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ITIL V3 Service Capability OSA Certification Exam

Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the ITIL V3


Service Capability OSA Exam:

The 'How to Pass on Your First Try' Certification Study Guide

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ITIL® is a Registered Community Trade Mark of OGC (Office of Government


Commerce, London, UK), and is Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark
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Foreword

This Exam Preparation book is intended for those preparing for the ITIL® V3
Intermediate Capability Stream: Operational Support and Analysis (OSA) Exam.

The Art of Service is an Accredited Training Organization for this program and
has been training this course for more than 8 years. The strategies and content
in this book are a result of experience and understanding of the ITIL® OSA
Program, and the exam requirements.

This book is not a replacement for completing the course. This is a study aid to
assist those who have completed an accredited course and preparing for the
exam.

Do not underestimate the value of your own notes and study aids. The more you
have, the more prepared you will be.

While it is not possible to pre-empt every question and content that MAY be
asked in the Intermediate OSA exam, this book covers the main concepts
covered within the ITIL Intermediate OSA Syllabus and a Practice Exam (created
by The Art of Service).

Each Process contains a summarized overview of key knowledge areas. These


overviews are designed to help you to reference the knowledge gained through
the course.

Due to licensing rights, we are unable to provide actual APMG Exams. However,
the study notes and sample exam questions in this book will allow you to more
easily prepare for an APMG ITIL® OSA exam.

Ivanka Menken
Executive Director, The Art of Service
http://www.theartofservice.com/
2 Table of Contents

1 Foreword ................................................................................... 1
2 Table of Contents ...................................................................... 2
3 ITIL® v3 Certification Pathway................................................... 7
4 Exam Specifics .......................................................................... 8
5 Exam Prerequisites.................................................................... 8
6 Exam Hints ................................................................................ 9
7 The Art of Service Objective Tree ............................................ 11
8 Study Notes ............................................................................. 12
9 IT Service Management........................................................... 13
9.1 Basic Concepts: ................................................................ 13
9.1.1 ITSM is the effective and efficient process driven
management of quality IT Services. The added value to ITSM is
that is business aligned and maintains a holistic Service
Lifecycle approach................................................................... 13
9.1.2 Four Perspectives of ITSM (as found in Service Design
Phase): 13
9.1.3 Why Service Management? ....................................... 13
9.1.4 Roles: There are many roles associated with ITIL
processes. Each process should have a Process Manager e.g.
Incident Manager. It is also reasonable for each Phase to have
a Manager, e.g. Service Design Manager. ............................... 13
9.2 Key Terms:........................................................................ 14
10 ITIL ® v3 Service Lifecycle ...................................................... 15
11 Service Operation .................................................................... 16
11.1 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 16
11.1.1 Service Operation – Value:......................................... 16
11.1.2 Service Operation – Scope:........................................ 16
11.1.3 Achieving the Balance................................................ 17
11.1.4 Communication .......................................................... 17
12 Operational Support and Analysis............................................ 18
13 Event Management.................................................................. 19
13.1 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 19
13.1.1 Event management – Business Value ........................ 19
13.1.2 Activities..................................................................... 19
13.1.3 Interfaces ................................................................... 20
13.1.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 20
13.1.5 Challenges ................................................................. 21

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13.1.6 Critical Success Factors............................................. 21
13.1.7 Risks: ......................................................................... 21
13.1.8 Designing for Event management .............................. 21
13.2 Key Terms ..................................................................... 22
14 Incident Management .............................................................. 23
14.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 23
14.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 23
14.2.1 Incident Management – Business Value..................... 23
14.2.2 Activities..................................................................... 23
14.2.3 Interfaces ................................................................... 24
14.2.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 24
14.2.5 Challenges ................................................................. 24
14.2.6 Critical Success Factors............................................. 25
14.2.7 Risks .......................................................................... 25
14.2.8 Incident Model:........................................................... 25
14.2.9 Major Incident............................................................. 26
14.3 Key Terms ..................................................................... 26
15 Problem Management ............................................................. 27
15.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 27
15.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 27
15.2.1 Problem Management – Business Value.................... 27
15.2.2 Reactive Activities ...................................................... 27
15.2.3 Proactive Activities ..................................................... 27
15. 2.4 Interfaces ................................................................... 28
15.2.5 Metrics ....................................................................... 28
15.2.6 Challenges and Critical Success Factors ................... 28
15.3 Key Terms ..................................................................... 29
16 Request Fulfillment .................................................................. 30
16.1 Basic Concepts:............................................................. 30
16.1.1 Request Fulfilment – Business Value: ........................ 30
16.1.2 Activities:.................................................................... 30
16.1.3 Interfaces: .................................................................. 31
16.1.4 Metrics: ...................................................................... 31
16.1.5 Challenges: ................................................................ 32
16.2 Key Terms: .................................................................... 32
17 Access Management ............................................................... 33
17.1 Basic Concepts:............................................................. 33
17.1.1 Asset Management – Business Value ........................ 33
17.1.2 Activities..................................................................... 33
17.1.3 Interfaces ................................................................... 33
17.1.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 34
17.1.5 Challenges and Critical Success Factors ................... 34

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17.2 Key Terms ..................................................................... 35
18 Service Desk Function............................................................. 36
18.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 36
18.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 36
18.2.1 Service Desk – Business Value.................................. 36
18.2.2 Service Desk Organizational Structures ..................... 37
18.2.3 Staffing....................................................................... 37
18.2.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 38
18.2.5 Outsourcing Service Desk .......................................... 38
19 Technical Management Function ............................................. 39
19.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 39
19.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 39
19.2.1 Role: .......................................................................... 39
19.2.2 Activities..................................................................... 39
19.2.3 Organization............................................................... 39
19.2.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 40
20 IT Operations Management Function....................................... 41
20.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 41
20.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 41
20.2.1 Role: .......................................................................... 41
20.2.2 Sub Functions ............................................................ 41
20.2.3 Organization............................................................... 42
20.2.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 42
21 Application Management Function........................................... 43
21.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 43
21.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 43
21.2.1 Role ........................................................................... 43
21.2.2 Organization............................................................... 43
21.2.3 Metrics ....................................................................... 44
22 OSA - Technology and Implementation ................................... 45
22.1 Basic Concepts:............................................................. 45
22.1.1 Integrated ITSM technology: ...................................... 45
22.1.2 Event Management .................................................... 45
22.1.3 Incident Management................................................. 46
22.1.4 Request Fulfilment ..................................................... 46
22.1.5 Problem Management ................................................ 46
22.1.6 Access Management.................................................. 47
22.1.7 Service Desk .............................................................. 47
22.1.8 Service Management Tools........................................ 47
22.1.9 Tool Evaluation: ......................................................... 48
23 Service Operation .................................................................... 49
23.1.1 Activities..................................................................... 49

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23.1.2 Plan and implement Service Management ................. 49
23.1.3 OSA – Challenges...................................................... 50
23.1.4 OSA – Critical Success Factors.................................. 50
23.1.5 OSA – Risks............................................................... 50
24 Practice Exam ......................................................................... 51
24.1 Refresher “Warm up Questions” .................................... 51
24.2 Intermediate Style Practice Exam .................................. 55
25 Answer Guide ........................................................................ 106
25.1 Answers to warm up Questions ................................... 106
25.2 Answers to Intermediate Style Practice Exam.............. 106
26 ACRONYMS.......................................................................... 114
27 Glossary ................................................................................ 116
28 References ............................................................................ 119

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Also from Emereo Publishing and The Art of Service:

How to Develop, Implement and Enforce ITIL V3's Best Practices

The refresh of ITIL® into V3 brought impressive positive changes. The evolution
of the core principles and practices provided by the framework provides the more
holistic guidance needed for an industry that continues to mature and develop at
a rapid pace.

Many organizations and individuals who had previously struggled with their
adoption of the ITIL framework will continue to find challenges in ‘implementing’
ITIL® as part of their approach for governance of IT Service Management
practices. In light of this, the primary goal of this book is to provide the support
materials needed to enable the understanding and application of the ITIL®
framework in a wide-range of contexts.

This comprehensive book is designed as an easy reference that will walk you
through the 5 Lifecycle critical steps you need to take to create a successful
portfolio of IT Services. In addition you will learn how to manage and refine your
service portfolio as your company's business evolves.
3 ITIL® v3 Certification Pathway

Since the launch of ITIL v3 in July 2007, a new certification path was
also released. This new path encompasses all the new v3 Programs,
ending in the possible attainment of “Expert Status”. The figure below
demonstrates the possible pathways that you could take to achieve
the Expert status.

To achieve Expert status, you are required to gain a minimum of 22


points by completing various ITIL® v3 programs:
o You must complete the v3 Foundation Program (2 points)
o You must complete the Managing Across the Lifecycle
Program (5 points)
o The remaining 15 points must come from The Intermediate
Stream (Capability and Lifecycle Programs)
(The numbers on each program indicate the points value.)

It is yet to be finalized how the “Advanced Level” can be achieved,


but is expected to be based on demonstration of practical experience
in ITIL and IT Service Management.

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4 Exam Specifics

The APMG ITIL® v3 Intermediate Operational Support and Analysis


exam is:
o Multiple choice exam
o 90 minutes in length
o 8 scenario based questions
o Pass mark is 70%
o Closed book exam
o Scaled Marking system:
o Most correct answer – 5 marks
o Next – 3 marks
o Next – 1 mark
o 1 answer – 0 marks.

It is possible to do a paper based or a web based exam. (Please


check with your Accredited Examination Centre for more information
on this).

5 Exam Prerequisites

In order to sit the ITIL Intermediate OSA Exam, you MUST have an
ITIL v3 Foundation Certificate or ITIL v2 Foundation plus Bridge
Certificate and completion of an accredited program from an ITIL
Accredited Training Provider.

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6 Exam Hints

When it comes time to sit your exam, you need to do this through an
accredited Authorized Examination Center. You may have the option
to do the exam as web or paper based. Either way, you will be given
a paper copy of the Scenarios. A good thing!
(Especially of you are doing web based – do not waste time opening
web versions of the scenario – use the paper ones)

Do not be fooled by the “only 8 questions” concept. These questions


are designed to test you… - not only your knowledge, but also your
understanding and application of the theory. You have 90 minutes,
which means roughly 11 minutes per question. Most questions come
with their own case study/scenario. You need to CAREFULLY read
the scenario, then the question, then the scenario again.

There are 4 possible answers – 1 is totally WRONG! And usually it is


obvious to see which that is. If we do our math – you need 28/40 to
pass. This means that if the answers are based on a 5/3/1/0 scale –
you really cannot afford to get any 0 answers. You MUST get at least
2 x 5 mark answers and the remaining averaging 3’s (to get minimum
of 28) …. So you DO need to know your stuff.

THINK Business! – Remember – as “Techies”, we tend to get


caught up in “our” IT world. The ITIL v3 lifecycle and in
particular ITSM is customer centric… THINK THIS WAY when
answering questions!

Know your content – know your order. This study guide gives you
a solid revision approach to this course – but does not cover ALL
content (that’s why you do the course). Make sure you know what
makes up a policy/plan/ and the activities for each process, as well as
who does what.

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Case study hints
o Identify main process/concept being tested
o Identify the “issue/problem” faced within the scenario – there
will always be one – your role is to resolve that issue.
o Once you have read the associated question, go back and
identify/confirm that you are on the right track

Question hints
o The 4 possible answers will appear to be similar – you need to
read the possible answers carefully.
o Eliminate the most obvious “wrong answer”... Things to look
for:
o Order of activities
o Red herring activities
o Wrong processes
o Wrong description
o From the remaining 3 responses – start to identify
similarities/differences – this will help you to eliminate the next
response generally – the differences will be a hint that one of
them is incorrect – you have to decide which one
o It is probable that the “most correct” response would have the
correct order of activities/ descriptions and “just that little bit
more”.
o DO NOT assume that the longest response is the most correct
one
o Expect a “phase” question – while most questions are obvious
what it is testing (i.e. process) – you could expect to get a “big
picture” question asking about Service Transition in general –
so make sure you understand your related phases

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7 The Art of Service Objective Tree

This Objective Tree is a very useful tool for understanding and


“tunneling” down into how ITSM can contribute to achieving a
corporate objective. This helps us to better understand how the
Service Lifecycle can contribute to achieving the Business objectives

The aim of the


Objective tree is to
walk down the tree to
understand HOW each
level of the
organization is assisted
in achieving their
objective by receiving
support from the level
below.

Once you get to the


bottom, you then walk
back up the tree, giving
example of WHY each
would be of benefit to
the one above in
achieving its
objectives.

ITIL contributes in the


darker IT aspects in
providing quality IT
Service Management

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8 Study Notes
The following Study notes are broken down into the following topics:
o Service Management as a concept and relevant terminology
o ITIL Service Lifecycle as a concept and relevant terminology
o Service Operation Phase
o Operational Support and Analysis (OSA) processes and
functions
o Implementing OSA and technology
o Service Operation

Again these study notes are not intended to replace an accredited


ITIL Foundation Program. These notes are supplementary and may
not include EVERY concept that may be tested.

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9 IT Service Management

9.1 Basic Concepts:

9.1.1 ITSM is the effective and efficient process driven management


of quality IT Services. The added value to ITSM is that is
business aligned and maintains a holistic Service Lifecycle
approach.

9.1.2 Four Perspectives of ITSM (as found in Service Design


Phase):
o People
o Partners
o Process
o Products

9.1.3 Why Service Management?


o Business more dependent on IT
o Complexity of technology increases
o Customers demand more
o Environment becomes more competitive
o Focus on controlling costs of IT
o Low customer satisfaction
o Falling credibility of some IT organizations

9.1.4 Roles: There are many roles associated with ITIL processes.
Each process should have a Process Manager e.g. Incident
Manager. It is also reasonable for each Phase to have a
Manager, e.g. Service Design Manager.

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9.2 Key Terms:

Process: a set of coordinated activities combining and implementing


resources and capabilities in order to produce an outcome and
provide value to customers or stakeholders.

Service: a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating


outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of
specific costs or risks.

IT Infrastructure: all the hardware, software, networks, facilities,


services and support elements that are required to develop, test,
deliver, monitor, control and support IT Services

ITSM: A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing


value to customers in the form of services.

Capabilities: The functions and processes utilized to manage


services. Capabilities are intangible assets of an organization and
cannot be purchased, but must be developed and matured over time.

Resources: A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure, people,


money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service.
Resources are also considered to be tangible assets of an
organization.

Good Practice: (also referred to as Best Practice) That which is


successful in “wide industry use”

Functions: A team or group of people and the tools they use to


carry out one or more Processes or Activities. Functions provide
units of organization responsible for specific outcomes.

Customer: refers to the person who “pays” for the service, or has the
authority to request a service

User: An organization’s staff member/employee who “uses” the IT


service

System: refers to a range of repositories for storing and accessing


information – can include databases, Filing cabinets, storage
cupboards etc

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10 ITIL ® v3 Service Lifecycle

Version 3 maintains a holistic view covering the entire lifecycle of a


service, no longer does ITIL just answer the how questions, but also
why?

•Why does a customer need this service?


•Why should the customer purchase services from us?
•Why should we provide (x) levels of availability, capacity and
continuity?

By first asking these questions it enables a service provider to provide


overall strategic objectives for the IT organization, which will then
be used to direct how services are designed, transitioned,
supported and improved in order to deliver maximum value to
customers and stakeholders.

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11 Service Operation

Objectives:
o Service Operation ensures day-to-day operation of processes
is conducted, controlled and managed effectively.
o Enable successful service improvements by systematically,
monitoring performance, assessing metrics and data
gathering.
o Service Operation staff should have processes and support
tools in place. This enables an overall view of Service
Operation and delivery and the ability to detect any
threats/failures to service quality.
o As services may be provided, in whole or in part, by one or
more partner/supplier organizations, the Service Operation
view of end-to-end service must be extended to encompass
external aspects of service provision – and where necessary
shared or interfacing processes and tools are needed to
manage cross-organizational work-flows.

