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Question

Part I

Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served
during special occasions such as birthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes are
treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and
cake decorating. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating
and write about your findings.

Answer:

Geometry – To determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and
decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of
cake to be produced

Calculus (differentiation) – To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for


cake-baking, to estimate min. or max. amount of cream needed for decorating, to estimate
min. or max. size of cake produced.

Progressions – To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional


dimensions, to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking, to estimate total amount
of cream for decoration.

Part II
Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as
shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers’ Day celebration. (Diagram 11)

1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800cm3, and the height of the cake is to be
7.0cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake
ordered by your school.

[Use π = 3.142]

Answer:

Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake

3800 x 5 = (3.142)(d2)² x 7

190007(3.142) = (d2)²

863.872 = (d2)²

d2 = 29.392

d = 58.784 cm

2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin
width and 45.0 cm in height.

a) If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,h
cm, and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used,d cm.
Tabulate your answers

Answer:

First, form the formula for d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake, V
= 19000, that is:
19000 = (3.142)(d/2)²h
19000(3.142)h = d²4

24188.415h = d²

d = 155.53h

Height,h (cm) Diameter,d(cm)


1.0 155.53
2.0 109.98
3.0 89.80
4.0 77.77
5.0 68.56
6.0 63.49
7.0 58.78
8.0 54.99
9.0 51.84
10.0 49.18

(b) Based on the values in your table,

(i) state the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answers.

Answer:

h < 7cm is NOT suitable, because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit
into the oven. Furthermore, the cake would be too short and too wide, making it less
attractive.

(ii) suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your
answer.

Answer:

h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm, because it can fit into the oven, and the size is suitable for
easy handling.
(c)

(i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d. Hence, plot a
suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed. [You may draw your graph
with the aid of computer software.]

Answer:

19000 = (3.142)( d2)²h

19000/(3.142)h = d²4

24188.415h = d²

d = 155.53√h

d = 155.53h-12

log d = log 155.53h-12

log d = -12 log h + log 155.53

Log h 0 1 2 3 4
Log d 2.19 1.69 1.19 0.69 0.19
(ii)

(a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5
cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required.

Answer:

h = 10.5cm, log h = 1.021, log d = 1.680, d = 47.86cm

(b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use your graph to estimate the
height of the cake obtained.
Answer:

d = 42cm, log d = 1.623, log h = 1.140, h = 13.80cm

3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thickness
of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1cm

(a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions
that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii).

Answer:

h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm
Amount of fresh cream = VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area x height)
Amount of fresh cream = Vol. of cream at the top surface + Vol. of cream at the side
surface

Vol. of cream at the top surface


= Area of top surface x Height of cream
= (3.142)(54.992)² x 1
= 2375 cm³

Vol. of cream at the side surface


= Area of side surface x Height of cream
= (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream
= 2(3.142)(54.99/2)(8) x 1
= 1382.23 cm³

Therefore, amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.23 = 3757.23 cm³

(b) Suggest three other shapes for cake, that will have the same height and volume as
those suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the
cakes.

Answer:

1 – Rectangle-shaped base (cuboid)

19000 = base area x height


base area = 190002
length x width = 2375
By trial and improvement, 2375 = 50 x 47.5 (length = 50, width = 47.5, height = 8)

Therefore, volume of cream


= 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side surface)
(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface
= 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm³

2 – Triangle-shaped base

19000 = base area x height


base area = 2375
12 x length x width = 2375
length x width = 4750
By trial and improvement, 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95, width = 50)
Slant length of triangle = √(95² + 25²)= 98.23
Therefore, amount of cream
= Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular
left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface
= (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.68 cm³

3 – Pentagon-shaped base

19000 = base area x height


base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon
therefore:
2375 = 5(length x width)
475 = length x width
By trial and improvement, 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25, width = 19)

Therefore, amount of cream


= 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol. of top surface
= 5(8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm³
(c) Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the least amount of
fresh cream to be used?

