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©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 1

CH A PT ER - SPEC IF IC IN PU T S: P A R T - I

Chapter One

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify their personality traits


 Identify their skills and abilities
 Identify their professional goals and expectations
 Identify the steps to be taken for career planning

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom discussion by explaining the importance of self assessment and career planning in personality
development.
 Carry forward the discussion by stressing on the importance of the process of self assessment and explain how
the students can use it to know themselves better. Tell the students to relax and answer the Self Assessment
questionnaire. Besides using the questionnaire to identify the students’ strengths and weaknesses, you can also
ask the students to take the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis test.
Information on this is provided in the Additional Inputs section.
 Instruct the students to create their own personality portrait by answering the Self Assessment questionnaire and
writing 10 sentences that best describe them.
 Explain to the students that they can assess the level of importance of moral values in their lives. Discuss the 13
values given in Section 1.2.3, and then ask the students to rank these values from their point of view.
 Instruct the students to rate their competencies in people handling skills, thinking skills, and data skills. Explain to
them that these ratings will help them assess their various skills and choose their career accordingly. If they are
pursuing a job, this exercise will enable them to explore new dimensions in their job area.
 Instruct the students to answer the questions given in Section 1.2.6. Tell them that answering these questions will
help them plan their career better.
 Ask the students to answer the question given in Section 1.3.1. Describe the various departments and roles that
exist within an organization with the help of the content provided in the Additional Inputs section.
 Tell the students to list the goals of their personal and professional lives. Ask them to prioritize their goals and
make an action plan that will help them to realize their goals.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis


SWOT analysis is a tool that helps you identify and appreciate your unique strengths and weaknesses. In addition, it
helps you identify the various opportunities that are available to you and the threats that you might have to face.
Strengths refer to the internal positive qualities that you can use to perform specific responsibilities effectively, whereas
weaknesses refer to other characteristics and traits that you can improve upon. Opportunities refer to the external
advantageous conditions that can assist your professional growth, and threats refer to the external obstacles that
should be removed.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 2


Ask students to list their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the following table:

I Your Strengths Your Weaknesses


N - Things you are good at. - Things you are not good at.
T - Qualities that people like in you. - Things for which people
criticize you.
E - The support network you have,
such as friends, family, and - Resources you don’t have.
R colleagues.
N - The resources at your disposal.
A
L

E Opportunities in your professional life Threats in your professional life


X - Awareness and skills related to - Limited job opportunities in
the upcoming technologies. the geographical location
T where you reside.
- Accurate estimation of the market
E demands for your skill set. - Increased competition faced
R by you in your work area.

N
A
L

The result of this analysis will enable the students to identify suitable job opportunities and gain professional success.

Departments in an Organization
Tell the students that they can choose suitable job opportunities after carefully considering the size of the organization,
the type of the organization, and the job profile.
The number of departments in an organization depends on its size and type. Some common departments in
organizations are:

 Administration: The administration department manages the organization's infrastructure. This includes
maintaining all physical assets, such as buildings, computers, mails, transport vehicles, and communication
channels.
 Human Resources: The Human Resources department ensures the well-being of the organization's employees.
Its responsibilities include handling recruitments, tracking leaves, and managing promotions and terminations.
 Finance: The Finance department takes care of all aspects where transactions are involved, such as salaries,
sales, purchases, and taxation.
 Technical Support: The Technical Support department consists of system administrators and network engineers.
They assist the employees by solving technical issues such as system failure, data recovery, virus scans, and
software installation.
 Marketing and Sales: The Marketing and Sales department plans new products, decides the pricing strategies,
and organizes promotions after analyzing the customers and the competition.
 Customer Relationship Management: This department focuses on solving customers' issues and building long-
term relationships with them.
 Corporate Communication: This department is responsible for projecting a positive image of the organization in
the market and the industry.
 Training: This department ensures that employees receive the required training and learning resources as
required by their job profiles.
 Quality Assurance: The Quality Assurance team assures quality for all products and processes and ensures that
customers enjoy defect-free products and services.

Possible Hierarchy in an IT Organization


The organizational hierarchy differs from organization to organization. It can vary according to the size and type of the
organization. The possible hierarchy of an IT organization can be:

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 3


Roles in an IT Organization

Case Study
An organization that sells customized Web-based technical courses to its clients recently bagged a new project. This
project involved developing a course about the basics of HTML. The project plan was made and shared with all the
stakeholders. Team members from various departments where part of the project team. The team members were
assigned different roles and responsibilities.
Chris was busy coding for the course. He wrote a large volume of code and checked the templates several times for
errors.
Monica, who loves working with colors, created the buttons, arrows, sidebars, and images for the frames.
David manually checked all the templates and gave suggestions to improve the usability of the templates. For example,
he suggested that the buttons should be placed a bit lower so that the correct answer, when displayed, did not overlap
the button. As a result, Chris changed the pixel values of the buttons.
After the templates were finalized, John created the course by putting the content in the checked frames. He also wrote
the script for the project. He researched extensively on the Internet, read books, divided the content into lessons, and
then wrote the script. John also shared the script with David. David gave John ideas to improve the readability of
scripts. David also suggested John to include some examples in the script, to make it more effective.
John also coordinated with Monicato discuss the various ideas for the kinds of images to include. John asked Monica to
modify some pictures. Meanwhile, John also mailed Sheila the script for which the audio had to be recorded. Sheila
made several phone calls to voice-over artists and fixed dates with them.
John listened to the freshly-prepared audio and checked it against the script. He found a few mismatches and asked
Sheila to rectify the errors. Sheila needed the audio software to edit the same. She asked Ashish to install it. Only
Ashish was authorized to install the audio software.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 4


Based on the given case study, ask the students to identify the roles involved, as shown in the following table:

Name Role

Chris Programmer

Monica Graphic designer

John Content developer

David Technical writer

Ashish Sound engineer

Sheila Web designer

You can carry forward the case study by explaining the following roles in an IT organization:

 Graphic designers: The responsibility of a graphic designer includes designing the interface or the GUI of
software products.
 Technical writers: A technical writer creates manuals and documents related to the technologies and software
products that are used or developed in an organization.
 Content developers: A content developer is responsible for writing and modifying programs. The content
developer may design applications for various technical and commercial users. In some companies, content
developers provide technical support to end users.
 Data architects: A data architect is responsible for designing a cohesive data architecture and data management
strategy for Web-enabled data warehousing and decision-support systems. Some of the other responsibilities
include leading projects, analyzing source systems and business requirements, identifying business rules, creating
logical and physical data models, and preparing design and technical specifications for large and complex data
warehousing and decision-support systems.
 Web designers: A Web designer designs Web pages, websites, interfaces for intranets, graphics, Web banners,
and other requirements for Web-related products. Web designers use software such as Photoshop, Illustrator,
Fireworks, and Corel Draw.
 Sound engineers: A sound engineer mixes and synchronizes music, voices, or sound effects.
 Programmers: A programmer is responsible for writing, testing, and maintaining detailed instructions, which are
called programs. These programs specify instructions for computers to perform various functions. A computer
programmer may be required to use various computer languages.
 System administrators: A system administrator manages the hardware of computers and networks in a
company. In addition, the system administrator may also be responsible for providing training on support skills to
the IT personnel, ISV partners, presales and services organizations, and the customers.
 Network Administrator: A network administrator manages the network of the organization. The network
administrator should be accessible at all times to solve problems related to networks.
 System Analyst: A system analyst designs and develops new hardware and software systems by incorporating
new technologies. The system analyst is also responsible for solving problems related to the performance of
computers and using the latest computer technology to meet organizational needs. The system analyst helps the
organization get the maximum benefit from its investment in equipment, personnel, and business processes.
 Computer Applications Support Specialist: A computer applications support specialist is responsible for
working with computer applications and information systems. Some of the common responsibilities include
installing and maintaining software, providing in-house software training, and working as client support
representatives, customer service engineers, or help desk technicians.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 5


Solutions to Chapter One Questions
1. Prepare a brief self-portrait of yourself for a professional career.
Ans.
A brief self-portrait for a professional career can be made by considering the following elements:
Educational qualification
Job experience
Human handling skills: The following are the various human handling skills:
• Supervising skills
• Counseling skills
• Selling skills
• Evaluating skills
• Stimulating skills
• Organizing skills
Mental skills: The following are the various mental skills:
• Diagnosing skills
• Inventing skills
• Operating skills
• Monitoring skills
• Written communication skills
• Verbal communication skills
Here is a sample portrait created after considering the above elements:
Don Allen is a B.Tech. and is currently working as a software developer at Technology Systems. He has also worked at
Smart Developers as a technical writer for one year. While working at Smart Developers, he won the first prize in
technical writing. Don is an avid sports person and has represented his college cricket team at the university level. He is
very innovative and takes initiative in all the functions related to his field. He regularly organizes technical fests and
seminars.
Don is also good at supervising tasks because he has excellent monitoring skills. He constantly evaluates his
surroundings and analyzes situations. He offers his support and advice when required. However, he is not confident
about his communication skills and is not comfortable doing sales.

2. Write about your short-term and long-term professional goals.


Ans.
Short-term professional goals refer to the goals to be achieved within two to three years. These goals can be derived
after considering the satisfaction level (by saying 'Yes' or 'No') related to the following elements:

 Desired position
 Justified Salary
 Learning opportunities
 Job Security
 Preferred working conditions
If you have responded with a 'Yes' to most of these elements, you are satisfied with your current position and you
should look forward to achieving your long-term professional goals.
If you have responded with a 'No' to most of these elements, your professional satisfaction level is low and you should
look forward to improving your job conditions. You can also explore the opportunities wherein you are able to increase
the level of satisfaction in a span of two to three years.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 6


Long-term professional goals refer to the goals to be achieved after at least five years. Long-term goals are derived
from the vision of the person. These goals can be determined by answering the following questions:

 Which position would you like to attain after five years?


 Which field of work do you wish to explore in the future?
 Do you prefer to relocate to a specific geographical location?
 Besides monetary gain, what do you want most from your job?
 If you were granted a wish, which job or position would you like to attain?
 In your past, which achievement has given you immense satisfaction?
 What, according to you, is success or failure?
 Which accomplishment determines a person's progress?
 How competent are you to overcome your current weaknesses?
 What is your aim in life?

3. List your strengths.


Ans.
Select your strengths from the following list (This is not an exhaustive list.):

 Strong work ethics


 Self-discipline
 Ability to work under pressure
 Good communication skills
 Team player
 Leadership abilities
 Technical knowledge
 Work experience
 High-energy level

4. List your weaknesses.


Ans.
Select your weaknesses (or areas of improvement) from the following list (This is not an exhaustive list.):

 Poor work ethics


 Lack of discipline
 Lack of motivation
 Indecisiveness
 Weak interpersonal skills
 Weak leadership skills
 Weak technical knowledge
 Poor rating in educational qualification
 Lack of job-specific knowledge
 Lack of goals

5. Prepare a self-improvement plan for the next five years.


Ans.
To prepare a self-improvement plan, create a table with three columns, as shown:

S.No. Weaknesses Action Plan

1. Poor work ethics Will learn the basic concepts of personal and professional
grooming and will learn about dressing manners

2. Lack of motivation Will keep a record of all achievements and successes

3. Weak interpersonal skills Will take feedback positively and work upon it

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 7


S.No. Weaknesses Action Plan

4. Weak technical knowledge Will join weekend classes to update self with the latest
technologies

5. Low-energy level Will follow a proper health care routine and will actively
participate in sport activities

6. If you are single, describe yourself as well as your prospective life partner.
Ans.
You can create your personal word portrait by answering the following questions:
1. What are your hobbies?
2. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
3. List your special skills and abilities.
4. What type of people irritate you?
5. List the moral values that you abide by.
6. How do your seniors and colleagues describe you?
7. How do you respond to critical feedback?
8. Describe your most prized possession.
9. What impression do you want people to have about you?
10. What kind of work do you like to do?
After answering these questions, prepare a portrait. A sample portrait is given below:
Donna Bard is a kind hearted and honest girl. She works as a manager in an organization. She works hard and is
known as a motivating team player. She is disciplined and loyal towards her work. She always strives to improve. If any
feedback for improvement is given to her, she accepts it gracefully and works towards removing her weaknesses.
However, she tends to ignore her health care routine and this results in fatigue and depression. She also wishes to
improve upon her people-handling skills because she gets irritated with people with poor work ethics and lack of
discipline. She gets inspired by reading 'The Alchemist', which talks about pursuing one’s dreams.
Similarly, you can create a word portrait of your prospective life partner by answering the following questions:
11. What hobbies and interests should your prospective life partner have?
12. What kind of approach he/she should have towards society?
13. List the desired strengths he/she should possess.
14. List negative personality traits that you don't want your spouse to have.
15. List the minimum standard of performance that your prospective spouse should achieve.
16. What minimum educational qualification should he/she possess?
17. What special skills or abilities should he/she possess?
18. What personal growth efforts should he/she be making?
19. What professional growth efforts should he/she be making?
20. What should be his/her aim in life?
Based on the answers given, Donna has prepared the following word portrait to describe her ideal spouse:
He should lead a disciplined life with strong work and moral ethics. He should always exude high energy levels. He
should preferably be an M.Tech. and should have strong management skills. Besides working hard, he should enjoy
participating in sports activities. He should have good leadership qualities. He should be an avid reader and should
constantly update himself with new technologies. He should always work towards building healthy professional and
personal relationships. He should aim for a peaceful and prosperous life.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 8


Chapter Two

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify the job requirements


 Prepare for the interview
 Participate in the interview
 Recapitulate the interview
 Identify the typical questions asked in the interview
 Assess their job personality

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom discussion by explaining the importance of self evaluation and preparation to perform better in
an interview.
 Tell the students that before they apply for any job, it is very important for them to analyze the job opportunity. To
do this analysis, ask the students to assess the job opportunity on the basis of the 15 factors mentioned in the
‘Analyzing the Job Opportunity’ topic, as given in the additional inputs section.
 Give the students a list of desirable qualities that organizations look for. Ask the students to go through the list and
categorize each quality either as their capability or as their shortcoming. After this exercise, the students will get to
know which of the desirable qualities they possess and which of the qualities they need to work upon.
 To prepare students for the interview, start with discussing the screening and selection procedure, which is
common in all the organizations. Ask the students to make a list of all the educational qualifications, projects,
trainings taken, and special achievements as mentioned in their bio-data. They should also make a list of their
extra-curricular activities and hobbies and mention them in their bio-data. The bio-data is the most important
document in the interview. Tell them to have complete knowledge of all the information given in the bio-data
because that will form the basis of discussion during the interview.
 Tell the students that it helps to know the various characteristics of interviewers. Describe the various
characteristics of interviewers and the various disciplinary factors that the students should keep in mind while
appearing for the interview. At this point, you can tell the students about the different types of interviews that are
conducted. This information is provided for you in the additional inputs section.
 Tell the students about the importance of recapitulating the entire interview and making notes of their positive and
negative aspects of performance.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Analyzing the Job Opportunity


Ask the students to summarize the results of the self assessment and job planning analysis done in the previous
session. This exercise will help the students assess their personality, values, skills, and abilities. Tell the students that
to target a suitable job, it is necessary to analyze the job opportunity and ensure that it matches their expectations. Ask
the students to prepare a list of factors that they will consider when seeking a job opportunity.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 9


Provide the students with a list of the most common factors that should be taken into consideration when seeking a job
opportunity. Instruct the students to draw a table with two columns, as shown:

Expected Factors Provided Factors

1. Background of the company

2. Products and services

3. Annual turnover

4. Number of employees

5. Location

6. Future plans of the company

7. Competitors

8. Any news-making issue in the past

9. Position offered

10. Job safety

11. Type of work

12. Qualities required

13. Remuneration/perks

14. Agreement contract/service bond

15. Promotion prospects

Ask the students to study the latest issues of industry-specific magazines or newspapers for information regarding
available job opportunities. Then, ask them to select the job opportunity they think will match their expectations. After all
the students have selected at least one job opportunity, ask them to assess it keeping in mind the 15 factors given to
them. Then, tell them to fill in the information in front of the respective factor in the table.
If the students find that the information provided in the job opportunity article is not sufficient with regard to the factors
given in the table, ask them to refer to the company's website and brochures to gather more information. Give students
time to research all information, look at their self assessment and career planning analysis, and discuss the same with
their friends.
At the end of this exercise, students who have been able to tap the job opportunity of their choice will be happy with the
outcome. Others may find that the job opportunity does not seem to match their expectations. Ask such students to
select another job opportunity article and repeat the exercise.

Tips on Body language


During an interview, always remember to:

 Shake hands firmly with the interviewer.


 Give a formal smile.
 Sit straight and alert.
 Keep your hands on your lap.
 Maintain regular, attentive eye contact.
 Relax! Don't rush through the interview.
 Mirror the interviewer's techniques.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 10


Types of Interviews
Different types of interviews are used in different situations, depending on the factors such as the job profile, the time
available, and the cost that the organization wants to incur on the interview process. The various types of interviews
are:

 A one-on-one interview:
• Is an interview between the interviewee and one interviewer.
• Involves direct assessment of the interviewee by the interviewer.
• Has a set of fixed questions for all interviewees.
• Has a fixed evaluation scheme to assess the interviewees.
 A board interview:
• Is an interview between one interviewee and a panel of two or more interviewers.
• Involves questions that are often framed beforehand.
• Usually involves each interviewer targeting a particular aspect of the interviewee's skills.
• Features a selection process that is based on the collective input of several people.
• Has personnel representatives, managers, an on-the-job specialist, and occasionally, a psychologist in the
interviewer panel. The number of interviewers may vary.
• Is usually conducted by the government or large organizations.
 A rotational interview:
• Is an interview of a candidate by different interviewers separately.
• Involves questions that are asked on the area or field each interviewer represents.
• Provides an interviewee several chances to present his/her abilities and skill set.
 A walk-in interview:
• Is a convenient and speedy method of recruitment.
• Can be held for all posts and for all levels.
 A phone interview:
• Is conducted over the phone.
• May be scheduled or unscheduled.
• Is usually used to screen interviewees.
• Is cost-efficient and less time-consuming.
• Can serve as a platform to check validity of information in the resume.
 A video interview:
• Is conducted over the phone line by using a microphone, a video camera, and special software.
• Is usually used to screen interviewees.
• May be conducted for candidates residing in a different country or at distant locations.
 A campus interview:
• Is conducted by companies at the campuses of various colleges and universities.
• Involves presentations by companies who want to recruit the students.
• Requires participants to appear for selection tests.
• Could involve walk-in interviews.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 11


Solutions to Chapter Two Questions
1. Prepare a good bio-data of yourself.
Ans.
The following guidelines needs to be followed while designing a bio-data:

 Avoid spelling and typing errors.


 Give a consistent and symmetrical look.
 Use terms and phrases relevant to the industry.
 Use simple and concise sentences.
 Limit the bio-data to two pages.
 Add a cover letter or note mentioning the code number and other details specified in the advertisement.
Here is a sample bio-data:
Bio-Data
1. Name of the post : Software Engineer
2. Name : Vinay Yadav
3. Date of birth, Age : 10.10.1981, 24
4. Address - present : 410, Surya Apartments,
21-D, Faridabad (HR)
5. Address - permanent : 410, Surya Apartments,
21-D, Faridabad (HR)
6. Telephone numbers : 0129 - 3092391
7. E-mail ID : raovinay10@yahoo.co.in
8. Father's name : Mr. D.V.S. Yadav
9. Occupation : Software Developer
10. Marital status : Single
11. Academic qualifications :

Sl. Period Institution/ Degree/ % Marks Class


No. From to Place Exam.
Passed

1. 1995-96 Vidya Mandir AISSCE 81.66 First


15-A, Faridabad

2. 1997-98 D.A.V. AISSE 78.2 First


14, Faridabad

3. 1998-2002 M.M.Engg. College B.Tech 65.24 First


Ambala.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 12


12. Work experience:

Sl. No. Period Organization Designation Last Salary Drawn


From To

1. Oct 2003 till date Technologies Systems S/W Developer Rs. 20,000/- pm

2. Oct 2002 to Oct 2003 Smart Developers Technical Writer Rs. 10,000/-pm

13. Extra-curricular activities : Played cricket at the university level.

14. Personal attainments/distinctions : Organized technical fests and seminars.


Won the first prize in technical writing.
15. Professional skills : C, C++, Oracle, and System Analysis and Design (SAD).
16. References : Available on request.

