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Modul Bahasa Inggris

Modul Bahasa Inggris

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12/31/2012

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Sections

  • Understanding Types of Text
  • Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis)
  • Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)
  • Procedure (Prosedur)
  • Discussion Text
  • Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)
  • Report
  • Spoof Text
  • What is Spoof?
  • Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu)
  • Recount Text
  • Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)
  • Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses
  • Good Translation
  • Recording Mommy Journey
  • Good Young Mother
  • Recommended Software Applications
  • Writing job application letters
  • Addressing job application letters:
  • The Introductory Paragraph:
  • The main body of job application letters:
  • Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
  • Similarities and differenties
  • The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
  • Between Explanation and Procedure Text
  • Between Recount and Narrative
  • A Complete Overview Of Tex Types
  • Bentuk Soal Reading
  • Dust Bin
  • Learning English
  • Smoking in Restaurant
  • The Importance of Reading
  • Offering Help
  • Introducing your self and other people
  • Greeting (memberi salam)
  • Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)
  • Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)
  • Congratulations (ucapan selamat)
  • Special Days - Social Language
  • Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)
  • Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)
  • Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)
  • Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat)
  • Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju)
  • Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)
  • Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)
  • Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)
  • About the adverb 'really'
  • For example:
  • Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)
  • Request (permintaan)
  • Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan)
  • Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)
  • Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan)
  • LANGUAGE USAGE
  • DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech)
  • PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif)
  • DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)
  • QUESTION TAGS
  • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian)
  • RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung)
  • SUBJUNCTIVE WISH
  • CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET
  • GERUND
  • PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan)
  • CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)
  • CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung)
  • ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION

DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

1

DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................23 News Item Text.................................................................................24 What is News Item? ..........................................................................24 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................27 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................27 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................ 39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................49 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................51 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................54 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................55 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................55 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................57 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

...................................................................101 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH.......................................................103 GERUND .........................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) .....................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).............99 QUESTION TAGS ...............105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)......................................106 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ....................................105 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ...............................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) .......................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ......................................................................................................................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.................................................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .............

1. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Procedure 12. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Recount 6. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Review 7. Report 4. Spoof 5. Hortatory Exposition 3. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Anecdote 9. why is the text made?. Narrative 11.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. These types of text are. 2. Explanation 2. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Analytical Exposition 8. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. News Items 13. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. The language feature. Descriptive 10. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3.

Smoking however is not good for every body else. and especially talk to someone. Thirdly. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. cars are very noisy. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. which causes them to die. the city is very busy. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. lung cancer. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. or concentrate on your homework. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Argument Firstly. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. as we all know. cars. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Secondly. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. it is better to look at the fact. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Reiteratio In conclusion. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Additionally. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. In one hour in smoky room. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If you live in the city. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . As we all know. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. the risk is nineteen greater. cars create pollution. and ‘triggers’ off asthma.

The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Furthermore. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. That wil be true if the conditions. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. As the US. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. In this example of analytical exposition text. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit.

(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis.dsb. students need book. misalnya Many people believe. dsb.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. and then complete the transaction. leaded petrol car. misalnya policy. The students just need to brows that online shop. dsb. this method will help student to get better understanding. pollution. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. • Action verbs. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. dsb. From all of that. students need more to reach their progressive development. pen. misalnya car. • Technical verbs. misalnya we must preserve. dsb • Modal verbs. eraser. in this multimedia era. decide which computer or laptop they need. secondly. dsb. • Abstract nouns. drawing book. (Simplified from the jakartapos.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Secondly. misalnya She must save. • Bahasa evaluatif. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. Penguatan pernyataan. • Connectives. misalnya certainly. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. That is really easy and save time and money. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. dsb. misalnya species of animals. dsb. misalnya It is important. misalnya C. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above Small Notes thesis. we. Additionally. • Modal adverbs. dsb. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. government. misalnya firstly. First. 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. • Thinking verbs. • Reiteration . Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates Ciri Umum: the thesis in another phrases to point the (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: writer'opinion. • Relating verbs. ruler and such other stuff.

Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. D. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog.Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. For instance. If Hindi translation is provided. India translation will grow better and. Arabic translation. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. India is likely being an English speaking country. Students just need to decide which type they really need. It seems Indonesia. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. you might have one link in your dialogue SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Therefore. E. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. According to Nida. Career in Translation Functionally. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. It tries to bring the precise message in different language.

Using simple past tense 4. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. because. then. Orientation 3. do you know what? 4.box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Using rhetoric question. go. Using exclamation words. etc 5. 3. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. it's wonderful!. Abstract 2. write. Using imperative. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. etc • Causal conjunction . Using action verb. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Using conjunction of time. it's awful!. 2. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. which had been SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Incident. Crisis 4. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. listen to this 3. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. afterward 6. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. etc 2.

their children to America. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath. there were being quarantined for long days. was(a) Tujuan interested in the quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakanout of the way or whole business. dsb. The family worked and saved. who luckily came(Cerita Lucu) Ciri a broom. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. However few days before their departure. Then I Anecdote running and yelled for my husband. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. The doctor sewed up the boy. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. Suddenly to my horror. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. so we set to. afterwards. The father was full of disappointed and anger. Five days latter. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. seperti then. They had a dream to go to America. • seruan/kata seru. Anna. spitting and hissing at us. It had taken isn’t it? dsb. Indeed I had to pull her kejadian/peristiwa lucu she’d probably have leant over berdasarkan khayalan atau better the bath to get a peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. The ship. who killed the snake with the handle of Umum: was only three at the time. had shank. passport. Blessing behind Tragedy  Koda (Coda) There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. misalnya go. The family dreams were dashed. look! Ever since then I’ve always(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure put the plug in firmly  Abstrak (Abstract) before running the bath water. It took hundreds of SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . several years but finally they had saved enough money. They were Clark family with (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nine children. They had gotten • action verbs. He shed tears of disappointment. and turned on the tap.  Pengenalan (Orientation)  Krisis (Crisis) Example of Anecdote  Tindakan (Incident) A. dsb. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. the mighty Titanic. For an instant I stood thereSmall Notes quite paralysed. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! They were making plan to travel with And do you know what? It’s awful.Crisis Incident Coda empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. America. write.

