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Section 6

Complex Numbers
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Chapter 35
Complex numbers

35.1 Cartesian complex numbers Since x 2 + 4 = 0 then x 2 = −4 and x = −4

 √ √
(i) If the quadratic equation x 2 + 2x + 5 = 0 is solved i.e., x= (−1)(4) = −1 4 = j(±2)
using the quadratic formula then: √
= ± j2, (since j = −1)

−2 ± (2)2 − (4)(1)(5)
x= (Note that ±j2 may also be written as ± 2j).
2(1)
√ √
−2 ± −16 −2 ± (16)(−1)
= =
2 2 Problem 2. Solve the quadratic equation:
√ √ √
−2 ± 16 −1 −2 ± 4 −1 2x 2 + 3x + 5 = 0
= =
2 2

= −1 ± 2 −1
√ Using the quadratic formula,
It is not possible to evaluate −1 in real
terms.
√ However, if an operator j is defined as 
j = −1 then the solution may be expressed as −3 ± (3)2 − 4(2)(5)
x=
x = −1 ± j2. 2(2)
√ √ √
(ii) −1 + j2 and −1 − j2 are known as complex num- −3 ± −31 −3 ± −1 31
= =
bers. Both solutions are of the form a + jb, ‘a’ 4 4
being termed the real part and jb the imaginary √
−3 ± j 31
part. A complex number of the form a + jb is =
called a Cartesian complex number. 4

(iii) In pure
√ mathematics the symbol i is used to indi- 3 31
cate −1 (i being the first letter of the word Hence x=− +j or −0.750 ± j1.392,
4 4
imaginary). However i is the symbol of electric correct to 3 decimal places.
current in engineering, and to avoid possible con-
fusion the√next letter in the alphabet, j, is used to
(Note, a graph of y = 2x 2 + 3x + 5 does not cross the
represent −1
x-axis and hence 2x 2 + 3x + 5 = 0 has no real roots).

Problem 1. Solve the quadratic equation: Problem 3. Evaluate


−4
x2 + 4 = 0 (a) j3 (b) j4 (c) j23 (d)
j9
314 Engineering Mathematics

(a) j3 = j2 × j = (−1) × j = −j, since j2 = −1 Imaginary


axis
(b) j4 = j2 × j2 = (−1) × (−1) = 1
B
(c) j23 = j × j22 = j × ( j2 )11 = j × (−1)11 j4

j3
= j × (−1) = −j
j2 A
(d) j9 = j × j8 = j × ( j2 )4 = j × (−1)4
j
=j×1=j
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Real axis
−4 −4 −4 −j 4j
Hence = = × = 2 j
j9 j j −j −j
j 2
4j
= = 4 j or j4 j 3
−(−1) D
j 4

Now try the following exercise j 5


C

Exercise 127 Further problems on the Figure 35.1


introduction to Cartesian
complex numbers
35.3 Addition and subtraction of
In Problems 1 to 3, solve the quadratic equations.
complex numbers
1. x 2 + 25 = 0
Section 6

[±j5]
Two complex numbers are added/subtracted by adding/
2. 2x 2 + 3x + 4 = 0 subtracting separately the two real parts and the two
 √ 
3 23 imaginary parts.
− ±j or −0.750 ± j1.199
4 4 For example, if Z1 = a + jb and Z2 = c + jd,
3. 4t 2 − 5t + 7 = 0
 √  then Z1 + Z2 = (a + jb) + (c + jd)
5 87
±j or 0.625 ± j1.166 = (a + c) + j(b + d)
8 8
and Z1 − Z2 = (a + jb) − (c + jd)
1 4
4. Evaluate (a) j8 (b) − 7 (c) 13 = (a − c) + j(b − d)
j 2j
[(a) 1 (b) −j (c) −j2] Thus, for example,