Date Signature

2. Briefly write out a preparation plan for an interview for a software engineer's post.
Ans.
Here is a plan to prepare for an interview for a software engineer's post:
1. Getting familiar with the interview process:
The interview process followed in most of the organizations consists of three rounds:

 Preliminary written tests: This includes IQ tests, language tests, logical reasoning tests, aptitude tests, and
technical knowledge tests. You can prepare for the preliminary written tests by using books that contain sample
tests.
 Group discussions: In the group discussion round, organizations ask candidates to discuss a specific topic
among themselves. The topics can range from current events to technical topics, such as ‘Role of JAVA in the
Internet’, and ‘Comparing Poseidon and Rational Rose as Modeling Tools for S/W Systems’. You can practice
group discussions with your friends and improve upon your communication skills.
 Personal interview: To prepare for a personal interview round, you need to consider the following factors:
• Academic preparation: List down all the academic qualifications mentioned in your bio-data and ensure that
you are comfortable discussing about those qualifications. Prepare a brief description of your favorite subject
or topic, such as RDBMS and Operating Systems, and an answer as to why you chose this topic.
• Project work preparation: Most organizations focus on project work because it reflects your own work.
Rehearse the presentation of your project work and practice the answers to the common questions pertaining
to the project work, such as:
 Why did you choose this particular project?
 What are its practical applications?
• Practical training: Prepare a brief write-up on the training you have undergone, and always mention if you
have contributed to the advancement of any application during your training session. In addition, list down
your learnings.
• Special attainments: List down all your special achievements, such as writing a technical paper or
participating in seminars and technical competitions, and discuss them during your interview.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 13


3. List your qualifications and skills that will help you get selected for a job.
Ans.
The qualifications and skills that will help you get selected for a job are:

 Qualifications:
• Educational Knowledge:
Example: School: AISSE in Physics, Chemistry, Maths
College: B.Tech
• Job Knowledge:
Example:
Principal responsibilities : Designing a software system and writing code for
modules of the software system.
Principal accomplishments : Modeling, developing, and maintaining the software system.
Leadership quality : Handling different projects related to software systems.
 Skills:
• Interpersonal skills:
Example:
Communication skills
Coordinating skills
Negotiation skills
• Skills related to the job:
Example:
C, C++, Oracle, and System Analysis and Design (SAD)

4. Prepare a list of your strengths and weaknesses.


Ans.
A software professional may possess any of the following traits:

 Ability to analyze situations


 Self confidence
 Articulateness
 Creativity in developing new concepts
 Proactiveness
 Ethicalness
 Desire to excel
 Reliability
 Ambition
 Communication skills
 Past achievements
Some of the weaknesses that should be overcome by software professionals are as follows:

 Weak analyzing skills


 Lack of career plans and goals
 No emphasis on growth prospects
 Lack of specific technical knowledge
 Over ambitious
 Immature and dishonest
 Lack of leadership qualities
 Poor communication skills
 Lack of past achievements
 No desire to achieve or excel

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 14


5. Introduce yourself, giving comprehensive information about yourself within two minutes.
Ans.
My name is Vinay Yadav and I am a software developer with Technologies System. I have done B.Tech. from M.M.
Engineering College, Ambala, and I am aspiring to do an M.Tech. I have been brought up in a atmosphere where
discipline and respect for elders is a way of life. I believe strongly in values like honesty and hard work. I am a person
with a high degree of integrity and team spirit.

6. Identify an appropriate career goal for yourself by matching your qualities to the job.
Ans.
Assume that Vinay possesses the following qualities:

 Educational Qualities:
School : AISSE in Physics, Chemistry, Maths
College : B.Tech
 Professional Qualities:
Professional experience : 1 year of experience as a technical writer.
3 years of experience as a S/W developer.
Principal responsibilities : Designing a software system and writing code for different
modules of the software system.
Principal accomplishments : Modeling, developing, and maintaining the software system.
 Leadership qualities : Managing different projects related to software systems.
Handling a team of seven software professionals.
Responsible for making high-quality software systems.

 Interpersonal skills : Ability to analyze situations.


Creative in developing new concepts
Pro-active
Desire to excel
Reliable and ambitious
Good communication skills
Good coordinating skills
Good negotiation skills

 Skills related to job : C, C++, Oracle, and System Analysis and Design (SAD).

Based on the above-mentioned qualities, Vinay has identified a goal for his professional life. Because he has a strong
technical experience and good interpersonal skills, Vinay plans to become a project manager in the next two to three
years.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 15


Chapter Three

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Handle stress during job interviews


 Participate in interviews with confidence
 Use stress situations as motivating factors

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom discussion by explaining the importance of managing stress when appearing for an interview.
 Tell the students that they can perform better in an interview by listing down all the possible questions and
obstacles that can occur during the interview. The questions can be related to their educational qualifications,
professional experiences, and the various interpersonal and job-related skills mentioned in the bio-data. Obstacles
can occur due to the lack of any desirable quality or if the candidate shows stress during the interview. Explain to
the students that if they are well prepared, they can answer all the questions and can overcome any obstacle.
 Explain to the students that the other candidates appearing for the interview are also like them. They also have
their own set of strengths and weaknesses, and they may not have answers to all the questions. In addition, if they
interact with the fellow candidates, it will help divert their minds away from the stress and nervousness. They will
feel light and enthusiastic. Discuss the ways by which the students can release stress, such as by giving mock
interviews.
 Explain to the students that failure in an interview should not dampen their spirits, and they should learn from such
experiences. Tell the students to make a note of all the positive and negative aspects of the interview and work on
the negative aspects for the next opportunity. They should follow a philosophical approach and start thinking of the
next job opportunity.

Releasing Stress by Giving Mock Interviews


To decrease the stress level in the students' minds, ask the students to practice mock interviews with their friends.
Before the students give a mock interview, ask them to get the summarized results of their self assessment and career
planning analysis with them.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 16


The students can take care of the various disciplinary factors and the characteristic profiles of interviewers by giving
mock interviews. The students can be evaluated against the following parameters:

Instructor feedback

How would you rate the Excellen Good Fair Poor


interviewee on: t
1. The use of
appropriate
greetings

4. His/her handshake

7. His/her smile
10. Clarity of
introduction
13. His/her posture

16. His/her dress

19. His/her resume

22. Eye contact level

25. Confidence level

28. Clarity of answers


31. Promptness while
answering
34. Ability to use
suitable closings
37. His/her listening
skills
40. Leaving on a
positive note

Positive Aspects

Negative Aspects

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 17


After the mock interviews, ask the students if they are feeling more comfortable facing the interviewer. Tell the students
that besides knowing about the possible questions that can be asked during the interview, they should also know about
the questions that the interview committee may consider. For example, consider the following questions:
21. Is the candidate capable of doing the job and does he or she have the required skill set?
22. What is the motivation level of the candidate?
23. What interests the candidate in this particular job?
24. Is the candidate stable?
25. How easily can this candidate gel with the other employees?
26. Is this candidate friendly in nature?
Inform the students that throughout the interview process, they will be judged on the points given above. The body
language of the students will tell the interview committee about their nature and motivation level. Their bio-data and the
discussion on the facts given in the bio-data will help the interviewer assess their capabilities. The interviewer will ask
the reason for leaving the previous job from the candidate to assess the candidate's interest in the current job and
stability. Tell the students that by judging their team building and coordinating skills, the interview committee will be
able to determine if the candidates can work cordially.

Stress Level Evaluation


Different students might have different reasons for being under stress when appearing for an interview. You can ask the
students to assess the various reasons of stress and evaluate the stress level by using the Personal Stress Index (PSI).
This analysis will help in reducing the stress level and the students will be more comfortable when appearing for an
interview. Give the students some statements that convey the behavior pattern of a person in a given condition. Present
those statements in a tabular form and ask the students to rate each statement based on their preferences. Tell the
students that they can rate each statement by entering the number in the respective rating column. The ratings vary
from 4, to be used if the students absolutely identify with the corresponding statement, to 0, to be used if the students
strongly disagree with the statement. Accordingly, they need to rate each statement from 0 to 4. Tell the students that
they should rate the statements according to how they actually feel and not according to the image they may want to
portray to others. This will help them assess their actual stress level. Ask the students to create a table with seven
columns, as shown:
Personal Stress Index

S.No. 0 1 2 3 4 Statement

1 I get irritated by the interviewer's undesirable attitude.

2 I feel insecure and anxious about my future.

3 I wish for immediate appreciation and recognition.

4 I am apprehensive in handling responsibility.

5 I find my life unfulfilling and meaningless.

6 I am extremely impatient and get easily frustrated.

7 I feel a compulsive need to prove my worth.

8 I blame myself for my mistakes, defeats, and failures.

9 I feel anxious about undertaking new endeavors.

10 I am very critical of any displeasing behavior around me.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 18


After the students have completed grading the statements, ask them to add the ratings given to the 10 statements. A
PSI of 5 or less indicates an exceptionally low level of stress. A PSI between 10 and 20 indicates a favorable level, and
a PSI between 20 and 40 indicates that the students need to be counseled. Keep the scores of the students confidential
and create an appropriate action plan for each student.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 19


Chapter Four

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify tips for performing well in their first assignment


 Identify techniques for suggesting changes in their organization

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by discussing with the students how they should spend their first day in office. Provide
them with the tips given in the Additional Inputs section. Ask them to effectively make use of their communication
skills to build a good rapport with their colleagues.
 Tell the students that they should get to know about all the aspects of the organization in the first few days
because there will be little work pressure. They should attain the knowledge regarding performance evaluation and
about the various projects in the organization.
 Explain to the students the importance of giving their best in the first assignment. They should achieve all the
objectives given in their first assignment and should not offer excuses for not doing any part of the assignment.
This will give them an impressive start and enable them to rise faster in their careers. This is because a favorable
first impression can lead to several good opportunities.
 Explain to the students the positive effects of being enthusiastic. If they are full of enthusiasm, they will be able to
get along with their colleagues easily. In addition, this attitude gets rubbed off on their colleagues. Provide the
students with the tips given in the ‘Enthusiastic Team Player’ topic in the Additional Inputs section.
 Instruct the students that they should not hesitate to give inputs regarding the existing projects. However, they
need to follow the hierarchy protocol. Warn the students that the inputs or suggestions for the values, rules, and
regulations of the organization should be kept reserved for a proper opportunity. Such suggestions should be
given only after prior consultation with seniors and colleagues.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Tips for Smooth Handling of the First Day at Work


Tell the students that on the first day at work, it always helps if they know what to expect throughout the day and how to
conduct themselves. The first day is usually about fulfilling certain formalities and getting familiar with the new
surroundings. There is usually not much work to be done on the very first day.
On the first day at work:

 Be punctual and report on time. Arrive at the assigned time and report to the concerned person.
 Look confident and feel comfortable. Feel secure and positive. Wear a smile.
 Familiarize yourself with the people who are introduced to you. Introduce yourself and engage in conversation with
them.
 Familiarize yourself with the new surroundings. Explore the building and find out the location of various
departments and facilities, such as the restroom, the canteen, and the coffee machine.
 Find out about the organization's rules and regulations, general practices, and protocol. Enquire about the
generally accepted and followed practices of the office from your colleagues or the HR department. Ask if there is
an official manual that provides such details.
 Do not hesitate to ask questions. Clarify any doubts and seek information from your new colleagues or the HR
personnel.
 Be careful about what you say. Use formal language. Do not make unsolicited comments and avoid politically
incorrect language and humor.

Overachieving the Targets


Tell the students that they will be observed closely the first few days. They should be extra careful when interacting with
others and handling a new project. They should try to know more about the parameters to evaluate performance and
behavior. For this, give the students an assignment and ask them to complete it in a particular time. Observe the
students while they work on their respective assignments. After they have completed the assignment, discuss with them
the evaluation process and then disclose the name of the best student.
Show them a sample evaluation sheet (where 5 is the most ideal rating and 1 is the least ideal rating), such as:

S.No. Parameter 1 2 3 4 5

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 20


1 Adherence to time

2 Adherence to quality

3 Adherence to guidelines

4 Discipline

5 Participation

6 Extra Efforts

Ask the students if they had considered these parameters when doing the assignment. Would they have performed
better if they had been aware of these parameters? Tell the students that it is necessary to know about the evaluation
procedure to perform better. In addition, tell the students that it is not enough to simply achieve the targets. If they wish
to secure a rating of five, they should try to overachieve the targets and improve upon their past performances.
Explain to the students that their behavior, team participation, and extra efforts also affect their rating. Therefore, they
should not concentrate on only achieving the explicit targets.

Enthusiastic Team Player


To create a good impression in an organization, new employees should strike a good rapport with their seniors and
team members. Presence of team spirit will enable them to accomplish their project and organizational goals. In
addition, they will be considered for new and challenging assignments if they show a high degree of enthusiasm and
willingness to participate in all team activities. If the employees are enthusiastic, the client perceives the organization to
be reliable and ready for tough assignments.
Ask the students to list down situations where they may not feel confident. Tell them that the situations can be personal
or professional. This is because the lack of confidence in one area influences the other area. After they have written the
situations, give them the list of tips that will help them overcome their problem. Tell them that the tips apply to all
situations. The list of statements is as follows:

 Get your priorities straight.


 Accept feedback with a positive attitude. Do not take feedback on your projects personally.
 Keep learning new things to boost your confidence. These things need not necessarily be related to
your job.
 Exhibit what you do best and teach it to others.
 Present yourself in a dignified manner and always wear a smile
 Accept the fact that you cannot please everyone all the time.
 Appreciate your qualities and be proud of them.
 Recognize all of your accomplishments and make a list of them.
 Do not underestimate yourself. Make a list of your qualities.
 Pamper yourself.
 Stay healthy and fit. It affects your personal and professional life.
 Always try to help others.
 Believe in prayers.
 Think positive and talk positive.
Tell the students that they will be able to maintain their level of confidence and enthusiasm after following these tips. If
they feel low, they should simply find clues to their problems with the help of these tips.

Solutions to Chapter Four Questions


1. List out your short-term and long-term goals in your professional life.
Ans.
Short-term professional goals refer to the goals to be achieved within a span of two to three years. These goals can be
derived after considering the satisfaction level (by saying 'Yes' or 'No') related to the following elements:

 Desired position
 Justified Salary
 Learning opportunities
 Job Security
 Preferred working conditions

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 21


If you have responded with a 'Yes' to most of these elements, you are satisfied with your current position and you
should look forward to achieve your long-term professional goals.
If you have responded with a ‘No’ to most of these elements, your professional satisfaction level is low and you should
look forward to improving your job conditions. You can also explore the opportunities wherein you are able to increase
the level of satisfaction in a span of two to three years.
Long-term professional goals refer to the goals to be achieved after at least five years. Long-term goals are derived
from the vision of the person.
Long-term goals can be determined by answering the following questions:

 Which position would you like to attain after five years?


 Which field of work do you wish to explore in the future?
 Do you prefer to relocate to any specific geographical location?
 Besides monetary gain, what do you want most from your job?
 If you were granted a wish, which job or position would you like to attain?
 In your past, which achievement has given you immense satisfaction?
 What, according to you, is success or failure?
 Which accomplishment determines a person's progress?
 How competent are you to overcome your current weaknesses?
 What is your aim in life?

2. Prepare an action plan to achieve your goals.


Ans.
After you have identified your short-term and long-term goals, make an action plan to achieve these goals. You can
create your action plan by filling up the following table:

What I How I When I Possible Plan to


Plan to do Plan to do Plan to do Obstacles remove
obstacles

Action 1

Action 2

Action 3

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 22


For example, if you have joined an organization as a software developer want to become a project manager, write that
it in the column 'What I plan to do.' Then, make a list of things to be done to reach that level. Write this list in the column
'How I plan to do.' The list can be as follows:
27. Acquire a Master's degree in Technology.
28. Acquire a position of a senior software engineer or a team leader.
29. Learn about the new technologies.
30. Start handling two teams simultaneously.
31. Remain in the current office for the next three to four years.
Now, allocate a deadline for each activity. Write the respective deadlines in the column 'When I plan to do'. The time
span can be mentioned as follows:
32. In the next two years.
33. In the next three years.
34. Continuous process.
35. In the next three years.
36. Time span already given.
Now, list the possible obstacles against each point. The list of obstacles can be as follows:
37. Lack of time to enroll for the course and to study.
38. Heavy competition.
39. Working on similar types of project again and again.
40. Good leadership qualities to be identified.
41. Family planning to relocate.
After you have identified the obstacles, make a plan to remove them and start working as per the plan. You can plan to
remove your respective obstacles as follows:
42. Take the long pending leaves and get yourself enrolled for the M.Tech. course. Devote two to three hours in a
week for studying. If possible, study with a friend who is doing the same course.
43. Start making your list of accomplishments and start working on the list of shortcomings. Make efforts to get noticed
by always appearing confident and enthusiastic. Be ready to take on new challenges.
44. Ask your project manager to give you a chance to work in projects that involve new technologies.
45. Make efforts to get noticed in your team. Always support your team members and cooperate with them. Build a
bond of trust and understanding with your team members. This will lead you and your team towards success.
46. Discuss your goals with your family and seek their support.

3. Plan out a strategy to make a good impression on your first job.


Ans.
You can use the following strategy to make a good first impression:

 Utilize your first day in office in getting familiar with your colleagues and the office environment. Represent yourself
as an enthusiastic and confident person.
 Take your first assignment very seriously and deliver your best. Take extra measures to perform better in your first
assignment because it will help form a favorable first impression.
 Try to collect all the information related to your organization and understand the atmosphere of the organization.
Ask your team members and seniors about the performance evaluation procedure. This will help you continuously
assess your performance status.
 Always be ready for any opportunity and make sure to give your best performance.
 Always appear enthusiastic and full of confidence. This will reflect on your work and people will want you to work
with them.
 If you are not comfortable about a specific aspect about the organization, raise the issue in an appropriate manner.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 23


Chapter Five

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify the importance of physical fitness


 Identify the importance of a positive attitude
 Set priorities
 Make commitments
 Be pragmatic

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by asking the students to list their skills and capabilities. Then, ask them if they are
utilizing all their skills and abilities. Tell the students that they can utilize their skills and abilities if they know how to
recognize their talent.
 Explain to the students that being physically fit will help them maintain good health and perform optimally. They will
stay active and full of energy throughout the day. This will help them be enthusiastic and increase their confidence
level. Discuss the tips covered in the ‘Physical Fitness’ topic of the Additional Inputs section.
 Tell the students that they should always have positive attitude and should always work towards bringing positive
energy in their personal and professional lives. A person in depression and with a negative attitude will rarely be
able to use his or her positive qualities. It is necessary to think well about yourself if you want others to think well
about you. It is a good practice to remember your achievements and accomplishments more often to bring positive
energy in you. In addition, advertising this belief will help in creating a positive environment around you.
 Explain the difference between important and urgent work. Tell the students that many professionals are never
able to achieve success in life because they put all their energy in completing the tasks that are urgent, thereby
ignoring the important ones. As a result, even after investing all their energy, their performance goes down and
they feel depressed because they could not complete the important work. To accomplish their tasks efficiently,
students should prioritize their tasks.
 Tell the students that they should always fulfill their commitments. Adherence to commitments always boosts
confidence. In addition, students need to work towards meeting the deadlines by increasing the energy levels of
themselves and of their team. If a deadline has not been given for an assignment, they should set their own
deadline and work towards achieving it.
 Inform the students that they should not keep unrealistic targets because it might result in setbacks. They should
be practical and reasonable while planning their work. This will enable them and their team to enjoy their
accomplishments.
 Tell the students that planning should immediately be followed by implementation. Any delay will result in loss of
energy and enthusiasm.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Setting the Priorities


Lack of performance does not necessarily mean lack of knowledge. You may have complete knowledge of a task;
however, lack of time can result in poor performance. This can cause self doubt and depression. Therefore, it is
important to manage the various tasks and complete them within the specified time. To manage a task, a person should
categorize it as important, not important, urgent, or not urgent. Urgent work needs immediate attention and provides
less time for execution. Therefore, one should take care to complete all urgent work on time. Urgent work need not be
important. On the other hand, important work, if not managed properly, can become urgent after some time.
Ask the students to list all the important tasks that they need to do on a daily or weekly basis. After they have made the
list, ask them to prioritize in order of execution. Tell the students to keep the final list with them for future reference.
Now, ask the students to take the list of important tasks again and tell them to categorize them as urgent and not
urgent. Again, ask them to list other tasks that might not be important, but need to be performed in the future. Help the
students differentiate between important and urgent work by asking them to place their tasks in the appropriate box in
the matrix shown below:

Urgent Not Urgent

Important Managing the ongoing crisis Future prevention of crisis


Completing the deadline-driven Building relationships
projects

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 24


Recognizing new opportunities
Planning

Not Important Making calls Phone calls


Checking mails Mails
Attending meetings Time wasters
Popular activities Pleasant activities

After the students have categorized their tasks, they will be able to manage their responsibilities in the specified time.
They will have a clear idea of the high-priority tasks that need to be performed before the low-priority tasks. This
process will help them assess their real potential.

