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]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

233

233

? ? ? ?
K

233

??W
K??

K
K


]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

233

K1J 1

K2J 1

K3J 1

K4J 1

K1J 4J 1

K2J 4J 1

K3J 4J 1

K4J 4J 1

K5J 4J 1
K5J 1

K1J 5J 1

K2J 5J 1

K6J 1
EFK1J 6J 1

K2J 6J 1

K7J 1

K8J 1

K9J 1

-1-

233

W
W
K

EF
K

-2-

233

IntroductionJ K1-1
EControl-SystemF

K K
J J J F

KE
K

KKK

K
W

KKKK

-3-

EUrban

233

PlanningFETransportation

SystemsF

KEEnvironmentF
ERobotFEComputersF
K

WECommon Control System's ComponentsF K2-1


KWEInputF
KWEOutputF
KEOutputFEInputFWEErrorF
K
WEReferenceF
K

Illustrative Examples of Control Systems K3-1


W

WE1J 1F
E1J 1F

EFK

-4-

233

E1J1F

KK

WE2J 1F

E2J1F

KKE2J 1F
K
-5-

233

F
K

KE

WE3J 1F
E F E3J 1F

E F


K

E
F

Pneumatic valve

Controller

Inflow

Outflow

(a)

Desired level

Controller

Pneumatic
valve

Water tank

Float
(b)

E3J1F

-6-

Actual level

233

E3J FE3J 1F

WEFE4J 1F
EF

E4J 1F

EFEF


KE4J FK

Brain

E8J1F

Input

Brain

Hand
Muscle

Hand

Output

E F

Eye
(b)

E4J1F

-7-

233

WE5J 1F
ENumerical ControlF
E5J 1F

KENumbersF
KEF

KEReaderF

EF

Frequency-modulated pulse

Controller

Reader

Tachometer

D-A
conv


Pulse D-A
conv


Tape

Amp

Motor

Cutter

Feedback

E5J1F

EAnalog to Digital ConverterF


EDigital to Analog ConverterF

K
K

-8-

233

WE6J 1F

WE7J 1F
blast F
KE6J 1F

35Efurnace

F 4000

KE

Iron ore

1
2
3
4

Top gas

Blast
furnace

Coke
Limestone
Hot air
Steam
Oxygen
Oil

Slag
Pig iron


Command

Computer

Command

Reference input

E6J1F

KE

K
-9-

233

K
K

KK

WE8J 1F

E7J 1F

PulsesK

J U a

EF K


Ua

E7J1F

- 10 -

233

WEFlow GraphFEBlock DiagramF K4-1


W


KK
K
Block Diagram K1-4-1
elements

KBlock diagramK

blocks

output signalinput signal

Ktransfer function

E8J 1FK

X (s)

G (s)

Y(s)

E8J1F

- 11 -

233

Y(s) = G(s)X(s)
G(s) =

Y(s)
X(s)

Summing Element J

KE9J 1FEF

X1(s)

X2(s)

+ +
X3(s)

Y(s)

+
Xn(s)

E9J1F

Y(s) = X1 (s) + X 2 (s) X 3 (s) + ................ + X n (s)


- 12 -

233

Error Detector J
7

comparing element Kfeedback signal

KE10J 1F

R(s)

E(s)

C(s)

E10J1F

W
E(s) = R(s) C(s)

(3 - 3)

Branch point J
C(s)

KE11J 1F
K

- 13 -

C(s)

233

C(s)

C(s)

E11J1F

Construction of Block Diagram


K

K J

J
K

K J

J
K

J
K

Block Diagram Transformation Theorems


K


E1J 3F

H,X,Y,Z PK
KS

- 14 -

Transformation

233

Equation

Combining Blocks
in Cascade

Y = (P1P2)X

Combining Blocks
In parallel; or
Eliminating a
Forward Loop

Y = P1 X P2X

Removing a block
From a Forward
Path

Eliminating a
Feedback loop

Removing a Block
From a Feedback
Loop

Equivalent Block
Diagram

Block Diagram

P1

P2

P1

Y = P1(X

Y = P1(X

P2

P2Y) X

P1

P2

P2Y)

E 1J3F

- 15 -

P1 P2

X
Y = P1 X P2X

P1 P2

P1 +

P2

P2

P1

1 P1P2

X 1 +
P2

P1P2

Transformation

233

Equation

6a

Rearranging
Summing Points

Equivalent Block
Diagram

Block Diagram

Z=WXY

6b

Rearranging
Summing Points

Z=WXY

10

11

Moving a Summing
Point Beyond of a
Block

Moving a Takeoff
Point Ahead of a
Block

Moving a Takeoff
Point Beyond a
Block

Moving a Takeoff
Point Ahead of a
Summing point

Z = PX Y

Z = P(X Y)

Y = PX

Y = PX

P
P

P
1
P

Z=XY

Y
Y
Z

12

1
P

Moving a Takeoff
Point Beyond a
Summing point

Moving a Summing
Point Ahead of a
Block

Z=XY
Y

- 16 -

X
Y
X

233

Signal Flow Graph

Fundamental of Signal Flow Graph J





KE12J 1FK

Input nodes
X4 (Source)


Mixed nodes

d

Input nodes
(Source)

X2

X3

X1


Output nodes
(Sink)
X3

E12J1F

K K

- 17 -

233

Masons rule

Basics of Signal Flow Graph J


K
KE13J 1F

(a)

X2

X1
b

(b)

X2

X1

ab

X1

X3

a
(c)

a+b
=

X2

X1

X1

X2

b
a

X1

(d)

X4
b

X2

X4
bc

X2

(e)

ac

X1

X2

X3

X1

ab

X3

X1

ab
1-bc
=

X1

X3

bc

E13J1F

X 2 = aX1 Ea13J

WE13J 1F

1F X 2 J 1
- 18 -

233

J 2

KEb13J 1F

J 3

Ec13J 1F

Ed13J 1FJ 4

WEe13J 1FJ 5
x 3 = bx 2 , x 2 = ax 1 + cx 3

x 3 = abx 1 + bcx 3

x 3 = [ ab /(1 bc ] x1

KE14J 1F
R(s)

G(s)

C(s)

G(s)

R(s)

E(s)

R(s)

G(s)

R(s)

C(s)

G(s)

1
E(s)

R(s)

C(s)
-H(s)

H(s)
N(s)
N(s)
R(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

C(s)
R(s)

G1(s)
E(s)
-H(s)

H(s)

K E14J1F

- 19 -

G2(s)

C(s)

233

Mason's Rule For Signal Flow Graphs


EF

1
Pk k
k

(3 - 15)

P=

Pk = path gain of kth forward path

= determinant of graph

Z1J EFHEF
J EFHKKKKKKK

1 La + Lb Lc
a

b ,c

d ,e , f

Le L f

+ ..........

La Z
a

Lb Lc Z
b ,c

d ,e , f

Le L f Z

k k

WE9J 1F
K
K C ( s)
R(s)

- 20 -

233

P1 = G 1G 2 G 3
L1 = G 1G 2 H 1

L 2 = G 2 G 3 H 2
L 3 = G 1G 2 G 3

= 1 (L1 + L 2 + L 3 )

= 1 - G 1G 2 H 1 + G 2 G 3 H 2 + G 1G 2 G 3


1
P1
W
1 =1

W C ( s)
R( s)

- 21 -

233

P
C (s)
=P= 1 1

R( s)
=

G 1G 2 G 3
1 - G 1G 2 H 1 + G 2 G 3 H 2 + G 1G 2 G 3

WE10J 1F
K

W
W

P1 = G 1G 2 G 3 G 4 G 5
P2 = G 1G 6 G 4 G 5
P3 = G 1G 2 G 7

W
L 1 = G 4 H 1

L 2 = G 2 G 7 H 2
L 3 = G 6 G 4 G 5 H 2
L 4 = G 2 G 3 G 4 G 5 H 2

W L 2 L1
- 22 -

233

= 1 (L1 + L 2 + L 3 + L 4 ) + L1 L 2
W P1 1

Classification of Control Systems K5-1


open loop

Kclosed loop control system

Open Loop Control Systems K1-5-1

Actuating signal


Input signal

(command)