(2 + j3) + (3 − j4) = 2 + j3 + 3 − j4

35.2 The Argand diagram = 5 − j1


and (2 + j3) − (3 − j4) = 2 + j3 − 3 + j4
A complex number may be represented pictorially on
= −1 + j7
rectangular or Cartesian axes. The horizontal (or x) axis
is used to represent the real axis and the vertical (or y)
The addition and subtraction of complex numbers may
axis is used to represent the imaginary axis. Such a dia-
be achieved graphically as shown in the Argand dia-
gram is called an Argand diagram. In Fig. 35.1, the
gram of Fig. 35.2. (2 + j3) is represented by vector OP
point A represents the complex number (3 + j2) and is
and (3 − j4) by vector OQ. In Fig. 35.2(a), by vec-
obtained by plotting the co-ordinates (3, j2) as in graph-
tor addition, (i.e. the diagonal of the parallelogram),
ical work. Figure 35.1 also shows the Argand points B,
OP + OQ = OR. R is the point (5, −j1).
C and D representing the complex numbers (−2 + j4),
(−3 − j5) and (1 − j3) respectively. Hence (2 + j3) + (3 − j4) = 5 − j1
Complex numbers 315

Imaginary
Problem 4. Given Z1 = 2 + j4 and Z2 = 3 − j
axis
determine (a) Z1 + Z2 , (b) Z1 − Z2 , (c) Z2 − Z1 and
show the results on an Argand diagram
P (2  j 3)
j3

j2
(a) Z1 + Z2 = (2 + j4) + (3 − j)

j = (2 + 3) + j(4 − 1) = 5 + j3
(b) Z1 − Z2 = (2 + j4) − (3 − j)
0 1 2 3 4 5 Real axis
j R (5  j ) = (2 − 3) + j(4 − (−1)) = −1 + j5

j2 (c) Z2 − Z1 = (3 − j) − (2 + j4)

j3 = (3 − 2) + j(−1 − 4) = 1 − j5

j4 Each result is shown in the Argand diagram of Fig. 35.3.


Q (3  j4)

Imaginary
axis
(a)
(1  j 5)
j5
Imaginary
axis j4
(5  j 3)
j3
S (1  j 7)
j7
j2
j6

Section 6
j
j5
Q j4 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Real axis
j
j3 P (2  j 3)
j 2
j2
j 3
j
j 4

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Real axis j 5 (1  j 5)
j

j2 Figure 35.3


j3

j4 Q (3  j4) 35.4 Multiplication and division of


complex numbers
(b)

Figure 35.2 (i) Multiplication of complex numbers is achieved


by assuming all quantities involved are real and
then using j2 = −1 to simplify.
In Fig. 35.2(b), vector OQ is reversed (shown as OQ ) Hence (a + jb)(c + jd )
since it is being subtracted. (Note OQ = 3 − j4 and
OQ = −(3 − j4) = −3 + j4). = ac + a( jd) + ( jb)c + ( jb)( jd)

OP− OQ = OP + OQ = OS is found to be the Argand = ac + jad + jbc + j2bd


point (−1, j7). = (ac − bd) + j(ad + bc),
Hence (2 + j3) − (3 − j4) = −1 + j7 since j2 = −1
316 Engineering Mathematics

Thus (3 + j2)(4 − j5) Z1 1 − j3 1 − j3 −3 + j4


(b) = = ×
Z3 −3 − j4 −3 − j4 −3 + j4
= 12 − j15 + j8 − j2 10
= (12 − (−10)) + j(−15 + 8) −3 + j4 + j9 − j2 12
=
32 + 4 2
= 22 − j7
9 + j13 9 13
= = +j
(ii) The complex conjugate of a complex number is 25 25 25
obtained by changing the sign of the imaginary
part. Hence the complex conjugate of a + jb is or 0.36 + j0.52
a − jb. The product of a complex number and its
complex conjugate is always a real number. Z 1 Z2 (1 − j3)(−2 + j5)
(c) =
Z1 + Z 2 (1 − j3) + (−2 + j5)
For example,
13 + j11
= , from part (a),
(3 + j4)(3 − j4) = 9 − j12 + j12 − j2 16 −1 + j2
= 9 + 16 = 25 13 + j11 −1 − j2
= ×
−1 + j2 −1 − j2
[(a + jb)(a − jb) may be evaluated ‘on sight’ as
a 2 + b2 ] −13 − j26 − j11 − j2 22
=
(iii) Division of complex numbers is achieved by 12 + 2 2
multiplying both numerator and denominator by 9 − j37 9 37
the complex conjugate of the denominator. = = −j or 1.8 − j7.4
5 5 5
For example,
(d) Z1 Z2 Z3 = (13 + j11)(−3 − j4), since
Section 6