Physical Fitness
It is not possible to utilize your full potential if your body does not permit you to do so. When we talk about education
and profession, we emphasize on improving on our educational qualifications and professional qualities because these
parameters form the basis of assessment for any person. However, factors such as enthusiasm, positive attitude, and
physical fitness should also be recognized. Many people tend to ignore these factors.
Tell the students that if they are healthy, they will be full of life and vitality. This will help them accept new challenges
and perform better. Ask the students to describe their health care routine. In addition, ask them to write the last time
they went for a health check. The result will be surprising because most of the students will realize that they have not
gone for a health check for years. Few get the time to exercise or play a physical sport. Now, ask the students to list the
various physical problems they face while working.
Give the students the following list of tips. This list will help them remain healthy and active while coping with a busy
work schedule:

 Take 10 deep breaths. You can do this exercise anywhere and at any time of the day. Taking 10 deep breaths 3
times a day will enhance your thinking power because more oxygen is transferred to your brain. It also enables
you to relax your nerves.
 Follow healthy eating habits. Do not skip meals, have an organic fruit everyday, and consult a dietician for further
guidance.
 Make a list of all the tasks. This will help you remain organized. In addition, it will reduce the tension of
remembering the tasks to be done and eliminate the risk of missing any important work.
 Perform small exercises. Taking the stairs instead of the lift and indulging in rotation exercises while sitting on your
workstation will increase your blood circulation and refresh your energies.
 Entertain your spirit. After a hard day at work and going through several daily chores, most of us tend to ignore the
beauty around us. This beauty can be the nature or some good work going on in your neighborhood. Once in a
week, feed your soul with beautiful thoughts and scenes to rejuvenate your spirits.
 Admire yourself. Besides being assessed on your educational and professional standards by others, assess
yourself and list down the good qualities that you possess. This will help in boosting your confidence on a regular
basis.
Tell the students that they can take care of themselves if they follow these health tips.

Solutions to Chapter Five Questions


1. List out your qualities among the potentials given in this module.
Ans.
Following is a sample list of qualities possessed by John:

 Positive attitude: John always looks at things with a positive attitude and keeps track of all the appreciation and
encouragement given to him. The appreciation and encouragement act as motivators and increase his potential.
 Setting priorities with practical approach: John sets his priorities before starting any work. This enables him to
accomplish the tasks in a proper manner and within the specified time. He sets realistic goals.
 Making commitments: After setting the priorities, John makes commitments and works sincerely towards meeting
the deadlines.

2. How do you propose to overcome the deficient potentials?


Ans.
John needs to work on the following aspects:

 Lack of physical fitness routine: He tends to ignore the aspect of physical fitness because he spends long hours in
office.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 25


 Time gap between planning and execution of project: John tends to delay the execution of planned projects. This
results in loss of energy and enthusiasm.
John can take the following steps to overcome his weaknesses:

 He will consult the physical trainer, set up a fitness routine, and follow it regularly. This will help increase his
physical fitness.
 He will ensure that all projects are executed on time. To ensure success, he will share the schedule with his team
members and his seniors.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 26


Chapter Six

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify useful tips to manage time effectively


 Create a time management schedule
 Assess their time management ability

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom discussion by explaining the importance of time management in the students’ personal and
professional lives. Discuss the two different personalities talked about in the ‘Guidelines and Benefits of Time
Management’ topic in the Additional Inputs section, and then state the various guidelines that can be followed for
effective time management.
 Tell the students that they will always meet their deadlines and be ready to take on new assignments if they are
able to manage their time well. In addition, they will not feel frustrated if they cannot complete specific tasks.
 Ask the students to make a list of tasks that they do in a day. To create this list, they can use ‘To do’ lists. Refer to
the Additional Inputs section to get information on the ‘To do’ lists. Then, ask them to prioritize the tasks and
allocate a time period for each task. At the end of the day, they should calculate the amount of time spent on
completing those tasks and analyze if the estimated time was more than the actual time taken. By doing this
exercise regularly, they will be able to assess whether they have utilized the time well.
 Tell the students that they should maintain a time log, wherein they can write all the tasks to be done and allocate
time based on the nature of the work. They should maintain the time log on a daily or weekly basis. Maintaining a
time log will enable them to assess their pattern and identify their problem areas, if any. You can ask the students
to use the format for time sheets given in the additional inputs section. After reviewing the daily time log for four to
five days, they might realize that the time spent on making phone calls and checking mails may be reduced and
utilized for more important tasks.
 Tell the students that they can follow several tips to manage their time better, such as planning, prioritizing, and
taking sufficient breaks when performing a lengthy task. Inform them about the various behavior patterns that can
be followed to utilize time in a better manner. These behavior patterns include saying 'No' to the work elements
that are not included in their responsibilities and will not be measured when assessing their performance, avoid
delaying task execution, and avoid trying to be perfect in all the tasks undertaken.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Guidelines and Benefits of Time Management


Mr NeverNo is a talented individual. He is always asked to participate in company activities not only because he is good
at these activities but also because he is willing to put in extra hours. However, he does not really like doing extra work;
it is just that he cannot say ‘No'. He would rather suffer himself than let his image suffer. He diligently responds to all
the forwarded mails from friends and colleagues. His colleagues flock to his workstation because it is a good place to
hang out. He is not climbing up the corporate ladder even after three years in the organization. He does not have time
to pursue his hobbies and interests because he is in office during most weekends. If only he could learn how to rule his
life instead of allowing other people to rule it.
Ms Balanced is a smart, committed, successful, and popular person. At the same time, she is completely down-to-earth
and unassuming. She helps people around her and nurtures them because she believes in their potential. Every day,
she plans for the known and the unknown, and pays attention to smallest of details, which could otherwise throw work
out of gear. She makes sure to spend time with her family and friends because she can unwind and get back to work
feeling refreshed.
After discussing the two different personalities, tell the students to adhere to the following guidelines to manage time
effectively:

 Plan and organize: Take out time for planning and organizing. This ensures that you are in a better position to
manage the day ahead. Failing to plan is equivalent to planning to fail.
 Use time sheets: Time sheets can be analyzed to find ways for saving time. By listing the activities performed in a
day and the time spent on each activity, you can monitor the amount of time you spend on doing tasks.
 Use 'To Do' lists: 'To Do' lists prevent you from forgetting to complete or start some work at a certain time. They
also help you prioritize tasks. You should keep referring to them during the day.
 Multitask: Do more than one task at a time, if you can do so, without becoming distracted.
 Delegate work to others: Identify tasks that can be delegated. Work only on those tasks that cannot be
delegated.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 27


 Conquer procrastination: To avoid procrastination, divide a task into a number of smaller tasks and start doing
them one by one.
 Learn to say 'No': Saying 'No' becomes easier when you realize that your priorities are more important than
anything else.
 Handle interruptions well: When planning your activities, assign some time for interruptions. Do not plan for 100
percent of your time.
Tell the students that effective time management results in:

 Ability to control one's activities: Effective time management helps you prioritize and organize your activities.
This puts you in control.
 Deadlines being met consistently: By prioritizing tasks and organizing schedules, you can make sure that
deadlines are met regularly.
 Reduction of stress: Effective time management ensures that you are more organized and are able to unclutter
your mind. Therefore, you do not feel stressed.
 Higher production and efficiency: Effective time management includes smart goal-setting techniques that help
you increase your productivity.
 More time for family, hobbies, and friends: Time management helps you restore the balance between work and
leisure hours.

Tools for Effective Time Management


Effective time management includes organizing and prioritizing your tasks. 'To Do' lists and time sheets are the tools
that you use to manage time.

To Do Lists
A 'To Do' list is an action plan for the tasks that have to be done during a specific day.
There are two types of 'To Do' lists:

 Daily To Do list
 Running To Do list
To use a 'To Do' list effectively:

 Make a list of the tasks that you have to do.


 Always plan for less than 100 percent of your time.
 Plan for tasks that have deadlines.
 Prioritize all your tasks.
 Allocate time for pending tasks.
 Update the list constantly.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 28


You can ask the students to use the following 'To Do' list:

Time Sheets
A time sheet is a blank table that has hours marked for a day. It helps you track your time and analyze whether you are
spending your time productively. Use a time sheet to track your time, and use a 'To Do' list to plan your activities.
To use a time sheet effectively:
1. List your activities for a week or a fortnight.
2. Analyze whether your time is being spent usefully.
3. Modify your 'To Do' list suitably
Ask the students to fill the following time sheet according to the instructions given in the class:

Time Activities/Tasks

6 am

7 am

8 am

9 am

10 am

11 am

12 noon

1 pm

2 pm

3 pm

4 pm

5 pm

6 pm

7 pm

8 pm

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 29


Time Activities/Tasks

9 pm

10 pm

11 pm

12 pm

1 am

2 am

3 am

4 am

5 am

Combining Several Activities


Managing time is not a once-in-a-week task. It is a continuous process. As the changes occur in one's personal and
professional lives, the time management schedule also gets altered. With every change in the daily routine, one should
make a mental note of the change and try to manage the schedule accordingly. Suggest to the students that the
continuous time management process should not tire them. They should enjoy this activity.
Tell the students that, based on their lifestyle and comfort level, they should think of innovative ideas to manage time.
Ask students to think of ways to save time and still complete all the tasks for a specific day.
Now, ask the students to again go through the list of tasks they have planned for a day and then think if any two tasks
can be combined. Tell them that they can refer to their personal time management survey form. The time they have
allocated for the necessary tasks to be done every day can be utilized for other tasks also. For example, they can make
phone calls while watching television, and they can even pay off their bills online while listening to their favorite music.
They can prepare their study schedule or think of a project to be submitted while traveling to attend a class. While
traveling for office, they can make a list of points to be discussed in a specific meeting.
There can be many more ideas based on the number and types of tasks listed by the students. Suggest that the
students can also make a list of tasks to be done in a week and can apply the same idea to combine one or more tasks
to save time. They can invite their old friends to a social event and can enjoy the social event and chat with their friends.
During the weekend, they can watch movies on TV while performing household chores. These new ideas can help them
manage time better and improve their performance.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 30


Solutions to Chapter Six Questions
1. Prepare a time log for utilizing your time and note down your own reactions to your time management.
Ans.
Prepare a time log by listing the tasks to be done in a day. You can also prepare a time log to manage your weekly or
long-term tasks. To create a time log, create a table comprising four columns. The first column will contain the serial
number, the second column will specify the task, and the third column will contain the time allotted for the
corresponding task. In the fourth column, specify the result as 'Completed', 'Incomplete', or 'Not attended to.' A sample
time log is shown as follows:

S.No. Engagement/Task Allotted time Results

1. Completing a module One hour

2. Organizing a meeting Two hours

3. Organizing a fun activity at work One hour

4. Going out for lunch with friends Two hours

5. Going to the gym Two hours

6. Making reports on the team's performance Three hours

At the end of the day, suppose the following results are filled in the column against the tasks given:
Completed
Completed
Incomplete
Not attended to
Not attended to
Completed
The reason for not being able to complete some of the tasks were:
Writing a module took two hours instead of an hour. This delayed the subsequent tasks. The meeting had to be
postponed for another hour. This resulted in delay in planning and executing the meeting. Skipped lunch for this reason.
Started to initiate a fun activity at work. However, not all the colleagues were interested in continuing with it on the same
day; therefore, had to work upon another task and this activity got postponed for the next day. Collected data for
making the reports on the team's performance but realized that it will take more than three hours to complete the
reports. Worked on the reports and cancelled going to the gym.
Based on the result derived, you can analyze that one should set realistic deadlines and should not try to be a
perfectionist all the time. The module could have completed in an hour; however, it took two hours. This delayed the
rest of the activities. In addition, the activities for which one is not answerable to anyone like going to the gym or going
out for lunch should not be ignored. These activities should be given equal importance.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 31


2. Identify your weaknesses related to time management and create a plan to overcome it.
Ans.
Here is a sample list of weaknesses related to time management:

 I try to do each and every task to perfection, irrespective of the requirement. This unnecessarily delays the things
and affects the complete schedule.
 I tend to take on each and every task that comes my way and am unable to say 'No' to my friends and colleagues.
This results in an increased amount of work, both planned and unplanned.
 I believe in doing everything on my own and do not feel comfortable in delegating tasks to my team members or
colleagues. This results in too much of work and effort.
To overcome my weaknesses, I plan to do the following:

 I will have a practical approach towards work and will try to strive for excellence rather than perfection. This will
help me save time.
 Learning to say 'No' will help me save a lot of time. I will say 'No' to the tasks that do not contribute to my goals.
 I will involve my team members in my work. Instead of making personal targets, I will make team targets. This will
help me achieve the targets on time and will enable others to learn and improve upon their performance.

3. Prepare a time commitment plan for an MCA semester allocating time for studies in two modules of 16 (12+4) weeks
of time.
Ans.
A time commitment plan for Module 1 of the first semester of MCA, to be followed daily for 12 weeks, is as follows:

Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

9.00 to 10.00 System Analysis System Analysis Discrete Computer Computer


and Design and Design Mathematics Organization Organization

10.00 to Discrete Discrete C Programming System Analysis PC Software


11.00 Mathematics Mathematics Language and Design

11.00 to Break Break Break Break Break


11.30

11.30 to C Programming Lab session (C System Analysis Lab Session (PC Discrete
12.30 Language Programming and Design Software) Mathematics
Language)

12.30 to 1.30 Computer Lab Session (PC Computer Lab Session (C System Analysis
Organization Software) Organization Programming and Design
Language)

1.30 to 2.30 Break Break Break Break Break

2.30 to 3.30 Lab session (C C Programming PC Software PC Software C Programming


Programming Language Language
Language)

3.30 to 4.30 Lab Session (PC Computer Lab session (C C Programming Lab session (C
Software) Organization Programming Language Programming
Language) Language)

4.30 to 5.30 PC Software PC Software Lab Session (PC Discrete Lab Session (PC
Software) Mathematics Software)

A time commitment plan for Module 2 of the first semester of MCA, to be followed daily for 4 weeks, is as follows:

Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

9.00 to 10.00 Digital Data structures Digital Digital Data structures


Electronics using C Electronics Electronics using C

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 32


10.00 to 11.00 Information Information Information Lab session Lab session
Technology Technology Technology (Data structures (Data structures
using C) using C)

11.00 to 11.30 Break Break Break Break Break

11.30 to 12.30 Data structures Lab session Lab session Data structures Digital
using C (Data structures (Data structures using C Electronics
using C) using C)

12.30 to 1.30 Lab session Digital Data structures Information Information


(Data structures Electronics using C technology technology
using C)

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 33


Chapter Seven

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify the importance of good health and physical appearance


 Identify the importance of good knowledge and communication skills
 Identify the importance of self confidence and achievements
 Identify the importance of professional and personal skills

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by explaining the importance of a good personality. Tell the students that developing
one's personality is an integral part of their professional and personal lives because it helps create a favorable
impression. Attaining a good personality depends upon various factors.
 Tell the students that their personality grows along with them. The more knowledge they gain, the better their
personality will shape up. They should keep themselves updated with their field of work and current affairs.
Suggest that they should gain knowledge by reading content related to their field of work. In addition, they should
observe their surroundings and interact with learned people. However, gaining knowledge is futile if the students
cannot express themselves properly. For this, they should work upon improving their verbal and nonverbal
communication skills.
 Tell the students that they should take up new opportunities and responsibilities with full confidence and should
use their good communication skills and knowledge to boost their confidence. Provide the students with the list of
problems they can face while communicating with others. Use the content given in the ‘Communication Skills’ topic
in the Additional Inputs section. Factors such as courage, logical analysis, and successful experiences can also
help in increasing their confidence level.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Criticism and Feedback


Personality is an overall impression that you make on others. It includes various aspects of your lifestyle. There are no
specific aspects that determine a personality. To improve your personality, you should continuously assess your
behavior and work on the shortcomings. For this, you should always be ready for feedback and criticism. Taking
feedback and criticism is an important aspect of personality development because people tend to be depressed and
frustrated when taking feedback.
Students can use the following ways to accept feedback and criticism gracefully:

 Accept your mistakes: If you have made a mistake, admit it instead of giving excuses. Giving lame excuses will
add up to your negative behavior. You should always learn from your mistakes.
 Ignore specific feedback: Always identify the source of criticism. If a person criticizing you is doing it out of habit
or frustration, ignore it at once and move ahead.
 Acknowledge the reason: If the reason behind criticism is competition, you should not react instantly and reply by
using harsh words; instead, you should reply through your work. If the reason behind criticism is jealousy, ignore
the criticism.
 Absorb genuine feedback: If the reason behind criticism is improvement, discuss it at length and get to know
about the reason. After you have identified the reason, you should work upon it.
 Do not react instantly: Reacting instantly to criticism will only show your insecurity. Irrespective of the kind of
feedback, you should never get defensive. Raising your voice, offering arguments, and resorting to emotional
outbursts will only aggravate the situation. If you are calm and composed, you are in a better position to assess
the situation.
 Take a Tally: Think about the criticism deeply and try to identify if you have been criticized for the same thing
more than once. If more than one person is making a similar comment, you should look at the possible reason and
work on it.
 Take corrective action: Instead of getting depressed or developing an inferiority complex, you should learn from
your mistakes. If the criticism is about behavior or habits, your family and friends can guide you. Concentrate on
how to gain from the criticism.
 Make it a learning experience: There is always something to learn from criticism. If it is a genuine criticism, you
should work upon it and try to improve yourself. If it is out of jealousy, you should learn to stay calm and ignore it.