He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. there is something wrong last minute before it. It made they were being quarantined. He thanked God for saving their lives. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. They had to forget their plan. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. or thing. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. they were left behind. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. Examples and structures of the text Identificati MacQuarie University Macquarie University is one of the largest universities 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English . The father was angry with his son and God. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. They had dream to travel to America. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. • Description. or/and characteristics. You have and so do I. It was unbelievable but it was. The Clak family should have been on that ship. describing the phenomenon in parts. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. place. • Using simple present tense 4. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. When the dream will come true. When the father heard the news. identifying the phenomenon to be described. qualities.passenger and crew with it. but because of the bitten son by a dog. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. 2. 3.

She really have perfect appearance. When she are walking on that shoes. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . casual. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. This shoes really matches on her. all her friends. In three years1 time. She is really mad on that shoes. She always pays much attention on her appearance. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Ballet. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. yet retaining its beautiful site. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. In 1964. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe.on in Australia. a grass amphitheatre. She said that the products covered all genders. attractive and trendy. Example of Description A. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. Today. bright color. This year. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. Recently. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. a railway station is under construction. The products provide varieties of choice. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. The style. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. She is beautiful. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. native plants and eucalypts. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. Sydney. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. in 2004. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition.

Borobudur is well-known. The upper three are circular.8 km of passage and starways. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. B.The temple is constructed. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Cambodia. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Indonesia. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. valuable • Using simple present tense. Central Java. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace.boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. Borobudur is located in Magelang. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu .Budhist temple. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Borobudur temple • Description.

The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes.  Description. enough money to take Snow White. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. It has very thick fur. misalnya teacher.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. but my favourite one is a cat. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. Misalnya: I have many pets. • berbagai macam adjectives. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. sifat-sifat (characteristic). White. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . a sweet young lady. sharp white fangs. • action verbs. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. house. misalnya. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. • simple present tense. perilaku umum. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. better or worse 3. dsb. kualitas. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. bersifat describing. numbering. dsb. dsb. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. two strong legs. 2. classifying. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik.my cat. dsb. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. misalnya fast. misalnya. dsb. dsb. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. My mum is realy cool.

She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. “Without question. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. As they were about to have dinner. The first gave her some left over food. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. said. The psychological conflict inside Maura. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. in what way she will decide who the best is. one of the dwarfs. They want to know what next will happen. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. Then Snow White woke up. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. “Oh could I? Thank you. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . “So it is Hakim I will marry”. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. which she strikes against herself. They went inside.” Doc.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. One evening. She saw the dwarfs. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him.” Snow White said. Example of Narative A. who was called Hakim. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. Maura asked them for something to eat. They were also rich and strong. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. Hakim. you may live here with us. had many suitors. There they found Snow White sleeping. The dwarfs said. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. The third sheik. “what is your name?” Snow White said. The following day. One by one she discarded them. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. “My name is Snow White. “If you wish. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. who received a plate of delicious meat.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. After dinner. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story.

He could not bear it. Masalah. waktu. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. misalnya here. dsb. The parrot could say every word. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. long black hair. except one word. soon. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). Although he tried hard to teach. konflik dalam cerita. Penyelesaian masalah. happily ever after. the parrot would not say it. Complication. stayed. There was no other parrot like it. misalnya then. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. misalnya. Pengenalan tokoh.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. • action verbs dalam past tense. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. climbed. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. “You know. The name of the place was Catano. dsb. misalnya. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. Resolution. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. dsb. housework. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. I will cut the chicken 17 . “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. two red apples. before that. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.dsb. the man really got very angry. stepsisters. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. Then he continued to humble. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. phrase. dsb. in the mountain. At the first. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. a man had a wonderful parrot. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation.

“Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. I will eat you too. They had two daughters. Batara Guru could not bear it. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. She attracted Batara Guru so much. He liked fishing. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. readers see the problem is finished. To fix this problem. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it.for my meal. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. A man and his parrot took place once time. They found their mother and talked her about it. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. That was the smartest parrot. paragraph 2. The daughters were crying. he caught a fish. He made the fish free. the man attempted to teach the bird. In that parrot story. C. The fish begged him to set it free. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. the man came back to the chicken house. 4 are describing the complication. They were married happily. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . 3. rising crisis and climax of the story. It will show the crisis. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. One day. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. There were three death chickens on the floor. He felt in love with that fish-woman. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. He could not control his mad. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. In the parrot story. As soon as it was free. stupid parrot”. He opened the door and was very surprised. The next day. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. At the moment. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. there was a handsome man. Next it will be your turn. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. After that he left the chicken house.

Cinderella”. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. A few days later. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. such as scrubbing the floor. hardworking. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. “Why are crying. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. “You must leave before midnight”. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. “Well” said the godmother. The earth formed a very big hole. there was a young girl named Cinderella. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. Volcanoes started to erupt.”you’ve been such a cheerful. D. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. Magically. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. One day. It fitted perfectly. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. People believed that the big hole became a lake. and away went the sisters to it. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. on the other hand. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. and it became a beautiful ball gown. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. The two step sisters. did not work about the house. They treated Cinderella very badly. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. Cinderella?” a voice asked. she was driven to the palace. Batara Guru broke his promise. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. She danced again and again with the king’s son. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. Then the earth began to shake. Finally. In her hurry. The mother was shouting angrily. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. At last. she said. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. In the end.The mother was very annoyed. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. They were married and live happily ever after. the day of the ball came. “Now.

Then he said. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. said the buffalo. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. Complication. In the last paragraph. “Yes” said the man. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Orientation. “you are so big and strong. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. Complication: In this Cinderella story. 3. “No. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. farmer and his buffalo. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. Generic Structure Analysis 1. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. Resolution: Like complication. the man is very intelligent”. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. “oh. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. The Smartest Animal. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. “it at home”. The tiger asked. After the man went home. Resolution. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. E. Every morning and every evening. He took his plough and hit the tiger. One day. introducing specific participants. But the man answered. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Once there was a farmer from Laos. once in Laos 2. I can’t tell you”. “Can I see your intelligence?”. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily.

Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. saw. tie. 50 g cheese. spatula. fork. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. plate Method 1. cheese grater. answered thinking verb. hit time conjunction. Place on a plate. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. there was a farmer. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Add milk and whisk well 4. bowl. ¼ cup milk. after. was surprised to action verb. the next day past tense. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. the man tied the tiger. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Cook both sides 9. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. once. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. one day connectives. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order.