System
components

Output signal

(controlled variable)

E15J1F

K E15J 1F

- 23 -

233

Closed-loop Control K2-5-1


K

K
Actuating signal

Controller

Input signal
(command)

- E

k
M

feedback-path
System
components

forward-path
System
components

Output signal
(controlled variable)

E16-1)

block diagramE16J 1F

controller KE


plant

EFK


operational amplifier
K

KplantEF
K

- 24 -

233

K6-1

J
K

K
K

Feedback ControlEF K1-6-1


output

Kreference input

K
K

Feedback Control Systems K2-6-1


KK

- 25 -

233

K7-1
Block Diagram of a Closed-loop Control System
E17J 1F

E
F C(s)
W

Branch point

Summing point

E(s)

R(s)

G(s)

C(s)

Output

C(s)

E17J1F

E F


H(s)

C(s) KE6J 3F

W B(s)

R(s)

E(s)

B(s) = H(s)C(s)

G(s)

(3 - 5)

C(s)

B(s)
H(s)

E18J1F

WE18J 1F
- 26 -

233

Direct or forward transfer functionJ

G(s) =

C(s)
E(s)

(3 - 6)

feedback transfer functionJ 2

H(s) =

B(s)
C(s)

(3 - 7)

transfer function open-loopJ 3

G(s)H(s) =

B(s)
E(s)

(3 - 8)

transfer function closed-loopJ 4

E7J 3F H(s) = 1 E18J 1F

WE8J 3F

C(s) = G(s)E(s)
E(s) = R(s) B(s)

(3 - 9)

WE9J 3FE5J 3F

E(s) = R(s) H(s)C(s)

- 27 -

233

C(s) = G(s)E(s)
C(s) = G(s)[R(s) - H(s)C(s)
C(s) = G(s)R(s) - G(s)H(s)C(s)
C(s) + G(s)H(s)C(s) = G(s)R(s)
[1 + G(s)H(s)]C(s) = G(s)R(s)

C(s)
G(s)
=
R(s) 1 + G(s)H(s)

(3 - 10)

C ( s) =

G(s)
R(s)
1 + G(s)H(s)

- 28 -

(3 - 11)

233

K8-1
Closed-loop Control System Subjected to a disturbance
D( s)

R(s)

E19J 1F
WD(s)

Z R(s)J

K R(s)

D(s) R(s)ZJ

KD(s)

Disturbance
N(s)

R(s)

G1(s)

C(s)
G2(s)

H(s)

E19J1F

D(s) C D ( s) KR(s) C R ( s)

WE13J 3FE12J 3FK

C n (s)
G2 (s)
=
N ( s ) 1 + G1 ( s ) G 2 ( s ) H ( s )

(3 - 12)

- 29 -

233

C R (s)
G1 ( s )G2 ( s )
=
R( s ) 1 + G1 ( s )G2 ( s ) H ( s )

(3 - 13)

R(s)

W D(s)

C ( s) = C R ( s) + C N ( s)
=

G 2 (s)
[G1 ( s ) R ( s ) + N ( s )]
1 + G1 ( s )G 2 ( s ) H ( s )

(3 - 14)

Reduction of Complicated Block Diagrams K9-1

J 3FK

K
E

E18J 1F

KEJ 3F

- 30 -

233

:E11J 1F

WE12J 1F
CR


:
- 31 -

233

WEFEF

G 1G 2 G 3
1 G 1G 2 H
C(s)
=
GG G
R(s)
1+ 1 2 3
1 G 1G 2 H

WE1 G 1G 2 H F

G1G2 G3
C (s)
=
R ( s ) 1 + G1G2 H + G1G2 G3

- 32 -

233

WE13J 1F
KK
WE14J 1F
K

- 33 -

233

WE15J 1F
K

- 34 -

233

WE16J 1F

K C
R

- 35 -

233

J 1

J 2
J 3

J 4

J 5
K J 6

K J 7

- 36 -

233

K C ( s) J 8
R(s)

K C(s) J 9

K
- 37 -

J 10

233

J 11

Y(s)
R(s)

Y(s)
,
N(s) R =0

,
N =0

E(s)
R(s)

E(s)
N(s) R =0

,
N =0

J 12

Y5
,
Y1

Y4
,
Y1

Y2
,
Y1

Y5
Y2

- 38 -

233

- 39 -


]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

233

K1J 2

K2J 2

K1J 2J 2

K2J 2J 2

K3J 2J 2

K4J 2J 2
K5J 2J 2

K6J 2J 2

K7J 2J 2

K3J 2
K4J 2

K1J 4J 2

K2J 4J 2

K3J 4J 2

K4J 4J 2

K5J 4J 2

K6J 4J 2

K7J 4J 2

- 40 -

233

W
W

- 41 -

233

K1-2

Kerror signal
EF

KJ

KJ 2

KJ 3

KJ 4
KJ 5

K
K

- 42 -

233

LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION K2-2


Introduction K1-2-2

Laplace Transform


{Exponential FunctionsSinusoidal Function

ESFComplex VariableAlgebraic Functions

KS-plane

Complex S-plane K2-2-2


complex variable
WK

K Real PartJ

.j Imaginary Part

Y- x-axis
KS-planeE1J 2F
j
s-plane
1

1 + j1

s1

S-plane1J2

- 43 -

axis

233


G (s)
WS

G (s) =Re G(s) +Im G(s) E1J 2F


WEJ 2F

b 0 s m + b1s m 1 + ....... + b m
G(s) =
a 0 s n + a 1s n 1 + ....... + a n

W
(s z )(s z )........(s z )

1
2
m
G(s) = K (s p )(s p )........(s p )
1

E2J 2F

S-plane

poles E P1 P2 , .., Pm FsEsF
zero E Z1 , Z2 , , Zn FXEXF
poleKEOF

W1J 2
Gs Poles and Zeros
G(s) =

25( s + 4)( s + 2)
s ( s + 3)( s + 5) 2

WS-plane

W
Poles
2
s(s + 3)(s + 5) = 0

S1 0,

S2

=-3(simple poles) and s3,4 second order pole F5J Z


- 44 -

233

WZeros
25(s + 4)(s + 2) = 0

s1 = 4 , s 2 = 2 (simple zeros)

poles and zero


E2J 2F

j
S-PLANE

G-PLANE

SIMPLE
POLE

SECOND
ZEROS
ORDER POLE

X
-5
C

O
-4
E

X
-3
B

O
-2
D

X
-1

E1J2F S-planeE 2J2F

W2J 2
S-
G(s) Poles and Zero

G(s) =

G(s) =

K ( s + 4)
( s + 6)( s 2 + 2s 10)

K(s + 4)
(s + 6)(s + 1 + j3)(s + 1 j3)

- 45 -

Wplane
W
W

233

Wpoles

(s + 6)(s + 1 + j3)(s + 1 j3) = 0

W
s1 = 6, s 2 = 1 j3, s 3 = 1 + j3

poles
E3J 2FS-plane

Kand zeros

j
S-PLANE

COMPLEX POLE
B

- +3

ZEROS

SIMPLE
POLE

- +2
A
x

-6

-5

D
o

-4

- +1

-3

-2

-1

- -1
- -2

COMPLEX POLE
C

- +4

- -3
- -4

E2J2F S-planeE 3J2F

Laplace Transformation K3-2-2


t)fF

KESF F(s) EtF


SJ

WK

f(t) = a function of time t


s = a complex variable

- 46 -

233

ZL

ZEf(t) F(s

Wt(f)

st
l[ f (t )] = F ( s) = e dt[ f (t )] = f (t )e dt E3J 2F
st

W3J 2

Step Functions

K E4J 2F


W
f (t ) = 0
f(t) = K

for t 0
for t 0

f(t)

E 4J2F

- 47 -

233

W
W

l[ f (t )] = K e st dt

F (s) =

K st
e
S

l[ f (t )] = F ( s ) =

K
K
e e 0 =
S
S

K
S

if K = 1 then F ( s ) =

1
S

(Unit step function)

