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SUBMITTEDTO:
Mr.VasantKothari

SUBMITTEDBY:
PrashantVerma MFT1stsemester

AssistantProfessorDFT

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MODAL:FIBRETOFABRIC
VasantKothari,AssistantProfessor,DepartmentofFashionTechnology PrashantVerma,MasterofFashionTechnology

ABSTARCT
The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader with Modal fibers; there properties, applicationsetcandwhyatallthereisaneedtointroducethisfiber. HereinModalactsasa secondgeneration viscose rayon fiber fulfilling humans eternal quest for a fiber combining bothaestheticsandutilityperformance.

HISTORY
To dissolve and spin the cellulose, method developed by English men3.5 Cross bad Bevan becamemostpopularandwasadoptedexclusivelybyLenzing.DuringtheFirstWorldWar,with shortageofrawmaterial,viscoserayonmanufacturersdiscoveredthatitwaspossiblenotonly toproducefilamentfibresbutalsobycuttingthefibresintoshortstaples,tocreateasubstitute overcotton.Theviscoserayonstaplefibresthuscontinuedtoberecognizedassubstitutefor cottonuntiltheSecondWorldWar. Considerableimprovementstothefibre,whichLenzingmake,boostedfibreprestigeleadingto its classification as a distinct species. Modal fibers staple versions were initially developed in 1930s for industrial textiles (in tires, conveyor belts and hose pipes), and for blending with rapidly growing synthetics. Changes in viscose rayon processing such as spin conditions; chemical solutions and stretching sequences produced viscose rayon fibers with increased crystallinity and thus greater strength. Additional developments in Japan in 1951 by S. TachikawaledtotheproductionofModalfiberwithhighwetmoduluscalledpolynosicfiber.

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INTRODUCTION
Modal is a wood pulp based cellulosic fiber,made out of pure wooden chips from the beech tree,technicallyastheEuropeanSchneiderZelkova3.2tree.Whileviscoserayoncanbeobtained fromthewoodpulpfromanumberofdifferenttrees,Modalusesonlybeechwood,thusitis essentiallyavarietyofviscoserayon;agenericnameformodifiedviscoserayonfiberthathas hightenacityandhighwetmodulus. ModalwasfirstdevelopedbyAustriabasedLenzingAGCompanywhotrademarkedthefabrics name, but now many manufacturers make their own versions. It was initially imported from CzechRepublic,Slovakia,HungaryandGermany;butnowforIndianmarket,itiscateredtoby Lenzing,Austria,whichhastiedupwithRajasthanTextileMills. WhatisModal:Definition ModalfibersaredefinedinInternationalStandardISO206:999(E)ashighwetmodulus,high breakingstrengthregeneratedcellulosefibersproducedbyusingparticularviscoserayon,and regenerationbathcompositionswhichallowsgreatermolecularorientationduringstretchand coagulationofthefibers. Again, Modal as defined by the International Bureau for Standardization of Manmade Fibres (BISFA)isadistinctviscoserayonfibregenre,whichhasahigherwetmodulusandsatisfiesa minimumvalueoftenacityinthewetstageat5%elongation.

MANUFACTURINGPROCESS
The process of Tachikawa patent, following wet spinning, manufactures modal fiber. It is consideredasbiobased3.1 ratherthannaturalbecausethoughtherawmaterialsusedtomake itarenatural,theyareheavilyprocessedusinganumberofchemicals.Theprocessfollowedfor themanufacturingofModalissimilartothatofviscoserayonexceptslightmodificationinone ortwosteps.Thebasicstepsfollowedare: 1.SteepingandPressing Theobjectiveofthisprocessistoconvertcellulosetoitsalkoxidederivative(alkcell).Herepulp is steeped in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide 17%, causing fibers to swell and convertingcellulosetosodiumcellulosate.Theslurrysoobtainedispressedtoremoveexcess sodafromthealkcellslurry.