Finally. planting is a nice activity. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. the following is a guided information SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. put it in another big pot. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. next. wait it. put the seeding on the soil. dry a handful seeding. etc • Temporal conjunction. informing on how to plant chillies. excluded • Steps. Firstly. finally.10. • Material. put it. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. firstly. Example of Procedure A. etc • Action verb. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. dry. Here are the steps. put. It should be in open area Next.

might or should help customers but talk about how  Aim/Goal. while. Your customers don't care about Ciri Umum: you. • pola kalimat imperative. cara yang akurat.com/? expert=Daniel_F_O'connor misalnya. misalnya turn. fifty gram cheese. Well. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. Tujuan kegiatan your company will. Langkah-langkah. • Imperative sentences. writing the topic like the way it is talked. put. Edit it necesarily. misalnya for five minutes. not Procedure (Prosedur) features. Bahan-bahan Fourthly. Here's a simple checklist to follow. menyatakan rinci waktu. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. don’t.  Steps. read. write like you talked.  Materials. you need an egg. write. Read aloud what melakukan sesuatu melalui you've written. a pinch of satlt and SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . Writing For Business Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. Don’t mix. dsb. Small Notes Firstly. three tablespoons cookin oil.re-read what you've done before publishing. etc • Temporal conjunction. It's so easy to (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: make mistakes which you don't notice the Menggunakan: first time through. Use regular words. re-reading what have been written . but it will help. lose the weak words. mix. Thirdly. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. etc • Action verb. excluded • Steps/ method. write your benefit like you talk Memberi petunjuk tentang cara it. Language Feature Analysis • action verbs. informing on how to write for business • Material. firstly. Mix Procedure text them up and keep things interesting. Cut. to make a cheese omelet. How does it sound? serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. Use a nice rhythm. dsb. Fifthly. misalnya then. you don't have to. 2 centimetres from the top. a quarter cup of milk. etc C. reread what you have done.B. secondly. choosing the advantageous topic. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. Some Note: Materials are not required for all sentences are long and some are short. tempat. dsb. Don't (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure describe how your company may. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. showing the method in writing for business. take the topic of benefits. They want to know "What's in it for me?" (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Secondly.

Next. Next. you need some tools.pepper. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. First. Listen carefully. Resource of information 3. Focusing on circumstances 2. participant. Elaboration (background. Generic Structure of News Item 1. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. place) 3. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Language Feature of News Item 1. Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Using material process 4. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. spatula. fork. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . bowl and plate. cheese grater. The accident. add First. Main event 2. time. frying pan. such as. The events are considered newsworthy or important. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. 2.

“But this just a suggestion. Example of Procedure A. less then 10 percent are woman. Women are the first ones to get exploited by terlibat. a  Background Events. Latar belakang “This is not to debate them but to protect kejadian. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. In the past the headline event was held behind closed door. but the number is steadily rising. which was • Informasi singkat celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Malaysian Aids Council president. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. he said in the report. Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday  Sources. komentar Star Newspaper. SMA Students’ Modul of English (Source The Jakarta Post. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. even though they know they have HIV” she said. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms  Newsworthy events. 745 Malaysian women were identified verbs as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. news report said. June 01. dsb. 2008) 25 . And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: International Aids Memorial day. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. • Menggunakan action Last year. pendapat para ahli. woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. many women who contract HIV are housewives. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. in tertuang dalam bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. tempat their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” kejadian dsb.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Sumber Memberitakan kepada Informasi pembaca. to them”. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. it’s up saksi kejadian. orang yang them. pendengar Sources atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every Kejadian inti.

The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. 2008) An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. Last year. named Suwartin. Hong Kong. Saudi Arabia. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. the Saudi Interior Minister said. She had relationship the boy for five months. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Then the maid was arrested. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. Indonesian Maid beheaded (Adapted from Reuters. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria.Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. May 6. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner.bbc.co. (Taken from: www. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. Rape.news. The maid. SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused.

on the hand. may. Using material process. believe. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. Statemen I think we should have homework because it helps us to t of issue learn and revise our work. Resource. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. could. Background 3. feel. behead. hope. etc • Using modalities. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. historic. etc • Using additive. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. similarly. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. contrastive. and Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to Preview SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . 2. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points.Background 1. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. carry. deliberately. Background 2. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. should. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. and causal connection. must. hopefully. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. however. law of serious crimes. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. execute. etc 4. and social text. etc • Using adverbial of manner.

I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. and produces huge amounts of energy. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. doing homework is not a great idea. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. It is reliable. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It produces small amount of waste. Statemen t of various viewpoint s But. so it is not expansive to make. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. England in 1956. many times.remember what they have learned. Example of Discussion Text A.

hopefully. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. dsb. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. hope. dsb. misalnya uniforms. . misalnya feel. • adverbials of maner. misalnya smoking is harmful. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. dsb.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens.  Kesimpulan. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. Elaborasi (uraian). contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. on the hand. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. believe. alcohol. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. In many social activities. misalnya deliberately. must. dsb. People are increasingly concerned about this matter.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. This example of discussion text present the two poles. nuclear power is very. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. Gagasan Pokok 2. however. perception and recommendation.On the other hand. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. memberikan informasi secara padu. Furthermore. could 29 be. Elaborasi (uraian). a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. misalnya similarly. seperti perhaps. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. very dangerous. although it is reliable. dsb. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. should. should have been. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. dsb.

Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. Supporting point. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. It is often found in science. Using connectives. B. conservationists. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . geography and history text books. must.co. Many farmer and even conservationists. Contrastive point. Using thinking verb. Recommendation. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. (Taken from: www. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. believe. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Using modalities. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. farmer. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. however. hunting fox.bbc. scientific and cultural phenomena. social. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. 2.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue.

to begin with. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. next. Sequenced explanation. Featuring generic participant. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. rain. Language Feature • • • • 4. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Example of Explanation Text A. sun. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 .• • General statement. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. etc Using chronological connection. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities.

However the sun does not actually move around the earth. It is called as rotation.org) B. passive voice. misalnya the large cloud. But that is the case. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. noun phrase. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. misalnya the temperature. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. is not because as much people think we are complex sentences. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement.ictteachers.panda.co. sosialbudaya. simple present tense. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. The earth is actually closer to the sun in kalimat pasif winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. It takes 365 days or a year. (simplified from www. The earth also moves around the sun. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. (Taken from: www. action verbs. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. The sun seems to rise in the morning. earthquakes. abstract nouns. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. misalnya word chopping. This adverbial phrases.uk) SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. dunia ilmiah. Tsunami always bring great damage. This process is called revolution. conjunctions of time dan cause. It causes day and night. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the bahasa teksni. earth.