W4J 2
Ramp Function

EtFE5J 2F

f (t ) = 0

for t 0

f(t) = Kt

for t 0

KK
f(t)

K
1
t

E 5J2F
- 48 -

233

W
W

F ( s) =

K
2
s

WEk=1F

F (s) =

K
2
s

(Unit - ramp function)

W5J 2
Exponential Function
WE6J 2F

f (t ) = 0

f(t) = e

Kt

for t 0

for t 0

KK
W
W

f(t)

E 6J2F

- 49 -

233

l[ f (t )] = e e dt = e ( s + k )t dt
kt

st

1
e ( s + a ) t
S+K
1
l[ f (t )] = F ( s ) =
S+K
F ( s) =

1
1
e e 0 =
[0 1]
S+K
S+K

W6J 2
Sinusoidal Function

WE7J 2F

f (t ) = 0
f(t) = sin t

for t 0
for t 0

Sin t

t0

E 7J2F

W
W0

L[sin t ] = F ( s ) =

s +2
2

WEcos t F
- 50 -

233

f (t ) = 0
f(t) = cos t

for t 0
for t 0

L[cos t ] = F ( s) =

s
s +2
2

EtF

E1J 2FEsF

1 f(t) = 15

W7J 2
W

2 - f(t) = 5 + 4e -2t

3 f(t) = t - 2e -t
4 x(t) = 20sin4t
5 - y(t) = 2t + cost
6 - h(t) = 100 + 14t + 8cost

W
WE1J 2F

15
s
- 2t
2 - F(s) = L[5 + 4e ] = L[5] + L[4e t ]
15
4
9(s + 10)
= +
=
s s + 2 s(s + 2)
3 F(s) = L[t - 2e -t ] = L[t ] L[2e t ]

1 F ( s ) = L[15] =

1
2
(1 + s - 2s 2 )
)

(
)
=
s +1
s2
s 2 ( s + 1)
4
80
4 X(s) = L[20sin4t] = 20[ 2
]= 2
2
s +4
s + 16
2
s
5 Y(s) = L[2t + cos3t] = 2 + 2
s
s +9
100 14
8s
+ 2+ 2
6 H(s) = L[100 + 14t + 8cost] =
s
s
s +1
=(

- 51 -

233

f(t)

F(s)

unit impulse (t)

Unit step 1(t)

e-at

te-at

sin t

cos t

tn

tne-at

1
s2
1
s+a
1
(s + a) 2

2
s + 2
s
2
s + 2

(n=1,2,3,)
(t=1,2,3,)

1
(e at e bt )
b -a
1
(be bt ae at )
b -a

10
11
12

1
s

1
1

(be at ae bt )
1+

ab a b

13

e-atsin t

14

e-atcos t

n!
s n+1
n!
(s + a) n+1
1
(s + a)(s + b)
s
(s + a)(s + b)
1
s(s + a)(s + b)

(s + a) 2 + 2
s+ a

15
16

1
(at 1 + e at )
2
a

1 2

e n t sin n 1 2 t

1
1
17

(s + a) 2 + 2

= tan

e n t sin( n

1
2

s (s + a)

2n
s 2 + 2n s + 2n

1 2 t )

s
2

s + 2n s + 2n

1 2

E1J 2F
- 52 -

233

Laplace Transform Theorems K4-2-2


W

Multiplication by a ConstantWE1F
Wf(t)F(s)k

L[kf(t)] = kF(s) E4J

2F

Sum and DifferenceWE2F

W f 2 (t) f1 (t) F2 (s) F1 (s)

L[f1 (t) f 2 (t)] = F1 (s) F2 (s) E5J

2F

DifferentiationWE3F

t=0 f(0) f(t) F (s)

L[

df(t)
] = sF(s) lim f(t) = sF(s) - f(0) E6J
t 0
dt

2F

Kt=0f(t)f(0)
W

L[

d 2 f(t)
] = sF(s) sf(0) - f (0) E7J
dt 2

2F

IntegrationWE4F

Wsf(t)
L[ f ( )d ] = F(s) + f
s

(0)
s

E8J 2F

f -1 (0) = f(t)dt at t = 0 Wt=0 f -1 (0)

KE1J 2F
- 53 -

233

Inverse Laplace Transformation K5-2-2

F(sF KEtFEsF
W L1 Kf(t)

L-1 [ F (s)] = f (t ) E9J

2F
W

EF(s)=Laplace transformation of f(t

L-1 = Inverse laplace transformation

W8J 2

F(s) =

s + 10

W
W
E1J 2F4
Wa=10

f(t) = L1[

1
] = e 10t
s + 10

W9J 2

F(s) =

27

s + 81
2

F(s) = 3

- 54 -

9
s + 92
2

W
W

233

E1J 2F6

W = 9 3

f(t) = L1[F(s)] = 3sin9t K

E1J 2F

E2J 2FK
W

G ( s) = K

( s z1 ) (( s z 2 )..........(s - z m )

( s P1 )(s - P2 )...........( s Pn )

E Z1 , Z 2 ,..... Z m F K


K n m
W

F(s) =

A1
A2
An
+
+ ....... +
s + p1 s + p 2
s + p n1

E10J 2F

- 55 -

233

WE A1 , A 2 ,..... A n F

A1 = (s + p1 ).F(s)

s = p1

A 2 = (s + p 2 ).F(s)

s = p2

A n = (s + p n ).F(s)

s = pn

E10J 2F A1 , A 2 ,..... A n

WK

F(t) = L-1[F(s)] = A1e

-p1t

+ A 2e

-p 2t

+ ........ + A n e

-p nt

W10J 2
W

F ( s) =

( s + 3)
( s + 1)( s = 2)

W
W

F(s) =

A1
A
+ 2
s +1 s + 2

W A1 , A 2

A 1 = (s + 1)

s+3
(s + 1)(s + 2)

A 2 = (s + 2)

s+3
(s + 1)(s + 2)

-1 + 3 2
= =2
-1 + 2 1

-2+3 1
=
= 1
- 2 +1 1

s = 1

s = 2

W1

F(s) =

2
1

s +1 s + 2

- 56 -

233

F(t) = L-1 [

2
1
] L-1 [
]
s +1
s+2

f(t) = 2e - t e -2t

11WJ 2
W

X ( s) =

200
s(s + 10)

W
W

X(s) =

A1
A2
+
s s + 10

W A1 , A 2
A1 = s

200
s(s + 10)

A 2 = ( s + 10)

=
s =0

200
= 20
0 + 10

200
s ( s + 10)

=
s = 10

200
= 20
- 10

X(s) =

20
20

s s + 10

20
20
] L-1 [
]
s
s + 10
f(t) = 20 - 20e -10t

f(t) = L-1 [X(s)] = L-1 [

- 57 -

233

W12J 2
W

Y(s) =

12
s( s + 1)(s + 4)

W
W

Y(s) =

A
A1 A 2
+
+ 3
s s +1 s + 4

W A1 , A 2 A 3
A1 = s

12
s(s + 1)(s + 4)

=
s =0

12
12
=
=3
(0 + 1)(0 + 4) 4

A 2 = (s + 1)

12
12
12
=
=
4
s(s + 1)(s + 4) s =-1 1(1 + 4) 3

A 3 = (s + 4)

12
s(s + 1)(s + 4)

=
s = 4

12
12
=
=1
- 4(-4 + 1) 12

3
4
1
Y(s) =
+
s s +1 s + 4
3
4
1
y (t ) = L-1 [ Y(s)] = L-1 [ ] L-1 [
] + L-1 [
]
s
s +1
s+4
y (t ) = 3 4 e t + e 4 t

