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Migration theory H.

Otley Beyer s scheme of Philippine prehistory, inspired by Robert Heine Gelderns 1932 neolithic scenario, postulated the peopling of the Philippines via several migration waves- starting with a core population of a primitive human type similar to the Java man of 250,000 years ago. There was an incursion of an Australoid-Sakai type, the first of the two pygmy groups that came from the south over land bridges some 25,000 to 30,000 years ago followed by the Proto-Malay , a group that came from Borneo via Palawan and Mindoro some 12,000 to 15,000 years ago, then the Indonesian A, who came to the Philippines by boat around 5,000 to 6,000 years ago and now comprises the tall, slender inhabitants of the North; Indonesian B , shorter, dark-skinned and stockier, filtering in from Indochina and South China to Luzon and Formosa also by boat about 1500 BC, and finally the Malay, of the Mongoloid features representing an ancient mixture of Indonesian and Mongoloid elements coming from the south.

Science appointed him as an Ethnologist and returned to the Philippines in 1910. He did fieldwork on the Ifugaos,Igorots, Apayaos, Kalingas and Christians

of Ilocos, Pangasinan and Pampanga. He also made compilations of historical documents now known as the Philippine Ethnographic Series. The 150-volume series contains data on different tribes of Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago. He even contributed to the preservation of ethnological excavations from Luzon and Mindanao as he was a part-time head of the Philippine Museum in 1909. Legacy Beyer was one of the founding members of the Department of Anthropology of the University of the Philippines. He became head of the department in 1925. After the discovery of the Novaliches dam site in 1926, he put up the universitys museum where he preserved his collections of artifacts, stonewares, prehistoric tools, jewelry, Chinese ceramics and textiles. He continued his archaeological work in Batangas, Laguna de Bay Basin, and Central Luzon. It was during this time that he published the Philippine Ethnographic Series and the Philippines Before Magellan. Beyer worked on a remarkable site in Rizal province and recovered, from the RizalBulacan and Batangas surveys, a history of the Central Luzon population for more than 10,000 years. From 1936-1937 , he worked on Philippine textiles. His paper on this was published in the annual report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1942. The late President Manuel L. Quezon asked Beyer to donate all his archaeological collections provided that the government would provide an adequate museum to house them; but work on putting up a museum had not begun since the war started in 1941. Beyer was appointed Emeritus Professor of

Life and career He was born on 13 July 1883 in Iowa. He attained his bachelors degree from Iowa State College and a masters degree in Chemistry from University of Denver in Colorado. After visiting the Louisiana Purchase Centennial Exposition in Saint Louis in 1904, his passion for anthropology escalated, inspiring his lifelong involvement with the Philippines. He was determined to travel to the country and decided to join the Philippine Ethnological Survey in 1905. It was during that time that the Philippine Reorganization Act relocated the Ethnological Surveys Office to the Department of Education. David P. Barrows, who was the head of the department, permitted Beyer to go to the Philippines and conduct a study among the Ifugaos. A month after his appointment to the Philippine Ethnological Survey, he moved to Manila. He also studied Philippine language, mythology, folklore, customs, law and prehistory. He traveled to China, Egypt, Southern Asia, North Africa and Europe in 1908, and finished the graduate program under the Robert Winthrop Scholarship at Harvard University. A year later, the Philippine Bureau of

Anthropology after leaving the university in 1954. For his great contributions on the study of Philippine

archaeology, ethnology and history, he was awarded an honorary doctorate in science from Silliman University, a doctor of science in anthropology from Ateneo de Manila University and a doctor of laws from the University of the Philippines. Death He died in the Philippines on 31 December 1966 and was buried in an Ifugao burial shed on one of the hills of Banaue. Migration Theory The first migrants were what Beyer caked the Dawnmen (or cavemen because they lived in caves.). The Dawnmen resembled Java Man, Peking Man, and other Asian Home sapiens who existed about 250,000 years ago. They did not have any knowledge of agriculture, and lived by hunting and fishing. It was precisely in search of food that they came to the Philippines by way of the land bridges that connected the Philippines and Indonesia. Owing perhaps to their migratory nature, they eventually left the Philippines for destinations unknown. The second group of migrants was composed of dark-skinned pygmies called Aetas or Negritoes. About 30,000 years ago, they crossed the land bridged from Malaya, Borneo, and Australia until they reached Palawan, Mindoro and Mindanao. They were pygmies who