Communication Skills

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 34


To have a good personality, a person should be knowledgeable and an effective communicator. There are two types of
communication skills, verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication skills consist of tone, volume, voice modulation, and
language. Ask students to record their voice in isolation. They can narrate or describe an incident. Then, ask the
students to narrate the same in front of the class. Now, ask them to list down the problems they faced in both cases.
Based on their reply, form a list of common problems faced by students.
Here is a list of some of the problems that the students may have faced when recording their narration:

 They were unable to make it sound interesting because they had to express themselves only through voice.
 Because some students were not able to modulate their voice, they were unable to induce the dramatic effects like
various emotions and sound effects.
 Due to the lack of knowledge of vocabulary and grammar, the students were unable to convey the correct meaning
of the story.
Here is a list of some of the problems that the students may have faced when narrating their story in the class:

 The students were unable to make eye contact with the rest of the class.
 The students were nervous and felt stiffness in their body when facing the class.
Verbal communication is based only on voice. Therefore, it is necessary for a person to depict his emotions and
feelings effectively through his voice. The following tips will help the students improve upon their verbal communication
skills:

 When recording, the students should think of the scenario they are depicting and should bring emotions in their
body. If they are able to feel the emotions, they will be able to express the same.
 The students should practice voice modulation to depict the emotions properly. The difference between flat and
modulated voice is similar to the difference between bland and spicy food.
 The students should improve upon their vocabulary and grammar to make a good impact on others. A good
vocabulary is necessary for effective speaking.
Communication depends upon three factors: words, tone, and body language. The use ratio of these three factors in
any communication is 7%, 38%, and, 55% respectively. Therefore, nonverbal communication is also an integral part of
communication. The students can use the following tips to improve upon their nonverbal communication:

 Use eye contact when communicating. The inability to make an eye contact is regarded as a sign of uncertainty. If
a person wants to convey sincerity in his or her intentions, it is best conveyed through eye contact.
 Use hand and face expressions to enhance the expression of what you are talking about. In addition, a person
with a positive frame of mind is more comfortable making gestures while communicating. Therefore, it is necessary
to inculcate positive attitude for effective communication.
Listeners tend to pay more attention to facial and body expressions; therefore, your verbal communication should be
consistent with your body language. For this, you also need to improve upon your nonverbal communication skills.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 35


Personal Grooming
Tell the students that they can consider the following factors for enhanced personal grooming:

 Clean and well-fitted garments: The clothes that one wears to work should be clean. They should not be faded
or torn. Clothes should not be too loose or tight; they should be of the correct size.
 Body odor: Take a bath daily and look fresh. Use a deodorant.
 Nails: Nails should be clean and clipped. Women should file their nails. If they wear nail polish, they should ensure
that it does not chip.
 Facial hair: Men should be freshly shaved. If they sport a moustache or a beard, they should neatly trim the same.
 Hair: Hair should be clean and neatly trimmed. The hairstyle should be neat.
 Shoes: Wear comfortable, well-fitting shoes. Wear a clean, odorless pair of socks that match the color of your
shoes. Wear shoes that match the occasion. Do not wear sports shoes to the workplace.
 Avoid heavy make-up and jewelry: Women should never over-do their make-up. They should wear minimum
jewelry to the workplace.
 Dental hygiene: Brush your teeth regularly. Use a mouthwash. Beware of food that may leave a bad odor. Use a
breath mint if necessary.
The various benefits of good personal grooming are:

 Helps establish credibility and gain the trust and confidence of peers and supervisors.
 Gives a feeling of self confidence.
 Shows respect for the organization.
 Makes colleagues feel comfortable about working with you.

Solutions to Chapter Seven Questions


1. Apart from the above nine qualities mentioned on personality development, add a few more qualities that are helpful
for total personality development.
Ans.
The additional qualities that can help you enhance your personality are:

 Enthusiasm: Being enthusiastic accentuates your personality.


 Ambition: Being ambitious means willing to take initiative and to reach towards new goals. Ambitious people
always stand out to achieve their goals and this quality develops their personality.
 Vision: Having a vision helps people have a clear idea of where they want to go and what they want to do. Clarity
of thought and vision reflects on your personality and therefore improves it.
 Competitive spirit: Competitive people are ready to take on challenges and emerge winners. This quality is an
aggressive form of being confident and is crucial for having a good personality.
 Open to criticism: Besides making a list of achievements, people should also remember their failures and should
learn from their mistakes. This helps them develop their personality.

2. Identify the shortcomings in your personality and prepare an action plan for improvement within a reasonable time
frame.
Ans.
Here is a sample list of shortcomings related to personality:

 Lack of updated knowledge related to my field


 Lack of entertainment skills
 Improper time management
 Improper health care routine
Here is the action plan to improve upon the shortcomings, along with the time frame:

 I will start reading journals and books related to my field to update myself with the latest information. I can utilize
the time spent traveling to and from office for reading. Within a month, I should be updated with the knowledge
related to my field.
 I will join weekend hobby classes and will choose the hobby that will help me relax and refresh my self. This
change should reflect in my personality in one or two months.
 I will create a time management log and will keep a record of all the tasks to be done along with their time frame.
This will help me assess my time management skills and identify my time wasters. Then, I will think of new ideas
to improve my time management skills.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 36


 I will acquire a health care routine based on my working style and food habits. I will also learn some exercises to
help improve my blood circulation and oxygen circulation. This routine will help me stay active and lively. I should
be able to see a difference in two or three months.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 37


Chapter Eight

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify the characteristics of human nature


 Identify the principles of managing people
 Identify a model approach to a human relations problem
 Identify the ways to change people

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by explaining the importance of good human relations and management for attaining
success in any field in life. Tell the students that in any kind of job, their success depends 15% upon job-related
knowledge and 85% upon their skills related to human engineering, communication, personality, and ability to lead
people. Therefore, to achieve success in personal and professional lives, they should have the knowledge of
dealing with people.
 Tell the students that in order to deal with and manage people, they should know about some fundamental truths
related to human relations. All humans are unique and different, they act and react differently to their environment.
People are generally never fully satisfied and no one is perfect. These facts will help students look at human
relations in a better way. You can discuss the various behavior styles, as given in the Additional Inputs section.
 Explain Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. According to this theory, human needs form a pyramid-based
hierarchy with physical needs at the base and self-realization at the top. Abraham Maslow has explained that a
man is never fully satisfied. Satisfied and content people become inactive. However, people in search of
something always remain active because they are motivated.
 Tell the students about Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory. According to this theory, the performance of a
person is influenced by various factors, such as salary, company policy, promotion prospects, nature of work, and
opportunities for creative work. Out of these factors, factors such as salary, company policy and administration,
and working conditions are hygienic factors, while factors such as achievement, recognition, interesting and
challenging work, and advancement for growth are motivational factors. Tell the students that hygienic factors
satisfy the animal needs, and motivational factors satisfy the psychological needs. Hygienic factors do not lead to
improved performance, but can affect performance if they are not present. On the other hand, motivational factors
lead to improved performance.
 Explain to the students the basic principles of human management and the various ways to bring changes to
people's lives without offending or arousing resentment. These basic principles and ways include various behavior
patterns that people need to follow to understand human behavior and develop healthy relationships. Tell the
students about the model approach that they should follow to resolve problems related to human relations. These
problems can fall into three categories: the first person is right and the other is wrong, the other person is right and
the first person is wrong, or both the persons are partly right. Explain to the students that they should be able to
overcome such difference of opinions and build good human relations.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Behavior Styles
The knowledge of dealing with people is the biggest key factor in human relations management. There are three types
of human behavior styles depicted by different people in different conditions and circumstances. These styles are
Submissive, Aggressive, and Assertive. These three behavior styles are present in every human being. However, each
person has one behavior style as the dominant one. Some people manage to strike a balance between all the three
styles and use these styles according to the situation. You can assess a person's personality by determining a person's
dominant behavior style. Understanding these styles will help you decide how to deal with different people.
Explain to the students that they can identify different behavior styles by referring to the characteristics given below.
The characteristics of people having submissive behavior are:

 They do not stand up for themselves.


 They do not express their views. If they express their views, they do it in a cautious and mild manner.
 They allow others to move ahead of them in professionally and allow others to take credit for work they themselves
have completed.
People having aggressive behavior have little or no concern for other people's ideas, feelings, and concerns. The
characteristics of people having aggressive behavior are:

 They can be directly or indirectly aggressive.


 They can become sarcastic.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 38


 They sometimes adopt a patronizing attitude.
 They blame others for problems and mistakes.
 They can get verbally hostile or abusive.
People having assertive behavior express and pursue their own views, ideas, and feelings. At the same time, they
respect the right of other people to express their views, ideas, and feelings. The characteristics of people having
assertive behavior are:

 They are honest with themselves and others.


 They express their views directly but not at the expense of others.
 They are confident and have a positive attitude.
 They are able to negotiate and compromise.
 They respect the self and others.
Now, give the students the following statements in a tabular form and ask them to write the behavior each statement
depicts in front of that statement:

S.No. Statement Behavior

1. Don't ask questions...just do it.

2. Would you be upset if we...

3. I believe that ... what do you think.

4. I am sorry to take up your time, but...

5. I would like to...

6. That's stupid…

7. What can we do to resolve this problem.

8. It's only my opinion, but...

9. It's nothing to do with me, its all your fault.

10. After I finish this work, I will be happy to answer your question.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 39


Solutions to Chapter Eight Questions
1. List out your good qualities pertaining to Human Engineering.
Ans.
John, a consultant working at Red Sky, possesses the following qualities related to human engineering:

 He tries to avoid reacting impulsively and criticize because these attempts are futile.
 He appreciates the efforts made by others.
 Before asking another person to do something, he looks from that person's point of view.
 He tries to remember the names of all persons he interacts with and ensures that he calls them by their names.
 In any conversation, he listens carefully to people. It makes the other person feel important.
 He tries to avoid an argument. If he enters in an argument with anyone, he tries to reconcile as soon as possible.
 He admits mistakes easily and tries not to have an argument to prove his point, which has already been proved
wrong.
 He tries not to punish or humiliate a person in order to correct the mistakes made by that person. He tries to be
considerate and thoughtful in his behavior.
 He tries to be friendly with all the people around him and always tries to make other person feel comfortable while
talking to him.
 He tries to convince the person working with him that he considers that person honest, upright, and fair.

2. List out the qualities in you that need improvement from the point of view of Man Management skills in Human
Engineering.
Ans.
Sam, a consultant at Red Sky Inc., needs to work on the following points to improve his skills related to human
engineering:

 He is unable to put his ideas across in an interesting manner, and this results in dull presentations. He needs to
improve his presentation skills.
 He tends to make work-related decisions on his own without discussing it with his team. He should involve his
team members in planning activities because this will give them a sense of belonging.
 Sometimes, he is unable to control his anger. He should learn to stay calm if things are not happening as per plan.
 He avoids making personal contacts with colleagues; therefore, he has limited knowledge about his colleagues.
He should try to get to know his colleagues. This will make them feel special.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 40


Chapter Nine

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify the common traits of successful people


 Identify the importance of possessing job-related knowledge
 Identify the importance of common sense and general intelligence
 Identify the importance of the ability to get things done

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by explaining to the students that successful people have certain traits that separate
them from the rest. Some of these traits are innate but others can be developed with experience. Explain to the
students that to develop a good personality, they should also learn to develop these traits. You can discuss the
traits of a true professional by stating the case study given in the ‘Characteristics of a True Professional’ topic
under the Additional Inputs section.
 Explain to the students that gaining specialized knowledge will help them succeed. Those who have practical
knowledge of their area of work enjoy a distinct advantage. This knowledge is gained through formal education
and self education.
 Tell the students that the people who succeed in life never rely on anybody for additional help or resources. They
rely on their own abilities and knowledge. A successful person always looks out for opportunities and never waits
for anybody's assistance to start a new venture. Tell the students that they should have immense willpower and
ability to make their own way and walk through it.
 Explain to the students that successful people have a natural ability to comprehend difficult concepts and analyze
them clearly. This general intelligence helps them stand out and make a mark for themselves. They can improve
their general intelligence by improving their vocabulary, reading and writing skills, and IQ.
 Tell the students that their success will always be rated on the basis of the result achieved. Therefore, it is
necessary to accomplish the task in order to be successful. Explain to the students that they can accomplish their
tasks through organizational ability, good work ethics, and diligence.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Characteristics of a True Professional

Case Study
Anita topped in her Class XII board exams. She studied software engineering at a highly rated engineering institute and
won an award for her project. Then, she completed her management diploma at a premier management institute and
got a job in a top software development company.
During her first project, she had an idea that contradicted that of her immediate superior. She went to her manager and
told him her idea. He explained why it was not feasible. She disagreed with him and started arguing. The manager
explained again in detail why the idea was not feasible. Anita kept arguing. After the meeting, she told her team
members about what had happened and spoke of the manager very rudely. She did not tell them the reason why he
had not agreed with her idea.
She made the situation seem as if he had not bothered to listen to her and did not want to accept her idea because it
was better than his. Her manager reviewed her work after a week and was impressed. He gave her a very positive
feedback and showed her work to the Head of Department. Anita was deemed the 'Star Performer of the Month'.
Soon after, she had a bitter argument with her team members Grace and Tom. Grace had pointed out that Anita had
not sent her a certain document for review that she was supposed to send two days before. Anita argued that Tom was
the one who had not sent the document. Tom was taken aback because Anita had never asked him to send the
document.
Anita began spreading rumors about Grace. At home and with her friends, she complained about how unprofessional
the organization was and that the bad work atmosphere was affecting her.
After three months, during her appraisal, Anita’s manager told her that he was very pleased with her work. However, the
team felt that she was not a team player. Because of this, her rating was average. He told her that this was a serious
issue and that she must work towards improving her communication and teamwork skills.
The preceding case study proves the point that a professional should always take the initiative to improve his or her soft
skills. Tell the students that a true professional should:

 Be diplomatic and tactful

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 41


 Admit mistakes
 Act as an ambassador of the organization
 Be responsible
 Display mutual respect
 Display integrity
 Have no favorites
 Be enthusiastic and optimistic

Solutions to Chapter Nine Questions


1. Identify a successful role model and list two or three additional qualities other than those listed in this module.
Ans.
My role model is Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft Corporation. He started developing computer programs at the age of
13. In 1975, he started a company along with his friend Paul Allen. Today, Microsoft Corporation is a leader in software
services and solutions, employs 55,000 people, and is present in 85 countries. Microsoft generated revenues worth
US$36.84 billion for the fiscal year ending June 2004.
Bill Gates has all the characteristics of a successful person. He has complete knowledge of his own field and has
common sense to make practical judgments. He never waited for any external help and realized his dreams on his own.
He has the natural ability to comprehend difficult concepts and analyze them clearly. He possesses strong work ethics
and organizational skills.
Besides having these qualities, he has the following three abilities, which have made him one of the most successful
businesspersons in the world:

 Vision: Gates had a clear vision at a very early stage in his life that computers will be available in every house and
office desk.
 Continuous advancement: Gates always aims to introduce innovative products. This keeps his organization always
at the top and in demand.
 Making cost-effective and user-friendly products: Making cost-effective and user-friendly products has been one
of the main reasons behind Gates's success. As a result, Microsoft has a strong base of happy and satisfied
customers.

2. List out some of the important principles of human engineering in which you are good at.
Ans.
John, a consultant working at Red Sky, possesses the following qualities related to human engineering:

 He tries to avoid reacting impulsively.


 He ensures that no chance to appreciate the other person is missed.
 Before asking another person to do something, he looks from that person's point of view.
 He tries to remember the names of all the persons he interacts with and ensures that he calls them by their
names.
 In any conversation, he listens carefully to people. It makes the other person feel important.
 He tries to avoid an argument. If he enters in an argument with anyone, he tries to reconcile as soon as possible.
 He admits mistakes easily and tries not to have an argument to prove his point, which has already been proved
wrong.
 He tries not to punish or humiliate a person in order to correct the mistakes made by that person. He tries to be
considerate and thoughtful in his behavior.
 He tries to be friendly with all the people around him and always tries to make other person feel comfortable while
talking to him.
 He tries to convince the person working with him that he considers that person to be honest, upright, and fair.

3. List out some of the important principles of human engineering in which you need improvement. Prepare an action
plan for improvement of those qualities.
Ans.
Following is the list of important principles of human engineering that John should work upon:

 He is unable to put his ideas across in an interesting manner, and this results in dull presentations. He needs to
improve upon his way of presentation.
 He tends to make work-related decisions on his own without discussing it with his team.
 Sometimes, he is unable to control his anger.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 42


 He is unable to make hard decisions related to people he works with. This results in people taking him for granted.
 He avoids making personal contacts with his colleagues. As a result, he knows little about them.
Following is the action plan for John:

 He should improve upon his way of presenting his ideas and concepts.
 He should involve his team members in planning the activities. This will give them a sense of belonging.
 He should learn to calm down if things are not happening his way.
 He should convey to the people that disciplinary measures can be taken against them if they do not comply with
the working standards.
 He should try to get to know about the people working with him more closely to make them feel special.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 43


Chapter Ten

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify the traits of a successful IT professional


 Identify the importance of effective communication and self-learning ability
 Identify the importance of human engineering and teamwork
 Identify the importance of time management and stress management
 Identify the importance of self motivation and good health

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by explaining to the students that successful IT professionals have specific traits that
separate them from the rest. Some of these traits are generally innate, while other traits can be developed with
experience and perseverance.
 Explain to the students that successful IT professionals have the ability to learn by themselves. They should are
able to comprehend difficult concepts and analyze them clearly. To be successful, IT professionals need to be
eternal students and be in constant touch with new updates. Tell the students that successful IT professionals
never wait for anybody's assistance and completely rely on their own abilities and knowledge to achieve their
goals.
 Tell the students that they should be work well within a team. This is because collective effort is a must to ensure
organizational success. Discuss the inputs given in the ‘Teamwork’ topic of the Additional Inputs section.
 Tell the students that they should possess the knowledge of their field of study, interpersonal skills and abilities,
and interest in extra-curricular activities. To express these knowledge skills, they should also possess good written
and verbal communication skills.
 Tell the students that successful IT professionals should be highly capable in managing human relations. Explain
to them that it is easier to find people with mere technical ability but quite difficult to find people who can be good
leaders. Discuss the various conflicting styles given in the ‘Team Building Spirit’ topic under the Additional Inputs
section.
 Tell the students that successful IT professionals know how to manage stress. It is very important to manage time
for meeting deadlines and taking on new assignments. In order to remain self motivated, IT professionals should
possess good health and a delightful mind.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Team Building Spirit


Successful IT Tyros, besides being proficient in their field, should also get along well with their seniors and team
members. They need to ensure a high team spirit to accomplish their project and organizational goals. A team is a
group of people working together towards a common goal. Team spirit can be promoted by sharing experiences and by
being flexible, co-operative, and committed. Every member is an important part of the team and is responsible for its
success.
To become a responsible and efficient member of a team, an individual should be enthusiastic. Highly enthusiastic team
members are always willing to participate in all team activities and are considered as future team leaders.
Ask the students to form groups of six members each and perform the following activities:

 Forming: In this stage, people get to know each other and make impressions. Ask the students in each group to
interact with each other to know each other better.
 Storming: This is the argumentative phase. Ask students to resolve various issues and concerns pertaining to the
team goals among themselves.
 Norming: In this stage, the students will be comfortable with each other and with the goal that they have decided
upon to work together.
 Performing: In this stage, the students will start working together and giving good performance.
Tell the students that conflicts are bound to arise when individuals work together in a team. Answering the following
questions will help them identify the reason of conflict and resolve it:
47. What do we want?
a. What kind of relationship do we share?
b. Who am I in this interaction?
c. What communication process will be used?

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 44


Tell the students that people react differently in a conflict. Ask them to learn about the following conflicting styles and
select their style:

 Avoidance: People with this style do not actively participate in the conflict and tend to avoid being in such
situation. Tell the students that avoiding such situations is not always helpful. Sometimes it is necessary for each
team member to participate and help the team reach a decision in an amicable manner.
 Accommodating: People with this style participate in a conflict but do not get affected by the result. They tend to
adapt to the scene that seems to be suitable for the whole team.
 Competing: People with this style actively participate in a conflict. At times, they initiate conflicts and try to prove
their point of view. Such people are aggressive in nature and usually bring out new points related to team
activities.
 Compromising: People with this style participate in a conflict in a reconciling manner. They don't fight over their
point of view but try to settle the conflict within themselves.
 Collaboration: People with this style try to soothe conflict and inspire each team member to work together in a
joint intellectual effort. Such people are actively involved in planning activities that can bring the team together.

