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ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME Sec VIII Div.

1):
UW-51: RADIOGRAPHIC AND RADIOSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF WELDED
JOINTS
(a) All welded joints to be radiographed shall be examined in accordance with Article 2 of
Section V except as specified below.
(1) A complete set of radiographs and records, as described in T-291 and T-292 of Article 2 of
Section V, for each vessel or vessel part shall be retained by the Manufacturer until the
Manufacturer’s Data Report has been signed by the Inspector.
(2) The Manufacturer shall certify that personnel performing and evaluating radiographic
examinations required by this Division have been qualified and certified in accordance with their
employer’s written practice. SNT-TC-1A11 shall be used as a guideline for employers to
establish their written practice for qualification and certification of their personnel. Alternatively,
the ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP),11 or CP-18911 may be used to fulfill the
examination and demonstration requirements of SNT-TC-1A and the employer’s written practice.
Provisions for training, experience, qualification, and certification of NDE personnel shall be
described in the Manufacturer’s Quality Control System [see Appendix 10].
(3) A written radiographic examination procedure is not required. Demonstration of density and
penetrameter image requirements on production or technique radiographs shall be considered
satisfactory evidence of compliance with Article 2 of Section V.
(4) The requirements of T-285 of Article 2 of Section V are to be used only as a guide. Final
acceptance of radiographs shall be based on the ability to see the prescribed penetrameter image
and the specified hole or the designated wire of a wire penetrameter.
(b) Indications shown on the radiographs of welds and characterized as imperfections are
unacceptable under the following conditions and shall be repaired as provided in UW-38, and the
repair radiographed to UW-51 or, at the option of the Manufacturer, ultrasonically examined in
accordance with the method described in Appendix 12 and the standards specified in this
paragraph, provided the defect has been confirmed by the ultrasonic examination to the
satisfaction of the Authorized Inspector prior to making the repair. For material thicknesses in
excess of 1 in. (25 mm), the concurrence of the user shall be obtained. This ultrasonic
examination shall be noted under remarks on the Manufacturer’s Data Report Form:
(1) Any indication characterized as a crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration;
(2) Any other elongated indication on the radiograph which has length greater than:
(a) 1⁄4 in. (6 mm) for t up to 3⁄4 in. (19 mm)
(b) 1⁄3t for t from 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) to 21⁄4 in. (57 mm)
(c) 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) for t over 21⁄4 in. (57 mm)
Where, t = the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld
joining two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two
thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet
shall be included in t.
(3) any group of aligned indications that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12t,
except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the length
of the longest imperfection in the group;
(4) Rounded indications in excess of that specified by the acceptance standards given in
Appendix 4.
(c) All welded joints to be examined by Real Time Radioscopic Examination shall be examined
in accordance with Appendix II of Article 2 of Section V as specified below.
(1) A complete set of records, as described in II-292, shall be evaluated by the Manufacturer prior
to being presented to the Inspector. Imperfections listed in UW-51(b)(1), (2), (3), and (4) are
unacceptable and shall be repaired as provided in UW-38 and the repair reexamined by either
film or Real Time Radioscopic Examination. Records shall be retained by the Manufacturer until
the Data Report has been signed by the Inspector.
(2) Provisions for training, experience, qualification, and certification of personnel responsible
for equipment setup, calibration, operation, and evaluation of examination data shall be described
in the Manufacturer’s Quality Control System [see Appendix 10].
(3) The use of Real Time Radioscopic Examination shall be noted under remarks on the
Manufacturer’s Data Report.
UW-52: SPOT EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS
NOTE: Spot radiographing of a welded joint is recognized as an effective inspection tool. The
spot radiography rules are also considered to be an aid to quality control. Spot radiographs made
directly after a welder or an operator has completed a unit of weld proves that the work is or is
not being done in accordance with a satisfactory procedure. If the work is unsatisfactory,
corrective steps can then be taken to improve the welding in the subsequent units, which
unquestionably will improve the weld quality. Spot radiography in accordance with these rules
will not ensure a fabrication product of predetermined quality level throughout. It must be
realized that an accepted vessel under these spot radiography rules may still contain defects
which might be disclosed on further examination. If all radiographically disclosed weld defects
must be eliminated from a vessel, then 100% radiography must be employed.
(a) Butt welded joints which are to be spot radiographed shall be examined locally as provided
herein.
(b) Minimum Extent of Spot Radiographic Examination
(1) One spot shall be examined on each vessel for each 50 ft (15 m) increment of weld or fraction
thereof for which a joint efficiency from column (b) of Table UW-12 is selected. However, for
identical vessels or parts, each with less than 50 ft (15 m) of weld for which a joint efficiency
from column (b) of Table UW-12 is selected, 50 ft (15 m) increments of weld may be represented
by one spot examination.