11.1 Basic Concepts

11.1.1 Service Operation – Value:


o Each stage of the Service Lifecycle provides value to the
business. The operation of service is where plans, designs
and optimizations are executed and measured. From a
customer viewpoint this is where the actual value is seen.

11.1.2 Service Operation – Scope:


o The Services themselves – any activity that forms part of a
service is included in Service Operation, whether it is
performed by the Service provider, an external supplier or the
user or customer of that service.
o Service Management processes – the ongoing management
and execution of many service management processes are
performed in Service Operation, even though a number of
processes originate in the Service Design/Transition stage of
the Lifecycle, they are used continually in Service operation.

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o Technology – all services require some form of technology to
deliver them. Managing this technology is not a separate
issue, but an integral part of the management of the services
themselves. Therefore a large part of Service Operation is
concerned with the management of the infrastructure used to
deliver services.
o People – Regardless of what services, processes and
technology are managed, they are all about people. It is
people who drive demand for the organizations services and
products and people who decide how this will be done.
Ultimately, it is people who manage the technology, processes
and services. Failure to recognize this will result in the failure
of service management projects.

11.1.3 Achieving the Balance


o Internal IT view vs External business view
o Stability vs Responsiveness
o Cost of Service vs Quality of Service
o Reactive vs Proactive

11.1.4 Communication
o Communications must have an intended purpose or a resultant
action.
o Information should not be communicated unless there is a clear
audience.
o The audience must have been actively involved in determining the
need for the communication and what they will do with the
information.
o Frequency, location and choice of medium for communication
must be decided by the individual department and documented in
a policy.

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12 Operational Support and Analysis

Operational Support and Analysis Processes:


o Request Fulfilment
o Event Management
o Access Management
o Incident Management
o Problem Management

Operational Support and Analysis Functions:


o Service Desk
o Technical Management Function
o IT Operations Management Function
o Application Management Function

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13 Event Management

Objective: Event Management provides the entry point for the


execution of many Service Operation processes and activities. In
addition, it provides a way of comparing actual performance and
behavior against design standards and SLA’s.

13.1 Basic Concepts

13.1.1 Event management – Business Value


The value to the business of implementing the Event Management
process is generally indirect, but it is possible to determine the basis
for its value. For example,
o It provides mechanisms for early detection of incidents.
o It enables some types of automation activity to be monitored
by exception.
o Signal status changes or exceptions that allow the appropriate
person or team to perform early response.
o Provides a basis for automated operations, increasing
efficiency and allowing human resources to be better utilized.

13.1.2 Activities
o Event occurs
o Event Notification
o Event Detection
o Event Correlation
o Significance of Events
o Event Filtering
o Trigger
o Response Selection
o Review Actions
o Close Event

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13.1.3 Interfaces
o Interface with business applications and/or business
processes to allow potentially significant business events to
be detected and acted upon.
o The primary ITSM relationships are with Incident, Problem
and Change Management.
o Capacity & Availability Management are critical in defining
what events are significant, appropriate thresholds and how to
respond to them. Event Management will improve
performance and availability of services by responding to
events when they occur and reporting on actual events and
patterns of events to determine if there is some aspect of the
infrastructure design or operation that can be improved.
o Configuration Management is able to use events to determine
the current status of any CI in the infrastructure. Comparing
events with the authorized baselines in the CMS will help to
determine whether there is unauthorized Change activity
taking place in the organization.
o Asset Management can use Event Management to determine
the lifecycle status of assets.
o Events can be a rich source of information that can be
processed for inclusion in Knowledge Management systems.
o Event Management can play an important role in ensuring that
potential impact on SLA’s is detected early and any failures
are rectified as soon as possible so that impact on service
targets is minimized.

13.1.4 Metrics
o # of events by category and significance
o # and % of events that required human intervention and whether
this was performed
o # and % of events that resulted in incidents and changes
o # and % of events caused by existing problems and known errors
o # and % of repeated or duplicated events
o # and % of events indicating performance issues and potential
availability issues
o # and % of each type of event per platform or application
o # and ratio of events compared with the number of incidents.

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13.1.5 Challenges
o Initial challenge could be obtaining funding for necessary tools
and effort required to install and exploit the benefits of the tools.
o Setting the correct level of filtering.
o Rolling out necessary monitoring agents across the entire IT
infrastructure can be difficult and time consuming – requires
ongoing commitment.
o Acquiring the necessary skills can be time consuming and costly.

13.1.6 Critical Success Factors


o There are 3 keys to correct filtering:
1. Integrate Event Management into all processes
2. Design new service with Event Management in mind
3. Trial and Error
o Integrate Event Management into all processes where
feasible. This will ensure that only the events significant to
these processes are reported.
o Design new service with Event Management in mind.
o Trial and Error. No matter how thoroughly Event Management
is prepared, there will be classes of events that are not
properly filtered. Event Management must therefore include a
formal process to evaluate the effectiveness of filtering.

13.1.7 Risks:
o Failure to obtain adequate funding
o Ensuring the correct level of filtering
o Failure to maintain momentum in rolling out the necessary
monitoring agents across the IT infrastructure.

13.1.8 Designing for Event management


o Instrumentation
o Error messaging
o Event detection & Alert mechanisms
o Identification of thresholds

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13.2 Key Terms

An event can be defined as a change of state that has significance


for the management of a Configuration Item (including IT Services).
This can be detected by technical staff or be automated alerts or
notifications created by CI monitoring tools.

Alert: A warning that a threshold has been reached or something has


been changed (An event has occurred).

Trigger: An indication that some action or response to an Event may


be needed.

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14 Incident Management

14.1.1 Objective:
To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and
minimize the adverse impact on business operations, thus
ensuring that the best possible levels of service quality and
availability is maintained.

14.2 Basic Concepts

14.2.1 Incident Management – Business Value


o Ability to detect and resolve incidents, which results in lower
downtime to the business, which in turn means higher
availability of the service. This means that the business is
able to exploit the functionality of the service as designed
o Ability to align IT activity to real-time business priorities. This
is because Incident Management includes the capability to
identify business priorities and dynamically allocate resources
as necessary.
o Ability to identify potential improvements to services. This
happens as a result of understanding what constitutes an
incident and also from being in contact with the activities of
business operational staff.
o The Service Desk can, during its handling of incidents, identify
additional service or training requirements found in IT or the
business.

14.2.2 Activities
o Ownership, Monitoring, Tracking and Communication
o Incident identification/logging
o Categorization and initial support, prioritisation
o Investigation and diagnosis
o Resolution and recovery
o Incident closure

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14.2.3 Interfaces
o Problem Management
o Configuration Management
o Change Management
o Capacity Management
o Availability Management
o Service Level Management

14.2.4 Metrics
o # of Incidents (as a control measure)
o Breakdown of incidents at each stage
o Size of current incident backlog
o # and % of major incidents
o Mean elapsed time to achieve incident resolution
o % of incidents handled with agreed response time
o Average cost per incident
o # of incidents reopened and as a % of the total
o # and % of incidents incorrectly assigned
o # and % incidents incorrectly categorized
o % of incidents closed by Service Desk with no other reference
o # and % of incidents handled per Service Desk agent

14.2.5 Challenges
o The ability to detect incidents as early as possible
o Convincing all staff that all incidents must be logged
o Availability of information about problems and Known
Errors
o Integration into the CMS to determine relationships
o Integration into the SLM process

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14.2.6 Critical Success Factors
o A good service desk is key to successful Incident
Management
o Clearly defined targets to work to – as defined in SLA’s
o Adequate customer-orientated/technically trained support staff
with the correct skill levels, at all stages of the process.
o Integrated support tools to drive and control the process
o OLA’s and UC’s that are capable of influencing and shaping
the correct behavior of all support staff

14.2.7 Risks
o Being inundated with incidents that cannot be handled within
acceptable timescales due to a lack of available or properly
trained resources.
o Incidents being bogged down or not progressed as intended
because of inadequate support tools to raise alerts and
prompt progress
o Lack of adequate and/or timely information sources because
of inadequate tools or lack of integration.
o Mismatches in objectives or actions because of poorly aligned
or non-existent OLA’s and/or UC’s.

14.2.8 Incident Model:


•The steps that should be taken to handle the incident
•The chronological order these steps should be taken in, with any
dependencies or co-processing defined
•Responsibilities; who should do what
•Timescales and thresholds for completion of actions
•Escalation procedures; who should be contacted and when
•Any necessary evidence-preservation activities.

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14.2.9 Major Incident
o The highest category or impact for an incident, a major
incident results in significant disruption to the business.
o A Major Incident can sometimes be confused with a Problem.
o An Incident remains an Incident forever regardless of impact
or priority. A problem is the underlying cause of one or more
incidents and remains a separate entity
o A separate procedure, with shorter timescales and greater
urgency, must be used for ‘major’ incidents. A definition of
what constitutes a major incident must be agreed and ideally
mapped on to the overall incident prioritization system – such
that they will be dealt with through the major incident process.
o If the Incident Manager is also performing the role of the
Service Desk Manager, then there should be a separate
member of staff allocated to lead the major incident
investigation team – they will report back to the Incident
Manager.
o If the cause of the Major Incident needs to be investigated at
the same time, the Problem Manager will have to be involved.
However, it is the Incident Manager that has to ensure that
service restoration and underlying cause are kept separate.
o The Service Desk will ensure that all activities are recorded
and that users are kept fully informed of progress.

14.3 Key Terms

Incident:
1. An unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the
quality of an IT service.

2. Failure of a CI that has not yet affected service is also an


incident.

Service Request: A request by a user for information, advice or for a


standard change or for access to an IT service.

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15 Problem Management

15.1.1 Objective:
o Prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening, to
eliminate recurring incidents and to minimize the impact of
incidents that cannot be prevented.

15.2 Basic Concepts

15.2.1 Problem Management – Business Value


o Higher availability of IT services
o Higher productivity of business and IT staff
o Reduced expenditure on workarounds or fixes that do not
work
o Reduction in cost of effort in fire-fighting or resolving repeat
incidents.

15.2.2 Reactive Activities


o Problem detection and logging
o Problem categorization and prioritisation
o Problem investigation and diagnosis
o Workarounds and raising known error record
o Problem resolution and closure
o Tracking and monitoring
o Major problem review
o Errors detected

15.2.3 Proactive Activities


o Major Problem Review
o Trend Analysis
o Targeting preventive action

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15.2.4 Interfaces
o Change Management
o Service Asset & Configuration Management
o Release & Deployment Management
o Availability Management
o Capacity Management
o IT Service Continuity Management
o Service Level Management
o Financial Management

15.2.5 Metrics
o Total # of problems recorded in the period
o % of problems resolves within SLA targets
o # and % of problems that exceed their resolution times
o Backlog of outstanding problems and the trend
o Average cost of handling problem
o # of major problems (opened/closed)
o % of Major Problem Reviews successfully performed
o # of Known Errors added to the KEDB
o % accuracy of the KEDB
o % of Major Problem Reviews completed successfully and on
time.

15.2.6 Challenges and Critical Success Factors


o A major dependency for Problem Management is the
establishment of an effective Incident Management process
and tools.
o This will ensure that problems are identified ASAP and as
much work is done on pre-qualification as possible. It is also
critical that two or more processes have formal interfaces and
common working practices.

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15.3 Key Terms

Incident: Any event which is not part of the standard operation of


a service and which causes, or may cause an interruption to, or a
reduction in the quality of that service. A failure of a CI that has
not yet affected service is also classified as an incident.

Problem: Unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents


(The investigation)

Known Error: Known underlying cause.


Successful diagnosis of the root cause of a Problem, and a
workaround or permanent solution has been identified

KEDB: Known Error Database

Workaround: Used to restore agreed service operation, as


quickly as possible.

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16 Request Fulfillment

Objectives:
o Providing a channel for users to request and receive standard
services for which a pre-defined approval and qualification
process exists.
o Providing information to users and customers about the
availability of services and the procedure for obtaining them.
o Source and deliver the components of requested standard
services.
o Assist with general information, complaints or comments.

16.1 Basic Concepts:

16.1.1 Request Fulfilment – Business Value:


o Provide quick and effective access to standard services,
which business staff can use to improve their productivity, for
the quality of business services and products.
o Request Fulfilment effectively reduces the bureaucracy
involved in requesting and receiving access to existing or new
services, therefore also reducing the cost of providing these
services.

16.1.2 Activities:
o Menu Selection
o Financial Approval
o ‘Other’ Approval
o Fulfilment
o Closure

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16.1.3 Interfaces:
o Service Desk
o Incident Management
o Service Desk/Incident Management – many Service
Requests may come in via the Service Desk and may
be initially handled through the Incident Management
process. Some organizations may choose that all
requests are handled via this route – but others may
choose to have a separate process.
o Release & Deployment Management
o Service Asset & Configuration Management
o Release & Deployment Management/Service Asset &
Configuration Management – as some requests will be
for the deployment of new or upgraded components
that can be automatically deployed. In such cases the
‘release’ can be pre-defined, built and tested but only
deployed upon request by those who want the
‘release’. Upon deployment, the CMS will have to be
updated to reflect the change. Where appropriate,
software license checks/updates will also be
necessary.

16.1.4 Metrics:
o Total # of Service Requests (as a control measure)
o Breakdown of service requests at each stage
o Size of current backlog for outstanding Service Requests
o # and % of Service Requests completed within agreed target
times
o Mean elapsed time for handling each type of service request
o Average cost per type of Service Request
o Level of client satisfaction with the handling of Service
Requests

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16.1.5 Challenges:
o Clearly defining and documenting the type of requests that will
be handled – so all parties are clear on the scope.

o Establishing self-help front-end capabilities that allow users to


interface successfully with the Request Fulfillment process.

16.2 Key Terms:

A Service Request is:


o A request for information or advice
o A request for a standard change
o A request for access to an IT Service
o NOT related to a loss of service (i.e. incident)
o NOT a normal change

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17 Access Management

Objective:
o Access Management helps to protect the confidentiality,
integrity and availability (CIA) of assets, therefore it is the
execution of policies and actions defined in Security and
Availability Management.

17.1 Basic Concepts:

17.1.1 Asset Management – Business Value


o Controlled access to services
o Employees have the right level of access
o Less likelihood of errors in data entry
o Ability to audit
o Ability to easily revoke access rights
o Maybe needed for regulatory compliance

17.1.2 Activities
o Requesting access
o Verification
o Providing rights
o Monitoring identity status
o Logging and tracking access
o Removing or restricting rights

17.1.3 Interfaces
o HR
o Information Security Management
o Change Management
o SLM
o Configuration Management

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17.1.4 Metrics
o # of requests for access (e.g. Service Requests, RFC’s)
o Instances of access granted, by service, user and department
etc
o Instances of access granted by department or individual
granting rights
o # of incidents requiring a reset/modification of access rights
o # of incidents caused by incorrect access settings

17.1.5 Challenges and Critical Success Factors


o Verify the identity of users
o Verify the identity of the approving person or body
o Verify that a user qualifies for access to a specific service
o Link multiple access rights to a user
o Determine status of a user at any time
o Manage changes to a user’s access requirements
o Restrict access rights to unauthorized users
o Develop and maintain a database of all users and the
rights they have been granted.

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17.2 Key Terms

Access: refers to the level and extent of a service’s functionality or


data that a user is entitled to use.

Identity: refers to the information about them that distinguishes them


as an individual and which verifies their status within the organization.
By definition, the identity of the user is unique to that user.

Rights: (also called privileges) refer to the actual settings whereby a


user is provided access to a service or group of services. Typical
rights, or levels of access, include read, write, execute, change,
delete.

Services or service groups: Most users do not use only one


service, and users performing a similar set of activities will use a
similar set of services. Instead of providing access to each service
for each user separately, it is more efficient to be able to grant each
user access to a whole set of services that they are entitled to use at
the same time.

