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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................23 News Item Text.................................................................................24 What is News Item? ..........................................................................24 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................27 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................27 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................ 39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................49 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................51 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................54 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................55 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................55 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................57 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
.................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) .................101 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH............................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)....................................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ..................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ..........100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) .......................................................................99 QUESTION TAGS ..........................................................105 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ..............................................106 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ...............106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.........................................................................................................................................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)...103 GERUND ................................................................
Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Explanation 2. Descriptive 10. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Review 7. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Report 4. Recount 6. Anecdote 9. why is the text made?. These types of text are. Narrative 11. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. The language feature. Hortatory Exposition 3. Analytical Exposition 8. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Spoof 5. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. News Items 13. 2. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Procedure 12.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. 1. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3.
it is better to look at the fact. Reiteratio In conclusion. lung cancer. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. as we all know.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. cars are very noisy. cars create pollution. which causes them to die. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. the risk is nineteen greater. If you live in the city. Argument Firstly. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. In one hour in smoky room. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Smoking however is not good for every body else. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . cars. or concentrate on your homework. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Secondly. the city is very busy. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Example of Analytical Exposition A. As we all know. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Additionally. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly. and especially talk to someone.
as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. Furthermore. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. As the US. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. In this example of analytical exposition text. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. That wil be true if the conditions. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves.
Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. ruler and such other stuff. From all of that. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above Small Notes thesis. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. misalnya car. dsb. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. decide which computer or laptop they need. dsb. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. The students just need to brows that online shop. 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . dsb. Additionally. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. misalnya It is important. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. • Relating verbs. misalnya Many people believe. That is really easy and save time and money. • Connectives.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. pen. students need book. • Thinking verbs. Penguatan pernyataan. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates Ciri Umum: the thesis in another phrases to point the (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: writer'opinion. we. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. misalnya firstly. misalnya policy. • Abstract nouns. misalnya we must preserve. (Simplified from the jakartapos. • Bahasa evaluatif. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. misalnya She must save. dsb. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. • Technical verbs. dsb. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. First. secondly. • Action verbs. misalnya certainly. Secondly. eraser. and then complete the transaction. misalnya species of animals. • Reiteration . leaded petrol car. dsb. misalnya C. • Modal adverbs. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. dsb. pollution.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. drawing book. in this multimedia era. students need more to reach their progressive development.dsb. dsb • Modal verbs. this method will help student to get better understanding. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. government.
Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Students just need to decide which type they really need. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. D. For instance. E. If Hindi translation is provided. India is likely being an English speaking country. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Arabic translation. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. According to Nida. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. It seems Indonesia. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. India translation will grow better and. you might have one link in your dialogue SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Career in Translation Functionally. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs.Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Therefore.
listen to this 3. Using conjunction of time. Abstract 2. Using rhetoric question. Incident. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. then. do you know what? 4. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. it's awful!. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. 2. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Using action verb. afterward 6. Crisis 4. which had been SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . it's wonderful!. etc 5. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. etc 2. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. go. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Using exclamation words. because. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Using imperative. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. write.box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. 3. etc • Causal conjunction . blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Orientation 3. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Using simple past tense 4.
passport. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. They had a dream to go to America. there were being quarantined for long days. For an instant I stood thereSmall Notes quite paralysed. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. misalnya go. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. Indeed I had to pull her kejadian/peristiwa lucu she’d probably have leant over berdasarkan khayalan atau better the bath to get a peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. Pengenalan (Orientation) Krisis (Crisis) Example of Anecdote Tindakan (Incident) A. look! Ever since then I’ve always(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure put the plug in firmly Abstrak (Abstract) before running the bath water. was(a) Tujuan interested in the quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakanout of the way or whole business. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. The father was full of disappointed and anger. several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. They had gotten • action verbs. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. who killed the snake with the handle of Umum: was only three at the time. Then I Anecdote running and yelled for my husband. They were Clark family with (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nine children. seperti then. dsb. Blessing behind Tragedy Koda (Coda) There was a black family in Scotland years ago. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! They were making plan to travel with And do you know what? It’s awful. It took hundreds of SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . had shank. Suddenly to my horror. However few days before their departure.Crisis Incident Coda empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. and turned on the tap. Five days latter. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. who luckily came(Cerita Lucu) Ciri a broom. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. The doctor sewed up the boy. • seruan/kata seru. so we set to. The family worked and saved. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath. The family dreams were dashed. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. write. dsb. afterwards. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. He shed tears of disappointment. America. their children to America. spitting and hissing at us. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. It had taken isn’t it? dsb. the mighty Titanic. The ship. Anna.
Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. You have and so do I. qualities. place. When the father heard the news. but because of the bitten son by a dog. • Description. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. They had to forget their plan. or/and characteristics. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.passenger and crew with it. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. identifying the phenomenon to be described. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. they were left behind. It was unbelievable but it was. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. He thanked God for saving their lives. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. describing the phenomenon in parts. or thing. When the dream will come true. 2. Examples and structures of the text Identificati MacQuarie University Macquarie University is one of the largest universities 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English . The father was angry with his son and God. • Using simple present tense 4. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The Clak family should have been on that ship. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. 3. It made they were being quarantined. They had dream to travel to America. there is something wrong last minute before it. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank.
she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. She is really mad on that shoes. This year. SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Sydney. casual. in 2004. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. She really have perfect appearance. Example of Description A. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. all her friends. yet retaining its beautiful site. The style. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. native plants and eucalypts. bright color. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. Recently. In 1964. In three years1 time. Today. She is beautiful. attractive and trendy. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. a railway station is under construction. When she are walking on that shoes. Ballet. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. a grass amphitheatre. She said that the products covered all genders. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. The products provide varieties of choice. She always pays much attention on her appearance. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university.on in Australia. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. This shoes really matches on her.
valuable • Using simple present tense. The way to the summit extends through some 4. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.Budhist temple.The temple is constructed. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . Cambodia. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Central Java. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. The upper three are circular. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. Borobudur is well-known. Borobudur temple • Description.8 km of passage and starways.boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Borobudur is located in Magelang. B. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Indonesia. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification.
benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. perilaku umum. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. sifat-sifat (characteristic). I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. better or worse 3. • berbagai macam adjectives. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. It has very thick fur. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. misalnya. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. classifying. My mum is realy cool.my cat. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. White. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. Description. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. enough money to take Snow White. house. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. misalnya. misalnya teacher. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. numbering. Misalnya: I have many pets. sharp white fangs. bersifat describing. dsb. dsb. dsb. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. but my favourite one is a cat. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. a sweet young lady. two strong legs. • simple present tense. dsb. 2. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). • action verbs. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. dsb. misalnya fast. kualitas. dsb.
Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. After dinner. Hakim. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. who received a plate of delicious meat. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. One by one she discarded them. They want to know what next will happen. As they were about to have dinner. who was called Hakim. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. you may live here with us. She saw the dwarfs. There they found Snow White sleeping. The following day. “If you wish. which she strikes against herself.” Snow White said. They were also rich and strong. The psychological conflict inside Maura. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. “what is your name?” Snow White said. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. One evening.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. “Without question. Example of Narative A. Then Snow White woke up. “My name is Snow White. had many suitors. one of the dwarfs. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. The dwarfs said. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. Maura asked them for something to eat. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. The first gave her some left over food. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 .” Doc.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. said. They went inside. in what way she will decide who the best is. The third sheik. “Oh could I? Thank you.
“You know. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. Then he continued to humble. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). misalnya here. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. dsb. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. stayed. Resolution. the parrot would not say it. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. a man had a wonderful parrot. The name of the place was Catano. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. long black hair. in the mountain. dsb. Penyelesaian masalah.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. dsb. before that. stepsisters. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. climbed. konflik dalam cerita. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. soon. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. misalnya. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. Masalah. happily ever after. dsb. I will cut the chicken 17 . He could not bear it. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. phrase. Complication. Pengenalan tokoh. housework. • action verbs dalam past tense. The parrot could say every word. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. two red apples. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over.dsb. misalnya. except one word. the man really got very angry. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. waktu. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. misalnya then. At the first. There was no other parrot like it. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Although he tried hard to teach.