K6-2-2
modeling of translational Mechanical systems
massE8J 2F

piston Kspringdashpot

- 58 -

233

dampingviscous friction
K

Kf

KK
m

Ky
KB

E8EJ84JF

2F

K J 1

K J 2
K J 3

F = ma E11J

2F

m=mass
a=acceleration

force
- 59 -

233

M) MassFJ

M=

w
s

W = weight

g = gravity Eg=9.8066F

W f m (t )
f m (t) = Ma(t) = M

d 2 y (t )
dv(t )
=M
E12J
2
dt
dt

2F
KV(t)W

B) Viscous FrictionFJ

W f B (t)

f B (t) = B

dy(t)
E13J
dt

2F

B = viscous friction

y(t) = displacement

- 60 -

233

K) Linear SpringFJ

W f k (t)
f K (t) = Ky(t) E14J

2F

E1J 4FEKF

WE8J 4F

dy
d2 y
- Ky = m 2
dt
dt
E15J
2
d y
dy
f = m 2 + B + Ky
dt
dt
f =B

2F

WE15J 2F

d2 y
l[m 2 ] = m[s 2 Y(s) - sy(0) - y (0)]
dt
dy
l[B ] = B[sY(s) - y(0)]
dt
l[Ky] = KY(s)
l[f] = F(s)

y(0) = y(0) = 0 W

(ms 2 + Bs + K)Y(s) = F(s) E16J 2F


WE7J 4F

T.F. =

Y(s)
1
=
2
F(s) ms + Bs + K

E17J 2F

- 61 -

233

W
Ei(s)
Input
ms2

E0(s)
Ouput

1
+Bs + K

EE99JJ42F
F

y Ky

Edy/dtF EB(dy/dtK

K
s 2 Ed/dtF s

KE4J 6F (d 2 /dt 2 )

WE13J 2F
E10J 2F
K

X1
MASS
f(t)

X2
SPRING

M1

K1

B1 FOR MASS M1

MASS

SPRING

M2

K2

B2 FOR MASS M2

K E10J4F
E10J 2F

- 62 -

233

W
x 1

f(t) = M 1

d 2 x1
dx
+ B1 1 + K 1 ( x 1 x 2 )
2
dt
dt

0 = M2

x 2

d 2 x1
dx
+ B1 1 + K 1 ( x 1 x 2 )
2
dt
dt

F(s) = (M 1s 2+ B1 s + K 1 )X 1 (s) K 1 X 2 (s)

0 = (M 2 s 2 + B2 s + K 2 ) X 2 ( s ) + ( K 2 K 1 ) X 1 ( s )

X 2 (s)/F(s) X 2 (s) X 1 (s)

K7-2-2
Modeling of Rotational Mechanical Systems
EJ 2F

angular velocity


damper

BJ T
K

B1

E11
J 2J4F F
K
E11

- 63 -

233

KJ=moment of inertia of the load

Kf=viscous-friction coefficient

angular velocity (rad/sec)

T=torque applied to the system

WE F J)F
T =J E18J 2F

=angular acceleration (

rad/sec 2 F

J) InertiaFJ
W TJ (t)

T(t) = J (t) = J

d (t)
d 2 (t)
=J
E19J
dt
dt 2

2F

(t) W

- 64 -

233

(velocity friction) BJ

W TB (t )

TB (t) = B

d(t)
E20J
dt

2F

B=viscous friction

(t) angular displacement

K) Torsional SpringFJ
W
Tk (t) = K (t) E21J

2F

spring constantEKF

WE0J 4FE8J 4F
T B = J

d
dt

d
T = J
+ B
dt

E22J 2F

WE22J 2F

- 65 -

233

T(s) = (Js + B) (s) E23J

2F

W
(s) =
T(s)

1
E24J
Js + B

2F

W
Ei(s)
Input

E0(s)
Ouput

1
Js +B

K
E12
F

E 9J4F2

WE13J 2F
E13J 2F

SHAFT

PUMP
T2
T1

J1
1 2

J2
F

MOTOR


E13J 2F
K
E13J4F

- 66 -

233

W
W 2 1

T1 = (J 1 s 2 + K )1 K 2

= K1 + (Js 2 + Fs + K ) 2

K 2 1

Control Valves K3-2


E14J 2F

Valve Body

14J 2
- 67 -

233

15J 2

Direct Action Valves

Reverse Action Valves

15J 2

Control Valve Sizing

??

psi1

Cv=5
Kpsi1

KE2J 2F

- 68 -

233

E2J 2F

Cv

0.3
025
3
0.5
14
1
35
1.5
55
2
108
3
174
4
400
6
725
8
1100
10
W

QG = 960C v

QL = Cv

P1 P2
GL

( P1 + P2 )( P1 P2 )
G R (T + 460)

W = 90C v

P1 P2
V1 + V2

W
W
W

Valve Flow CoefficientWCV


Gas Specific GravityWGR

Liquid Specific GravityWGL

ESteam Flow Rate (lb/hourWW

EValve Inlet Pressure (psiWP1

EValve Outlet Pressure(psi) (psiWP2

EGas Flow Rate (ft3/hour at 14.7psia and 60FWQG

ELiquid Flow Rate (Gallon/minWQL


EGas Temperature (Degree FWT
- 69 -

233

Steam Specific Volume at the Valve WV1

Eft3/lbF Inlet

Steam Specific Volume at the Valve WV2

EOutlet (ft3/lb

W
GL=0.92
Safety

Factor=0.25P1-P2=60psiQmax=320Galon/lmin

QL=1.25Qmax
W

QL = Cv

P1 P2
GL

Cv = QL

GL
P1 P2

1J 5Cv=49.5QLP1-P2

inches2

_Types of Industrial Controller K4-2



Two-position (ON-OFF) ControllerJ 1


EProportional Controller (P-ControllerJ 2
EIntegral Controller (I-ControllerJ 3

EDifferential Controller (D-ControllerJ 4


PI-ControllerJ 5

PD-ControllerJ 6

PID-ControllerJ 7
- 70 -

233

Two-position (ON-OFF) Controller K1-4-2


M
E16J 2F
K E
F

+
R

Max
Min

B=C

F .
E16
E1JJ72F

M=MaxEFfor E>0E25J 2F
M=MinEFfor E>0E26J 2F


E
FM

K
{

- 71 -

233

EProportional Controller (P-Controller K2-4-2




E17J 2F
K K P

+
R

Kp

B=C

KE17
E2JJ7F2

F .

K P

K P K

EF K P K
WK

m(t) = K P e(t) E27J

M(s) = K P E(s) E28J

M(s)
= K P E29J
E(s)

2F

2F

2F

K
E18J 2F

EaF

Ka K P

- 72 -

233

e(t)

m(t)

aKp
a

E18 EJ3J7
2FF
.

I-Controller K3-4-2

K E19J 2F
ER=CF

W
E=R-C=0

+
R

KI
S

B=C

K E4JE719
F

J 2F .

- 73 -

233

t e(t)dt
m(t) = K I
0
1
M(s) = K I E(s)
s
M(s) K I
=
E(s)
s

E30J 2F

E31J 2F


E20J 2F

Ke(t)=a

e(t)

m(t)

K
7F

E20J E25FJ
.

WE30J 2F

m(t) = K I

t a dt

m(t) = K I a t + C

E32J 2F

m(t)t


E20J 2F

K K I
- 74 -

233

reset rate K I

K I KRC


K K I
K K I

D-Controller K4-4-2



EcontrollerrateFKE21J 2F
K

+
R


KDS

B=C

KE21
E6JJ7F2

F .

EF

E22J 2F
Kunit step function

- 75 -

e(t)

233

m(t)

m(t)

1
0

E22J E 7
2JF7
K
F.

Et=0F

K EF
KE

x(t)=0

PI-Controller K5-4-2


K P


E23J 2F

K P


K
K I
TI
KP ,

1
KI

K I , or TI
KE

1
F
TI s

K
- 76 -

233

+
R

KP

+
+

KI
S

B=C

K
.

E23J E82J7
F F

m(t) = K P e(t) + K I e(t)dt E23J


0

2F

M(s) = K P E(s) +

KI
K
E(s) = (K P + I )E(s)
s
s

K
M(s)
= KP + I
E(s)
s

E24J 2F

K1 KE24J 2F

K
K P

- 77 -

233

m(t)

e(t)

2KP
KP

K
EJ5J7

E24
2FF
.

E23J 2F

KE25J 2F

+
_

+
KP

+
1
TnS

B=C

K
E 8JJ72FF

E25
.