Directory of services: refers to a specific type of tool that is used to


manage access and rights.

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18 Service Desk Function

18.1.1 Objective:
The primary aim of the Service Desk is to restore the ‘normal
service’ to the user ASAP.

In this context ‘restoration of service’ is meant in the widest


possible sense as it includes any action that is required to
allow users to return to working satisfactorily.

18.2 Basic Concepts

Role:
The Service Desk is a vitally important part of an organizations
IT Department and should be the single point of contact for IT
users on a day-to-day basis.

The Service Desk will handle all incidents and service requests
usually using specialist software tools to log and manage such
events

18.2.1 Service Desk – Business Value


o Improved customer service, perception and satisfaction
o Increased accessibility through a single point of contact,
communication and information
o Better quality and faster turnaround of customer or user
requests
o Improved teamwork and communication
o Enhanced focus and proactive approach to service provision
o Reduced negative business impact
o Better managed infrastructure and control
o Improved usage of IT Support resources and increased
productivity of business personnel
o More meaningful management information for decision
support

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18.2.2 Service Desk Organizational Structures
o Local Service Desk
o Centralized Service Desk
o Virtual Service Desk
o Follow the sun

18.2.3 Staffing
o Staffing levels
o An organization must ensure that the correct number
of staff are available at any given time to match the
demand being placed on the desk by the business.
o A number of tools are available to help determine the
appropriate number of staff for the Service Desk
o Skill Levels
o An organization must decide on the level and range of
skills it requires of the Service Desk staff – and then
ensure that the skills are available at the appropriate
times.
o The decision on the required skills level will often be
driven by target resolution times, the complexity of the
systems supported and ‘what the business is prepared
to pay for
o Training
o Investment should also be made in the professional
development of Service Desk staff.
o Internal mentoring and shadowing 2nd and 3rd level
support staff is a good start, but best of breed Service
Desks benefit from a formalized program of staff
development.
o Staff Retention
o IT Managers must recognize the importance of the
Service Desk and the staff who work on it, and give
this special attention. Any significant loss of staff can
be disruptive and lead to inconsistency of service.

o Super Users
o Many organizations find it useful to appoint or
designate a number of ‘Super Users’ throughout the
user community, to act as liaison points with IT in
general and the Service Desk in particular.

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18.2.4 Metrics
o First-line resolution rate
o % of calls resolved by Service Desk staff
o Average time to resolve incident
o Average time to escalate an incident
o Average Service Desk cost of handling incident
o % of customer/user updates conducted within target times.
o Average time to review and close a resolved call

18.2.5 Outsourcing Service Desk


o Decisions to outsource are a strategic issue for senior
managers. Many of the guidelines are not unique to the
Service Desk and can be applied to any function, support area
or service being outsourced (or out-tasked).
o There are some safeguards that are needed, to ensure that
the outsourced Service Desk works effectively and efficiently
with the organization’s other IT teams and departments, and
that end-to end Service Management control is maintained
(particularly important if seeking ISO/IEC 20000 certification).
o The lines of communication between the outsourced Service
Desk and the other support groups need to work very
effectively
o Outsourcing companies who offer off-shore Service Desk
solutions should take the following into account:
o Training programs
o Language skills
o Regular visits by representatives
o Training in the use of the customer organization tools
and methods of work.
o Clear ownership of the data collected by the outsourced
Service Desk must be established

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19 Technical Management Function

19.1.1 Objective:
o Helps plan, implement and maintain a stable technical
infrastructure to support the organization’s business
processes through:
o The use of adequate technical skills to maintain the technical
infrastructure in optimum condition
o Swift use of technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve
any technical failures that do occur.

19.2 Basic Concepts

19.2.1 Role:
o Custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to
managing the IT Infrastructure.
o Provides detailed technical skills and resources needed to
support the ongoing operation of the IT Infrastructure.
o Plays an important role in providing the actual resources to
support the IT Service Management lifecycle.
o Ensures resources are effectively trained and deployed to
design, build, transition, operate and improve the technology
to deliver and support IT Services.

19.2.2 Activities
o Specialist Technical Architects and Designers
o Specialist Maintenance and Support Staff

19.2.3 Organization
o The primary criteria of Technical Management organizational
structure is that of specialization or division of labor.
o The principle is that people are grouped according to their
technical skills sets that are determined by the technology that
needs to be managed.

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19.2.4 Metrics
o Measurement of agreed outputs
o Process metrics
o Technology performance
o Mean time between failures of specified equipment
o Measurement of maintenance activity
o Training and skills development.

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20 IT Operations Management Function

20.1.1 Objective:
o Maintenance of the ‘status quo’ to achieve stability of the
organizations day to day processes and activities
o Regular scrutiny and improvements to achieve improved
service at reduced costs, whilst maintaining stability
o Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and resolve
any IT operations failures that occur.

20.2 Basic Concepts

20.2.1 Role:
o To perform the daily operational activities needed to manage
the IT Infrastructure. This is done according to the
performance standards defined during Service Design.
o In many ways, the function performs many of the logistical
activities required for the effective and efficient delivery and
support of services. (e.g. Event Management)

20.2.2 Sub Functions


o IT Operations Control:
o generally staffed by shifts of operators and which
ensures that routine operational tasks are carried out.
Also provides centralized monitoring and control
activities, usually using an Operations Bridge or
Network Operations Centre. IT Operations Control is
the primary function responsible for monitoring Events.

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o Facilities Management:
o management of the physical IT environment, usually
data centers or computer rooms. In some
organizations many physical components have been
outsourced and Facilities Management may include
the management of the outsourcing contracts.

20.2.3 Organization
o IT Operations Management is a function in its own right but, in
many cases, staff from Technical and Applications
Management form part of this function.
o These staff will manage and execute their own operational
activities. Others will delegate these activities to a dedicated
IT Operations department.

20.2.4 Metrics
o Successful completion of scheduled jobs
o # of exceptions to scheduled activities and jobs
o # of data or systems restores required
o Equipment installation statistics
o Process metrics
o Maintenance activities

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21 Application Management Function

21.1.1 Objective:
o In many organizations Applications Management departments
have staff that perform daily operations for those applications.
o As with Technical Management, these staff logically form part
of the IT Operations Management Function.

21.2 Basic Concepts

21.2.1 Role
o Managing Applications throughout their lifecycle.
o Supports and maintain operational applications, plays an
important role in design, testing and improvement of
applications that form part of IT Services.
o Support the organization’s business processes by helping to
identify functional and manageability requirements for
application software.
o Assist in the design and deployment of those applications.
o Provide ongoing support and improvement of those
applications.
o Identify skills required to support the applications

21.2.2 Organization
o Although Application Management departments perform
similar activities, each application or set of applications has a
different set of management and operational requirements.
o For example:
o Purpose
o Functionality
o Platform
o Brand of technology

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21.2.3 Metrics
o Measurement of agreed outputs
o Process metrics
o Application Performance
o Measurement of Maintenance activity
o Projects
o Training and skills development.

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22 OSA - Technology and Implementation

22.1 Basic Concepts:

22.1.1 Integrated ITSM technology:


o Self-Help
o Workflow or process engine
o Integrated CMS
o Discovery/Deployment/Licensing technology
o Remote control
o Diagnostic utilities
o Reporting
o Dashboards
o Integration with Business Service Management

22.1.2 Event Management


The following features are desirable for any Event Management
technology:
o Multi-environmental
o Easy to deploy
o Standard agents
o Open interfaces
o Centralized routing
o Support for design/test phases
o Programmable assessment
o Operator acknowledge alert
o Reporting functionality

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22.1.3 Incident Management
Integrated ITSM technology is required that has the following
functionality:
o Integral CMS
o Process flow engine
o Automated alerting
o Open interfacing
o Web interface
o Integrated KEDB
o Reporting facilities
o Diagnostic tools

22.1.4 Request Fulfilment


Integrated ITSM technology is needed so that Service
Requests can be linked to incidents or events that have
initiated them.
o Front-end Self Help capabilities
o Pre-defines workflow control
o Priority levels
o Automated escalation
o Effective reporting

22.1.5 Problem Management


Integrated ITSM technology is required that has the following
functionality:
o Differentiates between incidents and problems
o Change Management
o Integrated CMS
o Known Error database
o Effective reporting

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22.1.6 Access Management
Access Management uses a variety of technologies, for
example:
o HR Management
o Directory Services
o Access Management features
o Change Management systems
o Request Fulfilment

22.1.7 Service Desk


Adequate tools and technology support should be provided to
enable Service Desk staff to perform their roles as efficiently and
effectively as possible. Including:
o Telephony
o Support tools
- KEDB
- Diagnostic scripts
- Self Help Web Interface
- Remote control
o IT Service Continuity Planning for ITSM support tools

22.1.8 Service Management Tools


Tools will:
o Enable Service Design processes to work more effectively.
o Increase efficiency and effectiveness
o Provide a wealth of management information
o Identify weak areas
o Cost savings
o Increased productivity
o Increase in quality of IT service provision

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22.1.9 Tool Evaluation:
o Requirements
o Identify Products
o Selection criteria
o Evaluate products
o Short listing
o Scoring
o Rank products
o Select product

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23 Service Operation

23.1.1 Activities
o Managing Technology
o Monitoring and Control
o IT Operations
o Console Mgt, Operations Bridge
o Job scheduling
o Backup and Restore
o Print & Output
o Mainframe Mgt
o Service Mgt and Support
o Network Mgt
o Storage and Archive
o Database administration
o Directory and service Mgt
o Desktop support
o Middleware Mgt
o Internet/web Mgt
o Facilities and Data Center Mgt
o Improvement of operational activities

23.1.2 Plan and implement Service Management


o Managing Change in Service Operation
o Project Mgt
o Risk assessment and Mgt
o Staffing

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23.1.3 OSA – Challenges
o Service Design make focus on one service at a time
o Service Design will often be conducted in projects
o Unrealistic metrics laid out in Service Design
o Ineffective Service Transition
o Measurements
o Virtual teams
o Balancing relationships

23.1.4 OSA – Critical Success Factors


o Management support
o Business support
o Champions
o Staffing and retention
o Service management training
o Suitable tools
o Validity of testing
o Measurement and reporting

23.1.5 OSA – Risks


o Service Loss
o Inadequate funding and resources
o Loss of momentum
o Loss of key personnel
o Resistance to change
o Lack of management support
o Faulty design
o Lack of support
o Differing customer expectations

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24 Practice Exam

24.1 Refresher “Warm up Questions”

The following multiple choice questions are a refresher from the


Foundation level as a prelude.

Question 1

Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of Event


Management?

a) To detect events, make sense of them and determine the


appropriate control action
b) To monitor interactions and exceptions within the
infrastructure
c) To monitor and control the activities of technical staff
d) To detect and escalate exceptions to normal service operation

Question 2

Functions are best described as?

a) Self-Contained units of organizations


b) Inter-related activities with a defined goal or output
c) Closed loop control systems
d) A team of IT staff who provide a single point of contact for all
user communication

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Question 3

Technical Management is NOT responsible for?

a) Maintenance of the technical Infrastructure


b) Documenting and maintaining the technical skills required to
manage and support the IT Infrastructure
c) Defining the Operational Level Agreements for the various
technical teams
d) Diagnosis of, and recovery from, technical failures

Question 4

What is the difference between a Known Error and a Problem?

a) The underlying cause of a Known Error is known. The


underlying cause of a Problem is not known
b) A Known Error involves an error in the IT infrastructure, A
Problem does not involve such an error.
c) A Known Error always originates from an Incident. This is not
always the case with a Problem
d) With a Problem, the relevant Configuration Items have been
identified. This is not the case with a Known Error.

Question 5

There have been multiple incidents recorded by the Service Desk. It


appears that the network is congested due to multiple connections.
What kind of actions should the Service Desk analyst take in this
instance?

a) They should ask the Capacity Manager to expand the capacity


of the network
b) They should ask the Problem Manager to look into the
problem right away
c) They should ask the Security Manager to check whether too
many authorizations may have been issued.
d) They should ask the Service Level Manager to revise the
Service Level Agreements (SLA) with a decreased availability
target

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Question 6

What is the best definition of an Incident Model?

a) A type of incident involving an authorized Configuration Item


(CI)
b) The template used by Service Desk analysts to record
incidents
c) A set of pre-defined steps to be followed when dealing with a
known type of incident
d) An Incident that is easy is solved at first contact

Question 7

Which ITIL process ensures that the IT Services are restored as soon
as possible in the case of a malfunction?

a) Change Management
b) Incident Management
c) Problem Management.
d) Service Level Management

Question 8

Operations Control refers to?

a) The managers of the Event and Access Management


Processes
b) Overseeing the monitoring and escalating of IT operational
events and activities
c) The tools used to monitor the status of the IT Network
d) The situation where the Service Desk manager is required to
monitor the status of the infrastructure when Service Desk
Operators are not available

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Question 9

Which of the following is NOT an example of a Service Request?

a) A user calls the Service Desk to order a toner cartridge


b) A user calls the Service Desk because they would like to
change the functionality of an application.
c) A Manager submits a request for a new employee to be given
access to an application
d) A user logs onto an internal web site to download a licensed
copy of software from a list of approved options

Question 10
Which of the following is NOT an objective of Service Operation?

a) Thorough testing, to ensure that services are designed to


meet business needs
b) To deliver and support IT Services
c) To manage the technology used to deliver services
d) To monitor the performance of technology and processes

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24.2 Intermediate Style Practice Exam

As stated at the beginning of the book, the exam is comprised of 8


scenario based multiple-choice questions (though not all exam
questions contain a scenario followed by a question). The following
practice exam contains 16 questions for you to complete. In the
official exam, all scenarios are provided first, then the questions. To
make it easier to follow due to the number of questions, we have set it
out with scenario followed by question.

Scenario 1

Brewster’s is a toy factory that has been in business for 30 years.


The company started with a small family run shop and has grown
consistently over the years. They are now supplying toy stores
nationwide and are considered to be the primary supplier of children’s
collectable novelty erasers.

Brewster’s IT department is relatively small (currently 15 staff) but


efficient. They have recently employed an IT Manager in an attempt
to improve the management of the infrastructure, as well as more
effective use of resources and identification of areas for improvement.
The Brewster’s management teams do not have a lot of IT
knowledge. The newly appointed IT Manager is very ITIL focused
and wants to implement as many ITSM processes as is appropriate –
there are currently no formal processes in place. On starting with the
company the IT Manager completed an internal assessment of the IT
infrastructure – including staff skills analysis, and collated the results
from customer satisfaction surveys completed over the last 5 years.

The main areas of concern are as follows:

Responses from customer satisfaction survey:


Overall a consistent satisfaction level. However, responses
completed during the past 12 months show an increase in
customers who were unsatisfied with call waiting times when
contacting the service desk for help with online orders and
requests for information.
Customers added the following additional comments:

Copyright The Art of Service 55


1. “Never get to speak to the same person twice when
dealing with an Incident number, had to call several
times to receive follow up on progress”
2. “Some of the Service Desk staff seem under qualified
to deal with my questions about new
applications/incidents/service requests”

Results from Staff Skills Analysis:


Staff, in general, have a good knowledge of IT systems and a
basic understanding of the business processes and
objectives. However, staff are not well informed of upcoming
releases of new or changed services and not given adequate
information to relay to the customers.
Staff added the following additional comments:
1. “Communication between Service Operation
departments has become inefficient - there are
meetings for the sake of meetings, but the important
information we need to know to do our day to day jobs
is lacking”
2. “I still don’t know what half of the people do, that work
in the IT department!”

Results from General IT Infrastructure assessment:


Lack of event monitoring and planning
Lack of input from Operational Support departments into
Service Design
Lack of skill and information sharing across the Operational
Support teams with regards to Incident, Problem,
Workarounds and Known Error data.
Little to no proactive activities being carried out.