The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. Next it will be your turn. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. the man came back to the chicken house. there was a handsome man. the man attempted to teach the bird. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. In that parrot story. 4 are describing the complication. He could not control his mad. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. They were married happily. 3. They found their mother and talked her about it. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. Batara Guru could not bear it. He liked fishing. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. They had two daughters. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. As soon as it was free. It will show the crisis. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. A man and his parrot took place once time. The daughters were crying. I will eat you too.for my meal. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. paragraph 2. After that he left the chicken house. To fix this problem. In the parrot story. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. That was the smartest parrot. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. C. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. He made the fish free. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. He felt in love with that fish-woman. rising crisis and climax of the story. The fish begged him to set it free. She attracted Batara Guru so much. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. One day. he caught a fish. There were three death chickens on the floor. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . stupid parrot”. The next day. At the moment. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. readers see the problem is finished. He opened the door and was very surprised.
and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . A few days later. She danced again and again with the king’s son. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. “Now. “Well” said the godmother. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. Cinderella?” a voice asked. People believed that the big hole became a lake. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. The mother was shouting angrily. such as scrubbing the floor. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. and it became a beautiful ball gown. she was driven to the palace. she said. They treated Cinderella very badly. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. did not work about the house. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. “You must leave before midnight”. One day. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. In her hurry. Volcanoes started to erupt. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. In the end. The earth formed a very big hole. there was a young girl named Cinderella. and away went the sisters to it. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. They were married and live happily ever after. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time.The mother was very annoyed. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Magically. At last. Cinderella”. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. Batara Guru broke his promise. hardworking. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. on the other hand. the day of the ball came. D. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. It fitted perfectly. Finally. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. Then the earth began to shake. The two step sisters. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. “Why are crying.
“Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. But the man answered. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . the man is very intelligent”. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. “it at home”. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. Every morning and every evening. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. Generic Structure Analysis 1. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. The Smartest Animal. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. Orientation. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. farmer and his buffalo. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. In the last paragraph. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. “you are so big and strong. After the man went home. Complication: In this Cinderella story. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. Complication. The tiger asked. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Once there was a farmer from Laos. introducing specific participants. Then he said. said the buffalo. Resolution: Like complication. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. “Can I see your intelligence?”. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. “No. One day. E. I can’t tell you”. 3. “oh.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. once in Laos 2. “Yes” said the man. Resolution. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome.
hit time conjunction. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. after. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Place on a plate. bowl. once. the man tied the tiger. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. there was a farmer. tie. Cook both sides 9. plate Method 1. fork. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. cheese grater. spatula. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. saw. 50 g cheese. one day connectives. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. answered thinking verb. ¼ cup milk. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . Material: Telling the needed materials 3. the next day past tense.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Add milk and whisk well 4. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. was surprised to action verb. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5.
put the seeding on the soil. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. informing on how to plant chillies. dry a handful seeding. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. dry. firstly. put it. • Material. excluded • Steps. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. Example of Procedure A. It should be in open area Next.10. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. put it in another big pot. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. next. Here are the steps. Firstly. planting is a nice activity. wait it. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. etc • Action verb. finally. Finally. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. etc • Temporal conjunction. the following is a guided information SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. put.
re-reading what have been written . write. writing the topic like the way it is talked. etc • Temporal conjunction. It's so easy to (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: make mistakes which you don't notice the Menggunakan: first time through. secondly. write your benefit like you talk Memberi petunjuk tentang cara it.com/? expert=Daniel_F_O'connor misalnya. dsb.re-read what you've done before publishing. Your customers don't care about Ciri Umum: you. Tujuan kegiatan your company will. tempat. lose the weak words. • pola kalimat imperative. Use a nice rhythm.B. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Use regular words. Well. not Procedure (Prosedur) features. Thirdly. dsb. Small Notes Firstly. • Imperative sentences. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. cara yang akurat. Writing For Business Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. fifty gram cheese. Steps. but it will help. How does it sound? serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. misalnya turn. write like you talked. excluded • Steps/ method. Materials. Langkah-langkah. you don't have to. misalnya for five minutes. showing the method in writing for business. while. Here's a simple checklist to follow. They want to know "What's in it for me?" (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Secondly. read. Don't (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure describe how your company may. to make a cheese omelet. don’t. misalnya then. Bahan-bahan Fourthly. dsb. Fifthly. a quarter cup of milk. etc C. Mix Procedure text them up and keep things interesting. informing on how to write for business • Material. Some Note: Materials are not required for all sentences are long and some are short. Language Feature Analysis • action verbs. a pinch of satlt and SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . take the topic of benefits. you need an egg. 2 centimetres from the top. might or should help customers but talk about how Aim/Goal. firstly. three tablespoons cookin oil. put. mix. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. Cut. Edit it necesarily. Don’t mix. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. etc • Action verb. reread what you have done. Read aloud what melakukan sesuatu melalui you've written. menyatakan rinci waktu. choosing the advantageous topic.