WE

KP
KP

FE34J 2F

- 78 -

233

K K
M(s)
= KP + I P
E(s)
s KP
K
M(s)
= K P (1 + I )
E(s)
K Ps

M(s)
1
= K P (1 +
)
KP
E(s)
s
KI
M(s)
1
= K P (1 +
) E35J
E(s)
Tn s

2F

K P ,

Tn =

KP
= K P TI
KI

Tn

Tn
K P E8J 7F
K

PD-Controller K6-4-2


KE26J 2F K P

+
R

KP
+
+

K DS

B=C

K
J7F

E26J 2EF11

- 79 -

233

m(t) = K P e(t) + K D

d
e(t) E36J
dt

2F

M(s) = K P E(S) + K D SE ( s )
M(s)
= K P + K D S E37J 2F
E(S)

Tv KE27J 2F

K K P , Tv K

+
_

+
KP

+
1
TVS

B=C

K
EJ8J72FF
.

E27

E28J 2F

E F

Et=0F


K

- 80 -

233

e(t)

m(t)

KP
1

E28
J J27F
.
K
E 13
EF

m(t) = K P t + K D

dt
dt

m(t) = K P t + K D E38J

2F

E28J 2F

K Tv

PID-Controller K7-4-2

KE29J 2F

WE2.39F

m(t) = K P e(t) + K I e(t)dt +K D


0

d
e(t) E39J
dt

2F

KEFEEe(tFE m(t) F
- 81 -

233

KP

+
R

KI
S

K DS

B=C

E29
J J27F
K
E14
.

K D K I K P

WE39J 2F

K
M(s)
= K P + I + K D S E40J
E(S)
s

2F

E30J 2F

+
_

KP

1
TnS

+ +
+

1
TVS

B=C

F .
KEE30
15JJ7F2
- 82 -

KP
KP

233

FE40J 2F
W

K K
K
M(s)
= K P + I P + K DS P
E(S)
s KP
KP

M(s)
1
= K P (1 +
+ Tv S E41J
E(S)
Tn s

2F
W

TI =

K
1
, Tn = TI K P , Tv = D
KI
KP

K P K P , Tv , Tn

EF
Tv Tn K

E31J 2FK
K

e(t)

m(t)

m(t)

1
0

KP
t

E31
JJ72FF
.

E 7

(F

- 83 -

233

- 84 -

233

Poles and zeros

J 1

Ws-plane

(a ) G(s) =

10(s + 2)
s ( s + 1)( s + 10)

(c) G(s) =

10(s + 2)
s (s 2 + 2 s + 2)

(b) G(s) =

(d) G(s) =

10s(s + 1)
( s + 2)(s 2 + 3s + 2)

e -2t
10s( s + 1)( s + 2)

W
(a ) g(t) = 5te 5t u(t)

J 2

(b) g(t) = (t sin 2t + e 2t )u(t)

(c) g(t) = 2e 2t sin 2tu(t)

(d) g(t) = sin 2t cos 2tu(t)

(a) G(s) =

1
s ( s + 2)( s + 3)

(b) G(s) =

10
( s + 1) 2 ( s + 3)

(c) G(s) =

100(s + 2)
s (s 2 + 4)( s + 1)

(d) G(s) =

2( s + 1)
s ( s 2 + S + 2)

(e) G(s) =

1
( s + 1) 3

(f) G(s) =

J 3

2( s 2 + s + 1)
s ( s + 1.5)(s 2 + 5s + 5)

T.F

J 4

- 85 -

233

mechanical network

J 5

J 6

- 86 -

233

J 7

J 8

KJ

J 9

- 87 -

233

KJ


J 10
K

KJ

- 88 -


]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

233

K1J 3

K2J 3

K1J 2J 3

K2J 2J 3

K3J 2J 3
K4J 2J 3

K5J 2J 3

K6J 2J 3

W
W

- 89 -

233

Transfer Function K1-3

Ktransfer function

initial
WKconditions

a y ( m ) + a1 y ( m1) + ... + a n -1 y + an y

( m)

( m 1)

= bo x + b1 x + ... + bm1 x + bm x (n m)

E1J 3F

y= output of the system

x=input of the system

E1J 4F
W

bo s m b1 s m 1 + ... + bm 1 s + bm
Y(s)
Transfer Function = G(s) =
=
X(s) a o s n + a1 s n 1 + .... + a n 1 s + a n

E2J 3F

- 90 -

233

WE1J 3F
W

Ey'(t)+y(t)=2x(t0.1


EsY(s)+Y(s)=2X(s0.1

Y(s)
Es+1)Y(s)=2X(s0.1F

G( s) =

Y ( s)
2
=
X ( s ) 0.1s + 1

KEFE1J 3F

R(s)

E(s)
G(s)

C(s)

R(s)

G( s)
1 + G( s)H ( s)

C(s)

B(s)
H(s)
E F

EF
E1J 3F

EFE1J 3F
- 91 -

233

E(s)=R(s)-B(s)
B(s)=C(s)H(s)
E(s)=R(s)-C(S)H(s)

C(s)=E(s)G(s)

C(s)=[R(s)-C(s)H(s)]G(s)

C(s)[(1+G(s)H(s)]=R(s)G(s)

T ( s)

C ( s)
G( s)
=
R( s ) 1 + G ( s ) H ( s )

EF10J 1

Eunity feedbackF
H(s)=1
W

T ( s) =

G( s)
1 + G( s)

- 92 -

233

WE2J 3F
E2J 3F
R(s)
+

K1 ( s + 20)
s

1
s

1
s

C(s)

K2

K 3 (s + K 4 )
s + K5

E2J 3FE2J 3F

W
K1
K 1
s

K1 ( s + 20)
s

K2
K 1
s

E3J 3F K3

- 93 -

233

K1 ( s + 20) / s 2
K K ( s + 20)
[1 + 1 2
]s
s2

R(s)
+

C(s)

K 3 (s + K 4 )
s + K5

E2J 3FE3J 3F

T(s)E3J 3F K4
T ( s) =

K1 ( s + 20)( s + k 5 )
C ( s)
=
R( s ) s[( s 2 + K1 K 2 ( s + 20)][ s + K 5 ] + K1 K 3 ( s + 20)( s + K 4 )

Time Domain Analysis of Control Systems K2-3




transient K

steady state responseresponse


W

C(t) = C t (t) + C ss ( t)

C t ( t) = transient response

C ss ( t) = steady state response


Reference input K
Ksteady state error

- 94 -

233


Typical Input Signals K1-2-3

KEF

rampstepK

K impulse acceleration

Step Function InputJ


t0 r(t)E1J 5F

W t 0 R

Or,

r(t) = 0

t 0

r(t) = R

t0

r(t) = Ru s (t)

E3J 3F
E4J 3F

WY

R=real constant

u s (t) = the unit step function

- 95 -

233

J
Slope = R

r(t)

r(t)
R

r(t) = Rus(t)
r(t) = Rtus(t)

(a)

E F

(b)

EF

r(t)
r(t) = Rt2us(t)

(c)

E F

K
E 1J5
K
EF4
J 3F

Ramp Function InputJ


t0 r(t) E5J 3F

Or,

r(t) = 0
r(t) = Rt

WK t 0
t 0
t0

r(t) = Rt u s ( t)

E5J 3F
E6J 3F

Acceleration Function InputJ


K t 0 t 0 Er(tE4J 3FK
W

r(t) = 0

Or,

r(t) = Rt 2

t 0
t0

1
r(t) = ( )Rt 2 u s ( t)
2

- 96 -

E7J 3F
E8J 3F

233

Classification of Control Systems K2-2-3



Order of SystemJ
KS

Characteristic equation

Ws

KJ 1

KdJ 2

KsJ 3

KsJ 4

Type of SystemJ

KEH(sEG(sJ 1
KEGH(sJ 2

KSEGH(sJ 3

KSJ 4

WE3J 3F
E5J 3F

- 97 -

R(s)

233

10

C(s)

(S2 + 2S + 2)