Using temporal connective. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Explanation. Arguments 3. surely.where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. Focusing on the writer 2. so. Using modal adverb. Using chronological connection.Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using thinking verb 5. Using pasive voice. daylight. Using abstract noun. then.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Using passive voice 9. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). advantage. valuable. etc 7. Using simple present tense 4. Using action verb 4. certainly. Thesis 2. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. you would be forgiven. 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . etc 6. I feel that when you travel through the country. firstly. important. Recommendation 3. but. 2. Using evaluative words. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. etc 8. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. etc 3. Using present tense. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. trustworthy. secondly. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. policy. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant.

we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. and the possibility of being aggressive. who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. Recomendation I feel that country people. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. and short sleep duration. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Meanwhile. especially violence.Those who want to penalise older . Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . consumerism and so on. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Considering some facts mentioning above. stress. pornography. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. However. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. of course. Recently.

and napkin everywhere. In the first paragraph. and news advertorial. When we look at classroom. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. mineral water cops. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. advertising. Both take place as argumentative essays. there papers. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment.presenting the supporting arguments. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. speech campaign. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. sales letter. So when students want to throw away their litters. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. In many social activities. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. More dust bins should be put beside each step. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. school corridors and schoolyard. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. straws. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. they can find the dust bins easily. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . If it is a hortatory text. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. Basically. B. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much.

C. As the alternative method of studying. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. it will be quite confusing. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. when they think about straightly seeking job.When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. So. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. the available time will be more flexible for them. Where should be after High School?. they will think hard about the time and cost. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. When they think about continuing study. In the other hand. it will be very hard to looking for job. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. In the same way. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. As result.

etc Report Text What is Report? 1. dsb. part per part . now there is a way out. Millions from Property Market. felt Using simple present tense. Action verbs. misalnya firstly. Modal adverbs. dsb. are you tired?.misalnya policy. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. Thinking verbs. doesn’t seem to have been . Argument. dsb. misalnya I believe . dsb. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. etc which will be discussed in general 2. misalnya should be. dsb. dsb. Albert Smith is the proof. Relating verbs. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. misalnya. Modal verbs. plant. Technical verbs.government dsb. animal. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. etc Using thinking verb. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif.D. dsb. misalnya certainly. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. Connectives. misalnya species of animals. We can show the way to give up work. valuable.we. secondly. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. make. Generic Structure of Report 1. reward Using action verb. as it is. there is a way out of financial problem. give up. public place. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . misalnya We must preserve. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Recommendation. he drives a sport car. misalnya important. we must save. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet.dsb.

Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Platypus' eyes and head are small. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud.• • Using conditional logical connection. As the bird lifts its head. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. In the other hand. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. when. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. Example of Report Text A. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. rivers. Platypus. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. perhaps two dozen birds. the animal of platypus. Platypus lives in streams. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. driving the fish before them. etc Using simple present tense 4. beating the water furiously with their wings. and lakes. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. stating general classification. so. and woolly layer of fur. A group.

but. qualities. kegunaannya jika non natural. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. keterangan. dsb. dan klasifikasinya. the animal of platypus conditional. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. in terms of parts.Description. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. habits or behaviors. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. misalnya lizards cannot fly. istilah teknis. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . benda buatan manusia. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. misalnya. logical connective. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. male platypus does not need any burrow. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. dsb. Platypus lives in streams. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). dsb. atau gejala-gejala sosial. dsb. lingkungan. apa adanya. dsb. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion .

animals or certain things 2. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Events 3. ran. Kejadian/peristiwa The next day the policeman saw the same / kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him.’ replied the man.1. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Dave found a nice office. 2. Orientation 2. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. ate. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . etc 3. ‘ I have / kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Focusing on people. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Language Feature of Spoof 1. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Told in chronological order 4. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Using adverb of time and place 4. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Twist 3. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Kejadian/peristiwa He took him to a policeman and said. Using action verb. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money.

Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. Instead leaving the country. Then “Remember. “You want me. B. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. benda tertentu. misalnya eat. In his office. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. I want you to leave the country. no children. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. He suddenly became a 1. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. terduga atau lucu). Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. He had not left the country yet. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. “Hey Abu Nawas. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. conversation on the phone. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. “If that is what you want.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Event 1: Being rich. Event 2: He had his new office. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. run. Then the man said to Dave. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. binatang. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. “Yes. verbs. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man.

young man and young woman. So you see. The king was not able to say anything. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. I have been walking on this stilts. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said.In the end. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. “I remember exactly what you said. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. I do not step on the ground. were talking noisily. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. Your Majesty. You have not left this country”.I did not enjoy it. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I do not step on the ground of this country”. look at you. (Adapted from S.guards. They did not pay any attention. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. The King continued “And now. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. The play was very interesting. I had a very good seat. I turned around again. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. I turned around. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. And since yesterday. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. I could not hear the actors. I could not bear it.I got very angry. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 .“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. They were talking very loudly. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. The king wondered and said “Abu. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. You walk on stilts like a child. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace.

It’s a private conversation”. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. The next day. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. “When I came here with my old clothes. The man was still carrying the penguin. So. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. D. “It’s none of your business. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. “Eat the food. nobody looked at me. He took it to a policeman and said. they just shook the head. you give food to my coat instead of me”. He put his coat and said. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. The host at once got up and came to meet him. When he arrived in the party. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. "Take it to the zoo!". I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. the policeman saw the man in the same park. Getting Nasreddin's answer. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. Then I went home and put on my best clothes.

penguin. They were in the park Event1. in the park Told in chronological order. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. first. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. was. etc • Using linking verb. go. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. The following day. etc • Using action verb. carry. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. Reorientation: It is optional. etc • Using chronological connection. once. I. Even. change. Orientation: Introducing the participants. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. place and time 2. He. walk up Using adverb of time and place. today I am taking it to the movie". chronological order by days.did. etc • Using simple past tense 4. So. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. policeman Using action verb. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. my group. then. saw. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. were. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. heard. look. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. Generic Structure of Recount 1.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin.

hear. They went to London. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. At the end of the 14-day. It was scary. In writer's point of view. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. They slept part of the way. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Then. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. They had a very pleasant flight. Richard’s family was on vacation. Mr. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. n Example of Recount text A. Instead of keys for the room. On the third floor. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . They gave them food and drink. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. The room had perfect view of the park. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. Vacation to London Mr.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. The officers were pleasant. We saw cockatoos having a shower. Richard with two sons. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. B. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. the thing is an experience. They had variety of food. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. Events Reorientatio In the afternoon we went home. and Mrs. It can be what the writer has done. they inserted a key-card to open the door. They are Mr. This includes travel and accommodation. They had booked fourteen days tour. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. There was a film for their entertainment. read. The two week in London went by fast. We stayed at David and Della’s house.

Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. past tense. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour.  Events. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. • • • • • . misalnya and. The event happened smoothly. the second was to Ubud. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. misalnya beautiful. the monkey. On the other hand. It is a busy but quiet town. SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. misalnya go. misalnya David. waktu dan cara. then. di mana dan kapan. Pengenalan. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. the on Tuesday. dsb. run dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. after that. On the day of the tour. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. dsb. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta.Small Notes and felt. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. misalnya We went to the zoo. C. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. but. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. recount describes series of events in detail. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. In simple way. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Rekaman peristiwa. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. She was happy dsb. 46 slowly dsb. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. misalnya yesterday. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. at my house. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. The first one was to Singaraja. funny. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. kejadian atau kegiatan. The first stop was at Batubulan. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. kejadian atau kegiatan. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. what happened on Sunday. then on Monday. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. sleep. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. we dsb. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation.  Reorientation. he was ready.

I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. The car lunched to one side. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. When I reached my town. I was trapped by the rock. I was on the car. D. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. I was on my car. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. then. Even I could not move my car at all. using first person point of view. in the town. Events. to the left. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. I • Using chronological connectives. Re-orientation. The next stop was Celuk. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. was. etc E. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. introducing the participant. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. my car lunched on one side. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. I was on the car las week. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. and. were • Using action verb. left. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. He was quiet satisfied. Although nothing was left. all his day was spent on the beach. earthquake happened. made. suddenly • Using linking verb. moved. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. describing a series of event which happened. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week.a center of stone sculpture. etc. I thought I got flat tire. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. stating the writer's personal note. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. There were rocks everywhere. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. When the earthquake happened. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. walked. I did not know that it was an earthquake. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. like matchsticks.

the ceremony was quite elaborate. and dancing. you find words and phrases used to start. connect a sentence with the next one. It took about a week. After that. chanting. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. and end your composition. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. Finally. A recount text has an orientation. and then moved the corpse to face north. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. Then. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. 48 • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. a series of events in chronological order. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. However. we were feasting. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. there were also buffalo matches. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. After that. They were great matches. Those words and phrases are: First. In the text. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. Then. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. my uncle. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. First. Several days before the ceremony was done. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian.Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. On the last day. The funeral was performed in two phases. my brother. Overall. In the night. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. During the day. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. Meanwhile. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. Questions 1.

However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. After clearly explanation. It states the parts. It can be product. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. It is personal idea about the product. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. worthy. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Using adjectives SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 .• Finally. or just a site which want to be known publicly. 3. valuable. etc. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. As I said in my previous post. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Dominant Language features: 1. Focus on specific participants 2. Review Text What is review text 1. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. useful. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. uniqueness. Definition Review is one of text genres. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. services which want to be sold.

fast-paced. Using long and complex clauses 4. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. and parts of it do seem long. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. however. He goes from being a warm-hearted.3. I cried!) as sad as it was. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. In some (Interpretativ instances this works. intriguing. I was truly moved by the last page. especially with being a teenager and all. Examples and structures of the text Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan / I absolutely love the Harry Potter series.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. for example . considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing.. and all of the Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart.housekeeping is still housekeeping. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. magical or no. this was not my favorite. and ultimately satisfying. I actually liked the ending (and yes.you feel a whole new level of e recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. Still a 50 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Using metaphor 4.. The stories were bright. and this part I loved. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. depressing feel. A few other changes in this book . and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it.

There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. if he works with Farsi translation. Eyeglasses for children. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . It straightly goes to the end user. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. lexical. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. It is real. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. easy and not complicated design. The experts who have grammatical. In certain case. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation.really good book. If we visit the site. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. it will be quite difficult to make translation. The translation experts. Recording Mommy Journey SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. Similarly. However. aluminum and rimless frame are available. woman and man are available choice. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. The site is quite simple but very informative. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. Titanium. Again. with some editing it would have been great. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. he should understand well the language and aspect of India.

Life itself is a journey. For Rosemarie, a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid, the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did, does and will do daily. The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;

Good Young Mother  Rangkuman. It is about a young mother. It has a title (Evaluative of yummy mummy. This blog is representative Summation) of her idea of becoming young mother. He (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: pours her thought and opinion on this blog in Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to Menggunakan: monetizing it • adjectives This blog has fresh physical appearance. menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good; She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look • klausa panjang dan kompleks; fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her • metafor. monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A
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buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough
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Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. between report and descriptive text. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. What make different. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. etc. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. colour. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. lengh. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. If we talk about. wheel style. For example how to make a cup of tea. However if they are analyzed carefully. physical strengh. Mostly. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is.interest for them to want to interview you. phenomena. report is written after getting careful observation. In the other hand. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. is the scope of the written object. goods. its parts. Procedure. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. They give the detail description on something. eg: bicycle. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. how to make a good kite. animal and scientific object. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. product case or problem. In short. descriptive text will convey more focus. it belongs to report text. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. It will talk about bicycle in general. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style.

Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. product case or problem.is the best example of the procedure text. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. the thing is an experience. They give the detail description on something. secondly prepare the cup. The event happened smoothly. In writer's point of view. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Procedure. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It reveals the conflict among the participants. It is such word. secondly prepare the cup. then on Monday. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Explanation. phenomena. On the other hand. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It can be what the writer has done. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. In simple way. and so on. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. and felt. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. etc is the best example of the procedure text. It is such word. How a tornado form. the on Tuesday. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. read. first boil water. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. how to make a good kite. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. first boil water. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Explanation is such a scientific written material. goods. For example how to make a cup of tea. recount describes series of events in detail. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. and so on. hear. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. what happened on Sunday.

