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# Appendix B.

## Hand Calculation Method for Orifice Design

Abstract
This appendix explains how to perform the calculations for orifice plate design by
hand. For manual look-up of the orifice coefficient, S (given beta) or the diameter
ratio, beta (given S), the following eight figures are provided:
Figure B-1 Flange Taps - 6 Inch Pipe Size (6.056 in.); S vs. Beta for
Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167)
Figure B-2 Flange Taps; Pipe Size Corrections for S Values (Based on
Data from ISO 5167)
Figure B-3 Radius Taps; S vs. Beta for Different R D Values (Based on
Data from ISO 5167)
Figure B-4 Corner Taps; S vs. Beta for Different R D Values (Based on
Data from ISO 5167)
Figure B-5 Pipe Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on
Data from ISO 5167)
Figure B-6 ASME Small Bore with Flange Taps; S vs. Beta for
Different RD Values—1 in. to 1-1/2 in. Pipe Size (Based
on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Applica-
tion", 6th ed., 1971. Courtesy of ASME)
Figure B-7 ASME Small Bore with Corner Taps (.546 in.); S vs. Beta
for Different RD Values—1/2 in. Schedule 80 Pipe Size
(Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and
Application", 6th ed., 1971. Courtesy of ASME)
Figure B-8 Quadrant — Edge Data; S and Thickness Ratio vs. Beta

Orifice calculation sheets have been prepared for guidance through the orifice calcu-
lation steps. Calculation sheets filled in with appropriate examples are attached.
The four orifice calculation sheets are as follows:
• LIQUID, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59B (Figure B-9)
• LIQUID, quadrant-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59C (Figure B-10)
• GAS, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59D (Figure B-11)
• VAPOR/STEAM, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59E (Figure B-12)
Note that in these calculation sheets, the term "sharp edge" is used instead of
"square-edge."
Results of the hand calculations agree closely with the computer program ORIFICE.
The two types of calculations that can be performed are orifice sizing and orifice re-

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Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual

## B1.0 Calculation Procedure

1. Fill in the STREAM PROPERTY input blocks.
TEMPERAURE -- degrees Fahrenheit for liquid and vapor/steam
-- degrees Rankine = °F + 460 for gas
PRESSURE -- PSIA for gas and vapor
LIQUID SPECIFIC GRAVITY -- Gb at 60 F (Gb for water =
1.00)
VAPOR/STEAM SPECIFIC GRAVITY -- cu.ft./lb.
-- for steam, use steam tables
GAS SPECIFIC GRAVITY -- Ideal sp. gr. is used
= M.W. gas/M.W. dry air
= Zb × Real sp. gr.
LIQUID KINEMATIC VISCOSITY -- use centistokes
GAS AND VAPOR ABSOLUTE -- use centipoise
VISCOSITY

## 2. Fill in the FLOW RATE input blocks.

UNITS: For liquid use BPD, BPH, GPM, or GPH. For vapor use
lbs/hour; for gas use SCFH.
FULL SCALE: Flow that creates a dp across the orifice taps equal to the
maximum value of the dp transmitter range.
NORMAL: For square-edge and ASME small-bore this should be
the mid-range dp value, which equals .707 × (full-scale
flow rate)
1/3 FS: For quadrant-edge, equal to .333 × (full-scale flow rate)

## 3. Fill in the ORIFICE DATA input blocks.

TYPE OF ORIFICE PLATE -- Square-edge
-- ASME small-bore
TYPE OF TAPS -- Flange, radius, corner or pipe for
square-edge
-- Flange or corner only for ASME
small-bore
PIPE INSIDE DIAMETER -- Use 3 decimal places
ORIFICE DIAMETER -- Entered for orifice re-ranging
calculation

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## -- Use 3 decimal places

FULL SCALE DP -- Entered for orifice sizing calcula-
tion
-- Standard value = 100 inches of
water
4. Fill in the CORRECTIONS FACTORS.
Fa -- Correction for thermal expansion of orifice meter at
flowing temperature found in ASME MFC-3M Tables or
API MPMS. Chapter 14.3/AGA-3.
Y -- Gas expansion factor for mid-scale flow
Y1 = correction based on upstream pressure
Y2 = correction based on downstream pressure
Look up in table or chart - use mid-range differential
pressure (dp)
Fpv -- Supercompressibility correction factor
Rarely used in refinery calculations (usually set = 1.0)
Look up in table or chart when used.
Zb -- Compressibility factor at 60°F, 1 Atm
Rarely used in refinery calculations (usually set = 1.0)
Look up in table or chart when used.

## 5. Calculate Pipe Reynold’s Number.

Space is provided for values in equations.
See examples on sheets provided.
6. Calculate orifice size or dp range for square-edge or ASME small-bore orifice.
Given h, Find d
Fill in equations and solve for S.
Look up beta ratio in table.
Interpolation is necessary.
Use Table in Figure B-2 to correct for pipe size other than 6-inches (2-12
inches).
Use Reynold’s number column that is closest to value calculated in step 5.
Given d, Find h
Calculate beta ratio.
Look up S in table.
Interpolation is necessary.
Use Reynold’s number that is closest to value calculated in Step 5.
See examples on sheets provided.
7. Calculation for quadrant-edge orifice size.

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Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual

Select a plate thickness, look up values from Figure B-8, and calculate the
differential pressure h.
If h is too large, make plate thicker; if too small, make plate thinner, and repeat
calculation. h should equal about 100 inches of water.
The permissible range of Reynold’s numbers (at 1/3 full-scale flow) for a quad-
rant-edge orifice is a function of the beta ratio:

## beta ratio 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

min. RD 670.0 770.0 630.0 450.0 320.0
max. RD 17500.0 28000.0 45000.0 70000.0 85000.0

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Fig. B-1 Flange Taps - 6 Inch Pipe Size (6.056 in.); S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167)

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Fig. B-2 Flange Taps; Pipe Size Corrections for S Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167)

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Fig. B-3 Radius Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167)

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Fig. B-4 Corner Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167)

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Fig. B-5 Pipe Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167)

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Fig. B-6 ASME Small Bore with Flange Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values—1 in. to 1-1/2 in. Pipe Size (Based
on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application", 6th ed., 1971. Courtesy of ASME)

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Fig. B-7 ASME Small Bore with Corner Taps (.546 in.); S vs. Beta for Different RD Values—1/2 in. Schedule 80 Pipe
Size (Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application", 6th ed., 1971. Courtesy of ASME)

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Fig. B-8 Quadrant — Edge Data; S and Thickness Ratio vs. Beta

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