K
S

E 2EJ5
K
5JF
3F

W
W

10s
s(s + 2s + 2) + 10 K
10s
= 3
2
s + 2s + 2s + 10 K

G(s) =

K 3S

10K
s(s + 2s + 2)
10K
=
s(s + 1 + j)(s + 1 - j)

G(s)H(s) =

KEF1

- 98 -

233

Steady State Error K3-2-3


WE3J 5F

R(s)

E(s)

G(s)

C(s)

H(s)

KEE36JJ5F3
F
K

C(s)
G(s)
=
R(s) 1 + G(s)H(s)

E(s) = R(s) - C(s)


E(s) = R(s) - E(s)G(s)H(s)

E(s) + E(s)G(s)H(s) = R(s)


E(s)(1 + G(s)H(s)) = R(s)

WR(s)E(s)

E(s)
G(s)H(s)
1
= 1
=
R(s)
R(s)
1 + G ( s) H ( s)

WE(s)

E ( s) =

1
R( s)
1 + G ( s) H ( s)

- 99 -

233

sR(s)
E9J
s 0 1 + G(s)H(s)

e ss = lim e(t) = lim E(s) = lim


t

s0

3F

Steady State Error for Step InputJ

WE9J 3F

s
1
s 0 1 + G(s)H(s) s
1
=
1 + G(0)H(0)

e ss = lim

WPosition eror constant K P

K P = lim G ( s ) H ( s ) = G (0) H (0)


s 0

e ss =

1
1+ KP

Steady State Error for Ramp J


Input

WE9J 3F

s
1
s 0 1 + G(s)H(s) s 2
1
= lim
s 0 sG(s)H(s)

e ss = lim

Wvelocity error constant K v


Kv = lim
sG(s)H (s)
s 0
E10J 3F
W
e ss =

1
Kv

- 100 -

E11J 3F

233

Steady State Error for J


Acceleration Input
WE9J 3F

s
1
s 0 1 + G(s)H(s) s 3
1
=
2
lim s G ( s ) H ( s )

e ss = lim

Wacceleration error constant K a


K a = lim
s 2 G(s) H(s)
s 0
E12J 3F

W
e ss =

1
Kv

E13J 3F

Eand2{0,1F E1J 3F

r(t) = t

1 / (1 + K)

Type 0

1/K

Type 1

1/K

Type 2


r(t) = t2

r(t) = 1

K
E1J E31FJ
KKK

5F

- 101 -

233

WE4J 3F
E K a K v J K p F

ess KE7J 3F

s+2

s+4

s(s + 1)

K
E7JE43J5
F
K
F

W
WE12J 3FE10J 3F

4( s + 2)
=
s ( s + 1)( s + 4)
4( s + 2)
Velocity error constant
K v = lim sG ( s ) = lim
=2
s 0
s 0 s ( s + 1)( s + 4)
S 4( s + 2)
Acceleration error constant K a = lim s 2 G ( s ) = lim
=0
s 0
s 0 s ( s + 1)( s + 4)
Position error constant

K p = lim G ( s ) = lim
s 0

s 0

WE9J 3F ess J

e ss = 1 /(1 + K p )
e ss = 1 /(1 + ) = 0

- 102 -

233

E11J 3F ess J

e ss = 1 / K v

e ss = 1 / 2.

WE13J 3F ess

e ss = 1 / K a

e ss = 1 / 0 =

K p

WE5J 3F
W ess

K p = 1 / 19 Type

K v = 0.2 Type

K a = 0.5 Type

1J
2J

W
= 1 / 19 Type 0 e ss J
W

K v

0J

e ss = 1 /(1 + K p ) = 1 /[1 + (1 / 19] = 0.95

= 0.2 Type

K a

0 ess J
W

e ss = 1 / K v = 1 / 0.2 = 0.95

= 0.5 Type

0 ess J
W

e ss = 1 / K a = 1 / 0.5 = 2

- 103 -

233

Transient Response of First Order


K4-2-3
Systems
E8J 3F
KS

R(s)
Input

C(s)
Output

Ts + 1

K
E5J5F
K
E8J
3F

unit step c(t)

Wfunction

r(t) = 0
r(t) = 1

t 0
t 0

R(s) = 1/s

E14J 3F


E5J 5F

C(s) =

1
R(s)
Ts + 1

W
E15J 3F

WE15J 3FE14J 3F

C(s) =

1
s(Ts + 1)

E16J 3F

C(t)T

Winverse laplacepartial fraction

A
A2
1
= 1+
s(Ts + 1)
s
Ts + 1

- 104 -

233

W A1 , A 2
A1 = s

1
s(Ts + 1)

A 2 = (Ts + 1)

s =0

1
= =1
1

1
s(Ts + 1)

=
s =

1
T

1
= T
1
T

1
T
C(s) = +
s Ts + 1
1
1
C(s) =
1
s
s+( )
T

1
C(t) = L1 [C(s)] = L1 [ ] L1 [
s

1
s+( )
T

-t

C(t) = 1 - e T

t0

C(t) = 1 - e -at

t 0 E17J

a=

3F

E6J 5F
KE17J 3F

- 105 -

233

Input

C(t)
+

1
0.018
Output
1
a

2
a

3
a

4
a

5
a

ts

5F
K
E9J E 6
3JF

Transient Response of Second Order K5-2-3


Systems

SE10J 3F
K2

R(s)

++

E(s)

C(s)

n2
s(s + 2n )

KK
E10

EJ7J35F
F

n2
C(s)
= 2
R(s) s + 2 n s + n2

E18J 3F

W
- 106 -

n is

233

the undamped natural frequency

is the damping ratio of the system

C(t)
E7J 3Fdamping ratio
W

C(s) =

R(s)
s + 2 n s + n2
2
n

W R(s) = 1
s

C(s) =

E19J
s ( s + 2 n s + n2 )
2
n

3F

WE18J 3F

C ( s) =

A1
A2
1
+
+
s s P1 s P2

W
A1 ,

A 2 constants

P1 , P2 roots

of partial fraction

of the second order equation

W
C(t) = 1 + A 1e P1t + A 2 e P2 t E20J

- 107 -

3F

233

A1 =
2 2 1

P1 = n + n 2 1

A2 = +
2 2 1

P2 = n n 2 1

E A1 , A 2 , P1 , P2 F

WE , n F

under damped system 0 1 J


Complex conjugates E P1 , P2 F

under _E A1 , A 2 FS

Wdamped system

P1 , P2 = n j n 1 - 2

c(t) = 1

e n t

2 1

sin( d t + ) E21J

3F
W

d = n 1 2

= tan 1 (

E22J 3F

2 1
E23J

3F
W

d = damping natural frequency. 1 2

Critically damped System = 1 J


negative real and equal rootsE P1 , P2 F
E A1 , A 2 FS

Wcritical damped system

- 108 -

P1 , P2 = n

233

c(t) = 1 e n t (1 - o t)

E24J 3F

Over damped System 1 J


S
E P1 , P2 F

Over damped E A1 , A 2 F

Wsystem

P1 , P2 = n n 2 - 1

W
c(t) = 1

e -a1t e -a 2 t
+
) E25J
a2
2 2 1 a1
(

3F
W

a 1 = n ( + 1 2 )

a 2 = n ( 1 2 )

Underdamped System = 0 J

SE P1 , P2 F
W

P1 , P2 = j o

- 109 -

233

c(t) = 1 cos(o t) E26J 3F

EFE11J 3F

y(t)

s-plane
X

f1

y(t)

s-plane

X
X

0
=1

s-plane

y(t)

0 p p1

0
X

j
y(t)
s-plane

=0

0
X

K
F
K
E11J E 83JF5

- 110 -

233

Performance Characteristic of Control system K6-2-3


C(tF

E12J 3F

J J J
F

KEJ

c(t)