Coda. Using action verbs 3. Orientation 3. review. Using modals 2. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. 17.Explanation. spoof. report. recount. Using thinking verbs 4. 26. Explanation is such a scientific written material. analytical exposition. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. 19. These variations are known as GENRES. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Arguments 3. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Using adjective 6. texts are divided into several types. discussion. 24. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. They are narrative. 22. Crisis 4. 14. Using general and abstract noun 8. Abstract 2. anecdote. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. 15. hortatory exposition. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. descriptive. Dominant Language Features: 57 . 23. 20. Reaction 5. and news item. 18. explanation. 25. procedure. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Using adverbs 5. Using technical terms SMA Students’ Modul of English 7. 16. How a tornado form. Thesis 2.

Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 7. Background event(s) 3. Using Past Tense 2. Using action verb 3. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Goal/Aim 2. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using action verbs 3. Using general and abstract noun 8. Orientation 2. Generic Structure: 1. Using noun phrase 5. Resolution SMA Students’ Modul of English 5. Using action verbs 3. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using adverb 4. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using saying verbs 58 . Using material process 3. Materials/Equipments 3. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Explanation 3. Using exclamations. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Complication 4. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1.1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Evaluation 3. Using adverbial phrase 6. Short. Using Simple Present Tense 2. General statement 2. Using passive voice 4.

Arguments 3. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using adverbs 6. Issue 2. Using adverb 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Use of relating verb/to be 3. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Thesis 2. Using action verb 3. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION SMA Students’ Modul of English Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT 59 . Identification 2. Using thinking verbs 5. Using Simple Present Tense 2. place and manner. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. In simple word. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using adverbs : time. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Arguments for and against 3. Using modals 3. place or thing in detail. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using adjective 7. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Description Language Features: 1. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using technical terms 8. Using Simple Present Tense 2. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1.4. Using thinking verb 4. Using action verbs 4. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using modality 7. Using conjunction/transition 6.

social conflict or psychological conflict. Using adverb 4. In the contrary. Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Using conditional logical connection 3. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Event(s) 3. fable. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. as it is. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using action verb 3.Purpose: to presents information about something. folklore. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Orientation 60 . Orientation 2. myth. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Event(s) 3. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Generic Structure 1. General classification 2. etc while recount text is found in biography. or Past Perfect Tense. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: SMA Students’ Modul of English 1. whether Simple Past Tense. Using Past Tense 2. Using action verb 3. Orientation 2. Using Past Tense 2.

1. tanggal. map. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. 4. label. 8. Evaluation 5. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. 10.2. spoof dsb. Continuous text misalnya narrative. tahun. penjelasan. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. 7. tabel. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 2. tempat. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. Using long and complex clauses 4. dsb. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. 5. Using adjectives 3. biasanya tentang nama. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. Interpretative Recount 4. grafik. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. 3. 6. SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . 9. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. diagram dsb. descriptive.exposition. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. Focus on specific participants 2. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Evaluation 3.

Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. fluffy. And cute. The purpose of the text is _____. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… c) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… e) Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. f) Menentukan makna kata. h) Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. b) Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. i) Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. d) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.11. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 .” The underlined word mean ____ g) Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. it is small. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____.

What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. and some more also the corridors. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. What is the writer’s intention? To ….. So when students want to throw away their litters. school corridors and school yard. outside of the classrooms. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. there are paper mineral water cups. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. they can find the dust bins easily. 1. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. especially empty plastic cup or glasses.. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. When we look at classrooms. more dust bins…. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. Besides. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough.EXERCISES. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. and napkins here and there. a number of dust bins should be increased. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. readers to do something good. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. straws. They put their litters on the proper places. in every ten meters. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. According to the writer. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school.

Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. 5. Last but not least. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. spelling and culture. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. lexically and poetically. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. In addition. Secondly. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. The generic structures of the text are …. even revolution. religion. which is just what many learners look for sample text. They provide variety and fun. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. patriotism and yeas. songs are relaxing. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. Although usually simple. songs in general also use simple conversational language. translating songs. learning vocabulary. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. place or time reference. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. From the elaboration above. Furthermore. shopping malls. Firstly. with a lot of repetition. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. practicing selective listening comprehension. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. What is the text about ….

9. Firstly. Therefore.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.“They provide variety and fun. The word reasons mean…. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.Since we can find a thesis. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. 11. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .” The underlined word refers to …..We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. not just in restaurants. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. Finally. It must not be allowed because it is rude. Based on the text. smoking in restaurants is impolite. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

• • • •

Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

. Penny Pitcher. Introducing someone else my name is. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. • I want to introduce you to ….. I'm Linda 1. sister. Nice to meet you. 2.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Ritter. I don't believe we've met before. Ms. boss. Likewise. Watson. friend. Pleased to meet you. teacher. Nice to meet you too. my my my my my my my my my brother. Jack.. And you. Hi Jack. I'm. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . mother. Mr. Mary Jones. It's a pleasure to meet you. co-worker. student. Bob. Cindy. Mrs. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Very nice to meet you. father. Harris. Carrie. Mr.. Harris. This is my friend.

Adib : Anyway. Hi. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . e.g. Shall we go to the canteen?. I am. I’m Arnys. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Good sir afternoon madam Mr Jones evening Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Retno. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. By the way. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. are you a new student. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. My name is Adib.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e.g. a restaurant. Adib. Arnys? Retno : Okay. Situation: Adib. Arnys. They meet at the students’ orientation course. this is Retno. hotel. we still have half an hour before the class starts. and Retno are new students. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Adib : Hi. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too.

See you soon /later /tomorrow. • Good bye. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Very well. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. thanks. shake hands with other Virga :… women.Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Do you wanna . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. thank you. (informal) Would you like to . . . before leaving. . Bye. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . Not so bad. . . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. . . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . thanks. • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. thanks.

. I’d be delighted to. Receiving ...? Would you like .Yes. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.I’d love to .a chocolate bar? .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.I’d like very much . .Some responds of inviting..I’d be happy/glad to accept . let’s not. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome..That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like...

I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. I need it. Happy birthday to you. Thanks. Happy new year.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. you very much. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. helped carry your grocery bags. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. complimented you on your necktie. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. returned your lost wallet. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Thank you. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so.