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Question 1 (refer to scenario 1)

Which of the following options would be most suitable to address the


issues identified from the Customer Satisfaction Survey?

a) You decide that the first two ITSM processes that need to
be implemented are Incident Management and Request
Fulfillment. As this will enable formal management and
coordination of the Service Desk, and ensure that
Incidents and Service Requests are dealt with accordingly,
enabling separate logging and monitoring and faster call
response times
Send a formal memo to all customers, introducing yourself
and your new role, thanking them for their valuable
feedback and addressing the issues raised in the survey
results and how you intend to resolve them

b) You decide that the first two ITSM processes that need to
be implemented are Incident Management and Request
Fulfillment. As this will enable formal management and
coordination of the Service Desk, and ensure that
Incidents and Service Requests are dealt with accordingly,
enabling separate logging and monitoring and faster call
response times. In addition, you will ensure that the new
Incident Manager will ensure the Service Desk is the
single point of contact, as a first priority. This needs to be
the focus over the next quarter to ensure that this policy is
adopted ASAP, you will suggest reward options to ensure
that staff and end users are in no doubt that this is an
essential requirement supported by senior management.
Send a formal memo to all customers, introducing yourself
and your new role. Thanking them for their valuable
feedback and addressing the issues raised in the survey
results and how you intend to resolve them.

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c) The results of this initial assessment are better than you
had expected, you do not see any need to change things
yet. You are not concerned with the additional comments
as the general feedback is that customers are satisfied
with the end to end service and that a 100% satisfaction is
unrealistic. You will suggest to the Business that more
staff is required for the Service Desk to ensure that call
waiting times are reduced and that a more detailed and
selective criteria is used as part of the selection process to
ensure staff are at the correct skill level and competency

d) The results of this initial assessment are better than you


had expected, you do not see any need to change things
yet. . You will suggest to the Business that it will be
beneficial to complete another initial assessment in one
year, after the next Customer Satisfaction Survey is
completed, to compare the satisfaction levels and, if
required, identify areas for improvement at that stage

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Question 2 (refer to scenario 1)

Which of the following options would be the most effective option


to address the issues identified from the Staff Skills Analysis?

a)
Organize a meeting with the managers of each IT
department and form a Communication Plan. This plan
will include all agreed methods, reasons and a list of
personnel to be included for communications within the
Operation departments. This plan will then be distributed
to all staff, with a memo that will include;
o A photograph of each IT staff member with job title
o Brief Job Description and explanation of their day
to day activities
In addition, make a proposal to the Business that a
Release and Deployment Manager is needed, this role will
not only take on the responsibility of implementing a formal
Release and Deployment process but will, manage the
build, test and deployment departments and will also
ensure that there is a consistent communication route to
the service desk on up coming releases and organizing
training/knowledge updates and consultation with service
desk staff on new or changed services.

b)
Organize a meeting with the managers of each IT department
and form a Communication Plan. This plan will include all
agreed methods, reasons and a list of personnel to be
included for communications within the Operation
departments. This plan will then be distributed to all staff, with
a memo that will include;
o A photograph of each IT staff member with job title
o Brief Job Description and explanation of their day
to day activities
In addition, ask for the service desk to be sent copies of
the release schedule so they are informed of upcoming
releases

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c) Recommend to the Business that a new staff training
program needs to be implemented that will include one
service desk member per week shadowing a member of
staff in each of the Business Process areas to learn how
they do things and what the business objectives are. In
addition, request a weekly update from the build, test and
deployment areas on any upcoming releases, including
any relevant information that will enable the service desk
staff to provide a better service to the customer

d) No immediate action required. You will work on a new


training and communication policy that will formalize the
process of communication and knowledge transfer
between departments. You will also recommend that the
first ITSM process to be implemented with be a formalized
Incident Management process to ensure that effective
measurements and analysis is taking place and that there
is monitoring of staff competency and skill.

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Question 3 (refer to scenario 1)

Which of the following options would be the most effective option to


address the issues identified from the General IT Infrastructure
assessment?

a) You decide to recommend implementation of the Event


Management process to formalize the event monitoring,
planning and overall management. Ensure that there is
resource sharing between the Service Design teams and
the Operational Support teams as their input is necessary
to ensure services are designed that will work efficiently in
the live environment.
In addition, implement the Problem Management process
– at the same time, to ensure there are both reactive and
proactive activities taking place with regards to Problems,
a knowledge bank of information including known errors,
workarounds, problems and incident records is produced
and maintained

b) You are not concerned with the lack of skill sharing


between the Operational Support departments and
Service Design as they are two separate entities of the
Service Lifecycle with their own objectives. You are
concerned, however, with the lack of skill sharing between
the Operational Support teams and decide to formalize the
1st, 2nd and 3rd lines of support and recommend the
adoption of a database that will incorporate all Incident
records, Problem records, Known Error records,
Workarounds and Event information, so that all staff can
have access to and use this information

c) You are not concerned with the lack of skill sharing


between the Operational Support departments and
Service Design as they are two separate entities of the
Service Lifecycle with their own objectives. You are
concerned, however, with the lack of Event monitoring and
planning and foresee this as being a potential major issue.
You decide to recommend implementation of the Event
Management process to formalize the event monitoring,
planning and overall management. Ensure that there is
resource sharing between the Service Design teams and

Copyright The Art of Service 61


the Operational Support teams as their input is necessary
to ensure services are designed that will work efficiently in
the live environment

d) Implement the Problem Management process, to ensure


there are both reactive and proactive activities taking place
with regards to Problems, a knowledge bank of information
including known errors, workarounds, problems and
incident records is produced and maintained.
Once this process is established, working efficiently and
staff have become more accustomed to this new way of
working, use this success to recommend the
implementation of the Event Management process

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Question 4 (refer to scenario 1)

Through further investigation you identify that there is no formal


means of collecting data to identify service improvement, other than
customer surveys. These are very subjective and do not give a
balanced picture regarding quality of service.

Through discussions with the Continual Service Improvement


Manager, you decide to start collecting a range of metrics to help
identify service improvements.

Which metrics would be relevant to Service Desk

a)
o % of calls resolved by Service Desk
o average time to identify incident
o average time to escalate incident
o % of user updates conducted within target times
o customer feedback
o average Service Desk cost of handling incident

b)
o % of calls resolved by Service Desk
o average time to resolve incident
o average time to escalate incident
o % of customer updates conducted within target times
o customer feedback
o average Service Desk cost of handling incident

c)
o % of calls answered by Service Desk
o average time to escalate incident
o % of customer updates conducted within Service Desk
hours
o customer feedback
o average cost of handling incident
d)
o % of calls answered by Service Desk
o average time to resolve problems
o average time to escalate problem

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o % of customer updates conducted within Service Desk
times
o customer feedback
o average cost of handling problem

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Scenario 2

NEB is a financial management company that specializes in lending


money for substantial property investments. They have a large IT
department that is currently using the following ITSM processes:
 Service Level Management
 Availability Management
 IT Service Continuity Management
 Information Security Management
 Incident Management
 Problem Management.

Each of these processes have been implemented within the planned


target time and are working effectively and efficiently. Staff have
adapted to the changes in a very positive manner and see the
benefits of using the ITIL framework.

Last Saturday, there was a security breach. A previous member of


staff, who has left the company and joined a competitor organization,
has been able to gain access to several client lending files. After
initial investigation, it was found that access was not terminated when
the staff member left the company – this has highlighted that there
are insufficient processes in place to ensure access rights are
terminated when staff leave the company, change roles etc and there
is ongoing investigation to see how many other previous staff still
have access to the system.

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Question 5 (refer to scenario 2)

The business has requested immediate recommendations from the IT


Manager, as to what can be done to ensure this situation does not
happen again and how best to inform clients, with reference to the
security breach.

Which of the following options is most suitable to deal with this


situation?

a) Your first recommendation is to implement the Access


Management process as soon as possible. You suggest
that as the IT organization has already effectively and
efficiently implemented six processes, they will be able to
manage a well executed and fast implementation. This
process will ensure that access is provided to those who
are authorized to have it and will ensure access is
restricted to those who are not.
With regards to informing clients, you recommend that
clients are not told of the situation as you feel it will be too
damaging to the NEB reputation and will result in a
catastrophic loss of clientele. You suggest that if clients
are contacted by the competitor organization, they can not
prove that any information has been obtained via NEB files
and (as there is now a plan to implement Access
Management) NEB can confidently reassure clients that
there is ample security and access management in place
to ensure this situation could never arise

b) Your first recommendation is to implement the Access


Management process as soon as possible. You suggest
that as the IT organization has already effectively and
efficiently implemented six processes, they will be able to
manage a well executed and fast implementation. As
Access Management is the execution of the policies laid
out within the Availability and Information Security
Processes, the foundations are already laid. This process
will ensure that access is provided to those who are
authorized to have it and will ensure access is restricted to
those who are not. To ensure alignment between the
Business and IT, there will need to be integration with the
Human Resources department to ensure there are

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consistent communications with regards to staff identity,
start and end dates etc.
With regards to informing clients of the breach, you
suggest that the clients affected by the breach must be
informed ASAP. You recommend a formal letter is sent
from senior management to reassure clients that the
situation is being taken seriously and what actions are
taking place to ensure this never happens again. You are
aware that this could damage the company’s reputation,
as security is a critical success factor, but feel that the
specific clients must be informed by NEB ASAP, as there
is a high risk they will be approached by the competitor
organization

c) Your first recommendation is to implement the Access


Management process as soon as possible. This process
will ensure that access is provided to those who are
authorized to have it and will ensure access is restricted to
those who are not.
With regards to informing clients of the breach, you
suggest that only the specifically affected clients are
informed of the breach, via a formal letter sent from senior
management to reassure clients that the situation is being
taken seriously. You suggest that the tone and focus of
the letter should emphasize the following points:
- there has been a ‘minor’ security breach fault of member
of staff, who’s employment has now been terminated
- no data has been ‘lost or changed’
- Sufficient action has been taken to ensure this situation
does not happen again and NEB would like to assure their
clients that there security and continued confidence is of
the highest importance.

d) Your first recommendation is to implement the Access


Management process as soon as possible. You suggest
that as the IT organization has already effectively and
efficiently implemented six processes, they will be able to
manage a well executed and fast implementation. This
process will ensure that access is provided to those who
are authorized to have it and will ensure access is

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restricted to those who are not.
With regards to informing clients of the breach, you
suggest that all clients need to be informed of the breach
and the action being taken to ensure this does not happen
again. You are aware that this could damage the
company’s reputation, but are concerned that if only the
specifically affected clients are informed, word will spread
and the entire client base will feel they have been kept out
of the loop on such an important issue and further damage
to NEB’s reputation will be felt

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Scenario 3

Vericom is a leading provider of government, business and consumer


telecommunication services, and is currently seeking ways in which to
improve its utilization of IT services to drive growth across its’ multiple
lines of business. One of the largest organizations in the United
Kingdom, Vericom is comprised of the following business units:

• Verinet (providing ADSL, cable, 3GSM, dialup and satellite


services)
• Infrastructure Services (planning, installing and maintaining
the PSTN and mobile network infrastructure)
• VericomTV (Pay TV)
• Consumer Sales and Marketing (including 400 Vericom retail
outlets)
• Business and Government
• Finance and Administration
• Information Technology Services (Shared Service Unit,
however some business units also have their own internal
service provider)
• Human Resources
• Vericom Wholesale (for wholesale of Vericom infrastructure
services)

Due to the extensive scope of infrastructure deployed and large


employee and customer base, Vericom continues to rely on legacy
systems for some critical IT services; however this is seen as a
barrier to future organizational growth and scalability of services
offered. The CIO of Vericom has also raised the concern that while
improvements to the technology utilized is important, this also needs
to be supported by quality IT Service Management practices
employed by the various IT departments.

The project of improving the IT Service Management practices


employed by Vericom has been outsourced to external consultants
who are aware of the major IT refresh that is going to be occurring
over the next 24 months.

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Question 6 (refer to scenario 3)

As part of the major refresh of IT systems, it has been agreed that the
existing ITIL processes of Incident and Problem Management are not
performing adequately. Recent surveys indicate that:

• A high percentage of incidents are being escalated to second-


line support staff
• There is inconsistency in the knowledge captured for
diagnosing and resolving incidents and problems
• Problem Management is predominantly reactive and typically
only executed when a large volume of incidents are identified
to be of a common root cause
• There is little handover of knowledge (including documentation
of Known Errors) for many releases deployed, creating
significant workloads for the support groups in the weeks
following deployment.

Which of the following responses BEST represents the way in which


you would seek to improve the situation?

a) You understand the need to review current practices, so


you compare current practices against those described in
the ITIL volume of Service Operation. You perform a gap
analysis, and realize most of the issues relate to
inadequate knowledge capture and sharing. You focus on
improving this by:
• Reviewing the tools and systems used, and develop a
business case for acquiring new Knowledge Management
Software to be used by the IT division.
• Creating rules for the escalation of incident and problems
so that higher level support groups are not overloaded
• Improving the level of documentation and knowledge
capture by running incentive programs rewarding staff for
the number of contributions made to the knowledgebase
• Conducting training on how to use the refreshed Incident
and Problem Management processes.
• Developing performance metrics to be reviewed for
Incident and Problem Management
b) You communicate the need to review the situation, inviting
various stakeholders from the IT departments and other

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business units to discuss the issues at hand. Your main
concern is the lack of communication between various IT
groups, so to improve this you focus on:
• Improving the Release Policy to be adhered to by the
various Release & Deployment teams, stating the
documentation and knowledge transfer requirements for
the different types of releases performed.
• Developing guidelines, procedures and associated
incentives for the capture of knowledge relating to
incidents, problems and general service requests.
• Conducting training and awareness sessions on the
requirements for documentation and knowledge capture.
• Rotating developers and second line staff through the
Service Desk every three months
• Develop consistency in the Early Life Support provided by
design/specialist staff for major releases
• Improving the interfaces between Incident and Problem
Management, particularly those around escalation and
problem detection.
• Scheduling regular Proactive Problem Management
reviews, which will look at trends in incidents and
problems, and to identify vulnerable infrastructure
components.
• Developing metrics that will be used to evaluate the value
and performance of the Incident and Problem
Management processes.

c) You understand the need for compliance to the defined


processes, as currently many staff do not follow prescribed
guidelines and procedures. Your efforts focus on improving
compliance to the Incident and Problem Management
processes by:
• Auditing the processes, seeking where exceptions to
defined procedures occur
• Running awareness sessions to communicate the value
and importance of the processes in place
• Modifying existing systems and tools so that improve
compliance to existing processes
• Evaluating which groups are underperforming to identify
any training that needs to occur

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• Tying staff remuneration to their utilization of defined
processes, rewarding groups that meet all performance
metrics defined
• Assigning responsibility to skilled Service Desk analysts
for dedicated Early Life Support for major releases.

d) You communicate the need to understand more about the


current issues, so you invite the Service Desk, Incident,
Problem and Release & Deployment managers to a meeting
to review the situation. Your main concern is the lack of
documentation and knowledge being recorded by various IT
groups, so to improve this you focus on:
Defining the requirements for knowledge capture and
transfer (including Known Errors) so that all
communication is improved
Improving the tools and systems used for by the various
groups for knowledge capture and transfer
Creating rules for the escalation of incident and problems
so that higher level support groups are not overloaded
Develop consistency in the Early Life Support provided by
design/specialist staff for major releases
Assigning responsibility to the lead infrastructure architect
to oversee Proactive Problem Management.
Conducting training on how to use the refreshed Incident
and Problem Management processes.
Rotating Service Desk staff through higher level support
teams every three months
Developing performance metrics to be reviewed for
Incident and Problem Management

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Question 7 (refer to scenario 3)

With Vericom being a large organization (approximately 40 000 staff),


some of the business units have developed their own internal IT
departments to supplement the services provided by the centralized
Information Technology Services (ITS) department. This has occurred
due to the specialized needs and requirements for technology,
specifically Verinet, VericomTV and Consumer Sales and Marketing.