Teamwork

Case Study
Samuel and Robert join a company on the same day and are assigned to the same project. Samuel is appreciated for
being serious about his work from day one. He has an intense look on his face at all times because he is always
thinking about his work. Robert is as efficient a worker. He always has a cheery look on his face. His bright eyes and
ready laugh make people want to be around him. As a result, Robert becomes popular in his team.
Samuel notices Robert making friends with people from different teams and departments. Samuel decides that he will
make an attempt to meet other people as well. He feels shy but makes it a point to greet people and to smile at them
wherever he comes across them - in the corridor or in the office library. However, being preoccupied with thoughts
about work, he forgets to greet them at times. He notices that the people he had been greeting are not keen to
communicate with him. On the other hand, Robert gets assistance from these same people - they explain company
policies to him and help him get accustomed to the office environment.
After going through the preceding case study, tell the students that to build relationships at work, they must:

 Widen their circle of friends


 Strengthen their existing friendships
 Be willing to help others and also ask for help, if required
Teamwork motivates individuals, extracts the best out of individual talents, and leads to creative solutions.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 45


The Difference Between a Group and a Team
A group turns into a team when its members begin to have:

 Shared Goals
 Interdependence
 Commitment
 Accountability

Advantages of Teamwork
Teamwork:

 Motivates individuals.
 Extracts the best out of the individuals.
 Leads to creative solutions.

Practices Aiding Teamwork


Good teamwork requires:

 Agreed-upon goals and clear objectives.


 Mutual support, concern, and trust.
 Recognition and support for individual differences.
 Mutual cooperation and conflict resolution.
 Clearly established procedures.
 Sound leadership.
 Provision for review and feedback on individual as well as team performance.
 Active contribution by all members.
 Recognition and reward for team efforts.

Practices Hindering Teamwork


A team suffers when its members:

 Blame each other for failures.


 Give priority to their tasks over the team tasks.
 Offer support and motivation on the basis of personal likes and dislikes.
 Do not share information.
 Do not listen to others' ideas and opinions.
 Do not give their opinions.
 Are not open to giving and receiving feedback.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 46


CH A PT ER - SPEC IF IC IN PU T S: P A R T - II

Chapter One

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Practice exercises for improving communication skills


 Improve their vocabulary

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can:

 Introduce the topic by explaining the importance of communication skills in the modern world. Tell the students that
if they have good communication skills, they will have more opportunities to succeed in life. Also, tell them that
possessing effective communication skills is a prerequisite for personality development.
 Tell the students that listening carefully is one of the most important aspects of communication. You can take the
case study given in the topic ‘Listening is the Most Powerful Tool of Communication’ in the Additional Inputs
section.
 Instruct the students to create their own personality portrait. Ask them to read books, newspapers, and magazines.
This will help them in improving their communication skills and vocabulary.
 Explain that factors such as courage, confidence, and logical thinking are equally important in ensuring effective
communication. Familiarity with a specific language might not be enough.
 Give the students an exercise on passage reading so that they can work on their reading habits. Give the students
a list of words and ask them to frame sentences by using those words in different contexts. This exercise can help
in building a strong vocabulary. Make sure that the students maintain a list of the new words they come across
each day.
 To improve their listening skills, instruct the students to take notes while watching television, listening to the radio
or lectures. In addition, ask them to write on any topic of their choice, because writing is also important along with
speaking and listening. Then, tell them to present their views on the topic. This will help them build up their
confidence. It will also prepare the students to participate in group discussions and interviews.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Listening is the Most Powerful Tool of Communication

Case Study
Jack goes to a client meeting to understand project requirements. Before the meeting, he makes all the preparations for
the meeting. He also reads extensively about similar projects and talks to his seniors about the client's previous
projects. The client is pleased to meet Jack because he appears to be enthusiastic, bright, and interested. The client
feels that Jack is the right person to handle the project. The client wants Jack to create an IT training course for office
executives.
The project had to be completed within a month. Jack briefs his team, and they work hard for two weeks. After two
weeks, Jack presents the first version to the client. The client is very upset because the work does not match the
requirements at all; the training course looks more appropriate for undergraduates instead of office executives. Now,
the client is worried that the deadline cannot be met.
Ask the students of possible reasons why Jack and his team blundered. . Carry forward the discussion stating that:

 Listening is the most powerful tool of communication, it is the first step toward comprehension.
 Almost three quarters of the communication process involves listening.
 Listening is not the same as hearing; it involves interpreting and understanding.
To improve their listening skills, ask the students to:

 Control external and internal distractions.


 Listen actively.
 Identify key points.
 Avoid making any interruptions.
 Ask questions and paraphrase.
 Take notes.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 47


 Be unprejudiced.
 Watch for nonverbal cues.
 Ask questions from self.

Listening and Speaking Skills in Telephone Conversations


The telephone is an important tool used for communication.
There are certain desirable procedures and protocols for using the telephone.

Receiving a Call
There are five main steps in the process of receiving a call:

 Greet the caller: Greet the caller and introduce yourself.


 Identify the caller: Ask for the name of the caller.
 Understand the requirements: Ask questions and seek clarifications to understand the caller's problems.
 Exchange information: Ask for and supply relevant facts and information to the caller.
 End the call: Summarize the conversation and end the call on a pleasant note.

Telephone Manners
While speaking on the phone, you need to consider the following elements:

 Voice: Your voice reflects your mood and state of mind. So, take care of how you sound.
 Attitude: Be courteous, professional, understanding, helpful, and friendly. This attitude is reflected in your voice.
 Body language: Smile before making a call. Sit straight and breathe deeply.
 Enthusiasm: Energy and enthusiasm reflect your interest in what you are doing.
 Composure: Remain calm while handling aggressive, rude, or agitated callers.
 Speed: Speak slowly.
 Clarity: Express your words clearly.
 Language: Use simple and straightforward language.

Giving and Taking Telephone Messages


Messages are given when you are unable to speak to the concerned person, and messages are taken when you
receive a call for another person.
An effective message includes:

 Date and time of the call.


 Details of the caller.
 Contact number of the caller.
 Purpose of the call.
 Requirements for future action, if any.
 Time for returning the call.
 Details of the person who received the call.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 48


Solutions to Chapter One Questions

Solutions to Check your Progress 1


1. Give any three reasons why it is important to improve communication skills?
Ans.
The three reasons are:

 Communication skills are required to express our views to others.


 Organizations conducts tests and interviews to test the candidate's communication skills in addition to testing the
subject knowledge.
 If you want to pursue higher studies, you need to participate in group discussions and personal interviews after
you clear the entrance exam.

Solutions to Check your Progress 2


1. What is the difference between language skills and communication skills?
Ans.
The difference between language skills and communication skills lies in the presentation of your ideas. Language skills
denote the person's subjective knowledge, whereas communication skills involve the presentation of the subjective
knowledge to the outside world. Both set of skills are required. For example, a person can have good language skills
but may not be able to express his views to a group of people.

2. How can communication skills be improved?


Ans.
Communication skills are necessary for a person to express his or her views in any situation. One can acquire
communication skills only by practice. Communication can be improved by practicing certain activities on a daily basis.
The following activities can help a person improve his or her communication skills.

 Reading newspapers and magazines: Reading newspapers and magazines helps in increasing the reading
ability, general awareness, and the vocabulary.
 Listening to news channels on TV: This activity can help in enhancing the communication skills by improving
one's grasp on pronunciation.
 Listening to news on the radio: Listening is the best way to improve the communication skills. For example,
while listening to the radio, you can concentrate on the words being pronounced by the newsreader.
 Improving the vocabulary: Vocabulary building is another exercise that can enhance communication. The best
way to improve vocabulary is to learn new words in different contexts.
 Speaking English language on regular basis: Cramming your vocabulary with new words and reading books
will not work until and unless you practice it. It is necessary to speak in a variety of situations. This will make you
more confident and comfortable with spoken language.
 Logical thought process: Good communication also includes a logical thought process activity. Presence of mind
helps a person think in a logical manner. A person should be quick in reasoning and thinking. This adds value to
the communication skills.
 Developing a sense of humor: Sense of humor is another aspect that helps the communication process. For
example, students prefer teachers who are jovial and lively.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 49


3. What are communication skills?
Ans.
Communication skills are the skills that enable a person to convey information so that it is received and understood
well. It is the ability to express our views and understand others' views.

Solutions to Check your Progress 3


1. Can communication skills be developed by reading books on 'communication skills'? Why?
Ans.
Communication skills can be improved by reading books because they describe the various ways to improve one's
communication skills. Implementing these in your daily life can definitely bring a major change in your interpersonal
skills. Communication is a skill and can be improved upon only by practice.

Solutions to Check your Progress 4


1. Write two sentences by using each of the following words in two different meanings: balance, issue, issues, pursue,
conflict, and breakdown.
Ans.
Balance
Meaning: 1. A state where things are of equal weight or force.
Sentence: The old lady had to hold the railings to keep her balance.
Meaning: 2. To give several things equal amounts of information, time, or money, so that a situation is
successful.
Sentence: There are still balance payments due on him.
Issue
Meaning: 1. A subject or problem that people are thinking and talking about.
Sentence: Don't worry about who will do it- that's just a side issue.
Meaning: 2. To give something to someone.
Sentence: The English book is issued in your name.
Pursue
Meaning: 1. To follow someone or something.
Sentence: The car was pursued by helicopters.
Meaning: 2. To be engaged in (a vocation or hobby, for example)
Sentence: He is pursuing MCA from a recognized university.
Conflict
Meaning: 1. An active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles.
Sentence: There was a lot of conflict between him and his father.
Meaning: 2. An incompatibility of dates or events.
Sentence: He noticed a conflict in the dates of the two meetings.
Breakdown
Meaning: 1. A failure to work or be successful.
Sentence: My car had a breakdown in the middle of the road.
Meaning: 2. Division of something into smaller parts.
Sentence: The rate of muscle protein breakdown was assessed.

Solutions to Section 1.5


Passage 1
48. All oceans water is the same shade of blue
a. in all places
b. at all times
c. hardly ever
d. because all light waves are the same length

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 50


Ans.
b. at all times

d. Blue light is
e. a short wavelength
f. a long wavelength
g. about equal to all other wavelengths
h. not scatterable
Ans.
a. a short wavelength

e. Green water near coastlines is almost always caused by


i. sand color
j. red pigments in coastal waters
k. blue pigment
l. reflected light and yellow pigment from plant life
Ans.
d. reflected light and yellow pigment from plant life

4. Phytoplankton are
m. short light rays
n. suspended soil particles
o. microscopic floating plants
p. long light rays
Ans.
c. microscopic floating plants

5. The main idea of this passage is


q. light causes sea color
r. sea coloration is varied because of a combination of length of light waves and microscopic plant life and silt
s. microscopic plant life causes sea color
t. water composition causes sea color
Ans.
b. sea coloration is varied because of a combination of length of light waves and microscopic plant life and silt
Passage 2
1. The main idea of this passage is that
u. twins are slower in developing than single children
v. only children take longer to develop
w. children develop socially, physically and developmentally according to an individual pattern
x. secure children take longer to develop
Ans.
c. children develop socially, physically and developmentally according to an individual pattern

2. The social development of a child can be affected by


y. habits
z. infantile pleasures
aa. patterns
bb. the number of siblings
Ans.
b. infantile pleasures

3. One inference that can be drawn from this passage is that


cc. continual scolding is not harmful to the child
dd. continual scolding inhibits healthy social development

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 51


ee. continual scolding does not affect physical development
ff. continual scolding has adverse effects on the disciplinarian
Ans.
b. continual scolding inhibits healthy social development

4. Where does the passage say the only child learns his social lessons?
gg. Home and school
hh. Playground and classroom
ii. Playground and home
jj. All of the above
Ans.
d. All of the above

5. Home life and the people who live with the child affect his development
kk. Partially
ll. At no time
mm. Totally
nn. In no noticeable ways
Ans.
c. Totally
Passage 3
1. This passage implies that victims of Alzheimer's disease may
oo. not remember childhood events
pp. suffer a gradual worsening of cognitive functions
qq. incur personality and behavioral changes.
rr. spend their last days in a long-term care facility
Ans.
c. incur personality and behavioral changes.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 52


2. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease include
ss. enhanced motor skills
tt. loss of appetite
uu. forgetfulness and confusion
vv. laziness
Ans.
c. forgetfulness and confusion

3. In the passage, "debilitating" means


ww. to make feeble
xx. capability
yy. to strengthen
zz. stamina
Ans.
a. to make feeble

4. The cure for Alzheimer's disease is


aaa. bed rest
bbb. hospitalization
ccc. there is no cure
ddd. long-term care
Ans.
d. long-term care

5. According to the passage, a person with Alzheimer's disease might not be able to
eee. walk
fff. remember the answer to a question, which was already asked
ggg. remain awake
hhh. drive a car
Ans.
b. remember the answer to a question, which was already asked

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 53


Chapter Two

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify skills required for reading comprehension


 Identify the skills required to have a meaningful conversation
 Avoid common English language errors

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can use the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by explaining the basic components of communication skills in a conversation.
 Explain the different features of spoken English. Tell the students that spoken English should be free from
grammatical mistakes. Explain how spoken English is different from written English.
 Give students reading exercises such as passages that contain conversations involving two or more people. Then,
ask them to answer the questions given in the relevant exercise. This will help them in improving their
conversation skills. Tell them the difference between intentional learning and incidental learning. A desire to learn
is a must.
 Give students passages containing inspiring events or incidents related to important people and ask them to
answer the questions given in the exercises. This will motivate the students and help them improve their
vocabulary.
 Arrange group discussions and presentations for the students and ask them to get actively involved in these. This
will help them in improving communication skills and gaining confidence. Tell the students to speak English on a
regular basis to improve their conversation skills.

Guidelines for Interacting with Foreign Clients

Case Study
Sheila was sent by her office to Boston to meet Ronald Smith, a client. When they met, Ronald asked her to address
him by his first name. However, she felt it was inappropriate and addressed him as Mr. Smith. During lunch, to initiate
small talk, Sheila asked one of the middle-aged ladies what her husband did. She said she wasn't married. The lady
just looked away when Sheila asked her why she was not married. After lunch, the meeting continued. It was decided
that they should meet again after two days. Sheila asked whether they could ‘prepone’ the meeting. Ronald looked
puzzled and asked what she meant. She asked whether it will be possible to have the meeting on the following because
she needed to return to her office tow days later. Ronald agreed. After the second meeting, Sheila gave Ronald a silver
Ganesha as a gift. He raised his eyebrows and looked at his colleagues in an embarrassed manner.
After analyzing the preceding case study, one learns that before you interact with a foreign client, it is important to know
about their culture and work ethics.
When interacting with foreign clients, you need to:

 Determine the degree of formality practiced at the workplace in the client's country.
 Find out if it is acceptable to give or receive gifts. These should not be perceived as bribe.
 Ensure appropriate body language. Gestures and body movements can be perceived differently in different
countries.
 Avoid discussing sensitive issues such as politics, race, color, etc.
 Use English or the client's language. Avoid the local language.
 Appreciate cultural differences and avoid voicing your disapproval of customs and traditions prevalent in the
client’s country.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 54


Representing an Organization in a Seminar
Effective verbal communication skills help you express yourself. They are also important for success in different
professional situations, such as attending interviews and conducting presentations. Communication skills are also
required for IT professionals who need to attend seminars on behalf of their organizations. If you have carefully planned
the seminar and presented facts and features of the organization in a highly appealing manner, it will help create a very
good impression about the organization. The seminar must be impressive in terms of content and presentation style,
clear voice, and connecting with the audience.
Give students a particular topic and ask them to present a seminar on it on behalf of an organization.
Tell them to improve upon their weaknesses by working on the following points:

 You should always speak politely with other members of the organization.
 Your presentation should be crisp and effective.
 Your body language must be an additional support to ensure effective communication.
 You should be confident about the topic.
 You should always establish good eye contact with the audience.

Solutions to Chapter Two Questions

Solutions to Check your Progress 1


1. Why do many of us find it difficult to speak in English?
Ans.
Many of us are not able to speak English because of lack of practice. Practice enhances the confidence level and
improves effectiveness.

2. Name any four reasons why English is important to us.


Ans.
Knowledge of the English language is of great importance because of the following reasons:

 It is useful to get a good job.


 It is necessary for social prestige and respect.
 It is important to learn it to pursue further studies abroad.
 It is important to know English in order to try for a job in other countries.

3. Is spoken English difficult. Why?


Ans.
No, spoken English is not difficult. It is easier as compared to writing. Care should be taken to speak slowly and use the
correct grammar and pronunciation. Writing English is difficult because you also need to worry about elements such as
spellings, punctuation, and formatting.

4. What are the different features of spoken English?


Ans.
The different features of spoken English are:

 The speaker should be able to speak clear English so that the listener is able to understand it.
 The speaker should not speak too fast, so that others cannot understand, or too slow, so that others get bored.
 The speaker should use appropriate words or vocabulary.
 The speaker should pronounce the word correctly.

Solution to section 2.3 (a)


1. The passage implies that if a student studies for an exam, he is practicing
iii. incidental learning
jjj. intentional learning
kkk. residual learning
lll. motivational learning

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 55


Ans.
a. incidental learning

2. In the passage "motivation" means


mmm. dread
nnn. repulsion
ooo. neglect
ppp. impulsion
Ans.
d. impulsion

3. According to the passage, in order to learn by intentional learning, one must be


qqq. Highly motivated
rrr. unmotivated
sss. tired of learning
ttt. in need of learning
Ans.
a. Highly motivated

Solution to section 2.3 (b)


1. Say whether the following statements are true, false or unknown.
uuu. As Hans listened to the lecture of Einstein, he understood it well
(True/False/Unknown)
Ans.
False

vvv. The question asked by the professor was such that Hans had no idea of it.
(True/False/Unknown)
Ans.
True

www. When the professor had asked a difficult question, Einstein thought that they were in trouble.
(True/False/Unknown)
Ans.
True

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 56


xxx. They left the university with Hans driving.
(True/False/Unknown)
Ans.
False

yyy. "It is a pleasure to drive a genius like you". These words were first spoken by Einstein
(True/False/Unknown)
Ans.
False

2. Answer the following in a phrase or sentence each.


49. What kind of story is this?
zzz. fictional
aaaa. Amusing
bbbb. true
Ans.
c. true

f. What did Einstein study?


Ans.
Einstein studied Science. He was a great physicist whose research in his field helped other scientists explore areas
such as nuclear energy, space travel, and television.

g. Which of the following qualities made him a great scientist?


cccc. modesty
dddd. interest in space travel
eeee. curiosity
ffff. sense of humor
Ans.
b. interest in space travel
d. sense of humor

h. Why did Hans give lecture in place of Einstein?


Ans.
Einstein was tired and was not in a position to deliver a lecture. So, Hans delivered a lecture in place of Einstein.

i. Did Hans perform well? Pick out words from the story in support of your answer.
Ans.
Yes, Hans performed well. The words from the passage that support this answer are "Einstein joined the audience and
listed to Hans give his lecture perfectly, and joined in the applause at the end.”

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 57


j. What was Hans's reply to the question of the professor?
Ans.
Hans laughed and replied to the professor that the question was not at all difficult. In fact, it was so easy that even his
driver could answer it.

k. Einstein called Hans a genius because he:


gggg. impersonated Einstein
hhhh. had memorized Einstein's lecture
iiii. had presence of mind
jjjj. did not let Einstein down
Ans.
c. had presence of mind
(Because the passage for the below section is not available in the Student Guide, the answers have been researched
by using the Internet.)
Solutions
50. Describe the physical appearance of William Gilbert Grace in a line or two.
Ans.
William Gilbert Grace had a splendid physique. He was a tall man, 6 feet and 2 inches in height. He was about 70 kg in
weight. He had an attractive personality with strong features and long black beard.

l. What is the record of Grace as a batsman and bowler?