(2) For each increment of weld to be examined, a sufficient number of spot radiographs shall be
taken to examine the welding of each welder or welding operator. Under conditions where two or
more welders or welding operators make weld layers in a joint, or on the two sides of a double-
welded butt joint, one spot may represent the work of all welders or welding operators.
(3) Each spot examination shall be made as soon as practicable after completion of the increment
of weld to be examined. The location of the spot shall be chosen by the Inspector after
completion of the increment of welding to be examined, except that when the Inspector has been
notified in advance and cannot be present or otherwise make the selection, the fabricator may
exercise his own judgment in selecting the spots.
(4) Radiographs required at specific locations to satisfy the rules of other paragraphs, such as
UW-9(d), UW-11(a)(5)(b), and UW-14(b), shall not be used to satisfy the requirements for spot
radiography.
(c) Standards for Spot Radiographic Examination: Spot examination by radiography shall be
made in accordance with the technique prescribed in UW-51(a). The minimum length of spot
radiograph shall be 6 in. Spot radiographs may be retained or be discarded by the Manufacturer
after acceptance of the vessel by the Inspector. The acceptability of welds examined by spot
radiography shall be judged by the following standards.
(1) Welds in which indications are characterized as cracks or zones of incomplete fusion or
penetration shall be unacceptable.
(2) Welds in which indications are characterized as slag inclusions or cavities shall be
unacceptable if the length of any such indication is greater than 2⁄3t where t is the thickness of the
weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining two members having
different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration
weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t. If several
indications within the above limitations exist in line, the welds shall be judged acceptable if the
sum of the longest dimensions of all such indications is not more than t in a length of 6t (or
proportionately for radiographs shorter than 6t) and if the longest indications considered are
separated by at least 3L of acceptable weld metal where L is the length of the longest indication.
The maximum length of acceptable indications shall be 3⁄4 in. (19 mm). Any such indications
shorter than 1⁄4 in. (6 mm) shall be acceptable for any plate thickness.
(3) Rounded indications are not a factor in the acceptability of welds not required to be fully
radiographed.
(d) Evaluation and Retests:
(1) When a spot, radiographed as required in (b)(1) or (b)(2) above, is acceptable in accordance
with (c)(1) and (c)(2) above, the entire weld increment represented by this radiograph is
acceptable.
(2) When a spot, radiographed as required in (b)(1) or (b)(2) above, has been examined and the
radiograph discloses welding which does not comply with the minimum quality requirements of
(c)(1) or (c)(2) above, two additional spots shall be radio graphically examined in the same weld
increment at locations away from the original spot. The locations of these additional spots shall
be determined by the Inspector or fabricator as provided for the original spot examination in (b)
(3) above.
(a) If the two additional spots examined show welding which meets the minimum quality
requirements of (c)(1) and (c)(2) above, the entire weld increment represented by the three
radiographs is acceptable provided the defects disclosed by the first of the three radiographs are
removed and the area repaired by welding. The weld repaired area shall be radio-graphically
examined in accordance with the foregoing requirements of UW-52.
(b) If either of the two additional spots examined shows welding which does not comply with the
minimum quality requirements of (c)(1) or (c)(2) above, the entire increment of weld represented
shall be rejected. The entire rejected weld shall be removed and the joint shall be re-welded or, at
the fabricator’s option, the entire increment of weld represented shall be completely radiographed
and only defects need be corrected. (c) Repair welding shall be performed using a qualified
procedure and in a manner acceptable to the Inspector. The re-welded joint, or the weld repaired
areas, shall be spot radio-graphically examined at one location in accordance with the foregoing
requirements of UW-52. MANDATORY APPENDIX 4: ROUNDED INDICATIONS CHARTS
ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR RADIOGRAPHICALLY DETERMINED ROUNDED
INDICATIONS IN WELDS. 4-1 APPLICABILITY OF THESE STANDARDS These
standardsare applicable to ferritic, austenitic, and nonferrous materials. 4-2 TERMINOLOGY
(a) Rounded Indications: Indications with a maximum length of three times the width or less on
the radiograph are defined as rounded indications. These indications may be circular, elliptical,
conical, or irregular in shape and may have tails. When evaluating the size of an indication, the
tail shall be included. The indication may be from any imperfection in the weld, such as porosity,
slag, or tungsten. (b) Aligned Indications: A sequence of four or more rounded indications shall be
considered to be aligned when they touch a line parallel to the length of the weld drawn through
the center of the two outer rounded indications. (c) Thickness t: t is the thickness of the weld,
excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining two members having different
thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes
a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t. (a) Image Density:
Density within the image of the indication may vary and is not a criterion for acceptance or
rejection. (b) Relevant Indications: (See Table 4-1 for examples.): Only those rounded indications
which exceed the following dimensions shall be considered relevant.