time. fork. participant. Listen carefully. frying pan. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Next. cheese grater. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. place) 3. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Language Feature of News Item 1. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Using material process 4. add First. First. such as. Focusing on circumstances 2. Main event 2. Generic Structure of News Item 1. spatula. bowl and plate. Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Resource of information 3. The events are considered newsworthy or important. 2.pepper. The accident. you need some tools. Next. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Elaboration (background.
to them”. dsb. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. he said in the report. it’s up saksi kejadian. 745 Malaysian women were identified verbs as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. June 01. In the past the headline event was held behind closed door. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Latar belakang “This is not to debate them but to protect kejadian. Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: International Aids Memorial day. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. less then 10 percent are woman. Malaysian Aids Council president. even though they know they have HIV” she said. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. Example of Procedure A. pendengar Sources atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. • Menggunakan action Last year. 2008) 25 . And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. SMA Students’ Modul of English (Source The Jakarta Post. woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. in tertuang dalam bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. tempat their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” kejadian dsb. many women who contract HIV are housewives. komentar Star Newspaper. a Background Events. Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Sources. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. news report said. but the number is steadily rising. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Newsworthy events. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. Women are the first ones to get exploited by terlibat. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. “But this just a suggestion.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Sumber Memberitakan kepada Informasi pembaca. Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every Kejadian inti. pendapat para ahli. which was • Informasi singkat celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. orang yang them.
The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Rape. Last year. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . had worked with the boy family for 11 years. Then the maid was arrested. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. the Saudi Interior Minister said. She had relationship the boy for five months. Indonesian Maid beheaded (Adapted from Reuters. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. named Suwartin. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria.news. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. May 6.bbc.Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. (Taken from: www. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom.co. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. Hong Kong.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. The maid. Saudi Arabia. 2008) An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months.
Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. however. behead. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos.Background 1. should. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. execute. etc • Using modalities. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. hopefully. historic. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. similarly. etc 4. contrastive. law of serious crimes. may. Using material process. deliberately. carry. hope. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. etc • Using adverbial of manner. believe. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. and causal connection. Resource. and Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to Preview SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. Statemen I think we should have homework because it helps us to t of issue learn and revise our work. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. 2. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. on the hand. feel. and social text. must. Background 3. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Background 2. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. could. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. etc • Using additive.
so it is not expansive to make. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. many times. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. doing homework is not a great idea. and produces huge amounts of energy. It produces small amount of waste.remember what they have learned. Example of Discussion Text A. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. England in 1956. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. It is reliable. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . Statemen t of various viewpoint s But. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria.
hopefully. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. dsb. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. should have been. memberikan informasi secara padu. Gagasan Pokok 2. nuclear power is very. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. believe. misalnya smoking is harmful. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. however. must.On the other hand. . Furthermore. could 29 be. although it is reliable. misalnya uniforms. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. • adverbials of maner. misalnya similarly. very dangerous. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. dsb. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. In many social activities. on the hand. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. should. misalnya deliberately. dsb.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. Kesimpulan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. dsb. alcohol. Elaborasi (uraian). Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. perception and recommendation. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. This example of discussion text present the two poles. hope. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. People are increasingly concerned about this matter.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. dsb. misalnya feel. seperti perhaps. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world.
Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. geography and history text books. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. farmer. social. B. Using modalities.co. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural.bbc. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. must. 2. Supporting point. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. believe. Many farmer and even conservationists. Using connectives. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. however. conservationists. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Using thinking verb. hunting fox. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . It is often found in science. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. (Taken from: www. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. scientific and cultural phenomena. Contrastive point. Recommendation.
to begin with. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. etc Using chronological connection. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Featuring generic participant. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Sequenced explanation. Example of Explanation Text A. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. sun. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. next. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed.• • General statement. Language Feature • • • • 4. rain.