Mp

0.05
or
0.02

Allowable
tolerance

1
0.9
td
0.5

0.1
0
tr
tp
ts

KE12J 3F
K E 9J5F

Delay TimeE t d FJ

Rise TimeE t r FJ

K9010

W

- 111 -

233

KE

tr =

E27J 3F

= 3.14 FEradFS

W d

1 2
d
1
) E28J
= cos = tan ( ) = tan (

d = n 1 2

3F

E29J 3F

W
= n E30J

3F

( Peak Time t p FJ

tp =

E31J 3F

Maximum OvershootE M p F

EF

- 112 -

Mp =e

1 2

E32J 3F

233

( Settling Time t s FJ

2F
EF

WKE5

t s = 4T =

t s = 3T =

4
4
=
n
3
3
=
n

at 2% criterion E33J

3F

at 5% criterion E34J

3F

WE6J 3F
= 0.6 EFE7J 5F
W n = 5 rad/sec

E t r FJ

E t p FJ

E t s FJ

E M p FJ
W
W
d = n 1 2 = 5 1 0.6 2 = 4 rad/sec
= n = 0.6 5 = 3

4
= tan 1 ( d ) = tan 1 ( ) = 53.13

= 53.13

3.14
= 0.93 rad
180

tr =

rise time

3.14 - 0.93
=
= 0.55 sec
d
4

- 113 -

233

tp =

settling time

3.14
=
= 0.785 sec
d
4

peak time

Mp =e

)
d

4 4
= = 1.33 sec for 2% criterion
3
3 3
t s = = = 1 sec for 5% criterion
3

ts =

maximum overshoot
=e

3
( ) 3.14
4

= 0.095

- 114 -

M p = 0.095 100 = 9.5%

233

system typeJ
unity feedback systems

K
(1 + s)(1 + 10s)(1 + 20s)
10(s + 1)
(c) G(s) =
s ( s + 5( s + 6)
10(s + 1)
(e) G(s) = 3 2
s ( s + 5s + 5)
(a) G(s) =

10e -0.2s
(1 + s)(1 + 10s)(1 + 20s)
100(s 1)
(d) G(s) = 2
s ( s + 5( s + 6) 2
100
(f) G(s) = 3
s ( s + 2) 2

(b) G(s) =

type and orderJ 2


K

EJ J F K p , K v and K a J 3
unity feedback system
W

- 115 -

233

(a) G(s) =

1000
(1 + 0.1s)(1 + 10s)

(c) G(s) =

K
s (1 + 0.1s )(1 + 0.5s )

(e) G(s) =

1000
s(s + 10)(s + 100)

100
s(s + 10 s + 100)
100
(d) G(s) = 2 2
s (s + 10 s + 100)
K(1 + 2s)(1 + 4s)
(f) G(s) =
s 2 ( s 2 + s + 1)

(b) G(s) =

K ess J 4
1
s +s+2
1
(b) - G(s) =
s( s + 5)
1
(c) - G(s) = 2
s ( s + 10)
1
(d) - G(s) = 2
s ( s + 12)
(a) - G(s) =

H(s) =

1
s +1

H(s) = 5
H(s) =

s +1
s+5

H(s) = 5( s + 2)

unit step inputJ

unit ramp inputJ

n , n , , t r , t p , M p, and t s J 5
W

M (s) =

K
s + 10s + (7 + K )
2

Wforward gain K

K=18EF

K=218EF
K=618EF

KK

- 116 -

233

WJ 6

y ' (t ) + 10 y (t ) = 10 x (t )
y ( 0) = 0

5 t 0
x (t ) =
0 t < 0


J 7

10 y ' (t ) + y (t ) = x (t )
y ( 0) = 0
10 t 0
x (t ) =
0 t<0


y" ( t ) + 3 y ' ( t ) + 2 y ( t ) = 2 x ( t )
y (0) = y ' (0) = 0,

J 8

1 t 0
x (t ) =
0 t < 0

- 117 -

233

y" (t ) + 2 y ' (t ) + y (t ) = 10 x (t )
y (0) = y ' (0) = 0,

J 9

1 t 0
x (t ) =
0 t < 0

y" (t ) + 4 y ' (t ) + 8(t ) = 16 x (t )


y (0) = y ' (0) = 0,

J 10

5 t 0
x (t ) =
0 t < 0

- 118 -


]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

- 91 -

233

K1J 4

K2J 4
K3J 4

K4J 4

K5J 4

K6J 4

K7J 4

- 119 -

233

Closed-loop Control 1-4


K

Actuating signal

Controller

Input signal

(command)

Output signal

feedback -path
System
components

forward-path
System
components

(controlled variable)

K
1J 4F

E4-1)E

block diagramE1J 4F

controller KE

plant

EFK

K

operational amplifier

- 120 -

233

Kplant E
F
K

2-4

SimulinkK

3-4
1J 3

b(t)r(t)b(t)r(t)
R(s)

E(s)

C(s)
G(s)

r(t)

e(t)
B(s)

c(t)

H(s)

b(t)
E2J 4F

- 121 -

233

Kc(t)
e(t ) = r(t ) b(t )
EH(s)=1F

e(t ) = r (t ) c(t ) E1J 4F

E ( s )) = R( s ) C ( s ) E2J 4F
W

T ( s) =

C ( s)
G( s)
=
E3J 4F
R( s ) 1 + G ( s )

C ( s) =

G( s)
R( s ) E4J 4F
1 + G( s)

W2J 3C(s)

E ( s) =

1
R ( s ) E5J 4F
1 + G( s)

1-1
2-1
E3J 4F

Gp(s)

Gc(s

- 122 -

R(s)

233

E(s)
Gc(s)
e(t)

r(t)

P(s)

C(s)
Gp(s)

p(t)

c(t)

E3J 4F

Gp(s)FEGc(s)

G(s)=Gc(s)Gp(s)

G c ( s )G p ( s )
C ( s)
=
E6J 4F
R( s ) 1 + G c ( s )G p ( s )

W
1

E ( s ) = 1 + G ( s )G ( s ) R( s ) E7J 4F
c
p

4-4
W
p(t)=Kpe(t)

P(s)= KpE(s)
W

G c ( s ) = K p E8J 4F
- 123 -

233

WR0
R0 t 0
r
t
=
(
)

0 t<0

R( s ) =

R0
s

W
G p ( s) =

1
s + 1

7J 3R(s)Gp(s)Gc(s)

E ( s) =

1
1
1+ K p
s + 1

R
0
s

E9J 4F

9J 3
E ( s ) = R0

s + 1
s(s + 1 + K p )

E10J 4F

e ss = lim sE ( s ) = lim sR0


s 0

s 0

s + 1
s(s + 1 + K p )

R0
1+ K p

E11J 4F

- 124 -

233

E11J 4F

KKKp

Simulink

r (t ) = 1 G p ( s ) =

1
W
s +1

Kp =2

Kp =5

K p = 10

K3J 3
1

KP=10

KP=5

KP=2

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

KE4J 4F

- 125 -

233

5-4
W

p (t ) = K I e( )d
0

Gc ( s) =

W
KI
s

E12J 4F

WR0
t0
t<0

R
r (t ) = 0
0

R
R( s) = 0
s

G p ( s) =

1
s + 1

E7J 4FR(s)Gp(s)Gc(s)

E ( s) =

1
K
1
1+ I
s s + 1

R
0
s

E13J 4F

13J 3

E ( s) =

s(s + 1)

R
0 E14J 4F
(s 2 + s + K I ) s

- 126 -

233

e ss = lim sE ( s ) = lim s
s 0

s 0

R0
s (s + 1)

= 0 E15J
s (s + 1 + K I )

4F

E15J 4F

Simulink

W r (t ) = 1 G p ( s ) =

s +1

K I = 0.1 K I = 0.2 KI = 0.3 K I = 2


E5J 4FESimulinkF
K
1.4

KI=2

1.2

KI=0.