Ans.
William was actively engaged in first class cricket. His highest score in tests was 344 runs. He was the first one to score
a triple century in first class cricket. He scored 100 runs or more on 121 occasions. Grace scored nearly 55000 runs
with an average of 43 runs per match. In addition, he was a fast bowler.

m. How did he consider cricket?


Ans.
William Grace found himself in an atmosphere charged with cricket. His father and uncles were enthusiastic about the
game as his elder brothers Henry, Alfred, and E. M. Grace. They also were cricket players. He belonged to a family with
a cricket background. He was enthusiastic about cricket from the tender age of six. Although he was a doctor, he chose
cricket for a profession.

n. In what aspect, should the credit go to Grace regarding the game of cricket?
Ans.
Dr. William Gilbert Grace was the greatest and most attractive personality in cricket.
He held the record for the highest individual score for many years. The most remarkable year for Dr. Grace's career
was 1895. In that year, he scored 2,346 runs and also completed his hundredth first class century. He received a
testimonial and a letter of congratulation from the Prince of Wales.

o. What happened to him?


Ans.
William Grace died on October 25, 1915. He was sixty-seven years old. He had an attack of cerebral hemorrhage a few
days before his death.

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Solution to Section 2.4
The sentences given below are examples of sentences with common errors. Identify the error and correct the same.
1. He has not given his final exams yet.
Ans.
He has not yet appeared for his final exams.

2. He discusses about politics


Ans.
He discusses politics.

3. My sister is getting her ears bored this evening.


Ans.
My sister is getting her ears pierced this evening.

4. She sings well. Isn't it?


Ans.
She sings well. Doesn’t she?

5. He couldn't cope up with the class.


Ans.
He couldn’t stay with the class.

6. Can you describe about that picture?


Ans.
Can you describe that picture?

7. Rain is coming very heavily.


Ans.
It is raining very heavily.

8. Sugar is available freely in the market


Ans.
Sugar is available for free in the market.

9. They sings very well.


Ans.
They sing very well.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 59


10. The teacher is giving a lecture.
Ans.
The teacher is delivering a lecture.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 60


Chapter Three

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify the importance of acquiring writing skills


 Define writing skills
 Analyze their writing abilities to identify advantages and disadvantages in their writing skills
 Identify the methods that need to be followed to improve their writing skills

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can use the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by defining writing skills. Introduce the features of good writing skills. Tell students the
importance of improving vocabulary and learning grammar rules for developing good writing skills.
 Tell the students about subskills such as using the correct sequence of words in a sentence, using simple and
appropriate words, and using correct grammar. Then, ask the students to do the exercises given in the topic ‘
Improving Grammar to Improve Writing Ability’ in the Additional Inputs section. Explain to them the importance of
good writing skills.
 Ask the students to write their views on improving writing skills. Discuss their views and share with them the
various ways in which they can improve their writing skills.
 Explain the importance of redrafting a document. Provide the students with a checklist to help them redraft
documents. Ask them to redraft their document according to that checklist.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Improving Grammar to Improve Writing Ability


Writing is the most important asset in one's professional life. You cannot acquire good writing skills in one attempt.
Writing needs a lot of practice. To become a good professional, you need to acquire good writing skills for performing
various tasks such as writing a document about a software or making presentations.
Writing includes several other fields or subskills. The subskills are:

 Right order of words in a sentence.


 Right order of sentences in a paragraph.
 Appropriate choice of vocabulary.
 Proper format.
 Proper usage of punctuation marks.
 Correct usage of grammar.
Out of all the subskills, correct grammar usage is an important and basic subskill of writing. Explain to the students the
importance of proper grammatical usage while writing a document. Although IT professionals do not emphasize on the
use of grammar, it is important for them to learn correct grammar. This will help them in various tasks, such as
preparing presentations.
Ask the students to do exercises that will help reveal their shortcomings and improve their grammar. For example, ask
them to do the following exercise.
Use an appropriate form of the specific adverb or adjective to fill in the blanks:
51. My old car broke down yesterday. I hope it can be mended _____ (cheap).
52. Sting is a _______ (marvelous) singer.
53. Jimmy has got a ________ (tremendous) collection of stones.
54. I am a fan of France Gall. She not only sings _______(beautiful), she's got _______ (beautiful) songs as well.
55. He broke the news to her _______ (gentle).
56. Ice-cream sales rose ________ (steep) last August.
57. There was a _______(sudden) increase in sales.
58. "I particularly like all these _______(bright) colors in your paintings", he whispered _______ (soft).
59. My dog is very ________ (silent). It _______(rare) barks.
60. My father drives ________ (slow). He ______ (seldom) exceeds 40 mph.
Such exercises help students to discover their shortcomings and enable them to improve their writing skills in a focused
way.

Preparing a Good Report

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 61


Ask students to prepare a report on any topic. Then, give them the following checklist for evaluating their report:

S. No. Parameters Y/N/P

1. Is the title of the report in a larger font size and centrally aligned? Y/N/P

2. Does the report clearly define the objectives? Y/N/P

3. Does the material researched map to the objective? Y/N/P

4. Is the material presented in a logical sequence? Y/N/P

5. Are the topics and subtopics numbered? Y/N/P

6. Does the report have a conclusion? Y/N/P

7. Does the conclusion map to the introduction and the main body of the Y/N/P
report?

8. Does the conclusion contain a definite answer? Y/N/P

9. Is the report simple and easy to understand? Y/N/P

10. Are the figures used in the report based on facts and research? Y/N/P

11. Is the report grammatically correct? Y/N/P

12. Have subpoints and numbering been used where required? Y/N/P

Solutions to Chapter Three Questions

Solutions to Sample Examination Questions, Sections 3.6


1. Mention the different subskills in writing. Discuss the importance of each one of them.

Ans.
The different subskills in writing are:

 Syntax at the sentence level: Helps to identify the correct sequence of words in a sentence.
 Syntax at the paragraph level: Helps to identify the correct sequence of the sentences in a paragraph to maintain
flow.
 Coherence: Helps to identify the appropriate usage of connectors, such as but, that, and which, to combine
sentences.
 Choice of vocabulary: Helps to identify the appropriate and relevant word usage in a sentence that can easily
convey the intended meaning to the reader.
 Cohesion: Helps to identify the completeness of a sentence or a paragraph. It also helps to ensure that the
sentences are able to convey the complete meaning.
 Punctuation marks: Helps to identify the correct usage of different punctuation marks while writing.
 Style, format, and use of non verbal devices: Helps in identifying the appropriate style and format for a writing a
particular document.
 Grammar: Helps to ensure that the document is grammatically correct.

2. What are the differences between the language of speech and the language of writing?
Ans.
The differences between the language of speech and the language of writing are:

 The language of speech consists mostly of broken utterances, words, and phrases, whereas the language of
writing consists mainly of complete sentences.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 62


 In the language of speech, you can use body language to express your views. In the language of writing, this is not
possible.
 In the language of speech, repetition of idea is allowed to emphasize upon that idea. In the language of writing,
repetition of idea is not allowed.
 In the language of speech, pauses and filters are used to add clarity to sentences. In the language of writing,
punctuations are used to add clarity to the sentences.
 In the language of speech, the use of contractions such as I'll and can’t are allowed. In the language of writing,
contractions are not allowed in formal documents.

3. Why is the process of writing a useful approach to improve writing?


Ans.
The process of writing is a useful approach to improve writing. Writing skills cannot be achieved at once. They are
achieved with help of practice by writing documents and redrafting them. The process of writing a particular document
and then revising the document helps you in recognizing your errors and the areas in which you feel some difficulty. It
helps improve the quality of the document as well as helps improve the writing skills.

4. Why are punctuations necessary in writing. Mention any five punctuation marks that you use frequently. Give 2
instances of usage for each of them.
Ans.
Punctuation marks are necessary in writing because they help organize or clarify the written language. The five
frequently used punctuation marks are:

 Colon (:): Helps introduce lists or to connect to a broad idea with a specific example. It can also be used to
combine two separate sentences with related ideas. For example:
kkkk. The two qualities of XYZ are:
i. Reserve
ii. Emotional
llll. Speech is silver: silence is golden.
 Comma (,): Is used to separate different things. For example:
mmmm. We had tea, biscuits, and cake.
nnnn. My neighbor has a cat, a dog, and a parrot.
 Question mark (?): Is used to end an interrogative sentence. For example:
oooo. What is the structural formula of water?
pppp. What is the scope of the IT field nowadays?
 Period or full stop (.): Is a punctuation mark placed at the end of a sentence. For example:
qqqq. The book is on the table.
rrrr. The mouse device is not working properly.
 Hyphen (-): Is used to join words or separate syllables. For example:
ssss. A man-eating shark is a carnivorous fish.

5. Writing is a reverse process of reading. Discuss.


Ans.
Writing is just the reverse of reading. While reading, the reader tries to grasp the ideas explained by the author,
whereas while writing, the author tries to express his views in a presentable format so that it can convey the intended
meaning to the reader.

6. Write a paragraph on the influence of television on children. Write the second and third drafts of the same pointing
out the changes made on each occasion.
Ans.
First Draft:
Television is one of the latest wonders of science. Television provides the facility to hear as well as view the person
presenting the program. Television has become one of the most important means of recreation, propaganda and
national integration. At the same time it leaves influence on the children also. It influences both children's prosocial and
antisocial behaviors. Although it is a suitable medium for mass communication and education, but in addition to this
their attitudes about race and gender rises. Children's ideas about how the world works come from their experiences
and from the attitudes and behaviors they see around them. If it is used for motivating students, which can help them
out in their career growth then it can be considered as the important and useful media of communication. It can be
used by the government to give wide publicity to its views and to the development work done by it. Television is not only
a mere medium of entertainment, it also has educational and cultural significance, if applied in the right way in the right
order. While some children's programming has come under attack for being violent, irrelevant, or sexist, other programs
for children, such as "Sesame Street," are regularly lauded for attempting to meet children's developmental needs.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 63


Second draft:
Television is one of the latest wonders of science. television provides the facility to hear as well as view the person
presenting the program. Television has become one of the most important means of recreation, propaganda and
national integration. At the same time, it leaves influence on the children also. It influences both children's prosocial and
antisocial behaviors. Although it is a suitable medium for mass communication and education, but in addition to this
their attitudes about race and gender rises. Children's ideas about how the world works come from their experiences
and from the attitudes and behaviors they see around them. They watch people who are successful in their fields, which
motivate them. Quizzes and general awareness channel such as discovery channel help them to increase their
knowledge and to build up their career. It can be used by the government to give wide publicity to its views and to the
development work done by it. Television is not only a mere medium of entertainment, it also has educational and
cultural significance, if applied in the right way in the right order. While some children's programming has come under
attack for being violent, irrelevant, other programs for children, such as "Sesame Street," are regularly lauded for
attempting to meet children's developmental needs.
Third draft:
Television is one of the latest wonders of science. It provides the facility to hear as well as view the person presenting a
program. Television has become one of the most important means of recreation, propaganda, and national integration.
At the same time, it influences the children. It can influence the behavior of children both in positive and negative
aspects. Children tend to form an idea about the world from what they see and hear. If they watch and get to know
about people who are successful in their fields, it motivates them to choose a suitable career and do well. Quizzes and
general awareness channels such as Discovery help them increase their general awareness. Television is not merely a
medium of entertainment, it also has educational and cultural significance. While some television shows have come
under attack for being violent and irrelevant, shows such as "Sesame Street" are hailed for meeting their developmental
needs.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 64


7. Why is writing an important skill to acquire? Suggest certain steps to improve writing.
Ans.
Writing is an important skill to acquire because:

 Writing is rather rigid and follows certain rules and conventions in contrast to spoken English, which offers some
flexibility with regard to grammar, vocabulary, and organization.
 Most forms of evaluation involve writing. These include written examinations, project work, and laboratory reports.
 A non-native English writer tends to write sentences in the same manner in which he or she speaks, and so may
not be able to convey the intended meaning to the audience. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on improving
writing skills.
Certain steps that can help an individual in improving his writing skills are:

 Reading books
 Writing paragraphs on familiar ideas
 Writing sentences by using new words
 Improving vocabulary
 Learning grammar

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 65


Chapter Four

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Write paragraphs
 Write letters

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can use the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom session by giving a brief introduction on writing skills. Instruct the students to use appropriate
vocabulary and correct punctuation. Tell the students about the importance of grammatical accuracy while writing.
You can discuss some of the errors that the students generally make while writing. For this, refer to the ‘Commonly
Found Errors’ topic in the Additional Inputs section.
 Introduce the students to paragraph writing. Explain to them what paragraphs are and why are they required. In
addition, explain what are topic sentences and tell them the importance of topic sentence in a paragraph. Instruct
the students to identify the features of a good paragraph, such as coherence and cohesion. Also, discuss the tips
to achieve coherence and cohesion in a paragraph. Explain to them the importance of linking devices in a
paragraph. In addition, explain to the students the use of various linking words and phrases, such as first of all,
consequently, whereas, and on the other hand. Provide them with a sample paragraph and discuss how the above
elements have been used in the paragraph.
 Instruct the students to write paragraphs on specific topics or rearrange the sentences in a paragraph to check
their progress. Explain to the students the shortcomings in their paragraph writing. Provide tips to help them
overcome these shortcomings and improve their paragraph writing skills.
 Introduce letter writing to the students. Instruct them to identify the layout, format, content, and organizational
pattern of a letter. Explain to them the importance of layout and format of a letter. Discuss the importance of
organization of the body of the letter. Instruct the students to include the purpose and relevant details of the letter
in the body of the letter.
 Explain to students the differences between formal and the informal letters, based on format, language, and length
of the letter. Discuss the guidelines for letter writing, as given in the Additional Inputs section. List the restrictions
imposed when writing formal letters. Provide the students with a sample letter.
 Instruct the students to write letters on specific topics to check their progress. Discuss the problems they may face,
if any. Share tips to help them overcome these problems and improve their letter writing.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Commonly Found Errors


Because you need to recognize errors in grammar and English usage in aptitude tests, this section will review errors
that are most commonly encountered in aptitude tests and will guide you as to what to look for. This section will not
review the basic rules of grammar

Verb Errors
Some of the verb errors that are found while writing are:

 Errors in Verb Tense


Incorrect: When I came home, the children still didn't finish dinner.
Correct: When I came home, the children still hadn't finished dinner.
 Errors in Tense formation
Incorrect: He throwed it out the window.
Correct: He threw it out of the window.
 Errors in Subject - Verb Agreement
Incorrect: There is many reasons why I can't help you.
Correct: There are many reasons why I can't help you.
 Errors in Conditional Sentences
Future: If I have time, I will do it tomorrow.
Present: If I had time, I would do it now.
Past: If I had time, I would have done it yesterday.

Pronoun Errors
These are some of the pronoun errors that are found while writing:

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 66


 Errors in Pronoun Subject - Object
Incorrect: All of us - Fred, Jane, Alice, and me - were late.
Correct: All of us - Fred, Jane, Alice, and I - were late.

 Errors of Pronoun Subject -Verb Agreement


Check if the pronoun and its verb agree in number. Remember that the following are singular:
anyone either neither what
anything everyone no one whatever
each everything nothing whoever
These are plural:
Both many several others few
Incorrect: John is absent, but a few of the class is here.
Correct: John is absent, but a few of the class are here.
Incorrect: Everyone on the project have to attend the meeting.
Correct: Everyone on the project has to attend the meeting.

Adjectives and Adverb Errors


These are some of the adjective and adverb errors found in written English:

 Errors In the Use of Adjective and Adverbs


Check if a word modifier is an adjective or an adverb. Make sure the correct form has been used.
An adjective describes a noun and answers the ‘what kind’ question.
Example:
She is a good cook. (What kind of cook?)

An adverb describes either a verb or an adjective and answers the question how.
Example:
She cooks well. (How does she cook?)
This exercise is relatively easy. (How easy?)

Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the adjective.


Exceptions:
AdjectiveAdverb
early early
fast fast
good well
hard hardly (hardly means almost not)
late lately (lately means recently)
Incorrect: I sure wish I were rich!
Correct: I surely wish I were rich!
Incorrect: The young man writes bad.
Correct: The young man writes badly.

 Errors of Adjectives with Verbs of Sense


The following intransitive verbs and are described by adjectives:
be look smell taste feel seem sound
Incorrect: She looked very well.
Correct: She looked very good.

 Errors in Parallel Comparisons


In parallel comparisons, check if the correct form has been used.
Incorrect: The more you practice, you will get better.
Correct: The more you practice, the better you will get.
Incorrect: The busier you become, lesser time you have for reading.
Correct: The busier you become, the less time you have for reading.

 Errors of Illogical Comparatives


Check comparisons to make sure they make sense.
Incorrect: Texas is bigger than any state in the United States.
Correct: Texas is bigger than any other state in the United States.
Incorrect: That is the most important of any other reason.
Correct: That is the most important reason.
Incorrect: Of the two books, this one is best.
Correct: Of the two books, this one is better.

Guidelines for Writing Letters


Use the following tips to write a letter:

 Identify the nature of letter, whether it is formal or informal. For example, if you are writing a letter to your relative,
it should be informal. If you are applying for a job in an organization, it should be formal.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 67


 Identify the nature of language and style to be used in the letter. For example, if you are writing a formal letter, do
not use abbreviations and symbols. If you are writing an informal letter, you can use abbreviations and symbols.
 Identify an appropriate length for the letter. For example, formal letters should be precise and to the point.
 The organization of the body of the letter is also very important. The following parts are included in the body of the
letter:
• The Purpose
• Relevant Details
 The format and layout of the letter is also of a great importance while drafting a letter. The layout of the letter
makes the first impression on the receiver of the letter.
Ask the students to draft a letter and then assess their progress based on the following parameters:

 Format of the letter


 Layout of the letter
 Language and style used in the letter
 Organization of the body of the letter
 Length of the letter

Business E-Mail Messages

Content of Business E-Mail Messages


An e-mail message is divided into two sections: the header and the body. The header contains the recipients'
addresses, while the body comprises the main message.
The header of the e-mail message contains the following fields:

 'To' field: The recipients' e-mail IDs are written here.


 'Cc' field: 'Cc' stands for carbon copy. This field includes the e-mail IDs of those persons who are not the primary
recipients but need to be aware of the correspondence.
 'Bcc' field: 'Bcc' stands for blind carbon copy. E-mails are sent as a Bcc when the sender does not want the
primary recipient to know that other people have been sent the same message.
 'Subject' field: The sender can write the nature or purpose of the mail in the subject field.
 The e-mail body can be divided into:
• Opening: The introduction of the message is its opening.
• Detailing: This is the actual content or body of the message.
• Closing: It includes the conclusion or the summary of the message.

Guidelines for Writing Business E-Mail Messages


The following elements should be considered while writing business e-mail messages:

 Clarity:
• Use an appropriate subject line.
• Use an appropriate greeting.
• Keep the message short and simple.
• Quote accurate data/facts.
• Use business English.
• Use standard font and color.
• Proofread and check spellings before sending the message.

 Security and privacy:


• Use the 'Bcc' field for multiple recipients.
• Avoid describing legal or controversial issues.
• Avoid describing highly confidential issues.

 E-mail etiquette:
• Do not use letters in uppercase.
• Avoid using angry or offensive language.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 68


• Avoid sending spam or unsolicited mass mails.
• Avoid using chat language, acronyms, and emotions.
• Avoid humor, jokes, and sarcasm.
• Do not send e-mail messages to discuss confidential matters such as disciplinary action, conflicts, and
personal complaints about coworkers.

Solutions to Chapter Four Questions

Solutions to Check Your Progress 2

a. What is a paragraph?
Ans.
A Paragraph is a group of sentences. It is used to arrange content into small, easily readable bits. A paragraph revolves
around one main idea.

b. What is a topic sentence? Why it is important?


Ans.
A topic sentence is the sentence in a paragraph that explains the main idea. It is important because all the sentences in
the paragraph are directly related to it.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 69


c. What is coherence? How is coherence achieved in a paragraph?
Ans.
Coherence means logicality. It is an important feature of paragraph writing. Coherence is achieved in a paragraph by
logically linking the sentences in the paragraph.

d. What is cohesion? Why is cohesion important in a paragraph?