went around practically naked and were good at hunting, fishing and food gathering. They used spears and small flint stones weapons. The Aetas were already in the Philippines when the land bridges disappeared due to the thinning of the ice glaciers and the subsequent increase in seawater level. This natural events forced them to remain in the country and become its first permanent inhabitants. Because of the disappearance of the land bridges, the third wave of migrants was necessarily skilled in seafaring. These were the Indonesians, who came to the islands in boats. They were more advanced than the Aetas in that: they had tools made out of stone and steel, which enabled them to build sturdier houses: they engaged in farming and mining, and used materials made of brass; they wore clothing and other body ornaments. Last to migrate to the Philippines, according to Beyer, were Malays. They were believed to have come from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula more than 2,000 years ago. Like the Indonesians, they also traveled in boats. The Malays were brown-skinned and of medium height, with straight black hair and flat noses. Their technology was said to be more advanced than that of their predecessors. They engaged in pottery, weaving, jewelry making and metal smelting, and introduced the irrigation system in rice planting.
4) In sexually reproducing species, generally no two individuals are identical. Variation is rampant.

Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution

Darwin's theory of evolution is based on five key observations and inferences drawn from them. These observations and inferences have been summarized by the great biologist Ernst Mayr as follows: 1) Species have great fertility. They make more offspring than can grow to adulthood. 2) Populations remain roughly the same size, with modest fluctuations. 3) Food resources are limited, but are relatively constant most of the time. From these three observations it may be inferred that in such an environment there will be a struggle for survival among individuals.

5) Much of this variation is heritable. From this it may be inferred: In a world of stable populations where each individual must struggle to survive, those with the "best" characteristics will be more likely to survive, and those desirable traits will be passed to their offspring. These advantageous characteristics are inherited by following generations, becoming dominant among the population through time. This is natural selection. It may be further inferred that natural selection, if carried far enough, makes changes in a population, eventually leading to new species. These observations have been amply demonstrated in biology, and even fossils demonstrate the veracity of these observations. To summarise Darwin's Theory of Evolution; 1. Variation: There is Variation in Every Population. 2. Competition: Organisms Compete for limited resources. 3. Offspring: Organisms produce more Offspring than can

survive. 4. Genetics: Organisms pass Genetic traits on to their offspring. 5. Natural Selection: Those organisms with the Most Beneficial Traits are more likely to Survive and Reproduce. Darwin imagined it might be possible that all life is descended from an original species from ancient times. DNA evidence supports this idea. Probably all organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial life form. There is grandeur in this view of life that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved.

each other. Again, these natural processes of selection ensure that the one that is the fittest will survive. The species that cannot adapt or survive becomes extinct. Several factors about a species tend to adapt during this process. These are height, weight, body hair and so on. Another trait that becomes important is the attractiveness of a species towards each other or another species for the purpose of ensuring potential reproductive partners. This is called Sexual Selection. The process of Adaptation takes places slowly within a species. Modifying bone structures etc. is one such process. For example certain bones become useless and either disappear or remain in the process of disappearance. The tail bone present in human beings (or Homo Sapiens) is a good example of such a process.

(Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species)

Evolution Theory: Evolution of Man

According to biology, the term evolution has been defined as the change in the inherited traits of a population from a generation to the next. The idea is that these genetic traits are passed on to offspring during the process of reproduction. New traits enter the genetic pool when either a population migrates from one habitat (area) to another and adapts or a species reproduces with another species. During this process, the final outcome species that manages to adapt by either means survives, whereas the unfit ones become extinct. This process is called Natural Selection. The Theory of Evolution based on the process of Natural Selection was first propounded by Charles Darwin in his book On the Origin of Species published in 1859. In that book Darwin also maintained that all the species have descended from a common genetic pool. This theory has formed the basis of modern biological thought which explains the diversity of life on Earth. Darwin's Theory Of Evolution

Within the explanations of Darwins Theory of Evolution it has also been explained that the process of Natural Selection ensures that these genetic changes enhance the process of reproduction and they become more common from this generation to the next. Thus, many traits which are proved to be useful are passed on to the offspring. More offspring are produced so that this process can work and ensure that the surviving offspring are the ones which are best suited or adapted to the new habitat or environment. Eventually, these Species begin to vie for survival amongst