What’s pity c. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . and congratulations Special Days . it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .. not really.. That’s too bad e.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . How kind of you to say so.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. holidays and other special occasions. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.• • • Oh. That’s a nuisance d. That’s pity f. It’s nice of you to say so. What’s shame b.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.

feel unpleased with …. h. f.B. b. I enjoyed it I love it. g. I’m sorry about that c. I’m so happy …. I’m really sorry for them d.. I’m delighted. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. c. e. How Awful! d. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. k. i. I feel … b. m. l. j. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . d. Expression Displeasure a. I feel …. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. How terrible! c. It was terrifi c. I’m really sad to … c. I feel disappointed. I’m sorry to hear that b. Send my deepest condolence! f. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. Goodness! b. How dreadful! C. d. ….

no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan.Satisfaction. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang.

you should buy the florescent light bulbs.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. As I see. • I am with you • Definitely.  In my opinion. • Yes.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. … If you ask me. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more... Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. In my opinion…. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. say • Absolutely. I agree • I know what you mean. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 .  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So.  I think the other one’s better. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions.

Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. No.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. that's not a good idea. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. I don't think that's what happened. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. Fear. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. kita bisa mengatakan: Well.

. • I feel sick../I feel ill.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . • I’m sick.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like I love it I like it I am keen on it I am crazy about it We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea Dislike I don’t really like it I dislike it I am not really interested in… I can’t enjoy… (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. • Ugh.. it’s killing me! 2. • Thank God for . it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. • I’m glad it was done.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. it’s very painful! • Oh.

kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. but it is not a very strong dislike. It means that you do not like something." This is not very strong. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. BUT "I don't really like it.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.

Informal Situations … really makes me mad.. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I’m extremely unhappy about this.. I was so ashamed. That’s a real embarrassment. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. I will. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. I won’t No problem Not likely Mmm You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance Refusal I should be delighted to I regret to say that come we find ourselves By all means unable to go I have no objection I’m afraid it’s not I’d be happy to possible Sure I’m afraid not Yeah Sorry OK No. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance.

Excuse me if I'm out of line. but. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. but.Palupi : OK.. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English.. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but.. Maybe you forgot to.  Right away. but I think we should.  Certainly...  Of course. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.... There may have been a misunderstanding about.. Don't get me wrong.. I'm sorry to bother you. I think you might have forgotten to. Blame (keluhan.... Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . It's your fault for (doing something).. Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright. Sure. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. Complaint.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.

... I'm so sorry. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. I …. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. Examples I'm really sorry. to express regret an exclamation a word. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. I'll clear up later. Pete. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. Sorry for taking your DVD. Sorry for.... Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. I'd like to apologise for..simply starters! Regret. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. Apology (penyesalan. I didn't mean to lose your book... to ask for forgiveness. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly.

… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . game.  It is impossible  There’s a possibility of his winning  Probably She is on the way the game/ that he will win the  May be he needs more time game.  She might not be at home SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 ..... distress.. possibility are:  There is a good chance that …. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability. there is a possibility . NOTE : 1. Several ways of indicating  possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.trouble unhappiness..  It’s possible that he’ll win the  There is a little chance that …...

they.it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English .she.we Has utk S= he.they.it) Every… (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally Do utk S= I.you. Expressions to show ….. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES Present Tense (Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) POLA KET.  Would there be any possibility of 4. I’m capable of doing it 2.? incapability are:  Do you think we are capable of ….it She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Now At present At this moment To day Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I. WAKTU V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. Expressions to show  I don’t think I have the ability capability are :  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.she.she.you.?  I can’t do it  Is it possible for me to …?  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing  Are we capable enough to …? it. 3. doing something are:  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it.we Always dll Does utk S= he. Expressions used to ask  I can do it possibility or capability of  There is a chance that I can do it.

selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.he. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang akan Will utk semua Sabjek (S) dilakukan di waktu Shall utk S = I.we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Before/when + Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) S + V2 (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.we yang akan datang) N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… Future Continuous V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time (Menyatakan tomorrow aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan SMA Students’ Modul of English 86 .saat berbicara Father has been at his office perbuatan/tindakan since 12 tsb telah hours ago.they.she.it Were utk S= you.

waktu aktivitas yang akan + V-ing telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ perbuatan/keadaan N= (+) S + would/should + be + yang akan datang adj/n/adv dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have If + past perfect (menyatakan suatu +V3 pengandaian pada N= (+) S + would/should + masa lampau. have been + adj/n/adv sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu SMA Students’ Modul of English 87 .waktu aktivitas yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been By + ket.

was parctising e.does/am. will be practising c. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. practised d. “Srimpi”. works d. the telephone rang twelve times. worked e. is. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2.is. a. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . have been practising b. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. Iwan : Yes. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. Fred : Juda.(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. has been working b.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. a. are Was. will have worked c. they are succesful.

clean d. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. will start b. If we don”t hurry. a. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. would have started d. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. a. will have had lunch b. cleaned e. starts c. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. carried e. carry d.berlangsung. My family ____ when the postman arrived. were cleaning b. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. was carrying 3. will have lived b. have been having lunch c. will have started e. have been living c. This sentence means that Ann ___. have been cleaning c. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. a. a. will have lunch e. have lunch d. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. has got a new job d. am carrying b. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. has stopped looking for a job SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . a. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. am living d. have carried c. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. will be started 2. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. a. was living e.

has been b. had been 7. have been c. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. She studies business. forgot c. will have been c. have caused c. was e. Student : All right. sir. Reni goes to her university every morning. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. has been e. a. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. a. When airport are located in the center of citied. will be learning b. has attended b. am d. was d. He ____ there for three weeks. am learning 10. will cause 5. will be attending d. a. was e. would be attended SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . My father is still in Bali. a. were causing b. He ____ ill for a week. has been attending e. attended c. caused d. a. is still looking for a job 4. would forget 8. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. started to work 6 months a go c. had forgotten e. learn d. sir. forgets b. has worked for six months e. have learnt e. I forget to bring your book. had been 9. a. will have been c. She ___ the lectures. has forgotten d. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. have been 6.b. would be b. is d. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. Is it right? Student : Yes. Learn all these. I ____ them by then. but I ____ there many times.00 tomorrow. causes e. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. will have learnt c. will be b. a.

who. “ I have a present for you in my bag.” (-) He said. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct (+) He said. struktur kalimat. “I do not have a present for you in my bag” (?) He asked. how. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 91 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous SMA Students’ Modul of English . (?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag. (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there. “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag? (!) He ordered/commanded me. pronoun (kata ganti orang). where.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. dan tempat. (?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. why. (!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then. keterangan waktu. “Do I have a present for you in my bag?” (?) He asked me. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. “Don’t bring your bag here!” Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag.DIRECT . (-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag. when. “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered me.

Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … The preceeding …before …earlier The day before The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .

to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. Herman. why Mary had been absent c. He said ____ the previous day. I am very noisy b. if I opened my mouth e. why Mary was absent e. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. a. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. The baby is sleeping. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. that Mary had been absent b. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. a. if Mary was absent d. opened my mouth c. to open my mouth b. he has gone to his country e.1. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. not to be so noisy e. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. to be not so noisy c. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. Herman : Okay. mom. I wasn’t so noisy d. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. he went to his country b. he goes to his country c. that I open his mouth d. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. had gone to his country d.

that I had an appointment 94 5. Anto : I am sorry Lina. not spend c. I forgot to bring your book. he asked me ____”.Soal-Soal Latihan 1. he headn’t cleaned b. b. forgot c. SMA Students’ Modul of English . Slamet. b. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. Does Mira close the window. has forgotten d. 4. 6. what were you doing now. what are you were doing now d. not to spend e. I hadn’t cleaned d. “ ___________” a. He asked me ____ a. If he could go with us d. I got a headache. what I am doing now. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. how was my appointment e. Mira. had forgotten e. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. a. It was windy outside. Mother said. It is windy outside. a. a. e. would forget 3. e. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. wether he goes with us c. 7. going with us b. he would not clean c. he does not clean e. not spending b. he asked. Mira closed the window. do not spend d. “What are you doing now?”. c. when is my appointment b. It is windy outside. It was windy outside. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. he hasn’t cleaned 2. d. Ari : What did he say. c. what I was doing then. Closed the window. did I have an appointment d. a. forgets b. Mira closed the window. a. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. can he go with us e.

children”. she said. a. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . whether I had appointment 8. She said the children didn’t make noise c. “Can I find you a hotel?”. to finish my work c. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. to finish your work b. b. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. She told the children not to make noise. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. finished your work e. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel.c. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. c. She didn’t say the children should noise d. 10. finish your work d. She told the children don’t make noise b. Father said. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. d. “don’t make noise. e. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. My friend said to me. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. e. Mean____ a. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat.

A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. was kicked c. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. A : Look! The girl is crying. SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . kicked e. kicks d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother.Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) Active S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + Ving S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + Ving+ S +would +have+been+V-ing Passive S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. The announcement ____ twice. was kicking b. she ____ a.

Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. is being built c. when…. have been unloaded d. have been arranged 3.A. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. are sold e. is born d. A big dam ___ in this area next year. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. has been postponed c.a. will be unloaded b. are unloaded c. Y : Really. was postponed d. had been sold c. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. would be born b. was it abolishing d. was it to abolish b. was born e. was being postponed e. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. has arranged c. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. did it abolish e. is arranged d. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. have arranged b. a. is sold d. will build d. R. a. would be built SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 .? a. a. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. to be abolished c. were sold b. has been built b. will be built e. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. were being unloaded e. was arranged e. will be born 2. has to be postponed b. a. has been born c. a.

the baby will be well looked after d. has been taken SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. is demolishing c. cleaned c. will clean b. will be promised 10. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. has been cleaned 5. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. has promised d. is being rewarded b. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. a. will be taken d. a. was taken b. rewarded d. is being taken e.4. was being demolishing 9. was destroyed 6. She looks after the baby well. has been rewarded c. will be destroyed b. will be promised e. a. had been demilishing b. took c. is being cleaned e. is being demolished e. the baby is being looked after well e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. was rewarded e. will be rewarded 8. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. had destroyed e. was being cleaned d. a. has been promising b. a. destroyed d. the baby was looked after well c. a. the baby is well looked after b. was being promised c. is being destroyed c. demolishing d. he ____ to the nearest hospital. the baby would be well looked after 7. The passive form is ____ a. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident.

Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh: large larger largest SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most c. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. yaitu: 1.

have/has. -ow. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. I will buy a new car. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. Apa yang diucapkan. -er. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Contoh: If I have much money. itulah yang diharapkan. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. may. can. dll.). shall. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. dll. (jika saya punya uang. had. did. will. Present Conditional (type 2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • • • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. -le. was/were.4. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1.

Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. of which. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. whom.Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Kalau kalimatnya (+). which. I would go to the beach with you. 3. I would have written you a letter. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). whose.

Meja yg dimaksud the table) SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man.) 2. Its surface is not smooth. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. (its surface/permukaannya meja. sebuah benda. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. They are printed in English. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. its. O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Their car has been stolen. their. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much.Contoh: We know a lot of people. her. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. Contoh: We saw the people. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. our. I met him last week. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. his. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. I bought it last year. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. your. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. (him = the man.

(saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Where 8. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu.7. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night.

his. before dll.to be used to. The manager gets the letter typed. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. 5. 3.your. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. Before leaving. I got the mechanic to repair my car. to be worth. can’t help/can’t bear.Amir’s. 2. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. 4. 6. get used to. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). Jogging makes us fresh.S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). he said nothing.her. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. to be busy. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1).our. The manager has the letter typed. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Consider Avoid Delay Enjoy Finish Quit Mind Miss Postpone Recall Regret Report 104 SMA Students’ Modul of English . (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). on. Setelah possessive adjective (my. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes.their. I had mechanic repair my car.

Kokom likes reading better than watching T. than plays a video game.Dita would rather watch T.Can’t help Resume Deny Risk Resist Siggest Practice Advise Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat.Dona prefers dancing to singing. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .V . (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . while. after. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. Menunjukan waktu: before. SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . b. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. when. a. c.Juned prefers combro to deblo. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 Contoh: .V. as soon as.V ketimbang main video game) 4. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. yaitu: 1. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .V better than radio. We went home after the rain stopped. . PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris.I like T. 3.

Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. Finally. that. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .d. or. 1. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. Contoh: . Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. we cut the vegetables into small pieces.Although it was raining. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. somebody knocked on the door. e. After that. since.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . a. we put them into frying pan. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . we must prepare the ingredients. we put some sauce and salt. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. (dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . finally.You can read this book if you like. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . While he was reading her novel. he come on time. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . although/though. then.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. 3.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . next. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . 2. b. a. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. Since I have no money. I can’t treat you.He is not only active but also clever.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. first. after that. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. dll. if. c.He is both wise and good. d. c. but. for. b. Next.Amir and I go to school everyday. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata.

Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.arti asalnya. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .

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