(1) 1⁄10t for t less than 1⁄8 in. (3 mm)
(2) 1⁄64 in. (0.4mm) for t from 1⁄8 in. to 1⁄4 in. (3 mm to6 mm), incl.
(3) 1⁄32 in. (0.8mm) for t greater than 1⁄4 in. to 2 in. (6 mm to 50 mm), incl.
(4) 1⁄16 in. (1.6mm) for t greater than 2 in. (50 mm).
(c) Maximum Size of Rounded Indication. (See Table4-1 for examples.): The maximum
permissible size of any indication shall be 1⁄4t, or 5⁄32 in. (4 mm), whichever is smaller; except
that an isolated indication separated from an adjacent indication by 1in. (25 mm) or more may be
1⁄3t, or 1⁄4 in. (6 mm), whichever is less. For t greater than 2 in. (50 mm) the maximum
permissible size of an isolated indication shall be increased to 3⁄8 in. (10 mm).
(d) Aligned Rounded Indications: Aligned rounded indications are acceptable when the
summation of the diameters of the indications is less than t in a length of 12t. See Fig. 4-1. The
length of groups of aligned rounded indications and the spacing between the groups shall meet
the requirements of Fig. 4-2.
(e) Spacing: The distance between adjacent rounded indications is not a factor in determining
acceptance or rejection, except as required for isolated indications or groups of aligned
indications.
(f) Rounded Indication Charts: The rounded indications characterized as imperfections shall not
exceed that shown in the charts. The charts in Figs. 4-3 through 4-8 illustrate various types of
assorted, randomly dispersed and clustered rounded indications for different weld thicknesses
greater than 1⁄8 in. (3 mm). These charts represent the maximum acceptable concentration limits
for rounded indications. The charts for each thickness range represent full-scale 6 in. (150 mm)
radiographs, and shall not be enlarged or reduced. The distributions shown are not necessarily the
patterns that may appear on the radiograph, but are typical of the concentration and size of
indications permitted.
(g) Weld Thickness t less than 1/8 in. (3 mm): For t less than 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) the maximum
number of rounded indications shall not exceed 12 in a 6 in. (150 mm) length of weld. A
proportionally fewer number of indications shall be permitted in welds less than 6 in. (150 mm)
in length.
(h) Clustered Indications: The illustrations for clustered indications show up to four times as
many indications in a local area, as that shown in the illustrations for random indications. The
length of an acceptable cluster shall not exceed the lesser of 1 in. (25 mm) or 2t. Where more than

one cluster is present, the sum of the lengths of the clusters shall not exceed 1 in. (25 mm) in a 6
in. (150 mm) length weld.
***Table for maximum size of acceptable rounded indication (Table 4.1):
(ASME Sec VIII Div.1)
Thickness
t, (in.)
Maximum Size of
Acceptable Rounded Indication (in.)
Maximum Size of Non
relevant Indication, in. Random Isolated Less than Thickness t, (mm.) Maximum Size of
Acceptable Rounded Indication (mm.) Maximum Size of Non relevant Indication, mm.
Random Isolated Less than
NOTE: This Table contains examples only (P.138 UW-51, 368 editions: 2004).
*For more information see Table 4.2-4.8 Page: 370~375(ASME Sec VIII Div.1editions: 2004)
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (API-1104): 9.3 RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING:
Note: All densities referred to in 9.3.1 through 9.3.13 are based on negative images.
9.3.1 Inadequate Penetration without High-low
Inadequate penetration without high-low (IP) is defined as the incomplete filling of the weld root.
This condition is shown schematically in Figure 13. IP shall be considered a defect should any of
the following conditions exist:
a. The length of an individual indication of IP exceeds 1 in. (25 mm).
b. The aggregate length of indications of IP in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld
exceeds 1 in. (25 mm).
c. The aggregate length of indications of IP exceeds 8% of the weld length in any weld less than
12 in. (300 mm) in length.
9.3.2 Inadequate Penetration Due to High-low
Inadequate penetration due to high-low (IPD) is defined as the condition that exists when one
edge of the root is exposed (or unbonded) because adjacent pipe or fitting joints are misaligned.
This condition is shown schematically in Figure 14. IPD shall be considered a defect should any
of the following conditions exist:
a. The length of an individual indication of IPD exceeds 2 in. (50 mm).
b. The aggregate length of indications of IPD in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld
exceeds 3 in. (75 mm).
9.3.3 Inadequate Cross Penetration
Inadequate cross penetration (ICP) is defined as a subsurface imperfection between the first
inside pass and the first outside pass that is caused by inadequately penetrating the vertical land
faces. This condition is shown schematically in Figure 15. ICP shall be considered a defect
should any of the following conditions exist:
a. The length of an individual indication of ICP exceeds 2 in. (50 mm).
b. The aggregate length of indications of ICP in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld
exceeds 2 in. (50 mm).