2 − j5 2 − j5 (3 − j4)
= × Z1 Z2 = 13 + j11, from part (a)
3 + j4 3 + j4 (3 − j4)
= −39 − j52 − j33 − j2 44
6 − j8 − j15 + j2 20
=
32 + 42 = (−39 + 44) − j(52 + 33) = 5 − j85
−14 − j23 −14 23
= = −j
25 25 25
Problem 6. Evaluate:
or −0.56 − j0.92  2
2 1 + j3
(a) (b) j
(1 + j)4 1 − j2

Problem 5. If Z1 = 1 − j3, Z2 = −2 + j5 and


Z3 = −3 − j4, determine in a + jb form:
(a) (1 + j)2 = (1 + j)(1 + j) = 1 + j + j + j2
Z1
(a) Z1 Z2 (b) = 1 + j + j − 1 = j2
Z3
Z1 Z2 (1 + j)4 = [(1 + j)2 ]2 = ( j2)2 = j2 4 = −4
(c) (d) Z1 Z2 Z3
Z1 + Z2
2 2 1
Hence = =−
(1 + j)4 −4 2
1 + j3 1 + j3 1 + j2
(a) Z1 Z2 = (1 − j3)(−2 + j5) (b) = ×
1 − j2 1 − j2 1 + j2
= −2 + j5 + j6 − j2 15
1 + j2 + j3 + j2 6 −5 + j5
= =
= (−2 + 15) + j(5 + 6), since j = −1,
2
1 +2
2 2 5
= 13 + j11 = −1 + j1 = −1 + j
Complex numbers 317
 2
1 + j3
= (−1 + j)2 = (−1 + j)(−1 + j) 35.5 Complex equations
1 − j2
= 1 − j − j + j2 = −j2 If two complex numbers are equal, then their real parts
 2 are equal and their imaginary parts are equal. Hence
1 + j3
Hence j = j(−j2) = −j2 2 = 2, if a + jb = c + jd, then a = c and b = d
1 − j2
since j2 = −1
Problem 7. Solve the complex equations:

Now try the following exercise (a) 2(x + jy) = 6 − j3


(b) (1 + j2)(−2 − j3) = a + jb
Exercise 128 Further problems on
operations involving
Cartesian complex numbers
(a) 2(x + jy) = 6 − j3 hence 2x + j2y = 6 − j3
1. Evaluate (a) (3 + j2) + (5 − j) and Equating the real parts gives:
(b) (−2 + j6) − (3 − j2) and show the
results on an Argand diagram. 2x = 6, i.e. x = 3
[(a) 8 + j (b) −5 + j8]
2. Write down the complex conjugates of Equating the imaginary parts gives:
(a) 3 + j4, (b) 2 − j [(a) 3 − j4 (b) 2 + j] 3
2y = −3, i.e. y = −
2
In Problems 3 to 7 evaluate in a + jb form
given Z1 = 1 + j2, Z2 = 4 − j3, Z3 = −2 + j3 and (1 + j2)(−2 − j3) = a + jb

Section 6
(b)
Z4 = −5 − j.
−2 − j3 − j4 − j2 6 = a + jb
3. (a) Z1 + Z2 − Z3 (b) Z2 − Z1 + Z4 Hence 4 − j7 = a + jb
[(a) 7 − j4 (b) −2 − j6]
Equating real and imaginary terms gives:
4. (a) Z1 Z2 (b) Z3 Z4
[(a) 10 + j5 (b) 13 − j13] a = 4 and b = −7
5. (a) Z1 Z3 + Z4 (b) Z1 Z2 Z3
[(a) −13 − j2 (b) −35 + j20]
Problem 8. Solve the equations:
Z1 Z1 + Z3
6. (a) (b) √
(a) (2 − j3) = a + jb
Z2  Z2 − Z4 
−2 11 −19 43
(a) +j (b) +j (b) (x − j2y) + (y − j3x) = 2 + j3
25 25 85 85
Z1 Z3 Z1
7. (a) (b) Z2 + + Z3 √
Z1 + Z3  Z4  (a) (2 − j3) = a + jb
3 41 45 9
(a) +j (b) −j Hence (2 − j3)2 = a + jb
26 26 26 26
1−j 1 i.e. (2 − j3)(2 − j3) = a + jb
8. Evaluate (a) (b)
1+j 1+j
  Hence 4 − j6 − j6 + j2 9 = a + jb
1 1
(b) − j (a) −j
2 2 and −5 − j12 = a + jb
 