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2.Shredding Alkcellherecontains3036%celluloseand1317%soda.Toassistsubsequentmercerizingand xanthationreactions,alkcellslurryisopenedtofacilitatethepenetrationofoxygenandCS2. 3.Mercerizing HWMviscoserayoncanalsobemercerized,likecotton,forincreasedstrengthandluster.The reductioninDPisachievedbyoxidativedepolymerisationorcanalsobeachievedbyirradiative depolymerisation1.1. 4.Xanthation Here mercerized alkcell reacts with CS2 vapor, under vacuum, to form sodium cellulose xanthate.Toformthesolution,xanthateisdissolvedindilutesodiumhydroxidesolutiontogive finalcompositionintermsofpercentagecelluloseandsodainviscoserayon. 5.FiltrationandDeaeration Theimpuritiespresent(substantial)mustberemovedpriortospinningtopreventblockageof spinneret holes. Lenzing KKF1.4 is exclusively using automatic mechanical filters of sintered metalscreenswithautomaticbackflush.Thenitisdeaerated,byapplyingvacuum,toremove anydispersedairformingbubbles. 6.Spinning Very high modulus and tenacity is achieved when cellulose is spun from liquid crystalline solution1.2.Unlikeviscoserayon,theuseofzincinthespinbathiseliminatedcompletely,and onlyshortperiodimmersionincoldlowacidlowsaltbathisfollowed.Jetsusedtospinthese fibersarefabricatedfromplatinum/goldalloy.

:Typicallayoutofwetspinningprocess:

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7.CoagulationBath In Modal process, coagulation and stretch occur together and are followed by regeneration, leadingtohighwetmodulus.Unlikeviscoserayon,filamentsinthebatharestretched3times their spun length before regeneration, thus forming a structure with fibrillar texture. This stretchorientsthecellulosemoleculetoaveryhighdegreeresultinginveryhighdryandwet strengthratio1.5. 8.AfterTreatment Modal fabric is given aclean soft touch finish by impregnating the fabric with an acid donor; heattreatingingaseousatmospheretoactivatetheacidandsubsequentlydyeing,washingand dryingit.Theresultingfabrichasasheenandglossypeachtouchfinish

STRUCTURE
Theallskinhightenacityyarnsconsistoffinerandmoreuniformtexture.Whencoagulation andstretchoccurtogether,beforeregenerationandcrystallizationofcellulose,structurehasa fibrillartexture1.3.TheCrosssectioniseithercircularorbeanshaped.

:MicroscopicviewofModalFibers:

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ThecrosssectionanalysisofbothModalandViscoserayonfibersareanalyzed3.3andareshown infigurebelow:

:RegularViscoserayon:

:ModalFiber:

PROPERTIESANDCOMPARISON
In brief, Modal posses lower elongation and higher wet modulus as it has high rate of polymerization. Its exceptional similarity to cotton/silk in terms of texture (luster, sheen and gloss)resultsinasurfacesmootherthanmercerizedcotton. A typical comparison of properties of High wet modulus viscose rayon with commonly used convectionalfibersisasfollows: PROPERTIES Density(g/cm3) MoistureRegain(%) Tenacity(GPD) BkngElongation(%)

HIGHWETMODULUS COMMONLYUSED Modal Viscose rayon 1.51 12.5% 1.23.0 0.50.8 1530% 30% Cotton Polyester Wool

1.53 11.8% 2.24.0dry 3.85.0wet 7.0%dry 8.5%wet

1.55 8.5% 3.05.0 4.0 310% 10%

1.39 0.4% 3.05.8 2.43.0 1955% 47%

1.31 13.5% 0.82.0 1.0 2040% 31%

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Workofrupture (mN/tex) InitialModulus (mN/tex)