9.3.4 Incomplete Fusion
Incomplete fusion (IF) is defined as a surface imperfection between the weld metal and the base
material that is open to the surface. This condition is shown schematically in Figure 16. IF shall
be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist:
a. The length of an individual indication of IF exceeds 1 in. (25 mm).
b. The aggregate length of indications of IF in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld
exceeds 1 in. (25 mm). c. The aggregate length of indications of IF exceeds 8% of the weld length
in any weld less than 12 in. (300 mm) in length. 9.3.5 Incomplete Fusion Due to Cold Lap
Incomplete fusion due to cold lap (IFD) is defined as an imperfection between two adjacent weld
beads or between the weld metal and the base metal that is not open to the surface. This condition
is shown schematically in Figure 17. IFD shall be considered a defect should any of the following
conditions exist: a. The length of an individual indication of IFD exceeds 2 in. (50 mm).
b. The aggregate length of indications of IFD in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld
exceeds 2 in. (50 mm). c. The aggregate length of indications of IFD exceeds 8% of the weld
length. 9.3.6 Internal Concavity Internal concavity (IC) is defined in 3.2.8 and is shown
schematically in Figure 18. Any length of internal concavity is acceptable, provided the density of
the radiographic image of the internal concavity does not exceed that of the thinnest adjacent
parent material. For areas that exceed the density of the thinnest adjacent parent material, the
criteria for burn through (see 9.3.7) are applicable. 9.3.7 Burn-through
9.3.7.1 A burn-through (BT) is defined as a portion of the root bead where excessive penetration
has caused the weld puddle to be blown into the pipe. 9.3.7.2 For pipe with an outside diameter
greater than or equal to 2.375 in. (60.3 mm), a BT shall be considered a defect should any of the
following conditions exist: a. The maximum dimension exceeds 1/4 in. (6 mm) and the density in
any portion of the BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material.
b. The maximum dimension exceeds the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined, and the
density in any portion of the BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material.
c. The sum of the maximum dimensions of separate BTs whose image density for any portion of
the BTs exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material and exceeds 1/2 in. (13 mm) in any
continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld or the total weld length, whichever is less.
9.3.7.3 For pipe with an outside diameter less than 2.375 in. (60.3 mm), a BT shall be considered
a defect when any of the following conditions exists: a. The maximum dimension exceeds 1/4 in.
(6 mm) and the density in any portion of the BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent
parent material. b. The maximum dimension exceeds the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses
joined, and the density in any portion of the BT’s image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent
parent material. c. More than one BT of any size is present and the density in any portion of the
BTs image *exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material.
9.3.8 Slag Inclusions 9.3.8.1 A slag inclusion is defined as a nonmetallic solid entrapped in the
weld metal or between the weld metal and the parent material. Elongated slag inclusions (ESIs)—
e.g., continuous or broken slag lines or wagon tracks-are usually found at the fusion zone. Isolated
slag inclusions (ISIs) are irregularly shaped and may be located anywhere in the weld. For
evaluation purposes, when the size of a radiographic indication of slag is measured, the
indication’s maximum dimension shall be considered its length. 9.3.8.2 For pipe with an outside
diameter greater than or equal to 2.375 in. (60.3 mm), slag inclusions shall be considered a defect
should any of the following conditions exist: a. The length of an ESI indication exceeds 2 in. (50
mm). Note: Parallel ESI indications separated by approximately the width of the root bead (wagon
tracks) shall be considered a single indication unless the width of either of them exceeds 1/32 in.
(0.8 mm). In that event, they shall be considered separate indications. b. The aggregate length of
ESI indications in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in. (50 mm).
c. The width of an ESI indication exceeds 1/16 in. (1.6 mm). d. The aggregate length of ISI
indications in any continuous12 in. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 1/2 in. (13 mm).
e. The width of an ISI indication exceeds 1/8 in. (3 mm). f. More than four ISI indications with the
maximum width of 1/8 in. (3 mm) are present in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm)
length of weld. g. The aggregate length of ESI and ISI indications exceeds 8% of the weld length.
9.3.8.3 For pipe with an outside diameter less than 2.375 in. (60.3 mm), slag inclusions shall be
considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. The length of an ESI indication
exceeds three times the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined.
Note: Parallel ESI indications separated by approximately the width of the root bead (wagon
tracks) shall be considered a single indication unless the width of either of them exceeds 1/32 in.
(0.8 mm). In that event, they shall be considered separate indications.
b. The width of an ESI indication exceeds 1/16 in. (1.6 mm).
c. The aggregate length of ISI indications exceeds two times the thinner of the nominal wall
thicknesses joined and the width exceeds one-half the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses
joined. d. The aggregate length of ESI and ISI indications exceeds 8% of the weld length.