While the decision has been made that this organizational structure is
to remain in place, there has been identified issues relating to a lack
of consistency in IT Service Management processes used by the
different departments and unclear boundaries for the responsibilities
of the various IT Service Desks. This has resulted in:

• End users calling the wrong Service Desk, requiring the call to
be redirected to the appropriate group
• Inconsistency in the categorization and classification of
service requests, incidents and problems, causing confusion
and frustration when there are multiple IT departments
involved
• Known Errors being recorded internally within the various IT
departments, which may in fact have a wider impact on the
whole organization when these are not visible to everyone
• Inconsistency in the Service Management systems and tools
used for handling service requests, incidents, problems and
Known Errors

From the following responses, which BEST represents the


approach you would take to overcome the issues described
above?

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a) You realize a coordinated approach is the best method,
including:
• The development of the ITS Service Desk to be the single
point of contact for ALL end user (internal) queries. This will
be performed over a 6 month period, to take account for any
training and transfer of knowledge that needs to occur. This
Service Desk will then escalate to the appropriate second line
group (from any of the IT departments) as required.
• Develop consistency across all departments for categories
and priority coding systems used for all service requests,
incidents and problems.
• Build or purchase a consistent service management tool that
will be used by all IT departments for managing incidents,
problems, Known Errors and service requests
• Holding regular review sessions involving staff from each of
the IT departments to discuss current issues, recurring and
potential problems future initiatives.

b) You realize a phased approach is the best method, including


four phases:
• Phase 1 – Build or purchase a service management tool that
will be used by all IT departments for managing incidents,
problems and service requests
• Phase 2 – Standardize the use of ITIL processes used by the
ITS department across all IT departments at Vericom
• Phase 3 – Deliver training and awareness sessions for staff
regarding the importance of the processes and how they
should be used.
• Phase 4 – Review the success of the project and pass any
lessons learnt onto future projects

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c) You realize a coordinated approach is the best method,
including:
• Developing a telephone system that will route calls to the
appropriate Service Desk based on the user’s input. This
should also provide the capability for a Service Desk analyst
to call them back during peak periods.
• Develop consistency in all the categories assigned to service
requests, incidents and problems across all IT departments.
• Build or purchase a service management tool that will be used
by all IT departments for managing incidents, problems,
Known Errors and service requests
• Hold regular review sessions involving key staff from each of
the IT departments to discuss current issues and potential
problems.

d) You realize that improving the business awareness of IT is


most important, and address the issues by:
• Identifying the training requirements of end users to improve
their use of IT service
• Implement an online Service Catalogue for all IT Services,
with self-help capabilities to log and track incidents, problems
and service requests
• Assist Service Level Management in improving the visibility of
the IT organization in general, and identify areas of customer
satisfaction that need improving
• Build or purchase a service management tool that will be used
by all IT departments and end users for managing incidents,
problems, Known Errors and service requests

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Question 8 (refer to scenario 3)

Discussions have recently been held regarding the performance of


the Incident and Problem Management. There has been some
confusion among IT managers as to what metrics demonstrate the
quality and performance of these two processes.

From the options below, which represents the best range of


measures for evaluating the success of Incident and Problem
Management?

a)
Incident Management Problem Management

• Percentage of incidents • The number of problems


resolved at first contact grouped by status
• The number of incidents • Improved delivery of
recorded due to event capacity and
correlation performance, with fewer
• Number and percentage of capacity related incidents
incidents grouped by • The number of RFCs
category created by Problem
• Number of incidents Management
incorrectly categorized • The percentage of
• Improved availability of incidents resolved at first
services contact
• The average time to
• Customer satisfaction
• Number of incidents resolve incidents
• The average time to
requiring a reset of access
rights close problems
• Improved availability
• Average time second line
levels
groups to respond
• Improved detection of
• Percentage of calls that
system events
bypass first line (Service
Desk)

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b)
Incident Management Problem Management

• Percentage of incidents • The number of problems


resolved at first contact grouped by status
• The number of incidents • Improved availability
recorded due to event levels
correlation • The number of RFCs
• Number and percentage of created by Problem
incidents grouped by Management
category • The percentage of
• Number of incidents incidents resolved at first
incorrectly categorized contact
• Customer satisfaction • The average time to
• Number of incidents perform root cause
requiring a reset of access analysis of problems
• The average time to
rights
• Average time second line resolve incidents
• The average time to
groups to respond
close problems
• Percentage of calls that
• Reduced SLA breaches
bypass first line (Service
Desk)
• Resources used for
managing incidents
(grouped by priority)

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c)
Incident Management Problem Management

• The number of problems • Percentage of incidents


grouped by status resolved at first contact
• The number of RFCs • Average call time with no
created by Problem escalation
Management • Percentage of incidents
• The number of resolved within agreed
workarounds developed timeframes
for Known Errors and • Average time to resolve
incidents incidents
• The percentage of • Number and percentage of
incidents resolved at first incidents grouped by
contact category
• The average time to • Percentage of incidents
resolve incidents incorrectly categorized
• The average time to • Number of incidents linked
close problems to existing problem
• Customer satisfaction records
levels
• Customer satisfaction
• Average costs for solving
• Average time second line
problems
groups to respond
• Number and percentage
of problems that were • Percentage of calls that
resolved within SLA limits bypass first line (Service
• The number of major Desk)
problem reviews • Cost per incident
conducted • Resources used for
managing incidents
(grouped by priority)

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d)
Incident Management Problem Management

• Percentage of incidents • The number of problems


resolved at first contact grouped by status
• Average call time with no • The number of RFCs
escalation created by Problem
• Percentage of incidents Management
resolved within agreed • The number of
timeframes workarounds developed
• Average time to resolve for Known Errors and
incidents incidents
• Number and percentage of • The percentage of
incidents grouped by incidents resolved at first
category contact
• The average time to
• Percentage of incidents
incorrectly categorized resolve incidents
• The average time to
• Number of incidents linked
to existing problem close problems
• Customer satisfaction
records
levels
• Customer satisfaction
• Average costs for solving
• Average time second line
problems
groups to respond
• Number and percentage
• Percentage of calls that of problems that were
bypass first line (Service resolved within SLA limits
Desk) • The number of major
• Cost per incident problem reviews
• Resources used for conducted
managing incidents
(grouped by priority)

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Question 9 (refer to scenario 3)

The Verinet business unit which provides internet services is currently


facing increased competition from other Internet Service Providers
seeking to entice Verinet customers away with offerings such as free
VOIP (voice over internet protocol) and Naked DSL (unconditioned
local loop). To combat this, Verinet wishes to develop a new
marketing campaign highlighting the high quality and availability of
services offered.

Before this occurs, the Service Manager within Verinet (who has
previously implemented ITIL in other organizations) had
recommended implementing Event Management to assist in the
continued ability for providing high quality, highly available internet
services to the UK population. She has been faced by some
resistance, who believe that it is not required as Capacity, Availability,
Incident and Problem Management have already been implemented.

Which of the following would be the BEST response to the Veritnet


directors in describing the benefits of introducing Event Management
to Verinet?

a) The implementation of Event Management to complement


existing ITIL processes within Verinet will have a number of
significant benefits. The value to the business of implementing
the process is directly seen by the following benefits:
• Improved speed for Incident and Problem Management for
identifying and analyzing the cause and potential effect
• Improved ratio of used licenses against paid for licenses
• Percentage re-use and redistribution of under-utilized assets
and resources
• Improved aliment between provided maintenance and
business support
• Improvement in maintenance scheduling and management for
CIs

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b) The implementation of Event Management to complement
existing ITIL processes within Verinet will have a number of
significant benefits. The value to the business of implementing
the process is generally indirect, but would support an
enhanced ability to provide high quality and high availability
internet services by:
• Providing mechanisms for the early detection of incidents and
problems before they impact customers
• Notify the appropriate staff of status changes or exceptions
that so that they can respond quickly
• Providing a basis for automated operations, increasing
efficiency and allowing human resources within Verinet to be
better utilized
• Providing improved visibility as to the events and interactions
that occur within the IT infrastructure
• Providing performance and utilization information and trends
that can be used for improved capacity planning and system
design

c) The implementation of Event Management to complement


existing ITIL processes within Verinet will have a number of
significant benefits. The value to the business of implementing
the process is generally indirect, but would support an
enhanced ability to provide high quality and high availability
internet services by:
• Providing mechanisms for the early detection of incidents and
problems before they impact customers
• Developing capabilities for the monitoring of critical
components of the IT infrastructure for disruptions or breach
of utilization thresholds
• Automating the notification of key staff when exception events
occur
• Providing improved visibility as to the events and interactions
that occur within the IT infrastructure
• Reducing the time requirements of manual activities
performed by IT staff as part of preventative maintenance.

d) The implementation of Event Management to complement


existing ITIL processes within Verinet will have a number of

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significant benefits. The value to the business of implementing
the process is directly seen by the following benefits:
• Reduced SLA breaches
• Reduced times required for diagnosis and root-cause analysis
of problems
• Reducing ratio of high priority incidents
• Reduced Mean Time to Restore (MTTR) for incidents
• Improved availability levels
• Improved delivery of capacity and performance, with fewer
capacity related incidents.

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Scenario 4

Vision Media is an international media organization, operating various


lines of business including:
• Film Production
• Television (production and delivery of their own channel in the
United States VisionOne)
• Print media (including newspapers in 15 countries)
• Online Advertising

The organization has recently been restructured, and now is


comprised of the following companies and departments:
• Vision Films (production of movies and television shows)
• VisionOne (television channel)
• VisionNews (coordinates all of the sub-companies involved in
the delivery of printed newspapers, as well as being the
centralized source of news information for all company owned
media outlets)
• VisionNet (managing the online and internet businesses)
• Legal Services
• Finance and Administration
• Human Resources
• Information Technology

The organization is also actively pursuing growth in the online market,


and is currently holding discussions with the leading online news
provider about the possible acquisition of their company. This would
increase the overall size of Vision Media by around 15%.

The Information Technology department acts as a Shared Service


Unit, providing IT Services to all of sub-companies and departments,
which complement some of the Internal Service Providers that also
exist. The director of Information Technology has realized the need to
improve the quality of services offered by implementing ITIL, and has
decided to do so using a phased approach. Some of the Service
Design and Service Transition processes have already been
implemented, and they are now planning the implementation of
Service Operation.

While the IT director does have tentative support from the other
directors and CEO, budgets for implementing the Service Operation

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processes have not been finalized, and still require a business case
to be formally submitted.

Question 10 (refer to scenario 4)

The IT director is required to submit a business case to the board of


directors of Vision Media for the implementation of Service Operation.
Which of the following responses is the BEST summary of the
benefits of implementing Service Operation (processes and
functions), to be included in the business case?

a) As part of the ongoing Service Management initiative within


Vision Media, the implementation of Service Operation is a vital
element necessary to enable service quality and reduce the
overall expenditure on IT. This is because Service Operation is
ultimately where the designs and optimizations introduced by IT
are supported, and from an IT perspective where the actual value
of IT Service Management is seen. Specific benefits delivered as
a result of improved Service Operation includes:
• Increased effectiveness and efficiency in IT Service delivery
and support
• Reduced operational spending on IT
• Increased customer and user satisfaction of IT services
• Improved availability and performance of agreed IT services
Given current plans for growth of Vision Media and possible
acquisitions, the implementation of Service Operation is especially
important to provide processes for reactively managing a growing end
user population and increased scope and complexity in IT
infrastructure utilized

b) As part of the ongoing Service Management initiative within


Vision Media, the implementation of Service Operation is a
vital element necessary to further improve service quality, and
to realize the value of the previous projects already completed
(refer Service Design and Service Transition projects). This is
because Service Operation is ultimately where the designs
and optimizations introduced by IT are executed and
measured, and from a business viewpoint where the actual
value of IT is seen. Specific benefits delivered as a result of
improved Service Operation includes:

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• Increased effectiveness and efficiency in IT Service delivery
and support
• Increased return on investments (ROI) into IT
• Increased value on investments (VOI) into IT
• Increased customer and user satisfaction of IT services
Given current plans for growth of Vision Media and possible
acquisitions, the implementation of Service Operation processes is
especially important to provide cost-effective capabilities for
managing a growing end user population and increased scope and
complexity in IT infrastructure utilized

c) As part of the ongoing Service Management initiative within


Vision Media, the implementation of Service Operation is a vital
element necessary to enable service quality and reduce the
overall expenditure on IT. This is because Service Operation is
ultimately where the designs and optimizations introduced by IT
are deployed, and from a business perspective where the actual
value of IT Service Management is seen. Specific benefits
delivered as a result of improved Service Operation includes:
• Fewer disruptions to agreed IT services
• Reduced operational spending on IT
• Increased job satisfaction of IT staff
• Improved availability and performance of agreed IT services
Given current plans for growth of Vision Media and possible
acquisitions, the implementation of Service Operation is especially
important to provide processes for reactively managing a growing end
user population and increased scope and complexity in IT
infrastructure utilized.

d) As part of the ongoing Service Management initiative within


Vision Media, the implementation of Service Operation is a vital
element necessary to achieve service quality and support the
objectives defined for the IT department. This is because Service
Operation is ultimately where the designs and optimizations
introduced by IT are supported, and from a business viewpoint
where the actual value of IT is seen. Specific benefits delivered
as a result of improved Service Operation includes:
• Increased effectiveness and efficiency in IT Service delivery
and support
• Increased return on investments (ROI) into IT
• Reduced operational spending on IT

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• Increased customer and user satisfaction of IT services
Given current plans for growth of Vision Media and possible
acquisitions, the implementation of Service Operation is especially
important to provide cost-effective processes for managing a growing
end user population and increased scope and complexity in IT
infrastructure utilized.

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Question 11 (refer to scenario 4)

There is some confusion as to how the process of Access


Management should be designed. In particular, there is debate as to
how the process should be integrated into the overall approach of IT
Service Management within Vision Media. The IT director has asked
for submissions from some of her staff, describing how they think
Access Management should be designed.

Which of the following submissions describes the most appropriate


way in which to design and implement Access Management within
Vision Media?

a)
The design of a quality Access Management process will need to
consider the current state of IT Service Management that exists within
the IT department, as well as the organizational requirements of
Vision Media in general. This will require interfaces to be created
with:
• Information Security Management: Which is responsible for
the development and renewal of security policies, guidelines
and procedures, which are then executed by Access
Management
• Service Level Management: Which is responsible defining the
customer requirements for access to IT services
• Request Fulfillment: Access Management will often be
triggered by Service Requests, taken by the Service Desk or
submitted using automated and self-help mechanisms
• Change Management: Request for Changes (RFCs) will often
involve modification of access rights
• Demand Management: Which will provide information as to
the patterns of business that will generate requests for
access.

Outside the scope of IT Service Management, some of the interfaces


that will also need to be created are:
• Human Resources: So that effective (and automated)
communication exists to assist in the creation, modification,
removal and audit of access rights.
• General:
o Direct requests from department managers

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o Requests for enabling increased access for VIP staff

b)
The design of an efficient Access Management process will need to
account for the existing IT Service Management processes already
implemented within the IT department, as well as the Human
Resource requirements of Vision Media in general. This will require
interfaces to be created with:
• Information Security Management: Which is responsible for
the development and renewal of security policies, guidelines
and procedures, which are then executed by Access
Management
• Capacity Management: Which is responsible for the design of
systems and infrastructure, which are in turn supported by
Access Management
• Knowledge Management: Each Knowledge base will require
various levels of access to be defined and enforced.
• Change Management: Request for Changes (RFCs) will often
involve modification of access rights
• Demand Management: Which will provide information as to
the patterns of business that will generate requests for
access.