−25 1 + j2 2 − j5 Thus a = −5 and b = −12
9. Show that: −
2 3 + j4 −j
(b) (x − j2y) + (y − j3x) = 2 + j3
= 57 + j24
Hence (x + y) + j(−2y − 3x) = 2 + j3
318 Engineering Mathematics

Equating real and imaginary parts gives: Z = r( cos θ + j sin θ) is usually abbreviated to
Z = r∠θ which is known as the polar form of
x+y =2 (1) a complex number.
and −3x − 2y = 3 (2)
i.e. two stimulaneous equations to solve Imaginary
axis
Multiplying equation (1) by 2 gives:
Z
2x + 2y = 4 (3)
r jy
Adding equations (2) and (3) gives:
q
−x = 7, i.e. x = −7 O
x
A Real axis

From equation (1), y = 9, which may be checked


Figure 35.4
in equation (2)

(ii) r is called the modulus (or magnitude) of Z and


Now try the following exercise is written as mod Z or |Z|.
r is determined using Pythagoras’ theorem on
triangle OAZ in Fig. 35.4,
Exercise 129 Further problems on complex
equations 
i.e. r= x2 + y 2
In Problems 1 to 4 solve the complex equations.
(iii) θ is called the argument (or amplitude) of Z and
1. (2 + j)(3 − j2) = a + jb [a = 8, b = −1] is written as arg Z.
Section 6

 
2+j 3 1 By trigonometry on triangle OAZ,
2. = j(x + jy) x= , y=−
1−j 2 2
y
√ arg Z = θ = tan−1
3. (2 − j3) = a + jb [a = −5, b = −12] x

4. (x − j2y) − (y − jx) = 2 + j [x = 3, y = 1] (iv) Whenever changing from Cartesian form to polar


form, or vice-versa, a sketch is invaluable for
5. If Z = R + jωL + 1/jωC, express Z in (a + jb) determining the quadrant in which the complex
form when R = 10, L = 5, C = 0.04 and ω = 4 number occurs
[z = 10 + j13.75]

Problem 9. Determine the modulus and argument


of the complex number Z = 2 + j3, and express Z in
polar form
35.6 The polar form of a complex
number
Z = 2 + j3 lies in the first quadrant as shown in Fig. 35.5.
(i) Let a complex number Z be x + jy as shown in the √ √
Argand diagram of Fig. 35.4. Let distance OZ be Modulus, |Z| = r = 22 + 32 = 13 or 3.606, correct
r and the angle OZ makes with the positive real to 3 decimal places.
axis be θ.
3
From trigonometry, x = r cos θ and Argument, arg Z = θ = tan−1
2
y = r sin θ = 56.31◦ or 56◦ 19
Hence Z = x + jy = r cos θ + jr sin θ
In polar form, 2 + j3 is written as 3.606 ∠ 56.31◦ or
= r( cos θ + j sin θ) 3.606 ∠ 56◦ 19
Complex numbers 319

Imaginary Argument = 180◦ − 53.13◦ = 126.87◦ (i.e. the


axis argument must be measured from the positive real
axis).
j3
Hence − 3 + j4 = 5∠126.87◦
r (c) −3 − j4 is shown in Fig. 35.6 and lies in the third
quadrant.
q
0 2 Real axis
Modulus, r = 5 and α = 53.13◦, as above.
Hence the argument = 180◦ + 53.13◦ = 233.13◦ ,
which is the same as −126.87◦
Figure 35.5
Hence (−3 − j4) = 5∠233.13◦ or 5∠−126.87◦

