; in(·luded in Fig. 15.
condition. III order h tiwl thi,~ ~j)i)roxim~tif)n :1nd, [tt thl'
T:le Enact of 5l',ielJing ~t t:.c Li.:o End same timc, to check also tb accuracy of ~he c:llculaLiollS for u
shio;)!dcrl windin~, a lr.cdd of the minor voltage di~tribution
'fhe m!ljor network, Fi~, 3, h:l.S been analyzed under tIle
was simulated 011 resist~nce p~per,9 as shown in Fig. 16.
condit ion that the insulation is uniform throughout the whole
The paper itself took_cure of the field between clements.
winding, that is, that all ducts 01' all altel'llate ducts between
Resistance paint was added to simulate the turn-to-tum field.
element,; [Ire alike, Then each centerline between two ad-
Metallic plates were used to represent the turns. .\ccording
jacent clements is at an equal potential and the series capaci-
to the dimensions chosen, this model represented a coil with a
tance c. can be computed, as !'hown in the Appendix. How-
distance S = 2.10 em (centimeter,,) between adjacent elements,
ever, the clements at coil ends A and B have an open surface
a tum width W=1.90 cm, a turn thickness T,=0.31 em, an
on one side so that here the uniformity of the insulation is
insulation thickness T 1 =0.16 cm between adjacent turns, an
discontinued. This nonuniformity of the coil ends penetrates
element height !I = 14.1 em, and with n=29 insulation spaces
to a certain degree into the ,,'inding and, exactly speaking, only
between the turns of c! elemep..t. The r~tio chosen for the
the centerline between the two clements in the middle of the
resisti\'ities in the spal;es bet\\'ccn the simulated turns and
coil ill abo an equipotential line.
in the space between the two simulated elemcnt;; wa~ equiva-
The uniformity of the coil insulation could be restored by
lent to a ratio CT/ fa = Ul of the dielectric con<;tants fT between
extendino- the coil uniformly up to infinity beyond each line
turns and fa between elements.
('lelllcnt." This condition is frequently simulated by providing
The co!'re~pondillg voltage distrihutioll was SLl!died on :3"
a metallic i<urface, commonly referrcd to as a static shield, or
2-element morlel with t\\-O shield~, Fig. 16(.-\.), without. shields,
ju,;t a . ; a shield, on the centerline between the yne eleme~t
Fig. lG(B), and with only Olle ~hielJ, Fig. W(C). The meas-
and the fictitious next consecuti\'c e/ement,as Illustrated III
ured equipotellt.iallines are plotted in the~c models for differ-
Fig. 2. :\. winding shielded,in this way as;;umes in principle
ent fraction~ E/ Ji}1 of the applied ';olta:;;\~ Fl.
the samc properties as a uniformly insubted coil.
Except for the fringing effect at the e)('ment end~ :=0 and
In an unshielded winding the outside surfaces of the end
z=H, the field of the shielded winding, Fig. 16(.-\.), is quite
element,~ arc boundaries of an outside field to ground which
symmetrical, and the centerline between elemellts becomes the
could be represented by a certain capacitance network to
potential line E/El=0.05. Consequently, equation 42 for
O'round. In an unshielded layer wound coil, this end ground
~apaeit;ance is significant, as compared with the minor inside Cb=C a with the cur.... es shown in Fig. 11, will apply to the
voltao-e distribution at the turns.
capacit~nce network, Fig. 10, and the shield has the double
In the unshielded winding, Fig. 16(B), the field still retains
purpose of eliminating this end ground capacitance and to
,,,--..,.,.. a certain symmetry since, within the limit" of the test ac-
convert the rest of the winding into a uniform network. In
curacy, the potential line E/E1 =0.5 continues to coincide with
/ an unshielded pancake winding, however, the end ground
the centerline between the two elements. Therefore, equa-
capacitance becomes very smail, as compared wit~ ~he
tion 42 for the condition Cb = 0 with the corresponding curves
capacitance fa between the end element and the next lllSlde
shown in Fig. 11 will describe the voltage distribution at the
element. For this reason approximate the other capacitance
c towards the outside by Cb = 0 in an end element when cal-
c~lating its minor voltage distribution. This dissymmetry If, however, only one end is shielded, as shown in Fig.
will have a profound effect on the series capacitances and volt-
age;; at the line end of an unshielded winding, particularly in
its first two elements.
1.4 7
I ! 1/
Cbl Co - I i./f 6
Fig. 14 (left>. Comparison of the
relati>'e maximum turn-to-turn
;I' VI
, i
,- t--0.8..L1 /

...6 ~
! I !
voltages In a symmotrlcally In- 1.0
1 1 I , 5 I

sulated element and In an ele- N ~ 1'---..' I

1-- ~o.6 !
. I I",,"" 5'
ment with an open surface and
,1 Ii)''':
\\ ~ :::t::-b '~il "

comparison of these voltages in

a shielded and unshielded end \ f\ ['oJ 1/ I I".. , ;:,
... .0

element ~I "K l "02/, i I , ~

.j 0.6 ' 3
\ fo.. ~"..' ~ I

A'~ f''' f'-.. I 1 i I

..... 0.4
,V "..
".. "',
t--... '~ i ;

~ 't--'O_i~
i ,! 1 o
a 2 3 4 5 6
ID0 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.2 FOR EQUAL POTENTIAL BCllJNOt\RY { _ _ CsJ(Co tCT)