9.3.9 Porosity *9.3.9.1 Porosity is defined as gas trapped by solidifying weld metal before the gas
has a chance to rise to the surface of the molten puddle and escape. Porosity is generally spherical
but may be elongated or irregular in shape, such as piping (wormhole) porosity. When the size of
the radiographic indication produced by a pore is measured, the maximum dimension of the
indication shall apply to the criteria given in 9.3.9.2 through 9.3.9.4.
9.3.9.2 Individual or scattered porosity (P) shall be considered a defect should any of the
following conditions exist: a. The size of an individual pore exceeds 1/8 in. (3 mm).
b. The size of an individual pore exceeds 25% of the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses
joined. c. The distribution of scattered porosity exceeds the concentration permitted by Figures 19
or 20. 9.3.9.3 Cluster porosity (CP) that occurs in any pass except the finish pass shall comply with
the criteria of 9.3.9.2. CP that occurs in the finish pass shall be considered a defect should any of
the following conditions exist. a. The diameter of the cluster exceeds 1/2 in. (13 mm).
b. The aggregate length of CP in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 1/2 in.
(13 mm). 9.3.9.4 Hollow-bead porosity (HB) is defined as elongated linear porosity that occurs in
the root pass. HB shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist:
a. The length of an individual indication of HB exceeds 1/2 in. (13 mm).
b. The aggregate length of indications of HB in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld
exceeds 2 in. (50 mm). c. Individual indications of HB, each greater than 1/4 in. (6 mm) in length,
are separated by less than 2 in. (50 mm). d. The aggregate length of all indications of HB exceeds
8% of the weld length. 9.3.10 Cracks Cracks (C) shall be considered a defect should any of the
following conditions exists: a. The crack, of any size or location in the weld, is not a shallow crater
crack or star crack. b. The crack is a shallow crater crack or star crack with a length that exceeds
5/32 in. (4 mm). Note: Shallow crater cracks or star cracks are located at the stopping point of
weld beads and are the result of weld metal contractions during solidification. 9.3.11 Undercutting
Undercutting is defined as a groove melted into the parent material adjacent to the toe or roots of
the weld and left unfilled by weld metal. Undercutting adjacent to the cover pass (EU) or root
pass (IU) shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exists:
a. The aggregate length of indications of EU and IU, in any combination, in any continuous 12 in.
(300 mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in. (50 mm). b. The aggregate length of indications of EU and
IU, in any combination, exceeds one-sixth of the weld length. Note: See 9.7 for acceptance
standards for undercutting when visual and mechanical measurements are employed.
9.3.12 Accumulation of Imperfections Excluding incomplete penetration due to high-low and
undercutting, any accumulation of imperfections (AI) shall be considered a defect should any of
the following conditions exist: a. The aggregate length of indications in any continuous 12 in. (300
mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in. (50 mm). b. The aggregate length of indications exceeds 8% of
the weld length. ***( For more information see page: 22, 24~26; API-1104, 20TH Edition
Nov’2005). *ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME B31.1):
136.4 Examination Methods of Welds *136.4.1 Nondestructive Examination. Nondestructive
examinations shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of this Chapter. The types
and extent of mandatory examinations for pressure welds and welds to pressure
retainingcomponents are specified in Table 136.4. For welds other than those covered by Table
136.4, only visual examination is required. Welds requiring nondestructive examination shall
comply with the applicable acceptance standards for indications as specified in paras. 136.4.2
through 136.4.6. As a guide, the detection capabilities for the examination method are shown in
Table 136.4.1. Welds not requiring examination (i.e. RT; UT, MT, or PT) by this Code or the
Engineering design shall be judged acceptable if they meet the examination requirements of para.
136.4.2 and the pressure test requirements specified in Para. 137. 136.4.5 Radiography: When
required by this Chapter (see Table 136.4), radiographic examination shall be performed in
accordance with Article 2 of Section V of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, except that
the requirements of T-285 are to be used as a guide but not for the rejection of radiographs unless
the geometrical unsharpness exceeds 0.07 in. (A) Acceptance Standards. Welds that are shown by
radiography to have any of the following types of discontinuities are unacceptable:
(A.1) any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration;
(A.2) any other elongated indication which has a length greater than:
(A.2.1) 1/4 in. (6.0 mm) for t up to 3/4 in. (19.0 mm), inclusive;
(A.2.2) 1/3t for t from 3/4 in. (19.0 mm) to 2 1/4 in.(57.0 mm), incl.;
(A.2.3) 3/4 in. (19.0 mm) for t over 2 1/4 in. (57.0 mm) where t is the thickness of the thinner
portion of the weld. (2.0 mm). (NOTE: z referred to in (A.2.1). (A.2.2). and (A.2.3) above pertains
to the thickness of the weid being examined; if a weld joins two members having different
thickness at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thickness.)