11.5

25

2023

13300
1.6/2

8850

5450

8830 10150

4300

Asfor1.3dtexModalfiber,givenbyFordandCourtaulds

ADVANTAGES
InmanywaysModalactslikecotton,butitalsohavesomesignificantadvantagesovercotton. Modal:FunctionalUtility 1. Modal displays high dimensional stability, both for low shrinkage and low unrecoverable extension. It blends beautifully with almost all textile fibres, viz. Cotton, wool, silk synthetics, elastene. 2.Itismorehygroscopicinnaturei.e.absorbs50%morewaterthancotton3.4,andasstrongas polyester3.2withexcellentwearresistance. Modal:AestheticallyAppealing 1. Garments made from Modal fabrics can benefit by acquiring a desirable clean, soft touch finishonthesurfaceoffinish.Itssmoothnessmakeshardwaterdepositslesslikelytoadhereto thesurface(saylimefromhardwater),sothefabricstayssoftthroughrepeatedwashings. 2. Unlike cotton, Modal fabrics show more resistance to shrinkage, has good moisture regain andairpermissibility,thusconsideredbestforexercisingclothingandhealthsuit. 3. Reduced growth of bacteria when compared to cotton, if both stored for the same long periodoftime;anddoesntagelikecotton. 4.Modalhasanadvantagethatitislesslikelytofadeortoformpillsasaresultoffriction. 5.Modalachievesrichcolors,andalsoretainsitsappearanceafterseveralwashes3.3 asshown infigurebelow;alsotheymaintainanticreaseproperties(inblends)andhaverelativelyeasy care.

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MODAL:After25washes

COTTON:After25washes

ModalReplacingCotton:CaseStudy 1. University of Utrecht in Netherlands carried out a life cycle analysis of Modal fibers i.e. evaluatedalloftheenvironmentalimpactscausedbymakingfibers.Thetopicsexaminedwere overfertilization,theexcessacidityofair,waterandsoilconsumption,globalwarmingandthe effects on human health. Another important point was the consumption of nonrenewable resources,asinthecase,israwmaterialwood.UtrechtcametoconclusionthatwithModal, thetoxicloadonfreshwaterandsoilis100timeslessascomparedtocotton. 2.TheyieldofModalisupto6timeshigher;andfortheircultivation,needs1020timesless waterincontrasttocotton. 3.SinceModalusesbeechwoodi.e.sustainablygrownforestplantations,thusthelandcould nothavebeenusedforanyotherpurpose.Cottononotherhandrequiresagriculturalland.

APPLICATIONS
TodayModaliswidelyusedinclothingasareplacementforcotton,withanannualproduction of more than 4000 tons with Indian textile industries. Modal may be used on its own or in a blendwithcotton,woolandothersyntheticfibersviz.spandexetc. 1.Itisverysoftandthusispopularforbothclothingandhouseholdtextiles. 2. Used for tablecloths and bed linen (beddings), bathrobes, upholstery and in home furnishings.Alsousedasouterwear,sportswearandleisurewear.

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:UsedasLeisureWear:


:ComfortableSportswear:

3.Alsofindapplicationsinundergarmentsandtowelingpurposes. 4.Lenzing Modalisusedexclusivelyforsoftflowingtops andlingerie;exclusivelyinknitwear marketshavinghighendapparel/nonapparelproducts. 5.Forsocksandstockings,aswellasintechnicalapplications,suchastirecord,abrasiveground fabric,rubberclothsandothercoatingsupports

LIMITATIONS
1.100%Modalrequiresironing,andhastendencytopileduetolongfibers. 2.Modalismoreexpensivethanviscoserayonandcotton. 3. Processing the beech wood into a cellulose fiber is a man made process which uses more energythanprocessingnaturalfibers.

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CONCLUSION
ThusitisclearedthatModalfiberisreplacingthecottonfromitscurrentdominantmarket.Its ecofriendly, 100% biodegradable characteristics has made it accepted globally within a short periodoftime.

REFERENCE
1. Reference1:RegeneratedCelluloseFiberCalvinWooding: Ref1.1P45 Ref1.2P220 Ref1.3P206,219(Hearles') Ref1.4P49 Ref1.5P248250 Ref1.6P209211 2.Reference2:HandbookoftextilefiberGordonCook 3. Reference3:Onlinesource: Web3.1http://resources.alibaba.com/topic/44914/Modern_Fibres_1_MODAL.htm (Source:Yarntradejournal:articlebyA.G.Chettiar) Web3.2http://www.holisticinteriordesigns.com/modalfabric.html Web3.3http://www.modal.at/index.php?id=14&L=1 Web3.4http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_(textile) Web3.5http://www.reliancespinning.com/PRODUCT/MODAL/modal.htm