Ans.
Cohesion means unity of thought. It is also an important feature of paragraph writing. It is important in a paragraph
because it deals with one main idea and expresses this idea in a complete sense.

e. What are linking devices? Why are they important?


Ans.
Linking devices are words or phrases that are used to connect two or more sentences. They help establish a
relationship between two sentences. Examples of linking devices are first of all, Later, on the other hand, and whereas.

2. Rearrange the jumbled sentences into correct order observing the principals of coherence and cohesion.
61. Everyone eats more than usual, and at the end of the day we are as stuffed (full) as the turkey.
62. In my family everyone brings a special dish for the thanksgiving meal.
63. My aunt bakes a turkey and fills it with stuffing, a mixture of bread and spices.
64. Thanks giving is a family celebration.
65. They prepare many traditional foods such as turkey, sweet potatoes and cranberry sauce.
66. On this day the Americans remember the first thanksgiving feast of the early American colonists.
67. My relatives also make vegetables, salads, and at least four pies.
Ans.
The sentences should be arranged in the following order:
1. Thanks giving is a family celebration.
2. On this day the Americans remember the first thanksgiving feast of the early American colonists.
3. They prepare many traditional foods such as turkey, sweet potatoes and cranberry sauce.
4. In my family everyone brings a special dish for the thanksgiving meal.
5. My aunt bakes a turkey and fills it with stuffing, a mixture of bread and spices.
6. My relatives also make vegetables, salads, and at least four pies.
7. Everyone eats more than usual, and at the end of the day we are as stuffed (full) as the turkey.

Solutions to Section 4.5.1


Write paragraphs on the following topics:
1. E-mail and Post are similar in some respects but different in others
Ans.
E-mail and post are different means of communication. They are similar in some respects but differ in others. In both e-
mail and post, large information can be sent from one place to another. The content that is sent or received may be
formal or informal. However, the speed at which e-mail is transferred from one place to another is much faster than
post. The receiver can use the information sent by e-mail and can manage the data easily. For example, the information
received can be forwarded to another destination with some addition in the content. The mails received through e-mail
can also be organized based on the sender and can be retrieved even after a long time. This organization of data is not
possible in the case of post. In addition, e-mails are free of cost but post is not. Sending mails by post may be
expensive, depending on the distance and the quantity of information being communicated.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 70


2. E-mail and Telephone differ in many ways
Ans.
Both e-mail and the telephone are means of communication but differ in many ways. The usage of telephone is more
convenient as compared to e-mail. In a telephonic conversation, there is direct one-to-one interaction. However, e-mails
enable us to send large amounts of data and stored it for future reference. E-mail can carry files in the form of
attachments, which is not possible in the case of telephone.

3. Post and Fax are different in many respects


Ans.
Post and fax are different in several respects. Post provides simple communication, whereas fax provides electronic
communication. Two fax machines are required to send and receive messages. Post is cheaper but slower than fax. A
message sent through post is delivered to the receiver in many days, whereas a message sent through fax is delivered
within a few minutes. To send a fax, you need a fax number to identify the fax machine at the receiver's end. A
message sent through post needs a postal address to reach its destination

4. Fax is very different from an email


Ans.
Both fax and e-mail are modern means of communication but are different from each other is several aspects. In e-mail,
the transmission speed is slow as compared to fax. However, data can be managed more easily in e-mail. In addition,
e-mail can be shared among various users efficiently and effectively.

5. Telephone communication is entirely different from that of a post


Ans.
The telephone and post are different means of communication. Telephonic communication is an example of verbal
communication whereas postal communication provides communication in the written form. In telephonic
communication, the person can hear the voice of the other person whereas in post, persons can only read the
messages written by the sender. The transmission speed of the telephone is very high as compared to the transmission
speed of post. In contrast, post allows you to send and receive a large quantity of information. Post enables you to
transmit the same information to various users easily but it is very difficult to send the same information to various users
through telephone.

6. Telephone and fax share certain common features


Ans.
The telephone and fax are similar to each other in many aspects. The transmission speed for both is very high. They
both provide a moderate level of security. Both fax and telephone provide a number that is necessary for the user to
send the message to the destination. Both telephone and fax use telephone lines to send and receive messages. The
telephone converts sound signals into electric signals, which can be transmitted over the line. Fax also converts
messages into electric signals that can travel through telephone lines.

7. Email is preferable for many reasons


Ans.
E-mail is a much better medium of communication in comparison with other transmission methods. Electronic
communication, because of its speed and broadcasting ability, is fundamentally different from paper-based
communication and therefore is the most preferable mode of communication. The transmission speed of e-mail is high
as compared to the transmission speed of the other communication mediums. E-mail allows various users to send large
amounts of information to the other users. It is very easy to manage data because e-mail enables you to send the same
information to different users easily.

Solutions to Section 4.5.2


1. Write a letter to the district collector inviting him/her to be the chief guest for your school day celebrations.
Ans.
City Public School
R.K. Puram
New Delhi

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 71


The District Collector
Delhi

Subject: School Annual Function invitation

Sir,
I am James, school leader of the City Public School. Our school is going to hold an annual function on 25th Sep. 2005.
Our principal will preside over the function. The Principal will read out the annual report highlighting the achievements of
the school in academics and sports.
It will be a privilege for us to have you as our chief guest for the annual function. Your presence shall be a source of
inspiration to the students. I hope you be able to spare some precious time from your busy schedule and grace the
occasion.

Yours faithfully,
James
School Leader

2. Write a letter to the commissioner of your corporation complaining against the lack of proper hygiene conditions in
your residential area.
Ans.
340 Nandnagri
Gali Berri Wali
Delhi

14 September 2005

The Commissioner
Municipal Corporation
New Delhi

Subject: Unhygienic conditions in Nandnagri


Sir,
It is unfortunate that the Municipal Corporation, Delhi, is not paying equal attention in providing civic amenities to the
residents of different parts of the city. There are certain parts of New Delhi, particularly, south Delhi, which are more
cleaner, spacious, and greener due to regular maintenance. These are areas where VIPs and the rich reside. In
contrast, colonies like Nandnagri, inhabited mostly by low-income groups, are left to rot and stink.
The Nandnagri Welfare Association has been highlighting the local issues before the Municipal Corporation but to no
avail. Heaps of dirt keeps lying on the streets. The drains are open and keep overflowing with garbage and dirt. The
residents fear outbreak of diseases anytime.
Supply of water is very irregular and inadequate. Due to nonavailability of pure drinking water, the residents have
become easy victims of water-borne diseases. We sincerely hope that the Municipal Corporation will pay attention to
our basic needs and provide the basic sanitary conditions in this colony as soon as possible.
Thanking you,

Yours sincerely
ABC
President
Nandnagri Welfare Association

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 72


3. Write a letter to the Controller of Examination of your university informing that you have received the wrong set of
certificates and also ask for the correct ones.
Ans.
XYZ College
Delhi
14 September 2005

The Controller of Examination


Delhi University
Delhi.
Subject: Received wrong set of certificates

Sir,
I, Adhiraj Singh, a student of XYZ College, had appeared in the B.Sc. IT (II) year examination. My roll number is
0234567. Unfortunately, I have received the certificates for Roll Number 134567, which belongs to Parul of B.Sc. IT (I)
year. I am facing a great amount of inconvenience due to the nonavailability of my certificates. I have submitted Parul
Sharma's certificate in the university office. I request you to ask the concerned staff to send my certificate as soon as
possible.

Yours faithfully,
Adhiraj Singh
B.Sc. IT (II) year
Roll No. 0234567

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 73


4. Write a letter to your friend studying in another city and staying in a hostel enquiring about his hostel life and also
expressing how much you miss him/her.
Ans.
16 Church Gate
Pune 411003
6 September 2005

My Dear Hari,
Hope you are doing fine. Firstly, I would like to congratulate you for achieving the 2nd rank in the Common Engineering
Entrance test and securing a seat in a reputed institution of Pune for the B.E. course. I came to know from your brother
that you are staying in a hostel. This is the first time you have been staying away from home, so you must be feeling
homesick. The first few days are tough, but I am sure you will able to adapt yourself to the new environment
You will be happy to know that I have also got admission and will be pursuing my B.E. course in Faridabad. Our session
has started and I too am trying to adjust to the new life. Fortunately, I have made a few friends. But I really wish we
were in the same college. This would have made lot of difference, as we would have enjoyed our college life as we
enjoyed our school days. How are you enjoying your college and hostel life? How is life in Pune? Hope you have made
some good friends there also. Do take good care of yourself.
Rest is fine here and please do reply as soon as possible. I can’t wait to meet you during the upcoming vacations.

Yours lovingly,
XYZ

5. Write a letter to your father asking for an additional pocket money for the month of April giving valid reasons. Imagine
you are staying in a hostel.
Ans.
Mata Gujri Hostel
Balawala
Dehradun
14 sep. 2005

My dear Dad,
How are you? I hope all of you are doing well at home. You will be glad to know that the results of the annual
examination are out and I have passed with distinction. My new session will be starting in the month of April. For this, I
need to buy certain books and submit the fees for the new session. . In addition, I need to purchase stationery. I will be
able to meet all my requirements if you can send me Rs. 2,000/-. In case you get time, please do come and meet me.

Yours affectionately,
John

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 74


Chapter Five

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Identify the importance of reading


 Identify the difference between surface level and deeper level reading
 Identify what to read and how to read
 Identify the sentences of direct speech and indirect speech

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can use the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom discussion by explaining the importance of reading in our daily lives.
 Discuss what is reading and what are the various types of reading. Explain to the students that they should go for
deeper level reading when preparing for an exam or preparing for making presentations. However, they can go for
surface level reading when reading for pleasure.
 Explain to the students, the benefits of the ability to read well. Discuss the process given in the ‘Understanding
Reading and its Various Aspects’ topic of the Additional Inputs section. Explain the importance of reading and how
it can improve one’s personality. Tell them how reading improves one's perception and develops the thinking
process.

 Ask the students to take a reading ability test by reading the comprehension given in Section 5.4. Then, ask them
to attempt the relevant questions.
 Explain the difference between direct and indirect speech while reading.

Understanding Reading and its Various Aspects


Explain to the students that reading is an important skill. This skill is utilized more than the other communication skills of
writing and speaking. Tell the students that reading refers to the ability of understanding any written language and is
central to any profession.
Explain to the students that reading involves comprehending and understanding a written document. Comprehension
refers to deriving the general idea of the content and interpreting the meaning by relating it to the other ideas. It also
involves drawing inferences, making comparisons, and asking questions. Reading comprehension aims at minimizing
the time required to read and comprehend an idea or concept in the specified amount of time.
Tell the students that effective reading can be understood as a scientific process that involves:

 Skimming and scanning.


 Understanding nonverbal signals.
 Understanding the text structure.
 Understanding the paragraph structure.
 Anticipating and determining the meaning of words.

Skimming and Scanning


Skimming is the process of previewing and reading the text quickly without pausing to study the details. In this process,
the students should be able to understand the purpose and general content of the text. After skimming, the students
should read the complete text slowly and carefully to identify the relevant information. This process is known as
scanning.

Understanding Nonverbal Signals


Explain to the students that to understand the meaning of a specific piece of text, they should also concentrate on
nonverbal signals. These include elements such as fonts, bold typeface, underlines, italics, and various layout features.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 75


These layout features are:

 Heading: Refers to the title at the top of a document, page, or section. The heading indicates the subject matter
being discussed in a particular document, chapter, or section.
 Subheading: Presents a brief summary, an introduction, or an explanation of a particular section or chapter.
 Figures: Represent pictorial representation of an idea or a concept.
 Captions: Represent comments on figures.

Understanding the Structure of Text


The structure of a text consists of various parts, such as title, paragraphs, and summary. Most texts start with a title and
sometimes a subtitle. The introduction part mostly informs the reader about the content of the document. The body part
consists of paragraphs that deal with the subject matter and are linked in a logical way. The conclusion part puts the
subject matter in the right perspective.
The structure of a piece of text helps in analyzing its organization style and increases the comprehension ability.

Understanding the Structure of Paragraphs


A paragraph is defined as a group of sentences. The number of sentences and words in a paragraph depends on the
subject. On an average, paragraphs contain between 75 to 150 words. Each paragraph deals with one aspect of the
subject; therefore, each paragraph can have its own subtitle. Paragraphs are linked in a logical way by link words,
which can also be used within a paragraph.
A paragraph consists of the following parts:

 The first sentence: Is the topic sentence (also called the thesis sentence or the key sentence) and introduces the
focus of the subject being discussed.
 The second part: Consists of sentences that develop the main idea of the paragraph. These sentences may
contain arguments, explanations, details, examples, and other supporting evidences.
 The last sentence: Contains the summary of the paragraph or a linking sentence to the next paragraph.

Anticipating and Determining the Meaning of Words


Tell the students that anticipating or guessing the meaning of an unknown word can ensure effective and uninterrupted
reading because it may not always be practical to look up the dictionary every now and then. To anticipate the meaning
of a word, the students should look for the following clues and indications:

 Determining the word class: Understand if the word is a verb, a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
 Determining the function of the word: Understand the function of the word in the sentence, that is, how is it
related to the other words in the sentence.
 Identifying the contextual clues: Understand the context (positive or negative) in which the word is being used.
 Determining the relation: Understand the relation, if any, between that word and a word that is familiar to them.

Solutions to Chapter Five Questions

Solutions to Check your Progress 1


1. What is reading?
Ans.
Reading means understanding text. It is an important part of communication.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 76


2. What are the different kinds of reading?
Ans.
Reading is of two types, surface level reading and deeper level reading. Deeper level reading involves concept forming,
interpretation, and critical evaluation of the relevant content. Surface level reading is done mainly for pleasure.
3. Why is loud reading not 'reading'?
Ans.
Loud reading seldom leads to understanding the content. So, it is not considered as reading.

4. Why is reading important?


Ans.
Reading is an important communication skill. Reading is done for a variety of purposes, such as preparing for
examinations, learning a subject, gaining information, and seeking pleasure. Reading is important to understand any
piece of text.

Solutions to Check your Progress 2


1. The two purposes of this lecture are:
Ans.

 To encourage students develop a reading habit.


 To help students determine what to read and how to read.

2. Who, according to the author, would become dependent on others?
Ans.
Those who do not have the ability to read will be dependent on others who can read.

3. What does the phrase, "make the best of the opportunities", refer to?
Ans.
The phrase “make the best of the opportunities" means taking the maximum possible advantage of the available
opportunities.

4. Who will be able to make the best of the opportunities?


Ans.
Those who have a high degree of proficiency in reading skills will be able to make the best of the available
opportunities.

5. Reading has many advantages. They are:


Ans.

 Helps us to gather information


 Helps us to make notes for academic purposes
 Helps us to enhance our language skills
 Helps us to learn non-natives languages
 Helps us to use our time constructively
 Helps us to develop a more coherent viewpoint
 Helps us to improve our personality

6. Bring out the differences between reading for gathering information (A) and reading for academic purposes (B).
Ans.

A B

We do not make notes. Usually, we make notes.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 77


We do not develop concepts. We develop concepts.

We read newspapers, magazines, and a We read textbooks and other related books.
whole lot of other things.

7. Does the passage suggest that reading helps to improve writing skills? Support your answer with evidence from the
text. Do you agree with the view. Why?
Ans.
Yes, the passage suggests that reading helps to improve writing skills. By developing your reading habits, you can
improve your vocabulary. As a result, you will be able to write more impressively.
Yes, I do agree with the view that reading helps improve writing skills. For writing impressively, one should have a
deeper understanding of the topic and a good vocabulary. For both these requirements, reading is a must.

8. Does the speaker emphasize the need for exposure to the native variety of English?
Ans.
Yes, the speaker emphasizes the need for exposure to the native variety of English to non-natives.

9. Do Indians have a good opportunity for exposure to native variety of language? How?
Ans.
Yes, Indians have the good opportunity for exposure to the native variety of language. This is because getting the
reading material in printed manner in the native language is very easy. Printed books in the native language are easily
available and are within the reach of a common man.
10. Why does the speaker say that reading is a good source of entertainment?
Ans.
Reading is a good source of entertainment because it is a great pastime and gives the reader immense pleasure.

11. Does the speaker say that reading leads to one's success in life? Which slide supports this view?
Ans.
Yes. Refer to Unit 7- Presentation and Public Speaking. Slide2 supports this view.

12. How does reading a novel improve one's personality?


Ans.
Reading a novel helps us to develop a wider area of perception and a coherent thought process, which leads to an
improved personality.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 78


13. Which benefit of reading, according to the author, is not known to many people?
Ans.
The development of thinking processes is a benefit of reading that is not known to most people.

14. Name some material that people need to read on a day-to-day basis?
Ans.
People should read newspapers and magazines on a day-to-day basis.

15. How does our ability to read help in maintaining good social interaction? Identify the examples suggested by the
speaker in this regard. Can you add to the list?
Ans.
Reading improves our personality and general awareness. These two aspects help in maintaining good social
interaction. Examples in this regard are: The speaker suggests that reading newspapers daily improves awareness and
opens you to the available opportunities.
In addition, people who regularly read newspapers, magazines and the latest books are able to talk on almost any topic
at any social gathering and make a favorable impression.

16. What does the speaker suggest to the students to read. Why?
Ans.
The speaker advises the students to read the concerned textbooks if they wish to face the examinations successfully.

17. Why should one not read without interest?


Ans.
One should not read without interest because the reader will not be able to understand the piece of text in such a
situation. As a result, the reader will not be able to recall the text when he or she needs it.

Solutions to Check your Progress 3


1. 'Sheik had a bad reputation... yet he was much impressed by Sheik.' Why was Mohandas impressed by the Sheik?
Ans.
Mohandas was impressed by Sheik because he was tall and strong.

2. What did the Sheik advice Mohandas?


Ans.
Sheik advised Mohandas to eat meat if he wished to grow tall and strong.

3. 'He was not against eating meat.' What was Mohandas against?
Ans.
Mohandas was against telling a lie to his mother.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 79


4. Why did Mohandas have to steal money?
Ans.
Mohandas stole money to buy cigarettes.

Solutions to Check your Progress 4


1. What was the important thing the Wright Brothers did in 1903?
Ans.
The Wright brothers made the first aeroplane in 1903.

2. How was the plane made by the Wright Brothers different from the modern planes?
Ans.
The plane made by the Wright brothers was made up of wood, canvas, and wire. The planes of today are made up of
Magnalium.

3. How the experiment was conducted by the Wright Brothers an important event?
Ans.
The experiment conducted by the Wright brothers enabled humans to fly.

Solutions to Check your Progress 5


1. Who was the little girl in the story?
Ans.
The little girl in the story was Durgabai.

2. Against whom were the Indians fighting? For what?


Ans.
Indians were fighting against the British to gain freedom.
3. What did the Congress do in Kakinada in 1923?
Ans.
The Congress held a meeting in Kakinada in 1923.

4. Why did Durgabai not let Jawaharlal Nehru in the Exhibition hall?
Ans.
Durgabai did not allow Jawaharlal Nehru in the exhibition hall because he did not have a ticket.

5. Who bought a ticket for Nehru?


Ans.
People who had put up the exhibition bought a ticket for Nehru.

Solutions to Check your Progress 6


Read the following sentences, which are related to the passage. These are among the six sentences, which agree with
the statements in the passage. Write the letters indicating the six true statements in your answer book.
Ans.
The six true statements are:
B
D
E
F

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 80


H
J

Solutions to Check your Progress 7


Change the following sentences from direct speech to indirect speech.
1. They said, "We do not go to the computer center from tomorrow."
Ans.
They said that they will not to go to the computer center from the following day.

2. He said, "I hate to go late."


Ans.
He admitted that he hates to go late.

3. Sita said, "Why have you given me only 3 marks for this answer?"
Ans.
Sita asked me why I had given her only 3 marks for that answer.