Problem 10. Express the following complex (By convention the principal value is normally
numbers in polar form: used, i.e. the numerically least value, such that
−π < θ < π).
(a) 3 + j4 (b) −3 + j4
(d) 3 − j4 is shown in Fig. 35.6 and lies in the fourth
(c) −3 − j4 (d) 3 − j4 quadrant.
Modulus, r = 5 and angle α = 53.13◦ , as above.
Hence (3 − j4) = 5∠−53.13◦
(a) 3 + j4 is shown in Fig. 35.6 and lies in the first
quadrant.
√ Problem 11. Convert (a) 4∠30◦ (b) 7∠−145◦
Modulus, r = 32 + 42 = 5 and argument
into a + jb form, correct to 4 significant figures

Section 6
4
θ = tan−1 = 53.13◦ or 53◦ 8
3
(a) 4∠30◦ is shown in Fig. 35.7(a) and lies in the first
Hence 3 + j4 = 5∠53.13◦
quadrant.
(b) −3 + j4 is shown in Fig. 35.6 and lies in the second
Using trigonometric ratios,
quadrant.
Modulus, r = 5 and angle α = 53.13◦ , from x = 4 cos 30◦ = 3.464 and y = 4 sin 30◦ = 2.000
part (a).
Hence 4∠30◦ = 3.464 + j2.000
Imaginary
axis
Imaginary
axis
(3  j 4) (3  j 4)
j4

j3 4 jy
30°
r j2 r 0 Real axis
x
j
a q (a)
3 2 1 a a1 2 3 Real axis
j x

r j 2 r a Real axis
145°
j 3 jy 7

4
(3  j 4) (3  j 4) (b)

Figure 35.6 Figure 35.7


320 Engineering Mathematics
π π
(b) 7∠−145◦ is shown in Fig. 35.7(b) and lies in the 10∠ × 12∠   
third quadrant. (b) 4 2 = 10 × 2 ∠ π + π − − π
π 6 4 2 3
6∠−
Angle α = 180◦ −145◦ = 35◦ 3
13π 11π
= 20∠ or 20∠− or
Hence x = 7 cos 35◦ = 5.734 12 12
and y = 7 sin 35◦ = 4.015 20∠195◦ or 20∠−165◦

Hence 7∠−145◦ = −5.734 − j4.015 Problem 14. Evaluate, in polar form:


Alternatively 2∠30◦ + 5∠−45◦ − 4∠120◦
7∠ − 145◦ = 7 cos (−145◦ ) + j7 sin (−145◦ )
Addition and subtraction in polar form is not possible
= −5.734 − j4.015 directly. Each complex number has to be converted into
Cartesian form first.

2∠30◦ = 2( cos 30◦ + j sin 30◦ )


35.7 Multiplication and division in = 2 cos 30◦ + j2 sin 30◦ = 1.732 + j1.000
polar form 5∠−45◦ = 5( cos (−45◦ ) + j sin (−45◦ ))
If Z1 = r1 ∠θ 1 and Z2 = r2 ∠θ 2 then: = 5 cos (−45◦ ) + j5 sin (−45◦ )
= 3.536 − j3.536
(i) Z1 Z2 = r1 r2 ∠(θ 1 + θ 2 ) and

4∠120 = 4( cos 120◦ + j sin 120◦ )
Z1 r1
Section 6

(ii) = ∠(θ 1 − θ 2 ) = 4 cos 120◦ + j4 sin 120◦


Z2 r2
= −2.000 + j3.464

Problem 12. Determine, in polar form: Hence 2∠30◦ + 5∠−45◦ − 4∠120◦

(a) 8∠25◦ × 4∠60◦ = (1.732 + j1.000) + (3.536 − j3.536)


(b) 3∠16◦ × 5∠−44◦ × 2∠80◦ − (−2.000 + j3.464)
= 7.268 − j6.000, which lies in the
fourth quadrant
  
(a) 8∠25◦ × 4∠60◦ = (8 × 4)∠(25◦ + 60◦ ) = 32∠85◦ −6.000
= 7.2682 + 6.0002 ∠ tan−1
7.268
(b) 3∠16◦ × 5∠−44◦ × 2∠80◦
= (3 × 5 × 2)∠[16◦ + (−44◦ ) + 80◦ ] = 30∠52◦ = 9.425∠−39.54◦ or 9.425∠−39◦ 32

Now try the following exercise


Problem 13. Evaluate in polar form:
π π
16∠75◦ 10∠ × 12∠ Exercise 130 Further problems on polar
(a) (b) 4 2 form
2∠15◦ π
6∠ −
3 1. Determine the modulus and argument of
(a) 2 + j4 (b) −5 − j2 (c) j(2 − j).
 
(a) 4.472, 63.43◦ (b) 5.385, −158.20◦
16∠75◦ 16 (c) 2.236, 63.43◦
(a) = ∠(75◦ − 15◦ ) = 8∠60◦
2∠15◦ 2
Complex numbers 321

The effect of multiplying a phasor by j is to rotate it


In Problems 2 and 3 express the given Cartesian in a positive direction (i.e. anticlockwise) on an Argand
complex numbers in polar form, leaving answers diagram through 90◦ without altering its length. Sim-
in surd form. ilarly, multiplying a phasor by −j rotates the phasor
through −90◦ . These facts are used in a.c. theory since
2. (a) 2 + j3 (b) −4 (c) −6 + j certain quantities in the phasor diagrams lie at 90◦ to
 √ 
(a) 13∠56.31◦ (b) 4∠180◦ each other. For example, in the R–L series circuit shown
√ in Fig. 35.8(a), VL leads I by 90◦ (i.e. I lags VL by
(c) 37∠170.54◦
90◦ ) and may be written as jV L , the vertical axis being
3. (a) −j3 (b) (−2 + j)3 (c) j3 (1 − j) regarded as the imaginary axis of an Argand diagram.
 √  Thus VR + jV L = V and since VR = IR, V = IX L (where
(a) 3∠−90◦ (b) 125∠100.30◦
√ XL is the inductive reactance, 2πf L ohms) and V = IZ
(c) 2∠−135◦ (where Z is the impedance) then R + jX L = Z.
In Problems 4 and 5 convert the given polar com-
plex numbers into (a + jb) form giving answers R L R C
correct to 4 significant figures.
VR VL VR VC
4. (a) 5∠30◦ (b) 3∠60◦ (c) 7∠45◦ I I
⎡ ⎤
(a) 4.330 + j2.500 V V
⎣ (b) 1.500 + j2.598 ⎦ Phasor diagram Phasor diagram
(c) 4.950 + j4.950 VR I
VL V f
5. (a) 6∠125◦ (b) 4∠π (c) 3.5∠−120◦
⎡ ⎤
(a) −3.441 + j4.915 q

Section 6
VC
⎣ (b) −4.000 + j0 ⎦ VR l
V
(c) −1.750 − j3.031 (a) (b)

In Problems 6 to 8, evaluate in polar form. Figure 35.8

6. (a) 3∠20◦ × 15∠45◦ Similarly, for the R–C circuit shown in Figure 35.8(b),
(b) 2.4∠65◦ × 4.4∠−21◦ VC lags I by 90◦ (i.e. I leads VC by 90◦ ) and
[(a) 45∠65◦ (b) 10.56∠44◦ ] VR − jV C = V , from which R − jX C = Z (where XC is
1
7. (a) 6.4∠27◦ ÷ 2∠−15◦ the capacitive reactance ohms).
2π f C
(b) 5∠30◦ × 4∠80◦ ÷ 10∠−40◦
[(a) 3.2∠4.2◦ (b) 2∠150◦ ]
Problem 15. Determine the resistance and series
π π inductance (or capacitance) for each of the
8. (a) 4∠ + 3∠
6 8 following impedances, assuming a frequency of
(b) 2∠120◦ + 5.2∠58◦ − 1.6∠−40◦ 50 Hz:
[(a) 6.986∠26.79◦ (b) 7.190∠85.77◦ ] (a) (4.0 + j7.0)  (b) −j20 
(c) 15∠−60◦ 

35.8 Applications of complex (a) Impedance, Z = (4.0 + j7.0)  hence,


numbers resistance = 4.0  and reactance = 7.0 .