Penjelasan proses • Penutup. earthquakes. But that is the case. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front.ictteachers. (Taken from: www. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. misalnya word chopping. the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. The sun seems to rise in the morning. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. It causes day and night. This process is called revolution.panda. is not because as much people think we are complex sentences. The earth also moves around the sun. It is called as rotation. earth. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. misalnya the temperature. closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the bahasa teksni.uk) SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. passive voice. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. misalnya the large cloud. dunia ilmiah. noun phrase. The earth is actually closer to the sun in kalimat pasif winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. It takes 365 days or a year. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. abstract nouns. simple present tense. Tsunami always bring great damage. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. conjunctions of time dan cause. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. (simplified from www. sosialbudaya. This adverbial phrases.co.org) B. action verbs.
surely. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. valuable. you would be forgiven.where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. then. advantage. Thesis 2. important. Using temporal connective. Using present tense. etc 7. etc 8.Generic Structure Analysis General statement. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Recommendation 3. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. the earth is actually closer to the sun. etc 6. secondly. Arguments 3. Using simple present tense 4. Focusing on the writer 2. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using passive voice 9. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using thinking verb 5. so. certainly. trustworthy. Using pasive voice. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . but. etc 3. Using chronological connection. Using action verb 4. firstly. policy. 2. Using abstract noun. Explanation.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. daylight. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Using modal adverb. Using evaluative words. I feel that when you travel through the country.
should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. stress. who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. Recomendation I feel that country people. especially violence. and short sleep duration. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Meanwhile. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Recently. and the possibility of being aggressive. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. Considering some facts mentioning above. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. However. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . pornography. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. of course. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly.Those who want to penalise older . consumerism and so on. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses.
So when students want to throw away their litters. advertising. and news advertorial. If it is a hortatory text. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. More dust bins should be put beside each step. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. straws. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough.presenting the supporting arguments. Both take place as argumentative essays. school corridors and schoolyard. When we look at classroom. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. B. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. Basically. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. and napkin everywhere. they can find the dust bins easily. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. sales letter. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. In many social activities. In the first paragraph. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. there papers. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. speech campaign. mineral water cops. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. More Dust Bins is Cleaner.
students do not have problem of discomfort any more. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. the available time will be more flexible for them. they will think hard about the time and cost. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. As the alternative method of studying. In the same way. it will be very hard to looking for job. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. When they think about continuing study. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. Where should be after High School?. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. C. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 .When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. when they think about straightly seeking job. So. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. In the other hand. it will be quite confusing. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. As result. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them.
plant. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Relating verbs. misalnya certainly. misalnya should be. dsb. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. dsb. Technical verbs. Millions from Property Market. misalnya firstly. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . dsb. we must save.dsb. misalnya. Albert Smith is the proof. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. felt Using simple present tense. doesn’t seem to have been . Modal verbs. make. etc which will be discussed in general 2. Generic Structure of Report 1. Modal adverbs. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. there is a way out of financial problem. Action verbs. Thinking verbs. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. dsb. misalnya We must preserve. dsb. dsb. dsb. as it is. now there is a way out. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. reward Using action verb. Argument. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. animal. he drives a sport car. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. are you tired?. Connectives. etc Using thinking verb. Recommendation. misalnya important. valuable. public place.misalnya policy.government dsb. misalnya species of animals. part per part . (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. give up. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. We can show the way to give up work. secondly. misalnya I believe . Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend.D. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing.we.
Example of Report Text A. beating the water furiously with their wings. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Platypus' eyes and head are small. when. stating general classification. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. Platypus lives in streams. perhaps two dozen birds. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Platypus. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. and lakes. As the bird lifts its head. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. etc Using simple present tense 4. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds.• • Using conditional logical connection. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. so. and woolly layer of fur. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. A group. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. In the other hand. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. driving the fish before them. the animal of platypus. rivers.
Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. male platypus does not need any burrow. habits or behaviors. misalnya. qualities. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. benda buatan manusia. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. in terms of parts. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. keterangan. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). logical connective. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group.Description. atau gejala-gejala sosial. but. dsb. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. dsb. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. lingkungan. apa adanya. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. istilah teknis. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. misalnya lizards cannot fly. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. dsb. dsb. dsb. Platypus lives in streams. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . kegunaannya jika non natural. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. the animal of platypus conditional. dan klasifikasinya.
Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 .1. Twist 3. Kejadian/peristiwa He took him to a policeman and said. ‘ I have / kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. ate. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Using action verb. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Focusing on people. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Kejadian/peristiwa The next day the policeman saw the same / kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. 2. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. He bought some new furniture and moved in. ‘ take him to the zoo’. animals or certain things 2. Orientation 2. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. ran. Using adverb of time and place 4. Dave found a nice office. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. etc 3. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office.’ replied the man. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Told in chronological order 4. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Events 3. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it.
I want you to leave the country. conversation on the phone. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. terduga atau lucu). He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. no children. “You want me. run. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. binatang. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. “Yes. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. “Hey Abu Nawas. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. benda tertentu. He suddenly became a 1. Then “Remember. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. In his office. misalnya eat. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. verbs.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. He had not left the country yet. Instead leaving the country. B. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. Then the man said to Dave. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. Event 1: Being rich. “If that is what you want. Event 2: He had his new office.
I do not step on the ground. The king wondered and said “Abu. The play was very interesting. I could not hear the actors. You walk on stilts like a child. (Adapted from S.I did not enjoy it. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. look at you. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. And since yesterday. I turned around. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. The king was not able to say anything. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . young man and young woman. “I remember exactly what you said. I do not step on the ground of this country”.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I have been walking on this stilts. You have not left this country”. I could not bear it. I had a very good seat. I turned around again.guards. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts.In the end. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said.I got very angry. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. They did not pay any attention. The King continued “And now. They were talking very loudly. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. were talking noisily. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. Your Majesty. So you see.
they just shook the head. "Take it to the zoo!". He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. “It’s none of your business. He put his coat and said. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. The man was still carrying the penguin. nobody looked at me. When he arrived in the party. you give food to my coat instead of me”. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. Getting Nasreddin's answer. D.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. The next day. “When I came here with my old clothes. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. the policeman saw the man in the same park. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. “Eat the food. The host at once got up and came to meet him. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. It’s a private conversation”. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . So. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. He took it to a policeman and said. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests.
Orientation: Introducing the participants. look. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. my group. place and time 2. penguin. Even. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . once. etc • Using simple past tense 4. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. Reorientation: It is optional. Generic Structure of Recount 1. etc • Using linking verb. heard. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. chronological order by days. walk up Using adverb of time and place. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. He. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. were. was. etc • Using chronological connection. policeman Using action verb. carry. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. go. in the park Told in chronological order.did. The following day. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. etc • Using action verb. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. I. today I am taking it to the movie". saw. change. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. first. then. They were in the park Event1. So.
It can be what the writer has done.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They went to London. B. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. On the third floor. They had a very pleasant flight. They had booked fourteen days tour. Events Reorientatio In the afternoon we went home. n Example of Recount text A. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. There was a film for their entertainment. The officers were pleasant. Then. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. Vacation to London Mr. They gave them food and drink. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. The two week in London went by fast. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. In writer's point of view. It was scary. they inserted a key-card to open the door. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. We saw cockatoos having a shower. This includes travel and accommodation. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. hear. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. They are Mr. We stayed at David and Della’s house. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. and Mrs. read. They had variety of food. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. At the end of the 14-day. the thing is an experience. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . Richard with two sons. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Mr. The room had perfect view of the park. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. Instead of keys for the room. They slept part of the way. Richard’s family was on vacation. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite.
He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. The first one was to Singaraja. what happened on Sunday. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. It is a busy but quiet town. kejadian atau kegiatan. She was happy dsb. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. Rekaman peristiwa. The first stop was at Batubulan. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. Events. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. Reorientation. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. misalnya beautiful. past tense. run dsb. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. 46 slowly dsb. the monkey. dsb. then. we dsb. after that. recount describes series of events in detail. In simple way. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. dsb. waktu dan cara. The event happened smoothly. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. misalnya We went to the zoo. On the other hand. • • • • • . SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. then on Monday. funny. the second was to Ubud. misalnya go. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. misalnya yesterday. di mana dan kapan. but. misalnya and. at my house. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. Pengenalan. he was ready. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. C. sleep. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. misalnya David. the on Tuesday. kejadian atau kegiatan. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. It reveals the conflict among the participants.Small Notes and felt. On the day of the tour. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses.
etc. describing a series of event which happened. I did not know that it was an earthquake. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. to the left. using first person point of view. left. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. He was quiet satisfied. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. Re-orientation. When the earthquake happened. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. in the town. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. I • Using chronological connectives. The next stop was Celuk. I was on my car. I thought I got flat tire. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. then. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. I was on the car las week. moved. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. D. Events. suddenly • Using linking verb. was. like matchsticks. all his day was spent on the beach. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. I was on the car. When I reached my town. I was trapped by the rock. Even I could not move my car at all. introducing the participant. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass.a center of stone sculpture. stating the writer's personal note. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. walked. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. Although nothing was left. earthquake happened. and. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. There were rocks everywhere. my car lunched on one side. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. etc E. were • Using action verb. made. The car lunched to one side.
Questions 1. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. connect a sentence with the next one. you find words and phrases used to start. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. First.Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. The funeral was performed in two phases. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. we were feasting. After that. In the night. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. After that. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. Overall. Finally. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. During the day. Those words and phrases are: First. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. a series of events in chronological order. the ceremony was quite elaborate. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. and then moved the corpse to face north. However. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. my uncle. They were great matches. A recount text has an orientation. chanting. On the last day. there were also buffalo matches. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. Several days before the ceremony was done. In the text. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. Then. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. and dancing. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. Then. 48 • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . my brother. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. It took about a week. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. Meanwhile. and end your composition. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2.
useful. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. worthy. Definition Review is one of text genres. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. etc. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Focus on specific participants 2. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Review Text What is review text 1. uniqueness. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. It is personal idea about the product. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Dominant Language features: 1. Using adjectives SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. After clearly explanation. It states the parts. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine.• Finally. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. or just a site which want to be known publicly. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. services which want to be sold. 3. It can be product. As I said in my previous post. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. valuable. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Each text type will have different form of generic structure.
A few other changes in this book . and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. magical or no. I actually liked the ending (and yes. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. and ultimately satisfying. this was not my favorite. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. intriguing.. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. depressing feel. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house.3. The stories were bright. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. especially with being a teenager and all. He goes from being a warm-hearted. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. fast-paced. and all of the Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. Examples and structures of the text Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan / I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. and parts of it do seem long. however. I was truly moved by the last page. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. I cried!) as sad as it was. Using metaphor 4.you feel a whole new level of e recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa.. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. Still a 50 SMA Students’ Modul of English . It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. In some (Interpretativ instances this works. and this part I loved. Using long and complex clauses 4.housekeeping is still housekeeping. for example .
Titanium. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. If we visit the site. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. aluminum and rimless frame are available. Recording Mommy Journey SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. In certain case. it will be quite difficult to make translation. easy and not complicated design. Eyeglasses for children. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. However. with some editing it would have been great. Similarly. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. Again.really good book. The translation experts. lexical. It straightly goes to the end user. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. if he works with Farsi translation. The site is quite simple but very informative. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. It is real. The experts who have grammatical. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. woman and man are available choice. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses.
Life itself is a journey. For Rosemarie, a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid, the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did, does and will do daily. The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;
Good Young Mother Rangkuman. It is about a young mother. It has a title (Evaluative of yummy mummy. This blog is representative Summation) of her idea of becoming young mother. He (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: pours her thought and opinion on this blog in Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to Menggunakan: monetizing it • adjectives This blog has fresh physical appearance. menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good; She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look • klausa panjang dan kompleks; fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her • metafor. monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52
buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
SMA Students’ Modul of English
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
it belongs to report text. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. between report and descriptive text. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal.interest for them to want to interview you. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . report is written after getting careful observation. animal and scientific object. lengh. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. is the scope of the written object. What make different. For example how to make a cup of tea. eg: bicycle. However if they are analyzed carefully. In the other hand. product case or problem. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. Mostly. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It will talk about bicycle in general. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. wheel style. descriptive text will convey more focus. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. etc. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. physical strengh. If we talk about. how to make a good kite. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. They give the detail description on something. phenomena. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. its parts. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Procedure. goods. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. colour. In short.