Outside the scope of IT Service Management, some of the interfaces


that will also need to be created are:
• Legal Services: So that the Legal department can verify the
request for access is appropriate and lawful.
• General:
o Direct requests from department managers
o Requests for enabling increased access for VIP staff

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c)
It is important that the implementation of Access Management
considers a number of key interfaces with existing IT Service
Management processes, as well as other business processes, to
ensure success and satisfaction of its defined objectives. This
includes:
• Information Security Management: Which is responsible for
the development and renewal of security policies, guidelines
and procedures, which are then executed by Access
Management
• Availability Management: Which is responsible for the design
of security systems and infrastructure, which are in turn
supported by Access Management
• Request Fulfillment: Access Management will often be
triggered by Service Requests, taken by the Service Desk or
submitted using automated and self-help mechanisms
• Change Management: Request for Changes (RFCs) will often
involve modification of access rights
• Configuration Management: Which can be used to record
relationships between users and systems they can access.

Outside the scope of IT Service Management, some of the interfaces


that will also need to be created are:
• Human Resources: So that effective (and automated)
communication exists to assist in the creation, modification,
removal and audit of access rights.
• General:
o Direct requests from department managers
o Requests for enabling restricted access to contractors
and external suppliers

d)
Access Management will need to be implemented in isolation from
existing IT Service Management processes already in place at Vision
Media so that its’ integrity can be ensured. The only exception to this
is Information Security Management, which is responsible for the
development and renewal of security policies, guidelines and
procedures. Access Management uses these as formal inputs, which
are then executed accordingly

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Question 12 (refer to scenario 4)

The IT director is now considering the implementation of the Service


Operation functions. However there seems to be overlap between the
goals and objectives for each of the functions, which is causing some
concern among staff involved in the project.

Which of the following responses BEST describes the objectives of


the four Service Operation functions?

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a)
Service Desk Technical Management
• To act as a single point of • To design highly resilient, cost
contact for all user effective technical
incidents, requests and architectures.
general communication. • To use adequate technical
• To restore ‘normal service skills to maintain the technical
operation’ as quickly as infrastructure in optimum
possible in the case of condition.
disruption. • To use technical skills to
• To improve user speedily diagnose and resolve
awareness of IT issues any technical failures that do
and to promote occur.
appropriate use of IT • To ensure resources are
services and resources. effectively trained and
• To assist the other IT deployed to design, build,
functions by managing transition, operate and
user communication and improve the technology to
escalating incidents and deliver and support IT
requests using defined Services.
procedures.
IT Operations Management Application Management
• To maintain the ‘status quo’ • To deliver new and modified
to achieve stability of the applications that are well
organization’s day to day designed, interface with
processes and activities. existing architectures, are
• To monitor and identify resilient and cost-effective.
potential improvements to • To ensure the functionality
achieve improved service at and performance
reduced costs, whilst requirements of the business
maintaining stability. are delivered in optimal
• To apply swift operational fashion.
skills to diagnose and • To use appropriate skills to
resolve any IT operations maintain optimum availability
failures that occur. of applications.
• To manage all physical IT • To assist in the decision
environments, usually data whether to build or buy
centers, computer rooms software that meets business
and recovery sites. requirements.

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b)
Service Desk Technical Management
• To act as a single point of • To maintain the ‘status
contact for all IT incidents, quo’ to achieve stability of
requests, problems and the organization’s IT
general communication. services.
• To restore services as • To identify potential
quickly as possible in the improvements to achieve
case of disruption. improved service at
• To improve user reduced costs, whilst
awareness of IT issues optimizing stability.
and to promote efficient • To coordinate swift
use of IT services and technical skills to diagnose
resources. and resolve any IT
• To resolve incidents, operations failures that
problems and service occur.
requests using defined • To manage all physical IT
processes and environments, usually data
procedures. centers, computer rooms
and recovery sites.
IT Operations Management Application Management
• To build highly resilient, cost • To build new and modified
effective technical applications that are well
architectures. designed, interface with
• To use adequate technical existing architectures, are
skills to maintain the technical resilient and cost-effective.
infrastructure in optimum • To ensure the functionality
condition and usability requirements
• To use technical skills to of the business are
speedily diagnose and delivered in optimal fashion.
resolve any technical failures • To ensure resources are
that do occur. effectively trained and
• To test applications for deployed to deliver and
identifying the potential support IT Services.
impact on the production • To efficiently respond to
environment. failures and diagnose and
• To contact users to advise resolve any disruptions that
when technical problems are occur.
resolved.

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c)
Service Desk Technical Management
• To act as a single point of • To build highly resilient,
contact for all customer cost effective technical
incidents, requests and architectures.
general communication. • To use adequate technical
• To restore services as skills to maintain the
quickly as possible in the technical infrastructure in
case of disruption. optimum condition
• To improve user • To use technical skills to
awareness of IT issues speedily diagnose and
and to promote efficient resolve any technical
use of IT services and failures that do occur.
resources. • To ensure resources are
• To assist the other IT effectively trained and
functions by managing deployed to deliver and
user communication and support IT Services.
resolving incidents and • To contact users to advise
requests using defined when technical problems
procedures. are resolved.
IT Operations Management Application Management
• To maintain the ‘status quo’ • To build new and modified
to achieve stability of the applications that are well
organization’s day to day designed, interface with
processes and activities. existing architectures, are
• To identify potential resilient and cost-effective.
improvements to achieve • To ensure the functionality
improved service at reduced and usability requirements
costs, whilst optimizing of the business are
stability. delivered in optimal fashion.
• To coordinate swift technical • To test applications prior to
skills to diagnose and deployment into the
resolve any IT operations production environment.
failures that occur. • To efficiently respond to
• To manage all physical IT failures and diagnose and
environments, usually data resolve any disruptions that
centers, computer rooms occur.
and recovery sites.

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d)
Service Desk Technical Management
• To act as a single point of • To build highly resilient,
contact for all IT incidents, cost effective technical
requests, problems and architectures.
general communication. • To use adequate technical
• To restore services as skills to maintain the
quickly as possible in the technical infrastructure in
case of disruption. optimum condition.
• To improve user • To use technical skills to
awareness of IT issues speedily diagnose and
and to promote efficient resolve any technical
use of IT services and failures that do occur.
resources. • To test applications for
• To resolve incidents, identifying the potential
problems and service impact on the production
requests using defined environment
processes and • To contact users to advise
procedures. when technical problems
are resolved.
IT Operations Management Application Management
• To maintain the ‘status quo’ • To build new and modified
to achieve stability of the applications that are well
organization’s IT services. designed, interface with
• To identify potential existing architectures, are
improvements to achieve resilient and cost-effective.
improved service at reduced • To ensure the functionality
costs, whilst optimizing and usability requirements
stability. of the business are
• To coordinate swift technical delivered in optimal fashion.
skills to diagnose and • To ensure resources are
resolve any IT operations effectively trained and
failures that occur. deployed to deliver and
• To manage all physical IT support IT Services.
environments, usually data • To efficiently respond to
centers, computer rooms failures and diagnose and
and recovery sites. resolve any disruptions that
occur.

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Question 13 (refer to scenario 4)

Sally Robbins, who had previously managed the IT department’s


Service Desk, has now been assigned the role of Incident Manager.
To assist in the implementation of the process, Sally has conducted a
number of meetings with IT staff, customers, external suppliers and
other relevant stakeholders to identify their requirements. Based on
these discussions, Sally has created following impact definitions,
which will be used in conjunction to the given urgency to determine
the appropriate timescales and effort applied for response and
resolution to recorded incidents.

Urgency

High Med Low

High 1 2 3

Impact Priority
Med 2 3 4

Low 3 4 5

Impact Definition:
• Low Impact
o Affects a single user, preventing them from performing
normal work functions
o A single, non-critical device or peripheral is unavailable

• Medium Impact
o Multiple users are affected, preventing them from
performing normal work functions
o A regular business function is unavailable to part of a
or organizational unit department

• High Impact
o A vital business function is unavailable to an entire
department or company owned organization
• Major Incident
o A vital business function is unavailable to all Vision
Media departments and company owned organizations

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Example Incidents:

I. The IT manager of Vision Films detects that their dedicated


Virtual Private Network linking them to Vision Media’s
corporate IT systems has failed. This has prevented users
from accessing or modifying any file, document or system
maintained by the centralized IT department of Vision Media.
II. The vice-president of the Finance and Administration
department reports that her laptop keeps rebooting. She has
an important report to complete for the Chief Executive
Officer.
III. The president of Vision TV is unable to stream high-definition
video from a regional office. He requires the regional office’s
WAN connection to be upgraded to a 14.4 M/bit wireless
mobile network.
IV. A IT staff member is alerted to the failure of systems provided
by Human Resources to all other departments and sub-
companies to manage payments and leave for Vision Media
employees (and those employed by organizations fully owned
by Vision Media)

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Which of the following responses provides the correct assignment of
impact to the above incidents?

a)
I. High Impact
II. Medium Impact
III. Not an incident, should be a Request for Change
IV. Major Incident

b)
I. High Impact
II. Low Impact
III. Not an incident, should be a Request for Change
IV. Major Incident

c)
I. Major Incident
II. Medium Impact
III. High Impact
IV. Major Incident

d)
I. High Impact
II. Low Impact
III. Medium Impact
IV. Major Incident

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Scenario 5

You are the CIO of a large stockbroking firm, based in Hong Kong.
Recently this company has acquired two other major firms in London
and New York. Total Company staff now exceeds 800 people. Each
Firm currently has their own Service Desk.

o Hong Kong has 10 SD staff to 400 employees, with 6 2nd level


support staff
o London has 3 SD staff to 140 employees with 3 2nd level
support staff
o New York has 5 SD staff to 250 employees with 5 2nd level
support staff

With this new merger comes new support issues. Complaints are
coming in to say that there si an imbalance with ratio of IT support
staff to users, Service Desks in London and New York are having
trouble knowing and supporting new systems which has resulted in
users calling Hong Kong Service Desk. This has resulted in higher
resolution times and an inability to get through to the service desk

The Business is not happy with the current situation...

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Question 14 (refer to scenario 5)

As CIO, you decide to reorganize the Service Desk structure as a


means to address the levels of service. You decide to use a follow
the sun Service Desk. Which of the following descriptions to you
present to the Business as your solution?

a) . By implementing a follow the sun SD, you use current data to


determine minimum staffing requirements in each location to
support its own location and the expected support levels in
other locations. You then ensure that SD staff are trained on
all current services. You appoint 2 Super Users per Service
Desk to act as a buffer and to assist the users. You set up SD
schedule based on usage and work hours

b) By implementing a follow the sun SD, you use current data to


determine minimum staffing requirements in each location to
support its own location and the expected support levels in
other locations. You then ensure that all SD staff are trained
on all current services and able to provide an average of 60%
1st line support as a target you appoint 2 Super Users per
location to act as a buffer and to assist the users. You set up
SD schedule based on usage and work hours

c) By implementing a follow the sun SD, you will start by


investigating if the current infrastructure is capable of
supporting a global service desk, including use of VOIP
technology (this is possible). You use current data to
determine minimum staffing requirements in each location to
support its own location and the expected support levels in
other locations. You decide to use English as the main
language for all support. You then ensure that all SD staff are
trained on all current services and able to provide an average
of 60% 1st line support as a target you appoint 2 Super Users
per location to act as a buffer and to assist the users. You set
up SD schedule based on usage and work hours

d) By implementing a follow the sun SD, location. You decide to


keep local languages for SD. You use current data to
determine minimum staffing requirements in each location to
support its own location. You then ensure that all SD staff are

Copyright The Art of Service 99


trained on local services and able to provide an average of
60% 1st line support as a target You appoint 2 Super Service
Desk Operators per location to act as a buffer and to assist
the users.

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Question 15 (refer to scenario 5)

You decide to use this opportunity to also implement Access


Management and Request Fulfilment. The business is not convinced
that this is necessary –as they say that “these are done by Service
Desk as part of their daily job”.

You decide to present the benefits that each process implementation


will bring. Which of the following will you use?

a)
Request Fulfilment Access Management
You highlight that this new You raise the following benefits:
process will work well with the o Controlled access to
new SD setup as Request services
Fulfilment will provide quick and o Employees have the right
effective access to standard level of access
services, which business staff o Less likelihood of errors in
can use to improve their data entry
productivity, for the quality of o Ability to audit
business services and products. o Ability to easily revoke
You stress that Request access rights
Fulfilment effectively reduces the o Maybe needed for
bureaucracy involved in regulatory compliance
requesting and receiving access
to existing or new services,
therefore also reducing the cost
of providing these services

b)
Request Fulfilment Access Management
You highlight that this new You raise the following benefits:
process will work well Incident o Controlled access to
Management as Request networks
Fulfilment will provide quick and o Employees have the right
effective access to standard level of access
services, which business staff o Less likelihood of errors in
can use to improve their data entry
productivity, for the quality of o Ability to audit
business services and products. o Ability to easily revoke
You stress that Request access policies

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Fulfilment effectively reduces the o Maybe needed for
waiting time for requesting and regulatory compliance
receiving access to existing or
new services, therefore also
reducing the complaints from
users

c)
Request Fulfilment Access Management
You highlight that this new You raise the following benefits:
process will work well with the o Controlled access to
new SD setup as Request services
Fulfilment will provide quick and o Employees have the right
effective access to standard level of access
services, which business staff o Less likelihood of errors in
can use to improve their data entry
productivity, for the quality of o Ability to audit
business services and products. o Ability to easily revoke
You stress that Request access rights
Fulfilment effectively reduces the o Maybe needed for
waiting time for requesting and regulatory compliance
receiving access to existing or
new services, therefore also
reducing the complaints from
users

d)
Request Fulfilment Access Management
You highlight that this new You raise the following benefits:
process will work well Incident o Controlled access to
Management as Request networks
Fulfilment will provide support o Employees have the right
standard services, which IT staff create own access
can use to improve their o Less likelihood of errors in
productivity, for the quality of data entry
business services and products. o Ability to audit
You stress that Request o Ability to easily revoke
Fulfilment effectively reduces the access policies
waiting time for requesting and o Maybe needed for
removing access to existing or business compliance
new networks, therefore also

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reducing the complaints from
users

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Question 16 (NO SCENARIO)

The success of Service Operation phase is based on some important


Critical Success Factors. From the options below, which would be
the most important for Service Operation?

a)
o Management support for using phase
o Business support to ensure users use Service Desk as little as
possible
o Champions to drive process usage
o Staffing and retention of Service Desk
o Service management usage
o Suitable tools – especially Incident Management
o Measurement and reporting of capacity

b)

o Management support for setting up phase


o Business support to ensure users call Service Desk
o Champions to lead process implementation
o Staffing and retention of Service Desk
o Service management training
o Suitable tools
o Measurement and reporting of usage

c)

o Management support for setting up SD


o Business support to ensure users call Service Desk
o Champions to lead Service Support
o Staffing and retention of Service Desk
o Service management understanding
o Suitable tools – especially Service Desk
o Measurement and reporting

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d)

o Management support for setting up phase


o Business support to ensure users use Service Desk
o Champions to lead process implementation
o Staffing and retention of Service Desk
o Service management training
o Suitable tools – especially Service Desk
o Measurement and reporting

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25 Answer Guide

25.1 Answers to warm up Questions

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. C
7. B
8. B
9. B
10. A

25.2 Answers to Intermediate Style Practice Exam

Remember – the way the exams are scored are on a 5/3/1/0 point
scale. The following answer guide will help you to identify the most
correct answer, and why it is more correct than the next answer.

Question 1

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of Incident Mgt and Request Fulfilment

Most Correct B This is the correct answer – focus on identifying


correct processes and using service desk as
SPOC – and ITSM as important to business
Second Best A Missing using SD as SPOC

Third Best C No focus on ITSM – IT focused

Distracter D

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Question 2

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of Skills analysis, esp in release and
deployment

Most Correct A This is the most correct answer – focuses on


issues
Second Best B Not addressing Change/release issue

Third Best D Incident mgt is not the priority – release is

Distracter C

Question 3

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of Event and Problem Mgt

Most Correct A This is the most correct answer – it addresses


correct order as well as proactive side to Problem
Mgt
Second Best D Not addressing Event Mgt

Third Best C Lack of understanding of ITIL framework.