There are several applications of complex numbers Since the imaginary part is positive, the reactance
in science and engineering, in particular in electri- is inductive,
cal alternating current theory and in mechanical vector
analysis. i.e. XL = 7.0 
322 Engineering Mathematics

Since XL = 2π f L then inductance, (c) Magnitude of impedance,



XL 7.0 |Z| = 602 + (−100)2 = 116.6 
L= = = 0.0223 H or 22.3 mH
2π f 2π(50)  
−1 −100
(b) Impedance, Z = − j20, i.e. Z = (0 − j20)  hence Phase angle, arg Z = tan = −59.04◦
60
resistance = 0 and reactance = 20 . Since the
imaginary part is negative, the reactance is capac- V 240◦ ∠0◦
1 (d) Current flowing, I = =
itive, i.e. XC = 20  and since XC = then: Z 116.6∠−59.04◦
2π f C
= 2.058∠59.04◦A
1 1
capacitance, C = = F The circuit and phasor diagrams are as shown in
2π f XC 2π(50)(20)
Fig. 35.8(b).
106
= μF = 159.2 μF
2π(50)(20)
(c) Impedance, Z Problem 17. For the parallel circuit shown in
Fig. 35.9, determine the value of current I, and its
= 15∠−60◦ = 15[ cos (−60◦ ) + j sin (−60◦ )] phase relative to the 240 V supply, using complex
numbers
= 7.50 − j12.99 .
R1  4 Ω XL  3 Ω
Hence resistance = 7.50  and capacitive reac-
tance, XC = 12.99 
R2  10 Ω
1
Since XC = then capacitance,
Section 6

2π f C
1 106
C= = μF R3  12 Ω XC  5 Ω
2π f XC 2π(50)(12.99) I
= 245 μF

240 V, 50 Hz

Problem 16. An alternating voltage of 240 V, Figure 35.9


50 Hz is connected across an impedance of
(60 − j100) . Determine (a) the resistance (b) the
capacitance (c) the magnitude of the impedance and V
Current I = . Impedance Z for the three-branch
its phase angle and (d) the current flowing Z
parallel circuit is given by:
1 1 1 1
= + +
(a) Impedance Z = (60 − j100) . Z Z1 Z2 Z3

Hence resistance = 60 where Z1 = 4 + j3, Z2 = 10 and Z3 = 12 − j5


(b) Capacitive reactance XC = 100  and since 1 1
1 Admittance, Y1 = =
XC = then Z1 4 + j3
2π f C
1 4 − j3 4 − j3
1 1 = × = 2
capacitance, C = = 4 + j3 4 − j3 4 + 32
2π f XC 2π(50)(100)
106 = 0.160 − j0.120 siemens
= μF
2π(50)(100) 1 1
Admittance, Y2 = = = 0.10 siemens
= 31.83 μF Z2 10
Complex numbers 323

Admittance, Y3 =
1
=
1 = 10( cos 45◦ + j sin 45◦ )
Z3 12 − j5
+ 8( cos 120◦ + j sin 120◦ )
1 12 + j5 12 + j5
= × = 2 + 15( cos 210◦ + j sin 210◦ )
12 − j5 12 + j5 12 + 52
= (7.071 + j7.071) + (−4.00 + j6.928)
= 0.0710 + j0.0296 siemens
+ (−12.99 − j7.50)
Total admittance, Y = Y1 + Y2 + Y3 = −9.919 + j6.499
= (0.160 − j0.120) + (0.10)
Magnitude of resultant force
+ (0.0710 + j0.0296) 
= (−9.919)2 + 6.4992 = 11.86 N
= 0.331 − j0.0904
= 0.343∠−15.28◦ siemens Direction of resultant force
 
6.499
V = tan−1 = 146.77◦
Current I = = VY −9.919
Z
= (240∠0◦ )(0.343∠−15.28◦ ) (since −9.919 + j6.499 lies in the second quadrant).