4. Govind said, "Did you pay my fee yesterday?"


Ans.
Govind asked me if I had paid his fee the previous day.
5. Peter said, "Will you please show me the way to Lal Bagh."
Ans.
Peter asked me to show him the way to Lal Bagh.

6. Mary said, "Can you kindly lift this bag for me."
Ans.
Mary requested me to lift that bag for her.

7. The child said, "Oh! What a long snake!"


Ans.
The child exclaimed that it was a long snake.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 81


8. She said, "What a pity I have answered all the questions wrong in the exam!"
Ans.
She rued the fact that she had answered all the questions incorrectly in the exam.

9. The officer said to his subordinates, "You should report by 5 o' clock in the morning."
Ans.
The officer ordered his subordinates to report by 5 o' clock in the morning.

10. The teacher said, "All of you should submit the record notes by tomorrow evening."
Ans.
The teacher ordered all the students to submit the record notes by the following evening.

Solutions to Section 5.4


1. Pick out difficult words from this text and with the help of a dictionary write the meaning of each of the words as it is
seen in the context of the letter. Secondly, also write the other possible meanings for the same word.
Ans.
Difficult words from the passage are:

Sermonizing speak as if delivering a sermon.

Sermonizing express moral judgments.

Material concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests.

Material the tangible substance that makes up a physical object.

Bestowed given as a gift, presented.

Bestowed given formally or officially.

Bearing dignified manner or conduct.

Bearing relevant information or interconnection.

Darkness Absence of moral or spiritual values.

Darkness Absence of light or illumination.

Moved have an emotional impact upon.

Moved to change location, proceed.

Conceited Characteristic of false pride; having an exaggerated sense of self-


importance.

Reveries Absent-minded dreaming while awake.

Epoch A period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or


event.

Epoch (astronomy) the precise date that is the point of reference for which
information (as coordinates of a celestial body) is referred.

Endeavor A purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort


or boldness).

Oppressed Burdened psychologically or mentally.

Discredit the state of being held in low esteem.

Unruffled Free from emotional agitation or nervous tension.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 82


Unruffled Free from disturbance.

Furtively quietly or secretly, to avoid being observed.

Serene Characterized by absence of emotional agitation.

Serene Completely clear and fine.

Artifice A deceptive manoeuvre (especially to avoid capture).

Lofty elevated in nature or style.

Reside Live (in a certain place).

2. Read the text carefully and carefully construct at least ten comprehension questions covering the entire text.
Ans.
The ten comprehension questions covering the entire text are:
68. Why did Nehru decide to present only a letter and not any other material gift to his daughter Indira on her 13th
birthday?
p. Who was Hiuen Tsang and why did he come to India?
q. Why did the man from South India, who came to Karnasuvarna, wear a strange looking outfit? What is Nehru's view of such a man?
r. According to Pandit Nehru, what is the best way to decide what is right and what is wrong?
s. Why does Nehru advise his daughter not to be proud of the knowledge one possesses?
t. 'But a time comes when a whole nation becomes full of faith for a great cause, and then even simple, ordinary men and women
become heroes, and history becomes stirring and epoch-making.' What makes simple men and women heroic and what inspires them
to do heroic deeds?
u. What is the similarity between the Russian revolution of 1917 and India's struggle for independence?
v. What is the most important quality, according to Nehru, which a soldier of the freedom struggle must possess?
w. Why should one refrain from doing something secretly? What significance did it have during India's struggle for independence?
x. Why does Nehru tell his daughter that she is 'fortunate'?

3. Read the text carefully and construct at least ten multiple choice type comprehension questions covering the entire
text.
Ans.
The ten multiple choice type comprehension questions covering the entire text are:

69. Why was Nehru not able to convey everything that he wanted in his letter?
tttt. He did not have time to write
uuuu. In prison one cannot write long letters.
vvvv. He was weak.
wwww. Letter was not sufficient to convey all his thoughts.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 83


Ans.
d. Letter was not sufficient to convey all his thoughts.

y. Why did Hiuen Tsang come to India?


xxxx. For adventure
yyyy. For knowledge
zzzz. For trade
aaaaa. For touring India
Ans.
b. For knowledge

z. The best way to distinguish between right and wrong is:


bbbbb. to give sermons
ccccc. to argue
ddddd. to discuss
eeeee. to read
Ans.
c. to discuss

aa. To whom is this letter addressed?


fffff. Indira Gandhi
ggggg. Mahatma Gandhi
hhhhh. Kamla Nehru
iiiii. Sarojini Naidu
Ans.
a. Indira Gandhi

bb. Indira Gandhi was inspired by the story of:


jjjjj. Jesus Christ
kkkkk. Napoleon Bonaparte
lllll. Jeanne d' Arc
mmmmm.Adolf Hitler
Ans.
c. Jeanne d' Arc

cc. Who started the Russian Revolution?


nnnnn. Lenin
ooooo. Mussolini
ppppp. Abraham Lincoln
qqqqq. Stalin
Ans.
a. Lenin

dd. Which is the most famous book of Nehru?


rrrrr. My Experiments With Truth
sssss. Geetanjali
ttttt. The Discovery Of India
uuuuu. Godan

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 84


Ans.
c. The Discovery Of India

ee. According to Nehru, the best friend of his daughter could be:
vvvvv. Nehru himself
wwwww. Bapuji
xxxxx. Her mother
yyyyy. Sarojini Naidu
Ans.
c. Her mother

ff. Indira Gandhi was born in the year:


zzzzz. 1923
aaaaaa. 1917
bbbbbb. 1921
cccccc. 1914
Ans.
b. 1917

gg. Where was Nehru imprisoned?


dddddd. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
eeeeee. Naini prison, Nainital
ffffff. Tihar jail
gggggg. None of these
Ans.
b. Naini prison, Nainital

4. Write a summary of the letter without losing meaning of the text in about 150 words.
Ans.
Nehru wrote this letter to his daughter on her 13th birthday from Naini prison. Instead of the usual material presents, he
sent her invaluable advice and his blessings.
Nehru used the story once narrated by the famous Chinese scholar Hiuen Tsang to tell Indira that she should always be
eager to learn and experience the joy of discovering and learning new things. He advised Indira that the best way to
find out what is right and what is not is by talking and discussing.
Nehru reminded Indira of heroes such as Jeanne d’ Arc, Lenin, and Mahatma Gandhi, and told Indira that she should
stay inspired by such people and serve her country. If she ever found herself in doubt, she should never do anything in
secret as if she had something to fear or hide.
Nehru considered Indira lucky to witness the India freedom struggle and to have her mother by her side at that stage of
her life.

5. Write a paragraph on Nehru's love for his daughter based on this letter
Ans.
Through this letter, it is evident that Nehru loved his daughter deeply. On her birthday, he reaches out to her from the
prison through a letter. Like a good father, he not only wants her to have all the material comforts of life but also wants
her to be a good human being and a responsible citizen. He wants to write more but rues the fact that a mere letter
cannot contain all that he wants to convey.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 85


6. Do you find any morals that you like to take form this letter? If yes, what are they? Why do you like them?
Ans.
This letter contains the following morals:

 This letter inspires one to be always open to gain knowledge. This advice is true for all individuals for all ages.
 This letter teaches how to imbibe the leadership qualities. I liked it because these traits can inspire us to perform
great deeds.
 This letter asks people to be fearless and to do everything openly. This can only happen if they really believe in
themselves and in what they do. I appreciate it because this trait is what distinguishes great personalities from the
masses.

©NIIT Coordinator Guide – Personality Development Programme - II 86


Chapter Six

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Communicate effectively
 Distinguish between verbal and nonverbal communication
 Identify the structure of statements and questions

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can use the following approach:

 Initiate a classroom discussion by explaining the importance of a good conversation in order to leave a long-lasting
impression on others. Tell the students that having good soft skills also helps in enhancing their personality.
 Explain to the students how they should start and end a conversation. For example, a conversation should be
initiated by greeting everybody. Tell the students that they should follow the behavioral approach when answering
the questions. Also, tell the students about the expressions they can use to start and end a conversation.
 Ensure that the students are exchanging their opinions, expressing their agreement and disagreement, and giving
suggestions when participating in discussions. Increase their involvement by telling them that after completing this
session, it will be easier for the students to deliver an effective speech. Instruct the students to present their
information with the help of tables, pie charts, and flow charts. Explain the use of the nonverbal form of
communication in technical and business writing with the help of an example.
 Tell the students that undergoing certain exercises on personality development will help them assess their
professional skills, such as the way they will behave in an office, deal with their clients, and put forward their ideas.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Communication Skills
Good communication skills are required for successful liaison with customers as well as with peers. It involves
expressing oneself clearly and effectively when talking with individuals and groups. This forms the basis for establishing
and maintaining good interpersonal skills. Employers look for persons who can express themselves well and are open
to giving and receiving feedback. During interviews, communication skills invariably come to the forefront.

Soft Skills
The term 'soft skills' is used to describe interpersonal skills. These include building rapport, ensuring communication,
giving and receiving feedback, being sensitive to others’ needs, providing cooperation, and demonstrating empathy.
Building a good rapport is the key foundation towards forging a successful interpersonal relationship. To begin with, one
can "break the ice" by:

 Greeting the other person with a smile.


 Introducing oneself.
 Getting to know the other person.
 Identifying common areas of interest.
 Making the other person feel comfortable.
After good rapport is built, communication becomes easy. A platform is created for discussion and sharing views.
Communication is important for interaction. You should be able to speak fluently, reply instantly, and must make sure
others have understood your views. This ensures the complete communication process of expression, comprehension,
and feedback.
Good interpersonal skills also include the quality of empathy. Empathy is demonstrated when you visualize yourself in a
particular situation and try to understand the other person's view and needs.

Behavioral Approach in Answering


The behavioral approach focuses on how one has applied his or her skills. It is built on the premise that past behavior
predicts future behavior. To be successful by using a behavior-based approach, you must analyze your experiences
and know how to relate them to the current career role. You can use the P-A-R approach to answer the questions.
The P-A-R answer states a Problem you were given, describes the Action you took, and explains the Results of that
action. The following is an example of a P-A-R answer to the question, "Describe a problem or challenge you have
encountered; how did you deal with it?"

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Problem: Advertising revenue was decreasing for the local student magazine and large numbers of long-term
advertisers were not renewing contracts.
Action: I designed a new promotional package to go with the rate sheet and compared the benefits of the magazine's
circulation with other advertising media in the area. I also requested a local college professor to discuss competitive
selling strategies with the account executives.
Result: We signed contracts with 15 former advertisers for weekly ads and 5 for special monthly supplements. As a
result, we increased our advertising revenue by 20 percent.
In the given example, the clearly stated problem situation, action taken and the results demonstrate the problem solving
skills and gives an insight into the person's analytical ability. This approach is very effective in situations like interviews
and group discussions. The behavior-based approach to answering questions has the following advantages:

 Illustrates real-life experiences


 Demonstrates the application of problem-solving skills
 Predicts future behavior
 Builds credibility

Solutions to Chapter Six Questions

Solution to Section 6.4A


1. Who do you appreciate more 'the stranger' or 'Schwamm'? Why?
Ans.
The work of 'the stranger' is more appreciable than the work of 'Schwamm'. This is because the stranger tried to please
the child in spite of not knowing him. The stranger was on crutches and hated children. Still, he took the pain of getting
up early in the morning to catch the train. He ensured that he wave to the child until the child was not able to see him
any longer. Schwamm, being the father of the child, should have done this but failed to do so.

2. What kind of a boy is Schwamm's son? Would you like to be like him. Why?
Ans.
Schwamm's son was a very innocent kid. The child was so sensitive that every morning on his way to school he waited
at the railway crossing for the early morning train to pass by. He stood there and waved his hand furiously and eagerly
and when no one waved back in response, he used to burst into tears. No, I would not like to be like Schwamm’s son
because this kind of highly sensitive behavior can be harmful.

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3. Comment on Schwamm as a loving father.
Ans.
Schwamm was a very loving and a kind-hearted father. He loved his child a lot. Just for his child's sake, he went to a
different city to board a train. The reason was that he could not see his child getting depressed everyday because when
the child waved his hand towards a passing train, not even a single passenger from the train waved back. Just to make
his child happy, Schwamm decides to board the train to wave at his child.

4. Why did the stranger hate children? Did he really hate them? How do you know?
Ans.
The stranger hated children because his wife died while giving birth to their first child. The stranger thought that the kid
was the reason for his wife’s death. However, it was not true that the stranger did not like small children at all. We get to
know that he liked children because finally he was the one who boarded the train to make Schwamm’s son happy. The
stranger woke up early in the morning, boarded the train, and waved his hand in response to the small child.

5. What is the central idea of this short story. Is there any message by the author?
Ans.
The story revolves around a small kid, who is very sensitive and emotional. The father was keen to make his son
happy. The stranger, inspite of his past happenings, develops feelings for the little boy and does the same just for the
sake of his happiness. The moral of this story is that determination is as important as taking the initiative to achieve a
goal.

6. Write a critical appreciation of the short story in about 100 words.


Ans.
Critical Appreciation
This story is about restoring faith and keeping hope alive in everybody's lives. It tells us how little incidents can make
huge changes in our life. One man, who dislikes children because of his wife’s death, subconsciously knows that his
belief is baseless, and tries to fight it by going and waving back at Schwamm’s son. Schwamm misses the opportunity
to make his son happy but realizes that humanity still exists in world. The happiest person at the end of the story is
Schwamm’s son, who regains hope and faith in everything because finally a man waves back at him.

Solution to Section 6.4B (Summary)


A blind man was on his way to Rohana by train when a girl boarded the train. The person was unable to see her face
but he could hear that she wore slippers as the heals slapped the floor very loudly.
The blind man started talking to the girl in a very friendly manner. The girl could not realize that the person was blind
because he was pretending to enjoy the beautiful nature and even giving beautiful comments about her face.
The train halted at Saharanpur. The girl collected her things, said goodbye and got down at the station. The girl's voice
was so sparkling that her memories stayed with the blind person for the rest of the journey and even sometime after.

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Solution to Section 6.5
Convert the following statements into interrogative sentences.
1. Ram has not paid the telephone bill.
Ans.
Has Ram paid the telephone bill ?

2. Mary did not come to school today.


Ans.
Did Mary came to school today ?

3. The school is reopening on August 1, 2005.


Ans.
When is the school reopening ?

4. The suicide bombers escaped from the police.


Ans.
Did the suicide bombers escape from the police ?

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Chapter Seven

Objectives
In this chapter, the students have learned to:

 Prepare a presentation
 Appreciate what public speaking is
 Participate in public speaking more confidently

Focus Areas
To conduct this session, you can take the following approach:

 Explain the various steps that the students should follow to create a successful presentation.
 Tell the students that the purpose of the presentation should be clear while presenting it because different
purposes require different presentation techniques.
 Tell the students that further analysis of the audience in terms of age, sex, nationality, and background knowledge
should be made before the presentation. Tell the students that analysis must be carried out throughout the
presentation, which helps in modifying the presentation according to the response of the audience.
 Inform the students about the importance of organizing a presentation. Discuss the structure of a presentation. Tell
the students that rehearsals must be conducted before delivering the final presentation.
 Explain to the students the various methods of delivering a presentation. Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the various methods of presentation. Tell the students to follow the method with which they feel
comfortable and confident.
 Explain the importance of body language while delivering a presentation. Tell the students to use body language
as an additional support. They should look confident and establish good eye contact with the audience.
 Explain to the students the importance of using visuals in a presentation. Tell them how visuals can help them in
making a presentation successful. Discuss the visual aids given in the ‘Common Visual Aids’ topic of the Additional
Inputs section.

Additional Inputs
The following section provides some extra inputs on the important topics covered in the SG:

Structure of a Presentation
Before the content is decided, the objective of the presentation needs to be clear. The content and the style of
presentation should match the objectives. After the objectives have been clearly established, brainstorm and collect all
the relevant material. Then, organize the material around the objectives. The structure of a presentation consists of
three parts:

 Introduction
 Body
 Conclusion

Introduction
In the introduction, you need to:

 Capture the attention of the audience: Use jokes, stories, quotations, or questions to capture the attention of the
audience.
 Establish your credibility: Credibility can be established by talking about your qualifications or by narrating
personal anecdotes.
 Preview key points: The key points of the presentation should be mentioned in the introduction.

Body
In the body, you need to:

 Limit the content to a few key points: The content of the presentation can be chunked into key points. Each
slide should contain a maximum of six points.
 Explain each point adequately: Any point that may be new to the audience should be adequately explained.
 Explain each point to the same degree of detail: There should be a similarity in the degree of detail in the
explanation of all the key points.
 Structure the information properly: The information must have a logical structure and order. Writing a content
outline before the presentation helps present a structured presentation.

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 Ensure that the ideas keep flowing: One key point should lead to another. A logical flow will also help in easy
transition from one topic to another.

Conclusion
In the conclusion, you need to:

 Review the main ideas: Reviewing the main ideas ensures that the key points have been covered and none of
the points has been left out. This also ensures a quick revision of the content.
 Focus on the goal of the presentation: Reading the objectives summary ensures that all those objectives have
been met and the goal of the presentation has been achieved.
 Encourage questions: Questions should be encouraged at the end of the presentation. Any doubts can be
clarified at this time.

Preparing a PowerPoint Presentation


Presentation and public speaking skills are an essential criterion for success. Explain to the students that lack of
performance does not necessarily mean lack of knowledge. You might be having complete knowledge of a subject;
however, lack of confidence and presentation skills can result in poor performance.
Ask the students to give a PowerPoint presentation. Evaluate the presentation on the basis of the following parameters:

S. No. Parameters 1 2 3 4 5

1 CONFIDENCE

1.1 Showed high confidence level

2 BODY LANGUAGE

2.1 Smiled often

2.2 Seemed easy and comfortable

2.3 Nodded and showed positive gestures

2.4 Had positive facial expressions

2.5 Moved around

3 EYE CONTACT

3.1 Maintained direct eye contact with the audience

3.2 Addressed the whole group and not just one person

4 VOICE

4.1 Had a clear, audible voice

4.2 Used correct pause, stress, and modulation

5 INTERACTION

5.1 Included opportunities for the audience to interact

5.2 Asked for suggestions and inputs

5.3 Appreciated inputs

5.4 Listened to the audience attentively

5.5 Handled questions from the audience effectively

6 ATTITUDE

6.1 Was open to disagreement

6.2 Was friendly

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S. No. Parameters 1 2 3 4 5

7 VISUAL AIDS

7.1 Used visual aids appropriately

8 PERSONAL GROOMING

8.1 Dressed appropriately for the presentation

To deliver a presentation effectively, the students need to:

 Structure the content logically.


 Use visual aids appropriately.
 Prepare for the presentation well in advance.
 Use effective strategies to remember the content.
 Follow certain guidelines while delivering the presentation.
 Dress appropriately.

Common Visual Aids


The commonly used visual aids are:

 Computer presentations: Microsoft PowerPoint and CorelDraw are easy-to-use applications that give the user
the option of choosing colors, bullets, font sizes, types, and styles in a presentation.
 Overhead projector transparencies: Transparencies that are used with an overhead projector are called
overhead transparencies. They are cheap and affordable, and are made of a thick, transparent plastic.
 Handouts: Data in the form of figures, charts, or diagrams that does not fit in the transparency are distributed to
the audience as handouts.
 Whiteboard: A whiteboard is similar to a blackboard. Markers of different colors can be used on a whiteboard to
write or highlight information on the board.
 Flipcharts: Flipcharts are similar to large writing pads that are hung on the wall. At any point of time, the presenter
can flip back to a previous page and refer to it.
 Posters: Posters are large sheets of hard paper and can be used to depict pictures, charts, graphics, or additional
data. They are attractive to look at and are cost effective.
 Videos: Videos are used to demonstrate what cannot be explained or shown through static graphics or plain text.
They can be used more than once.

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