Distracter B

Question 4

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of Service Desk Metrics

Most Correct B Correct and relevant SD metrics

Second Best A Average time to identify incident not a valid


metric of SD
Third Best C Average time to escalate incident not a valid
metric of SD
Cost of an incident is not a SD metric
Distracter D

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Question 5

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of Access Mgt

Most Correct B Most correct answer – recognizes relationship


between access and Availability and Information
Security Mgt, as well importance of business
credibility
Second Best D Lack of reference to other processes

Third Best C Does not reference other processes and does not
value business credibility
Distracter A

Question 6

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of Service Operation and communication,
as well as interfaces with other phases/processes

Most Correct B This is the most correct answer

Second Best D Is not addressing release policy, or problem mgt

Third Best A Business case for Knowledge mgt tool not part of
service operation, lack of communication methods
to address issues
Distracter C

Question 7

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of establishing a Service Desk and Incident
Mgt

Most Correct A This is the most correct answer –it identifies SD


as SPOC and list appropriate steps to establish a
service desk
Second Best C SD is more than just a telephone system, not
considering business involvement in improving
service

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Third Best B This is not focus of Service Operation

Distracter D

Question 8

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of metrics of incident and problem mgt

Most Correct D This is the most correct list of relevant metrics

Second Best B Missing metrics of incident resolution time

Third Best A Availability of services is not an incident mgt


metric
Incident mgt metrics not valid for problem mgt
Distracter C

Question 9

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding the business benefits of Event Mgt

Most Correct B This is the most correct answer – it considers the


business
Second Best C Last point is not a business benefit

Third Best D SLA breaches is the only business benefit

Distracter A

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Question 10

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding the benefits of Service Operation as a
whole to the business

Most Correct B This is the most correct answer – it considers the


business
Second Best D Reduced operational spending on IT is not a valid
business benefit
Third Best A Focus is on IT, not business

Distracter C

Question 11

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of the interfaces between access mgt and
other processes

Most Correct C Most correctly lists all relevant interfaces with


access mgt
Second Best A Missing availability mgt – key interfaces

Third Best B Missing availability mgt – key interfaces, and


focus is on legal – not valid for internal
organization
Distracter D

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Question 12

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of the Service Operation Functions

Most Correct A Most correct objectives for all functions

Second Best C Technical mgt last point not valid objective


IT Operations – does more than coordinate skills
Application mgt – testing not objective, nor is
responding to failures – too broad
Third Best D Technical mgt last point not valid objective
IT Operations – does more than coordinate skills
Application mgt – testing not objective, nor is
responding to failures – too broad
Technical mgt last point not valid objective
IT Operations – does more than coordinate skills
Application mgt – testing not objective, nor is
responding to failures – too broad
Service Desk – does not resolve problems
Distracter B

Question 13

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of incident prioritization

Most Correct B Most correct answer

Second Best A ii – not a medium impact

Third Best D i – not major incident


ii – not a medium impact
iii – not an incident
Distracter C

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Question 14

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of service desk structures

Most Correct C Most correct answer – especially selecting


English as main language
Second Best B Missing common language

Third Best A Missing common language


Super users are not part of service desk
Distracter D

Question 15

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of benefits of request Fulfilment and Access
Mgt

Most Correct A Most correct answer – business benefits

Second Best C Complaints form users – not a valid business


benefit
Third Best B Complaints form users – not a valid business
benefit
Incident mgt –not relevant as benefit for business
– access mgt works with Service Desk
Distracter D

Question 16

Question The aim of this question is to demonstrate an


Rationale understanding of Critical success factors for Service
Operation

Most Correct D Most correct answer – all relevant CSFs

Second Best B Measurement and reporting of “usage” of Service


Operation as whole not a CSF
users need more ways of contacting SD other
than just “calling” SD
Third Best C Measurement and reporting of “usage” of Service
Operation as whole not a CSF

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Not just about setting up a SD
users need more ways of contacting SD other
than just “calling” SD
Distracter A

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26 ACRONYMS
AM Availability Management
AMIS Availability Management Information System
BCM Business Capacity Management
BCP Business Continuity Plan
BIA Business Impact Analysis
CAB Change Advisory Board
ECAB Emergency Change Advisory Board
CFIA Component Failure Impact Analysis
CI Configuration Item
CMDB Configuration Management Database
CMIS Capacity Management Information System
CMS Configuration Management System
CSF Critical Success Factor
CSI Continual Service Improvement
CSIP Continual Service Improvement Program
CSP Core Service Package
DIKW Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom
DML Definitive Media Library
DS Definitive Spares
FTA Fault Tree Analysis
ISM Information Security Management
ISMS Information Security Management System
ITSCM IT Service Continuity Management
ITSM IT Service Management
IVR Interactive Voice Response
KEDB Known Error Database
KPI Key Performance Indicator
MoR Management of Risk
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MTBSI Mean Time Between Service Incidents
MTRS Mean Time to Restore Service
OGC Office of Government Commerce
OLA Operational Level Agreement
PBA Pattern of Business Activity
PIR Post Implementation Review
PSO Projected Service Outage
QA Quality Assurance
QMS Quality Management System
RFC Request for Change

114 Copyright The Art of Service


ROI Return on Investment
SAC Service Acceptance Criteria
SACM Service Asset and Configuration Management
SCD Supplier and Contract Database
SIP Service Improvement Plan
SKMS Service Knowledge Management System
SLA Service Level Agreement
SLM Service Level Management
SLP Service Level Package
SLR Service Level Requirement
SPM Service Portfolio Management
SPOF Single Point of Failure
SSIP Supplier Service Improvement Plan
TCO Total Cost of Ownership
TQM Total Quality Management
UC Underpinning Contract
VBF Vital Business Function
VOI Value on Investment

Copyright The Art of Service 115


27 Glossary

Alert: A warning that a threshold has been reached, something has


changed, or a failure has occurred.

Asset: Any resource or capability.

Application Sizing: Determines the hardware or network capacity to


support new or modified applications and the predicted workload.

Baselines: A benchmark used as a reference point for later


comparison.

CMDB: Configuration Management Database

CMS: Configuration Management System

Configuration Item (CI): Any component that needs to be managed


in order to deliver an IT Service.

DML: Definitive Media Library

Function: A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry
out one or more processes or activities.

Incident: An unplanned interruption to, or reduction in the quality of


an IT service

Known Error: A problem that has a documented Root Cause and a


Workaround

KEDB: Known Error Database

Maintainability: A measure of how quickly and effectively a CI or IT


service can be restored to normal after a failure.

Modeling: A technique used to predict the future behaviour of a


system, process, CI etc

MTBF: Mean Time Between Failures (Uptime)

116 Copyright The Art of Service


MTBSI: Mean Time Between Service Incidents

MTRS: Mean Time to Restore Service (Downtime)

OLA: Operational Level Agreement

Process: A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a


specific objective.

Process Owner: Role responsible for ensuring that a process is fit


for purpose.

Remediation: Recovery to a known state after a failed Change or


Release

RFC: Request for Change

Service: A means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating


Outcomes Customers want to achieve without the ownership of
specific Costs and risks

Service Owner: Role that is accountable for the delivery of a specific


IT service

SCD: Supplier and Contracts Database

Service Assets: Any capability or resource of a service provider


Serviceability: Measures Availability, Reliability, Maintainability of IT
services/CI’s under control of external suppliers.

SIP: Service Improvement Plan

SKMS: Service Knowledge Management System

SLA: Service Level Agreement

SLM: Service Level Manager

SLR: Service Level Requirements

SSIP: Supplier Service Improvement Plan

Copyright The Art of Service 117


Status Accounting: Reporting of all current and historical data about
each CI throughout its lifecycle.

Trigger An indication that some action or response to an event may


be needed.

Tuning: Used to identify areas of the IT infrastructure that could be


better utilized.

UC: Underpinning Contract

Utility: Functionality offered by a product or service to meet a


particular need. Often summarized as ‘what it does’.

VBF: Vital Business Function

Warranty: A promise or guarantee that a product or service will meet


its agreed requirements.

118 Copyright The Art of Service


28 References

ITIL. Continual Service Improvement (2007) OGC. London. TSO


ITIL. Service Design (2007) OGC. London. TSO
ITIL. Service Operation (2007) OGC. London. TSO
ITIL. Service Strategy (2007) OGC. London. TSO
ITIL. Service Transition (2007) OGC. London. TSO

Websites
www.artofservice.com.au
www.theartofservice.org
www.theartofservice.com

Copyright The Art of Service 119


INDEX*

A
Ability 23, 33, 101-2
ability, enhanced 81
access 26, 30, 32-5, 54, 61, 65-7, 87-9, 101-2, 108
Access Management 3-4, 18, 33, 47, 66, 87-9
Access Management and Request Fulfilment 101
access management features 47
access management process 66-7
efficient 88
Access Management Processes 53
access mgt 108, 110, 112
access rights 34, 65
audit of 87, 89
modification of 87-9
reset of 76-7
revoke 33, 101-2
access rights Average time 76-7
acquisitions 83-6
act 37, 83, 91-4, 99-100
addition 19, 57, 59-61
answer guide 5, 106
answers 5, 8-10, 15, 106
Application Management 43, 91-4
Application Management Function 4, 18, 43
applications 9, 20, 43, 54, 91
modified 91-4, 116
test 92-4
applications/incidents/service requests 56
architectures, existing 91-4
Art of Service Objective Tree 2, 11
assessment, initial 58
audit 33, 101-2
availability 15, 23-4, 27, 33, 80
Availability Management 24, 28, 33, 65, 114
availability of services 20, 30, 80
Availability of services 109
Average cost of handling problem 28
Average Service Desk 38
Average Service Desk cost of handling incident 38
average time 38, 63, 76-9, 107

B
Basic Concepts 2-4, 13, 16, 19, 23, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 41, 43, 45
BCP Business Continuity Plan 114
benefits 6, 11, 21, 65, 80, 84-5, 101, 110, 112
following 80, 82, 101-2

120 Copyright The Art of Service


significant 80-2
BIA Business Impact Analysis 114
book 1, 6, 55
Breakdown of incidents 24
Breakdown of service requests 31
breed Service Desks benefit 37
Brewster s 55
Brief Job Description 59
buffer 99-100
business 2, 9, 13, 16, 23, 26-7, 37, 54-5, 58-60, 66, 69, 80-4, 87-8, 91-
4, 98-9, 109-10 [4]
business applications 20
business awareness 75
business benefits 109, 112
valid 110, 112
Business Capacity Management 114
business case 70, 84
Business case for Knowledge mgt tool 108
business compliance 102
business credibility 108
business events 20
business function 95, 115, 118
regular 95
business involvement 108
business objectives 11, 60
business operations 23
business personnel 36
business perspective 85
business priorities 23
real-time 23
Business Process areas 60
business processes 20, 56, 89
business requirements 91
Business Service Management 45
business services 30, 101-2
business staff 30, 101-2
business support 50, 104-5
business support Improvement 80
business units 69, 71, 73
Business Value 2-4, 19, 23, 27, 30, 33, 36
business viewpoint 84-5
bypass 76-9

C
calls 38, 55-6, 58, 63, 73, 75-9
capabilities 14, 23, 75, 116-17
capacity 15, 52, 76, 80, 82, 104
Capacity Management 24, 28

Copyright The Art of Service 121


cause, underlying 26, 52
Centralized Service Desk 37
Challenges and Critical Success Factors 3, 28, 34
Champions 50, 104-5
CI (Configuration Item) 20, 22, 26, 29, 52-3, 114, 116, 118
CIO 98-9
clients 66-8
informing 66-8
CMS 20, 24, 31, 116
communication 2, 17, 23, 36, 38, 56, 59-60, 71-2, 87, 89, 91-4, 108
company 6, 55, 65, 83, 95, 98
company s reputation 67-8
complaints 30, 98, 102-3
complaints form users 112
complement 80-1, 83
complexity 37, 84-6
compliance 71
regulatory 33, 101-2
computer rooms 42, 91-4
concept 1, 9, 12
Configuration Item, see CI
Configuration Management 20, 24, 31
Configuration Management System 114, 116
confusion 73, 76, 87
consistency 71-5
contact 23, 36, 51, 57, 74, 91-4
contact users 92-4
content 1, 9
Continual Service Improvement 119
Continual Service Improvement Manager 63
control 14, 25, 36, 49, 51, 117
Controlled access 33, 101-2
coordinate skills Application mgt 111
coordination 57
Core Service Package 114
cost 13-14, 27, 30, 91-4, 101, 107, 117
average 24, 31, 63-4
reduced 41, 91-4
Average 78-9
Cost of Service 17
creation 87, 89
cross-organizational work-flows 16
CSFs 112
CSI Continual Service Improvement 114
CSIP Continual Service Improvement Program CSP 114
customer feedback 63-4
customer satisfaction survey 55, 57-8
customer updates 63-4

122 Copyright The Art of Service


customers 14-16, 30, 36, 55-8, 60, 95, 117

D
damage 6, 67-8
data centers 42, 91-4
data entry 33, 101-2
delivery 16, 83, 117
demonstrate 7, 106-12
department managers 88-9
departments 17, 34, 36, 38, 55-6, 59-60, 65, 69-70, 73-5, 83, 85, 87-8,
95-6
deployment 31, 43, 70, 93, 107
designations 6
designs 16, 21, 39, 43, 84-5, 87-9, 91
system 81, 88
desk 37-8
development 74, 87-9
diagnose 41, 91-4
speedily 39, 91-4
diagnosis 23, 27, 29, 52, 82
Direct requests 87-9
directors 83-4, 87, 90
Directory of services 35
Directory Services 47
disruptions 26, 81, 85, 91-4
Distracter 106-13
documentation 70-2

E
Early Life Support 71-2
efficiency 47, 84-5
element, vital 84-5
employees 33, 54, 98, 101-2
Enable Service Design processes 47
entities 6, 26, 61
environments 13, 42, 91-4
live 61-2
production 92-4
errors 21, 24, 27, 33, 52, 101-2
escalate problem Copyright 63
escalation 71, 78-9
Event and Access Management Processes 53
event correlation 19, 76-7
event detection 19, 21
Event Management 2-4, 18-21, 41, 45, 51
implementation of 80-1
recommended implementing 80
event management process 19, 61-2

Copyright The Art of Service 123


Event Management to Verinet 80
event monitoring 56, 61
events 19-22, 29, 36, 46, 51, 81, 107, 118
exam 1, 9, 55, 106
execution 16, 19, 33, 66
expenditure 84-5
Expert status 7
exploit 21, 23
External business 17

F
Facilities Management 42
failures 17, 20-1, 26, 29, 40, 92-4, 96, 111, 114-16
operations 41, 91-4
technical 39, 52, 91-4
feedback 57-8
filtering, correct level of 21
first contact 53, 76-9
first line 76-9
first recommendation 66-7
focus 13, 50, 57, 67, 70-2, 106, 109-10
formal management 57
Fulfilment 30, 101-2
functionality 23, 43, 46, 54, 91-4, 118
service s 35
functions 4, 12, 14, 38, 41-2, 51, 84, 90-1, 93, 111, 116

G
Given current plans 84-6
government 69
groups 14, 35, 71-3, 116
second line 74, 76-9
guidelines 38, 87-9

H
handling incident 38, 63
average Service Desk cost of 63
handling problem 28, 64
High Impact 97
high priority incidents Reduced Mean 82
Higher productivity of business 27
highlight 101-2
holistic Service Lifecycle approach 2, 13
Hong Kong 98
Hong Kong Service Desk 98
human resources 19, 66, 81, 87, 89, 96