= 82.32∠−15.28◦ A
Now try the following exercise
Problem 18. Determine the magnitude and
direction of the resultant of the three coplanar Exercise 131 Further problems on
forces given below, when they act at a point: applications of complex
10 N acting at 45◦ from the numbers

Section 6
Force A,
positive horizontal axis,
1. Determine the resistance R and series induc-
Force B, 8 N acting at 120◦ from the
tance L (or capacitance C) for each of the
positive horizontal axis,
following impedances assuming the frequency
Force C, 15 N acting at 210◦ from the
to be 50 Hz.
positive horizontal axis.
(a) (3 + j8)  (b) (2 − j3) 
The space diagram is shown in Fig. 35.10. The forces (c) j14  ⎡ (d) 8∠ − 60◦  ⎤
may be written as complex numbers. (a) R = 3 , L = 25.5 mH
⎢ (b) R = 2 , C = 1061 μF ⎥
⎢ ⎥
8N 10 N
⎣ (c) R = 0, L = 44.56 mH ⎦
(d) R = 4 , C = 459.5 μF
210°

120° 2. Two impedances, Z1 = (3 + j6)  and


Z2 = (4 − j3)  are connected in series to
45° a supply voltage of 120 V. Determine the
magnitude of the current and its phase angle
relative to the voltage.
15 N
[15.76 A, 23.20◦ lagging]
Figure 35.10 3. If the two impedances in Problem 2 are con-
nected in parallel determine the current flow-
Thus force A, fA = 10∠45◦ , force B, fB = 8∠120◦ and ing and its phase relative to the 120 V supply
force C, fC = 15∠210◦ . voltage.
The resultant force [27.25 A, 3.37◦ lagging]
4. A series circuit consists of a 12  resistor, a
= f A + fB + fC coil of inductance 0.10 H and a capacitance of
= 10∠45◦ + 8∠120◦ + 15∠210◦
324 Engineering Mathematics

160 μF. Calculate the current flowing and its 8. In the hydrogen atom, the angular momen-
phase relative to the supply voltage of 240 V, tum, p, of
 thede Broglie wave is given by:
50 Hz. Determine also the power factor of the jh
pψ = − (±jmψ).
circuit. 2π
[14.42 A, 43.85◦ lagging, 0.721] Determine an expression for p.  
mh
5. For the circuit shown in Fig. 35.11, determine ±

the current I flowing and its phase relative to
the applied voltage. 9. An aircraft P flying at a constant height has
[14.58 A, 2.51◦ leading] a velocity of (400 + j300) km/h. Another air-
craft Q at the same height has a velocity of
XC  20 Ω R1  30 Ω (200 − j600) km/h. Determine (a) the veloc-
ity of P relative to Q, and (b) the velocity of
Q relative to P. Express the answers in polar
form, correct to the nearest km/h.
R2  40 Ω XL  50 Ω  
(a) 922 km/h at 77.47◦
(b) 922 km/h at −102.53◦
R3  25 Ω
10. Three vectors are represented by P, 2∠30◦ ,
Q, 3∠90◦ and R, 4∠−60◦ . Determine
in polar form the vectors represented by
l
(a) P + Q + R, (b) P − Q − R.
[(a) 3.770∠8.17◦ (b) 1.488∠100.37◦ ]
V  200 V
11. In a Schering bridge circuit,
Section 6

Figure 35.11 Zx = (RX − jXCX ), Z2 = −jXC2 ,


(R3 )(−jXC3 )
6. Determine, using complex numbers, the mag- Z3 = and Z4 = R4 where
nitude and direction of the resultant of the (R3 − jXC3 )
1
coplanar forces given below, which are act- XC =
ing at a point. Force A, 5 N acting horizontally, 2π f C
Force B, 9 N acting at an angle of 135◦ to force At balance: (ZX )(Z3 ) = (Z2 )(Z4 ).
A, Force C, 12 N acting at an angle of 240◦ to C3 R4
force A. [8.394 N, 208.68◦ from force A] Show that at balance RX = and
C2
7. A delta-connected impedance ZA is given by: C2 R3
CX =
R4
Z1 Z2 + Z2 Z3 + Z3 Z1
ZA =
Z2
Determine ZA in both Cartesian and polar form
given Z1 = (10 + j0) , Z2 = (0 − j10)  and
Z3 = (10 + j10) .
[(10 + j20) , 22.36∠63.43◦ ]