(A.3) any group of indications in line that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of
12, except where the distance between the successive indications exceeds 6L where L is the
longest indication in the group; (A.4) porosity in excess of that shown as acceptable in Appendix
A-250 of Section I of the *ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code; (A.5) root concavity when
there is an abrupt change in density, as indicated on the radiograph. 136.4.2 Visual Examination:
Visual examination as defined in para. 100.2. shall be performed, as necessary, during the
fabrication and erection of piping components to provide verification that
the design and WPS requirements are being met. In addition, visual examination shall be
performed to verify that all completed welds inpipe and piping components comply with the
acceptance standards specified in (A) below or with the limitations on imperfections specified in
the material specification under which the pipe or component was furnished.
(A) Acceptance Standards. The following indications are unacceptable:
(A. I) cracks-external surface;
(A.2) undercut on surface which is greater than 1/32 in. (1.0 mm) deep; Table 127.4.2;
(A.3) weld reinforcement greater than specified in
(A.4) lack of fusion on surface;
(A.5) incomplete penetration (applies only when inside surface is readily accessible);
(A.6) any other linear indications greater than 3/16 in. (5.0 mm) long;
(A.7) surface porosity with rounded indications having dimensions greater than in.3/16 in.(5.0
mm) or four or more rounded indications separated by 1/16 in. (2.0 mm) or less edge to edge in
any direction. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with their
length less than three times their width.
136.4.3 Magnetic Particle Examination: Whenever required by this Chapter (see Table 136.4),
magnetic particle examination shall be performed in accordance with the methods of Article 7,
Section V, of the ASh4E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
(A) Evaluation of Indications
(A. 1) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface will be indicated by the retention of the
examination medium. All indications are not necessarily defects; however, certain metallurgical
discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may produce similar indications which are
not relevant to the detection of unacceptable discontinuities.
(A.2) Any indication which is believed to be nonrelevant shall be reexamined to verify whether
or not actual defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination.
Nonrelevant indications which would mask indications of defects are unacceptable.
(A.3) Relevant indications are those which result from unacceptable mechanical discontinuities.
Linear indications are those indications in which the length is more than three times the width.
Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length less than three
times the width. (A.4) An indication of a discontinuity may be larger than the discontinuity that
causes it; however, the size of the indication and not the size of the discontinuity is the basis of
acceptance or rejection. (B) Acceptance Standards. The following relevant indications are
unacceptable: (B.1) any cracks or linear indications; (B.2) rounded indications with dimensions
greater than 3/16 in. (5.0 mm); (B.3) four or more rounded indications in a line separated by t / , j
in. (2.0 mm) or less edge to edge; (B.4) Ten or more rounded indications in any 6 sq in. (3870
mm’) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) with the area
taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
136.4.4 Liquid Penetrant Examination: Whenever required by this Chapter (see Table 136.4),
liquid penetrant examination shall be performed in accordance with the methods of Article 6,
Section V, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (A) Evaluation of Indications
(A.]) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface will be indicated by bleeding out of the penetrant;
however, localized surface imperfections, such as may occur from machining marks or surface
conditions, may produce similar indications which are nonrelevant to the detection of
unacceptable discontinuities. (A.2) Any indication which is believed to be nonrelevant shall be
regarded as a defect and shall be reexamined to verify whether or not actual defects are present.
Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. Nonrelevant indications and broad areas of
pigmentation which would mask indications of defects are unacceptable.
(A.3) Relevant indications are those which result from mechanical discontinuities. Linear
indications are those indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Rounded
indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length less than three times the
width. (A.4) An indication of a discontinuity may be larger than the discontinuity that causes it;
however, the size of the indication and not the size of the discontinuity is the basis of acceptance
or rejection. (B) Acceptance Standards. Indications whose major dimensions are greater than 1/16
in. (2.0 mm) shall be considered relevant. The following relevant indications are unacceptable:
(B.1) any cracks or linear indications; (B.2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16
in. (5.0 mm); (B.3) four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. (2.0 mm) or
less edge to edge; (B.4) ten or more rounded indications in any 6 sq in. (3870 mm2) of surface
with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) with the area taken in the most
unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated. 136.4.6 Ultrasonic Examination:
When required by this Chapter (see Table 136.4), ultrasonic examination (UT) shall be performed
in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 5 and the
following additional requirements. (A) The following criteria shall also be met when performing
ultrasonic examinations. (A.1) The nominal thickness of the material being examined shall be
greater that 5; in (12.5 mm). (A.2) The equipment used to perform the examination shall be
capable of recording the UT data including the scanning positions. (A.3) NDE personnel collecting
and analyzing UT data shall have demonstrated their ability to perform an acceptable examination
using written procedures. The procedure shall have been demonstrated to perform. Acceptably on a
qualification block with imbedded flaws. (B) Acceptance Standards: Welds that are shown by
ultrasonic examination to have discontinuities which produce an indication greater than 20% of the
reference level shall be investigated to the extent that ultrasonic examination personnel can
determine their shape, identity, and location so that they may evaluate each discontinuity for
acceptance in accordance with (B.l) and (B.2) below. (B.1) Discontinuities evaluated as being
cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration are unacceptable regardless of length.