KI=0 3

0.8

KI=0.1

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

15

4J 3

E5J 4F

- 127 -

20

233

6-4
W
t

p(t ) = K p e(t ) + K I e( )d
0

Gc ( s) =

K ps + KI
s

E16J 4F

t0
R0:
t<0
R
R( s ) = 0
s

r(t ) =

R0
0

W
G p ( s) =

1
s + 1

7J 3R(s)Gp(s)Gc(s)

E ( s) =
1+

1
K ps + KI
s

1
s + 1

R
0 E17J 4F
s

16J 3
E ( s) =

s(s + 1)

R
0
s 2 + s( K p + 1) + K I ) s

E18J 4F

- 128 -

233

R
s(s + 1)
e ss = lim sE ( s ) = lim s 0
= 0 E19J
s (s 2 + s(1 + K p ) + K I )
s 0
s 0

4F

E19J 4F

Simulink

r(t ) = 1 G p ( s) =

s +1

K I = 2,

K p =1

K I = 1,

K p =1

K I = 1,

Kp =2

E6J 4FESimulinkF
K

K I = 2,

K p =1

K I = 1,

K I = 1,

0
0

Kp =2

K p =1

5J 3

- 129 -

233

7-4
W

p(t ) = K p e(t ) + K I e( )d + K D
0

de(t )
dt

W
Gc ( s) =

KDs2 + K ps + KI
s

E20J 4F

t0
R0
t<0
R
R( s ) = 0
s

r(t ) =

R0
0

W
G p ( s) =

1
s + 1

7J 3R(s)Gp(s)Gc(s)

E ( s) =
1+

KDs2 + K ps + KI
s

s + 1

R
0
s

E21J 4F

- 130 -

233

20J 3

J 4F

E (s) =

s(s + 1)

R
0 E22
( + K D ) s 2 + ( K p + 1) s + K I ) s

J 4F

R
s(s + 1)
= 0 E23
e ss = lim sE ( s ) = lim s 0
2
s ( + K D ) s + ( K p + 1) s + K I
s 0
s 0

E23J 4F

SimulinkE7J 4F

r (t ) = 1 G p ( s ) =

s +1

K I = 1,
K I = 1,
K I = 2,

K p = 1 , K D = 2 W

K p = 1 , K D = 1 W

K p = 1 , K D = 0.2 W

- 131 -

233

KEPIDFE8J 4F

Kp

1
Constant

1
Ki

G(s)

Kd

simout

s+1
To Workspace

du/dt

PIDSimulimk7J 4

K I = 1,

K p = 1, K D = 2

K I = 2,

K p = 1 , K D = 0.2

K I = 1,

K p = 1, K D = 2

0
0

10

15

E8J 4F

- 132 -

233

J 1
W


R(s)
r(t)

E(s)

1
s +1

e(t)

C(s)
c(t)

F(s)

f(t)

J 2
W


R(s)
r(t)

E(s)
e(t)
F(s)
f(t)

10
s+2

C(s)
c(t)

2
s+4

J 3

J 4

- 133 -

233

K J 5
K

R(s)

E(s)

r(t)

e(t)
B(s)
b(t)

C(s)

K
s+2

c(t)

2
s+4

WJ 6

ess
Kp

C(s)

Constant

s+2
Sum1

Ki

1
s

- 134 -

G(s)

233

WJ 7

1
Constant

ess

Kp

Ki

C(s)
1

s+1
G(s)

Kd

du/dt

- 135 -

233


AC Motor

Actuator

Analog

Armature

Automation

Block Diagram

Bode Diagram

Cascade
Characteristic Equation
Characteristics

Chart Recorder

Closed Loop

Compensator

Control system

Control Valve

Controlled Variable

Controller

Critical Damping

Cutoff Frequency

Damping

DC Motor

Delay Time

Derivative
Derivative Controller
Design

- 136 -

233

Digital

Disturbance

Dynamic

Error

Feedback

Feedback Path
Final Control Element
Flow Meter

Flow rate

Forward Path
Frequency Response
Gain

Gain Crossover
Frequency
Gain Margin

Hydraulic

Input

Integral

Integral Controller

Lag Compensator

Laplace Transform

Lead Compensator

Level

Magnitude

Manual Control

Matrix

Motor

Open Loop

- 137 -

233

Oscilloscope

Output

Over Damping

Overshoot

Parallel

Peak Time

Performance
Permanent Response
Phase Crossover
Frequency
Phase Margin

Phase Shift

Pneumatic

polynomial

Potentiometer

Process
Programmable Logic
Control
Proportional
Proportional Controller
Reference Input
Resonance Frequency
Response

Response Curve

Rise Time

Root

Sensor

Series

- 138 -

233

Set Point

Settling Time

Signal Conditioning

Signal Conversion

Simulation

Specification

Stability

Stability Criteria

Step Input

Stepper Motor

Summing Junction

System

Tachometer

Take off Point

Time Constant
Time Domain Response
Transducer

Transfer Function

Transient response
Two Position Control
Underdamping

Unit step

Unity Feedback

- 139 -

233

1. Modern Control System, R. C. Dorf, Edison Wesley, 1990


2. Control System Design, C. T. Chen, Saunders College Publishing,
1993.
3. Feedback Control System, John Van De Vegta, Prentice Hall, 1990.
4. Automatic Control Systems, B. Kuo, Prentice Hall.
5. Johnson, C. D. Process Control Instrumentation Technology,
Prentice Hall, 2002
6. Bateson, R. N. Introduction to Control Systems Technology, Prentice
Hall, 2002
7. Ogata, K. Modern control Engineering, Prentice Hall, 1997
8. Dorf, R. C. and Bishop, R. H. Modern Control Systems, Addisson
Wesley, 1998
9.

1991

- 140 -

233

K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

1K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

2K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
3K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
4K K K K

IntroductionJ K1J 1

WECommon Control System's ComponentsF1-2.

4 K K K K Illustrative Examples of Control SystemsK3J 1


11 K K K K K K

WEFlow GraphFEBlock DiagramFK4J 1

11 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

Block DiagramK1J 4J 1

14 Construction of Block DiagramK2J 4J 1


14

Block Diagram Transformation Theorems1-4-3.

17 K K K K K K K K K K K K K Signal Flow GraphK4J 4J 1


20 K K K Mason's Rule For Signal Flow Graphs1-4-5.
23 K K K K K K K
23 K K K K K

Classification of Control SystemsK5J 1

Open Loop Control SystemsK1J 5J 1

24 K K K K K K K K K

Closed-loop ControlK2J 5J 1

25 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
25 K K K K K K K K K

K6J 1

Feedback ControlEF1-6-1.

25 K K K K K K K Feedback Control Systems1-6-2.


26 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

K7J 1

29 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K8J 1
30

Reduction of Complicated Block DiagramsK9J 1

36 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
40 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

41 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

42 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K1J 2
43 K K K K K K K K K K K

LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION2-2.

43 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
-141-

IntroductionK1J 2J 2

233

43 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Complex S-plane2-2-2.
46 K K K K K K K K K K K K
53 K K K K K K K
54 K K K K K K

Laplace TransformationK3J 2J 2

Laplace Transform Theorems2-2-4.


Inverse Laplace TransformationK5J 2J 2

58 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

K6J 2J 2

63 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

K7J 2J 2

67 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
70 K K K K K K K K
71 K K K K K K
72 K K K K K

Control ValvesK3J 2

_Types of Industrial ControllerK4J 2

Two-position (ON-OFF) ControllerK1J 4J 2


EProportional Controller (P-ControllerK2J 4J 2

73 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K I-ControllerK3J 4J 2
75 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
76 K K K K K K K K K K K K K

D-ControllerK4J 4J 2

PI-ControllerK5J 4J 2

79 K K K K K K K K K K K K K PD-ControllerK6J 4J 2
81 K K K K K K K K K K PID-ControllerK7J 4J 2
85 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
89 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W
89 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
90 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

Transfer FunctionK1J 3

94 K K K Time Domain Analysis of Control Systems3-2.


95 K K K K K K K K K K K
97 K K K K K K

Typical Input Signals3-2-1.

Classification of Control SystemsK2J 2J 3

99 K K K K K K K K K K K K K Steady State ErrorK3J 2J 3

Transient Response of First Order 3-2-4.


104 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Systems
Transient Response of Second Order 3-2-5.
106 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Systems
Performance Characteristic of Control systemK6J 2J 3
111 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
115 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
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233

119 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

119 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

120 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Closed-loop Control1J 4


121 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 2J 4
121 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 4-3
123 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

4-4

126 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 4-5
128 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 4-6
130 K K K K K K K K K K K

4-7

133 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
136 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K
140 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

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EF
GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS