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Abnormal Psychology Test #2 Study Guide with Answers

TRUE/FALSE 1. Most people with mental disorders behave in a highly irrational or dangerous manner. ANS: F 2. People who are strange, weird, or bizarre have a mental disorder. ANS: F 3. People with mental disorders are strange, unusual, and noticeably different than other

ANS: F 4. Emotional distress is always a sign of abnormality. ANS: F 5. There can be no universal definition of abnormality. ANS: T 6. Ideas about what are normal and abnormal vary over time and across cultures. ANS: T 7. Abnormal behaviors and feelings are often exaggerations of normal states. ANS: T 8. Normal behaviors can be categorized as distinctly different from abnormal behaviors. ANS: F 9. Every human being experiences at least mild versions of the feelings and behaviors that

are found in mental disorders.

ANS: T 10. Most mental disorders have both psychological and biological causes. ANS: T 11. If a disorder can be treated with medication, that disorder must be caused by a physical


ANS: F 12. Every emotional and behavior has both a psychological and a biological aspect. ANS: T 13. Cognitive therapy is based on the belief that problematic emotions and behaviors can

be changed by modifying problematic thoughts.

ANS: T 14. A classification system is only useful when its categories consistently and accurately fit

the phenomena being classified.

ANS: T 15. A classification system is only useful when its categories are reliable and valid. ANS: T 16. The main advantage of personality questionnaires is that they assess deeper, less

observable emotional and personality patterns.

ANS: F MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What subfield of psychology is devoted to the study of psychological disorders? a. community psychology b. social psychology c. abnormal psychology d. health psychology ANS: C 2. John makes an appointment with a therapist to discuss a problem hes been having.

John must have a psychological disorder according to which of the following definitions? a. irrational/dangerous b. help seeking c. emotional distress d. deviance
ANS: B 3. What is the connection between irrational or dangerous behavior and mental disorders? a. Most people with mental disorders behave in a highly irrational or

dangerous manner.
b. Self-destructive behaviors, which are irrational and dangerous, are

common in most mental disorders. c. The majority of people with mental disorders are not dangerous and they are not highly irrational. d. Most violent crimes, which are irrational and dangerous, are committed by mental ill people.
ANS: C 4. Which type of disorder typically involves little or no emotional distress for the person

with the disorder? a. anxiety disorders b. mood disorders c. personality disorders d. somatoform disorders
ANS: C 5. Which of the following provides a better definition of abnormality than the others? a. deviant b. emotional distress c. help seeking d. irrational/dangerous ANS: B 6. Which definition of abnormality is considered to be the best? a. deviant b. help seeking c. irrational/dangerous d. significant impairment ANS: D 7. Marvin is feeling so depressed that he is having trouble making it to work and when he

is there, he rarely completes his tasks with the degree of attention that they require. In addition, his wife has started complaining because Marvin is no longer interested in doing things with her, the kids, or their friends. Which definition of abnormality best fits for Marvin? a. dangerous b. deviant c. help seeking d. impairment
ANS: D 8. In the U.S., a man would be considered abnormal if he believes he is possessed by a

spirit that causes him to shout and laugh uncontrollably, but in some cultures he would be considered abnormal. This example demonstrates: a. cultural sensitivity

b. cultural relativism c. historical relativism d. historical reductionism ANS: B 9. Which phrase is NOT an accurate ending to the following sentence? The definition of

mental disorder given in the DSM-IV-TR: a. contains many undefined phrases. b. focuses mostly on the criteria of distress and impairment. c. is close to Wakefields definition of mental illness. d. applies to very few people.
ANS: D 10. What percentage of Americans meet DSM criteria for a mental disorder at some time in

their life?
a. b. c. d. 12% 26% 48% 70%

ANS: C 11. What percentage of Americans meet DSM criteria for a mental disorder at some time in

their life? a. Greek and Roman times b. Renaissance c. 18th and 19th centuries d. 20th century
ANS: B 12. The moral treatment movement began at what time, led by what person? a. 17th century, Dix b. Renaissance, King Henry VIII c. 18th & 19th centuries, Pinel d. 20th century, Freud ANS: C 13. Which of the following is NOT true about the deinstitutionalization movement in the

United States? a. It began in the 1960s. b. Hospital conditions dramatically improved. c. It was partly driven by new psychiatric medications. d. It led to an increase in hospitalized patients.

14. For many years during childhood, Claudia was abused by her father. As an adult, she

developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Claudias childhood abuse was most likely: a. a precipitating cause of the PTSD. b. a predisposing cause of the PTSD. c. the stress in the diathesis-stress explanation for the PTSD. d. the stress in the diathesis-stress explanation for the PTSD.
ANS: B 15. Both biology and psychology are involved in the manifestation and form of a disorder.

This belief is consistent with the: a. biopsychosocial model b. humanistic model c. medical model d. psychodynamic model
ANS: A 16. Mental contents that are outside of awareness are in the: a. preconscious b. unconscious c. conscious d. working memory ANS: B 17. Which of the following is NOT true about defense mechanisms (according to Freuds

theory)? a. They are a sign of pathology. b. They are used to reduce anxiety caused by emotional conflict. c. They are a strategy used by the ego to manage tensions. d. They are unconscious and automatic.
ANS: A 18. What is the name of the movement advocating that mental disorders should be covered

by health insurance on par with physical disorders? a. fee-for-service movement b. equality in health movement c. mental health parity d. psychologists for insurance
ANS: C 19. Which theoretical approach focuses on the importance of family dynamics in

understanding and treating mental disorders? a. sociocultural b. object-relations

c. self-psychology d. family systems ANS: D 20. What part of the nervous system is involved in the fight or flight response? a. central nervous system b. somatic nervous system c. sympathetic division d. parasympathetic division ANS: C 21. Chemicals that carry messages between neurons are called: a. hormones b. neurotransmitters c. receptors d. synapses ANS: B 22. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have what effect in the synaptic cleft? a. b. c. d.

increase serotonin decrease serotonin increase serotonin and dopamine decrease serotonin and norepinephrine

ANS: A 23. The most common current biological treatment for psychological disorders is: a. electroconvulsive therapy b. insulin coma c. lobotomy d. psychotropic medication ANS: D 24. Which of the following statements is NOT true about classifying abnormality? a. The different categories of psychopathology are known as diagnoses. b. Assessment is the process of gathering information in order to make is

c. Diagnosis involves distinguishing different syndromes from each other. d. The word diagnosis comes from Greek roots meaning the same problem. ANS: D 25. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of classification? a. Classification of mental disorders is useful even if the classification system

is not reliable or valid. b. Classification allows professionals to communicate more clearly and effectively about their work. c. Classification facilitates decisions about which treatments are most likely to be helpful for disorders. d. Classification facilitates research on the causes of disorders.
ANS: A 26. Which of the following is NOT true about mental health professionals? a. Psychologists in many states are seeking the right to prescribe

psychotropic drugs.
b. Nurses may specialize in psychopathology and become psychiatric nurses. c. Psychiatrists have doctoral degrees in the academic discipline of

d. Mental health professionals from any discipline can train to become

ANS: C 27. _______ relates to the consistency of a classification system, and ______ refers to the

systems accuracy. a. Assessment; diagnosis b. Reliability; validity c. Validity; reliability d. Variability; precision
ANS: B 28. Why is it harder to reliably diagnose mental disorders than to reliably diagnose a

medical problem like strep throat? a. Mental disorders are more complex and difficult to understand. b. There are no methods for evaluating mental disorders. c. There are no objective biological markers for mental disorders. d. Mental disorders have multiple causes.
ANS: C 29. What approach to classification is used in the DSM system? a. b. c. d.

categorical dimensional prototypal standardized

ANS: A 30. Who was the French psychiatrist who initiated the moral treatment movement?

a. b. c. d.

Sigmund Freud Emil Kraepelin Philippe Pinel Thomas Szasz

ANS: C 31. Which of the following is true about the classification of mental disorders? a. The first DSM was an expansion of the psychiatric section of the ICD. b. Each edition of the DSM has included fewer and fewer diagnostic

c. The first DSM was published in 1932; 6 editions have been published since

d. The current edition of DSM is DSM-VI-TR. ANS: A 32. According to the DSM-IV-TR classification system, a complete diagnosis involves an

evaluation of a person on how many different axes?

a. b. c. d. 2 3 4 5

ANS: D 33. A diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder would be made on: a. Axis I b. Axis II c. Axis III d. Axis IV ANS: B 34. A disorder such as panic disorder, which involves unpleasant and unwanted forms of

anxiety, distress, and impairment, is considered a _____ disorder and would be diagnosed on Axis ___. a. personality; I c. symptom; I b. personality; II d. symptom; II
ANS: C 35. Axis III includes: a. disorders characterized by unpleasant and unwelcome forms of distress

and/or impairment. b. stressors in the persons life that may affect the diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of their disorders. c. a rating made by the clinician of the persons overall current level of

d. medical conditions that may be relevant to the diagnosis or treatment of

their disorders.
ANS: D 36. Which of the following is an accurate pairing? a. Axis I: personality disorders b. Axis III: global functioning c. Axis V: medical conditions d. Axis IV: life stressors ANS: D 37. Axis V is useful for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: a. It acknowledges life stressors that may impact the persons Axis I or II

b. It provides an indication of how severely the individual is affected by his

c. It can be used to monitor the persons progress over the course of

d. It can provide diagnostic information such as decline in functioning over

ANS: A 38. A psychologist talks to a woman in order to gather clinical information about her. This

psychologist is using which assessment method? a. physical exam b. interview c. test d. observation
ANS: B 39. Which assessment method involves the clinician asking a brief series of questions in

order to determine whether a client has major problems with cognitive functions and orientation to reality? a. unstructured interview b. psychological test c. biological test d. mental status exam
ANS: D 40. A psychologist asks a client to draw pictures of himself and his family. This is an

example of what form of assessment? a. Observation

b. Projective test c. Personality questionnaire d. Cognitive test ANS: B 41. Why would a clinical psychologist want to administer an intelligence test as part of an

assessment of psychopathology? a. One disorder in DSM-IV-TR (mental retardation) is defined by very low intelligence. b. Knowledge of IQ aids in the diagnosis of disorders like learning disabilities.
c. Knowledge of IQ is helpful for understanding a persons overall functioning. d. All of the above ANS: D COMPLETION 1. An individual nerve cell is called a __________. ANS: neuron 2. The different categories of psychopathology are known as ________. ANS: diagnoses 3. The most widely accepted classification system in the mental health field is the ______

ANS: DSM 4. ________ is the consistency of a test or category system or the raters using them. ANS: reliability 5. _______ is the accuracy of a test or category system or the raters using them. ANS: validity