(B.2) Other discontinuities are unacceptable if the indication exceeds the reference level and their
length exceeds the following:
(B.2.1). 1/4 in. (6.0 mm) for t up to 3/4 in. (19.0 mm);
(B.2.2). 1/3 t for t from 3/4 in. (19.0 mm) to 2 1/4 in. (57.0 mm)
(B.2.3). 3/4 in (19.0 mm) for t over 2 1/4 in. (57.0 mm) where t is the thickness of the weld being
examined. If the weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner
of these two thicknesses. (Page: 95~99).= 0 =
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME B31.3): Process Piping
See Page: 68, 71-76, 98, 127-129. Details on page129.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME Sec.1):


FOR INSPECTION: REQUIRED RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION OF
WELDED BUTT JOINTS: SEE TABLE PW-11
PW-50. QUALIFICATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION PERSONNEL
PW-50.1 The Manufacturer shall be responsible for assuring that nondestructive examination
(NDE) personnel have been qualified and certified in accordance with their employer’s written
practice prior to performing or evaluating radiographic or ultrasonic examinations required by
this Section. SNT-TC-1A3 or CP-189 shall be used as a guideline for employers to establish their
written practice. National or international Central Certification Programs, such as the ASNT
Central Certification Program (ACCP), may be used to fulfill the examination and demonstration
requirements of the employer’s written practice. Provisions for training, experience, qualification,
and certification of NDE personnel shall be described in the Manufacturer’s quality control
system (see PG-105.4). PW-50.2 NDE personnel shall be qualified by examination. Qualification
of NDE Level III personnel certified prior to the 2004 Edition of Section I may be based on
demonstrated ability, achievement, education, and experience. Such qualification shall be
specifically addressed in the written practice. When NDE personnel have been certified in
accordance with a written practice based on an edition of SNT-TC-1A or CP-189 earlier than that
referenced in A-360, their certification shall be valid until their next scheduled recertification.
PW-50.3 Recertification shall be in accordance with the employer’s written practice based on the
edition of SNT-TC-1A or CP-189 referenced in A-360. Recertification may be based on evidence
of continued satisfactory performance or by reexamination(s) deemed necessary by the employer.
PW-51. ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS FOR RADIOGRAPHY , Edition: 2004
(page.105,106) PW-51.1 All welds for which a complete radiographic examination is required by
PW-11 shall be radiographically examined throughout their entire length by the X-ray or gamma-
ray method in accordance with Article 2 of Section V, except that the requirements of T-274 are to
be used as a guide but not for the rejection of radiographs unless the geometrical unsharpness
exceeds 0.07 in. (1.8 mm). PW-51.2 A single-welded circumferential butt joint with backing strip
may be radio-graphed without removing the backing strip, provided it is not to be removed
subsequently and provided the image of the backing strip does not interfere with the interpretation
of the resultant radiographs. PW-51.3 Indications shown on the radiographs of welds and
characterized as imperfections are unacceptable under the following conditions, and shall be
repaired as provided in PW-40 and the repair radio-graphed to PW-51:
PW-51.3.1 Any indication characterized as a crack, or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration.
PW-51.3.2 Any other elongated indication on the radiograph that has a length greater than
(a) 1⁄4 in. (6 mm) for t up to 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) (b)1 ⁄ 3 tf o r t from 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) to 21⁄4 in. (57
mm) (c) 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) for t over 21⁄4 in. (57 mm), where t is the thickness of the weld
PW-51.3.3 Any group of aligned indications that have an aggregate length greater thant in a
length of 12t, except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L whereL
is the length of the longest imperfection in the group. PW-51.3.4 Rounded indications in excess of
those shown in A-250. PW-51.4 A complete set of radiographs for each job shall be retained by the
Manufacturer and kept on file for a period of at least 5 years. PW-52 ACCEPTANCE
STANDARDS FOR ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION PW-52.1 Technique and standards for
ultrasonic examination shall follow Section V, Article 4. PW-52.2 The Manufacturer’s report, as
required by T-490 of Section V, shall be retained by the Manufacturer for a minimum of 5 years.