Answer:

Pentagon-shaped cake, since it requires only 3135 cm³ of cream to be used.

Part III

Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream
to decorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus. State whether you
would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for your answers.

Answer:

Method 1: Differentiation
Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a), and the
formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a).
19000 = (3.142)r²h → (1)
V = (3.142)r² + 2(3.142)rh → (2)
From (1): h = 19000(3.142)r² → (3)
Sub. (3) into (2):
V = (3.142)r² + 2(3.142)r(19000(3.142)r²)
V = (3.142)r² + (38000r)
V = (3.142)r² + 38000r-1

(dVdr) = 2(3.142)r – (38000r²)


0 = 2(3.142)r – (38000r²) -->> minimum value, therefore dVdr = 0
38000r² = 2(3.142)r
380002(3.142)= r³
6047.104 = r³
r = 18.22

Sub. r = 18.22 into (3):


h = 19000(3.142)(18.22)²
h = 18.22
therefore, h = 18.22cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44cm

Method 2: Quadratic Functions


Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is
the main equation used as the quadratic function.
Let f(r) = volume of cream, r = radius of round cake:
19000 = (3.142)r²h → (1)
f(r) = (3.142)r² + 2(3.142)hr → (2)
From (2):
f(r) = (3.142)(r² + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142)
= (3.142)[ (r + 2h2)² – (2h2)² ] -->> completing square, with a = (3.142), b = 2h and c = 0
= (3.142)[ (r + h)² – h² ]
= (3.142)(r + h)² – (3.142)h²
(a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. value), min. value = f(r) = –(3.142)h², corresponding
value of x = r = --h)

Sub. r = --h into (1):


19000 = (3.142)(--h)²h
h³ = 6047.104
h = 18.22

Sub. h = 18.22 into (1):


19000 = (3.142)r²(18.22)
r² = 331.894
r = 18.22
therefore, h = 18.22 cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44 cm

I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are
not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive. Furthermore, such
cakes are difficult to handle easily.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, as
shown in Diagram 2.

The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius
of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake
is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on.(a)

Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparing all
these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain
and elaborate on the number patterns.

Answer:

height, h of each cake = 6cm

radius of largest cake = 31cm


radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake
radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake

31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.599…

a = 31, r = 910

V = (3.142)r²h

Radius of 1st cake = 31, volume of 1st cake = (3.142)(31)²(6) = 18116.772


Radius of 2nd cake = 27.9, vol. of 2nd cake = 14674.585
Radius of 3rd cake = 25.11, vol. of 3rd cake = 11886.414
Radius of 4th cake = 22.599, vol. of 4th cake = 9627.995
18116.772, 14674.585, 11886.414, 9627.995, …

a = 18116.772, ratio, r = T2/T1 = T3 /T2 = … = 0.81

(b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate the maximum
number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using other methods.

Answer:

Sn = (a(1 - rn)) (1 - r)

Sn = 57000, a = 18116.772 and r = 0.81

57000 = (18116.772(1 – (0.81)n))(1 - 0.81)

1 – 0.81n = 0.59779

0.40221 = 0.81n

og0.81 0.40221 = n

n = log 0.40221 log 0.81

n = 4.322

therefore, n ≈ 4
REFLECTION

In the making of this project, I have spent countless hours doing this project.I
realized that this subject is a compulsory to me. Without it, I can’t fulfill my big
dreams and wishes….

I used to hate Additional Mathematics…

It always makes me wonder why this subject is so difficult…

I always tried to love every part of it…

It always an absolute obstacle for me…

Throughout day and night…

I sacrificed my precious time to have fun…

From..

Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday

And even the weekend that I always looking forward to…

1 28ve 980
ADDITIONAL
MATHEMATICS
(Cover the top part of the phrase “1 28ve 980”

From now on, I will do my best on every second that I will learn Additional Mathematics.