124 Copyright The Art of Service


identity 34-5
Impact Definition 95
implementation 4, 45, 61-2, 85, 89-90, 95
fast 66-7
implementing 19, 59, 80-3, 99
Improved availability 84-5
Improved availability levels 76-7
Improved availability of services 76
Improved customer service 36
Improved detection of system events 76
Incident and Problem Management 70, 76, 80
Incident and Problem Management Copyright 72
Incident and Problem Management processes 71
incident backlog 24
incident closure copyright 23
incident identification/logging 23
Incident Management 3-4, 18, 23, 31, 46, 53, 65, 104
Incident Management and Request Fulfillment 57
Incident Management Problem Management 76-9
Incident Management process 31
effective 28
formalized 60
Incident Manager 2, 13, 26, 57, 95
incident mgt 106-8, 112
Incident mgt metrics 109
Incident Model 3, 25, 53
incident number 56
incident prioritization 111
incident process 26
incident records 61-2
incident resolution 24
incident resolution time 109
incident results 26
incidents 20, 23-7, 29, 32, 34, 36, 38, 46, 52-3, 63, 70-9, 92, 94, 96-7,
101-2, 107 [5]
customer 93
early detection of 19, 81
escalate 63, 107
escalating 91
escalation of 70, 72
major 26
multiple 52
record 53
recorded 95
recurring 27
refreshed 70, 72
resolving 70, 93
track 75

Copyright The Art of Service 125


user 91
Incidents and Service Requests 57
incidents being 25
incidents 82
Increased customer 84-6
Increased effectiveness 84-5
Ineffective Service Transition 50
Information Technology 83
infrastructure 14, 17, 20-1, 39, 41, 51-3, 55, 69, 81, 84-6, 88-9, 99,
118
infrastructure assessment 56, 61
infrastructure design 20
input 56, 61-2
Integrate Event Management 21
Integrated CMS 45-6
Integrated ITSM technology 4, 45-6
integration 24-5, 45, 66
interfaces 2-3, 20, 24, 28, 31-3, 71, 87-9, 91-4, 108, 110
Intermediate Style Practice Exam 5, 55, 106
internet businesses 83
Internet Service Providers 80
internet services 80
high availability 81
investments 37, 85, 115
issue/problem 10
issues 57, 59, 61, 70-5, 91-4, 107-8
ITIL 1-2, 7-9, 11, 15, 55, 119
ITIL processes, existing 70, 80-1
ITIL Service Lifecycle 12
ITIL volume of Service Operation 70
ITSM 2, 9, 11, 13-14, 106, 114
ITSM processes 55, 57, 60, 65

J
job title 59

K
KEDB 28-9, 47, 116
key interfaces 89, 110
Key Terms 2-4, 14, 22, 26, 29, 32, 35
knowledge 1, 9, 55-6, 70-2, 74
knowledge bank 61-2
Known Errors 20, 28-9, 46, 52, 61-2, 70, 72-5, 78-9, 116

L
lack 25, 50, 61, 71-3, 108
56
lack of skill 61

126 Copyright The Art of Service


Lack of understanding of ITIL framework 107
language, common 112
Legal Services 88
Less likelihood of errors 33, 101-2
letter, formal 67
levels, right 33, 101-2
liability 6
lifecycle 7, 9, 15-16, 43, 118
line support 99-100
Local Service Desk 37
location 17, 99-100
logging, separate 57
London 1, 98, 119
Low Impact 95, 97

M
Maintainability 116-17
Major Incident 3, 26, 97, 111
Major Incident Copyright 97
Major problem review 27-8, 78-9
management 2, 13, 16-17, 22, 25, 42-3, 55, 61, 71, 80, 101-2
Management support 50, 104-5
Manager 2, 13, 54-5, 66
managers 37, 53, 59, 76, 96
managing 7, 17, 39, 83-6
Managing Change in Service Operation 49
managing incidents 74-5, 77-9
managing user communication 91, 93
Mean Time to Restore (MTTR) 82
Mean Time to Restore Service 114, 117
Measurement 40, 44, 50, 104-5, 112
mechanisms, self-help 87, 89
Med 95
medium impact 97, 111
memo 59
formal 57
method, best 74-5
metrics 16, 63, 109
Metrics 2-4, 20, 24, 28, 31, 34, 38, 40, 42, 44
Missing availability mgt 110
Missing metrics of incident resolution time 109
modification 87, 89
monitor 14, 51, 53-4, 91
monitoring agents 21
Most Correct 106-12
most correct answer 8, 106-12
MTTR (Mean Time to Restore) 82

Copyright The Art of Service 127


N
NEB 65-7
networks 14, 52-3, 101-2
normal work functions, performing 95
number 7, 16, 20, 37, 55, 70, 76-81, 89, 95

O
Objective 3-4, 19, 23, 27, 33, 36, 39, 41, 43
objectives 11, 16, 25, 30, 56, 61, 85, 90
off-shore Service Desk solutions 38
OGC 119
online Service Catalogue 75
operation 16, 20, 39, 112
operation departments 59
operational activities 42, 49
operational events 53
Operational Support 56, 61-2
Operational Support and Analysis, see OSA
Operations 49, 111
Operations Control 41, 53
Operations Management 42, 91-4
Operations Management Function 4, 18, 41, 43
optimizations 16, 84-5
optimum condition 39, 91-4
organizational structure 39, 73
organizational unit department 95
organizations 4, 11, 13-15, 20, 31, 35-7, 39, 42-3, 51, 66-7, 73, 75, 80,
83, 95-6, 110
competitor 65-7
organizations Applications Management departments 43
organizations services 17
organization s 38, 92, 94
organization s business processes 39, 43
organization s day 91, 93
organization s staff member/employee 14
OSA (Operational Support and Analysis) 1-2, 4-5, 12, 18, 45, 50
Outsourcing Service Desk 4, 38
ownership 14, 23, 115, 117

P
PBA Pattern of Business Activity 114
performance 19-20, 71, 76, 81-2, 84-5
person 6, 14, 19, 34, 56
personnel, list of 59
phase 2, 13, 74, 104-5
photograph 59
planning 61, 69, 83
policies, revoke access 101-2

128 Copyright The Art of Service


Practice Exam 1, 5, 51, 55
priority 26, 57, 77-9, 95, 107
proactive activities 3, 27, 61-2
Proactive Problem Management reviews, regular 71
Problem 20, 26, 29, 52, 56, 71-2
problem categorization 27
problem detection 27, 71
problem investigation 27
Problem Management 3-4, 18, 24, 27-8, 46, 53, 65, 70, 76-80
oversee Proactive 72
Problem Management Copyright 72
Problem Management processes 61-2, 70-2
Problem Manager 26, 52
problem mgt 107-9
problem records 61, 78-9
problem resolution 27
problems 20, 24, 26-8, 46, 52, 61-3, 70-9, 81, 92, 94, 111, 116
close 76-9
solving 78-9
technical 92-4
problems Reducing ratio 82
procedures, defined 71, 91, 93
process implementation 101, 104-5
process metrics 40, 42, 44
processes, new 101-2
productivity 30, 101-2
products 6, 13, 17, 30, 48, 101-2, 118
projects 44, 50, 69, 74, 84, 90
service management 17
PSO Projected Service Outage 114
publisher 6
purchase 74-5

Q
quality Access Management process 87

R
Rationale 106-12
recovery sites 91-4
Reduced negative business impact 36
Reduced operational spending 84-5, 110
reduction 26-7, 29, 116
refresh 69-70
refresher 5, 51
Release & Deployment Management 28, 31
Release & Deployment Management/Service Asset 31
releases 56, 59-60, 70-2, 107, 117
release 31

Copyright The Art of Service 129


Remote control 45, 47
reporting 20, 45, 50, 104-5, 112, 118
Request for Changes, see RFCs
Request Fulfillment 3, 30
Request Fulfilment 3-4, 18, 30, 46-7, 106
Request Fulfilment Access Management 101-2
requests 14, 26, 30-2, 34, 54-5, 60, 87-9, 91-4, 97, 101-2, 117
requirements
minimum staffing 99
usability 92-4
resilient 91-4
resources 14, 23, 39, 50, 55, 61, 91-4, 116-17
Restore Service 92-4
review 38, 70, 72, 74
review sessions, regular 74-5
RFCs (Request for Changes) 76-9, 87-9, 117
rights 6, 33-5
Risks 3, 5, 21, 25, 50
ROI 85
role 2, 4, 10, 13, 20, 26, 36, 39, 41, 43, 47, 57, 59, 95, 117

S
SAC Service Acceptance Criteria 115
SACM Service Asset and Configuration Management 115
Sally 95
scenario 8-10, 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 65-6, 69-70, 73, 76, 80, 83-4, 87, 90,
95, 98-9 [2]
scope 2, 16, 32, 69, 87-9
increased 84-6
SD 99, 104, 106, 108, 112-13
calling 112-13
sun 99
valid metric of 107
SD metrics 107
SD schedule 99
SD setup 101-2
SD staff 98-9
Second Best 106-12
security 65-7
security policies, renewal of 87-9
senior management 57, 67
Service 14, 17, 31-2, 112, 116-17
outsourced 38
Service Asset & Configuration Management 28, 31
Service Assets 117
service being 38
Service Continuity Management 28, 65, 114
Service Continuity Planning for ITSM support tools 47

130 Copyright The Art of Service


service Copyright, improving 108
service delivery 84-5
Service Design 41, 50, 56, 61, 119
Service Design and Service Transition 84
Service Design and Service Transition processes 83
Service Design Manager 2, 13
Service Design Phase 2, 13
Service Design/Transition stage 16
Service Desk 4, 18, 23-6, 31, 36-8, 47, 52-9, 63, 71-9, 87, 89, 91-4,
98-9, 101, 104-6, 111-12 [1]
department s 95
global 99
retention of 104-5
sun 99
users call 104
users use 104-5
Service Desk and Incident Mgt 108
service desk Distracter 112
Service Desk Function 4, 36
service desk hours 63
Service Desk/Incident Management 31
Service Desk Manager 26
service desk member 60
Service Desk Metrics 107
Service Desk Operators 53
Service Desk Organizational Structures 4, 37
service desk staff 59-60
Rotating 72
Service Desk structure 99, 112
service desk times 64
Service Desks in London and New York 98
service groups 35
Service Improvement Plan 117
service improvements 16, 63
Service Incidents 114, 117
Service Knowledge Management System 117
Service Level Agreements, see SLA
Service Level Management 24, 28, 53, 65
Assist 75
Service Level Manager 52, 117
Service Level Requirements 117
Service Lifecycle 2, 11, 15-16, 61
Service Loss 50
Service Management 2, 5, 7, 12-13, 38-9, 49, 84-5, 87-9, 114
Service Management Copyright 11
Service Management initiative 84-5
Service Management practices 69
Service Management processes 16, 73, 88-9

Copyright The Art of Service 131


Service Management systems 73
Service Management Tools 4, 47, 74-5
consistent 74
Service Manager 80
service Mgt 49
Service Mgt and Support 49
Service Operation 2, 4, 12, 16-17, 29, 49, 54, 56, 84-5, 104, 108-10,
112, 119
implementation of 83-6
implementing 84
improved 84-5
normal 23, 51
Service Operation Copyright 83
service operation functions 90, 111
Service Operation Phase 12
service operation processes 19, 85
service operation , normal 91
Service Owner 117
service provider Serviceability 117
Service Providers 15-16, 69, 83
service provision 16, 36
service provision Copyright 47
service quality 16-17, 23, 84-5
service requests 26, 31-2, 34, 36, 46, 54, 57, 71, 73-5, 87, 89, 92, 94
handling 73
service requests Copyright 75
service restoration 26
Service Strategy 119
Service Support 104
service targets 20
Service Transition 10, 119
services 2, 6, 13-17, 22-3, 26-7, 29-30, 32-5, 53-4, 60-3, 69, 75-6, 83-
7, 91-4, 99, 101-2, 116-18 [10]
centralized Information Technology 73
changed 56, 59
consumer telecommunication 69
customer purchase 15
end-to-end 16
improved 41, 91-4
local 100
new 21, 30, 101-2
satellite 69
Information Technology 69
Infrastructure 69
services/CI s 117
services 84-5
service 36
normal 36

132 Copyright The Art of Service


set 14, 35, 43, 53, 55, 99
Shared Service Unit 69, 83
SIP Service Improvement Plan 115
situation 53, 66-7, 70, 72, 98
skilled Service Desk analysts 72
skills 21, 37, 43, 56, 60-1, 91
SKMS Service Knowledge Management System SLA 115
SLA (Service Level Agreements) 52, 78-9, 109, 115, 117
SLA s 19-20, 25
SLM Service Level Management 115
SLP Service Level Package 115
SLR Service Level Requirement 115
SPM Service Portfolio Management 115
SPOC 106, 108
SSIP Supplier Service Improvement Plan 115
stability 17, 41, 91-4
optimizing 92-4
staff 24, 26-7, 37, 42-3, 51, 55-62, 65, 67, 70-1, 73-4, 81, 87, 90, 95,
102
design/specialist 71-2
key 75, 81
operational 23
technical 22, 51
56
staff member 59-60, 65, 67, 96
staff skills analysis 55-6, 59
Staffing 4, 37, 50, 104-5
stakeholders 14-15, 70, 95
standard services 30, 102
requested 30
status 20, 34-5, 53, 76-9
status quo 41, 91-4
stress 101-2
sub-companies 83, 96
submissions 87
Success Factors 3, 21, 25, 67, 112
Suitable tools 50, 104-5
Super Service Desk Operators 100
Super Users 37, 99
Supplier Service Improvement Plan Copyright 117
support staff 25, 39, 98
swift, coordinate 92-4
systems 14, 37, 56, 65, 70-2, 88-9, 96, 98, 116
incident prioritization 26

T
Table of Contents 2
target times 31, 38, 63

Copyright The Art of Service 133


team 14, 19, 38, 51, 116
incident investigation 26
technical architectures, effective 91-4
technical infrastructure 39, 91-4
Technical Management 39, 43, 52, 91-4
Technical Management Function 4, 18, 39
Technical mgt 111
technical skills 39, 52, 91-4
adequate 39, 91-4
technology 4, 12-13, 17, 39, 45, 47, 54, 69, 73, 91
event management 45
terminology 12
test 9, 14, 59-60
Third Best 106-12
thresholds 20, 22, 25, 116
time 9, 14, 21, 26, 28, 34-5, 37, 40, 50, 56, 61, 116-17
timeframes 78-9
timescales 25-6, 95
tools 11, 14, 16, 21, 28, 35, 37, 47, 53, 70-3, 116
customer organization 38
trademarks 6
training 1, 37-8, 40, 44, 60, 70-2, 74
service management 50, 104-5
transfer 72
tree 11
Trial 21
TSO 119
type 19-20, 31-2, 35, 53, 71

U
UC s 25
understanding 1, 9, 11, 23, 106-12
service management 104
usage 99, 104, 112
service management 104
use Event Management 20
user awareness 91-4
user calls 54
user population 84-6
user satisfaction 84-6
users 14, 16, 26, 30, 32, 34-6, 57, 74-5, 89, 98-100, 102-3, 112-13
prevented 96

V
value 1-2, 13-14, 16, 19, 71, 80-2, 84, 117
actual 16, 84-5
value business credibility 108
VBF 115, 118

134 Copyright The Art of Service


Vericom 69
Vericom infrastructure services 69
Verinet 73, 80-1
Verinet business unit 80
Virtual Service Desk 37
visibility, improved 81
Vision Media 83-5, 87, 89, 96
growth of 84-6

W
web 8-9
work 25, 27-8, 37-8, 47, 56, 60-2, 101-2
work hours 99
workarounds 27, 29, 61-2, 78-9, 116
Workarounds and Event information 61
www.artofservice.com.au www.theartofservice.org
www.theartofservice.com 119

Copyright The Art of Service 135