PW-52.3. Acceptance-Rejection Standards. Imperfections that cause an indication greater than
20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that the ultrasonic examination
personnel can determine their shape, identity, and location, and evaluate them in terms of PW-
52.3.1 and PW-52.3.2. PW-52.3.1 Cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration are
unacceptable regardless of length. the indication exceeds the reference level and their length
exceeds the following: (a) 1⁄4 in. (6 mm) for t up to 3⁄4 in. (19 mm)
(b)1 ⁄ 3tf o r t from 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) to 21⁄4 in. (57 mm) (c) 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) for t over 21⁄4 in. (57
mm). Wheret is the thickness of the weld being examined. If the weld joins two members having
different thicknesses at the weld,t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. (For more
informationSee page no. 79, 80). A-250. ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR
RADIOGRAPHICALLY DETERMINED ROUNDED INDICATIONS IN WELDS:
A-250.1 Applicability of These Standards: These standards are applicable to ferritic, austenitic,
and nonferrous materials. A-250.2 Terminology A-250.2.1 Rounded Indications: Indications with
a maximum length of three times the width or less on the radiograph are defined as rounded
indications. These indications may be circular, elliptical, conical, or irregular in shape and may
have tails. When evaluating the size of an indication, the tail shall be included. The indication may
be from any imperfection in the weld, such as porosity, slag, or tungsten. A-250.2.2 Aligned
Indications: A sequence of four or more rounded indications shall be considered to be aligned
when they touch a line parallel to the length of the weld drawn through the center of the two outer
rounded indications. A-250.2.3 Thickness t. t is the thickness of the weld, of the pressure–retaining
material, or of the thinner of the sections being joined, whichever is least. If a full penetration weld
includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the fillet weld throat shall be included in t.
A-250.3 Acceptance Criteria A-250.3.1 Image Density: Density within the image of the indication
may vary and is not a criterion for acceptance or rejection. A-250.3.2 Relevant Indications (See
Table A- 250.3.2 for Examples): Only those rounded indications which exceed the following
dimensions shall be considered relevant: (a) 1⁄10 t for t less than 1⁄8 in. (3 mm)
(b) 1⁄64 in. (0.4 mm) for t 1⁄8 in. to 1⁄4 in. (6 mm), inclusive
(c) 1⁄32 in. (0.8 mm) for t 1⁄4 in. (6 mm) to 2 in. (50 mm), inclusive
(d) 1⁄16 in. (1.6 mm) for t greater than 2 in. (50 mm) *A-250.3.3 Maximum Size of Rounded
Indication (See Table A-250.3.2 for Examples): The maximum permissible size of any indication
shall be 1⁄4t, or 5⁄32 in. (4 mm), whichever is smaller; except that an isolated indication separated
from an adjacent indication by 1 in. (25 mm) or more may be 1⁄3t, or 1⁄4 in. (6 mm), whichever is
less. For t greater than 2 in. (50 mm) the maximum permissible size of an isolated indication shall
be increased to 3⁄8 in. (10 mm). TABLE A-250.3.2 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SIZE OF
ROUNDED INDICATION (Examples Only) (ASME Sec. I, Edition 2004, page: 178)
Thickness t, (in.) Maximum Size of Acceptable Rounded Indication (in.) Maximum Size of Non
relevant Indication, in. Random Isolated Less than *For more information see Page: 179~185
(ASME Sec. I Editions: 2004) A-250.3.4 Aligned Rounded Indications: Aligned rounded
indications are acceptable when the summation of the diameters of the indications is less than t in a
length of 12t. (See Fig. A- 250.3.4-1.) The length of groups of aligned rounded indications and the
spacing between the groups shall meet the requirements of Fig. A-250-3.4-2.
A-250.3.5 Spacing: The distance between adjacent rounded indications is not a factor in
determining acceptance or rejection, except as required for isolated indications or groups of
aligned indications. A-250.3.6 Rounded Indication Charts: The rounded indications characterized
as imperfections shall not exceed that shown in the charts. The charts in Figs. A-250.3.6-1 through
A-250.3.6-6 illustrates various types of assorted, randomly dispersed, and clustered rounded
indications for different weld thicknesses greater than 1⁄8 in. (3 mm). These charts represent the
maximum acceptable concentration limits for rounded indications. The chart for each thickness
range represents full-scale 6 in. (150 mm) radiographs, and shall not be enlarged or reduced. The
distributions shown are not necessarily the patterns that may appear on the radiograph, but are
typical of the concentration and size of indications permitted. A-250.3.7. Weld Thickness t Less
Than 1⁄8 in. (3 mm): For t less than 1⁄8 in. (3 mm), the maximum number of rounded indications
shall not exceed 12 in a 6 in. (150 mm) length of weld. A proportionally fewer number of
indications shall be permitted in welds less than 6 in. (150 mm) in length. A-250.3.8 Clustered
Indications: The illustrations for clustered indications show up to four times as many indications in
a local area, as that shown in the illustrations for random indications. The length of an acceptable
cluster shall not exceed the lesser of 1 in. (25 mm) or 2t. Where more than one cluster is present,
the sum of the lengths of the clusters shall not exceed 1 in. (25 mm) in a 6 in. (150 mm) length of
weld.