the on Tuesday. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. first boil water. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. and so on. etc is the best example of the procedure text. On the other hand. Explanation is such a scientific written material. how to make a good kite. It is such word. goods. phenomena. It is such word. How a tornado form. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It reveals the conflict among the participants. and so on. In writer's point of view. For example how to make a cup of tea. the thing is an experience. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. secondly prepare the cup. first boil water. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. and felt. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. The event happened smoothly. In simple way. secondly prepare the cup. product case or problem. recount describes series of events in detail.is the best example of the procedure text. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. what happened on Sunday. They give the detail description on something. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . read. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It can be what the writer has done. Procedure. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. then on Monday. Explanation. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. hear. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text.
how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. 22. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Using action verbs 3. 20. Thesis 2. Using thinking verbs 4. 25. Using technical terms SMA Students’ Modul of English 7. descriptive. 23.Explanation. 16. analytical exposition. report. Coda. texts are divided into several types. Abstract 2. 15. 14. Using modals 2. hortatory exposition. These variations are known as GENRES. explanation. Reaction 5. 24. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 8. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. spoof. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. and news item. Orientation 3. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. 18. Using adverbs 5. How a tornado form. 17. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Dominant Language Features: 57 . 19. 26. They are narrative. procedure. Arguments 3. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. recount. review. anecdote. Using adjective 6. discussion. Crisis 4.
Using action verbs 3. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using action verb 3. Explanation 3. Using Past Tense 2.1. Complication 4. Using general and abstract noun 8. Orientation 2. Generic Structure: 1. Using saying verbs 58 . Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3. Background event(s) 3. Using technical terms 7. Resolution SMA Students’ Modul of English 5. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using passive voice 4. Using noun phrase 5. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using adverb 4. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Evaluation 3. Using material process 3. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Goal/Aim 2. General statement 2. Materials/Equipments 3. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using exclamations. Short. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1.
Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using general and abstract noun 9. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. place and manner. Using thinking verb 4. In simple word. Using adverbs : time. Using thinking verbs 5. Using modality 7. Arguments for and against 3. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. place or thing in detail. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using adverb 4. Using technical terms 8. Thesis 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Issue 2. Using modals 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2.4. Using adverbs 6. Using adjective 7. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT 59 . Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Arguments 3. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION SMA Students’ Modul of English Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 5. Description Language Features: 1. Using action verb 3. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using action verbs 4. Identification 2. Using conjunction/transition 6.
In the contrary. social conflict or psychological conflict. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. General classification 2. Using action verb 3. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Orientation 60 . In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. as it is. Using action verb 3. Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Generic Structure 1. myth. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: SMA Students’ Modul of English 1. Orientation 2. Using adverb 4. Using Past Tense 2. etc while recount text is found in biography. fable. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. folklore. Using conditional logical connection 3. whether Simple Past Tense. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Orientation 2. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1.Purpose: to presents information about something. or Past Perfect Tense. Event(s) 3. Event(s) 3. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed.
Evaluation 3. dsb. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. descriptive. grafik. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. spoof dsb. map. penjelasan. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 8. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 2. diagram dsb. Using long and complex clauses 4. tabel.exposition. label. biasanya tentang nama. tanggal. 4. 5. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. 1. Using adjectives 3. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 9. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. 10. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1.2. 3. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. Continuous text misalnya narrative. 6. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Interpretative Recount 4. tempat. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. Evaluation 5. tahun. SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. 7. Focus on specific participants 2.
i) Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… e) Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. The purpose of the text is _____. d) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.” The underlined word mean ____ g) Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. fluffy. h) Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. it is small. b) Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. And cute. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. f) Menentukan makna kata. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… c) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed.11.
What is the writer’s intention? To …. school corridors and school yard. When we look at classrooms. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. outside of the classrooms. in every ten meters. straws.. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. more dust bins…. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . So when students want to throw away their litters. they can find the dust bins easily. According to the writer. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. 1. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment.EXERCISES. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study.. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. Besides. there are paper mineral water cups. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. a number of dust bins should be increased. They put their litters on the proper places. and some more also the corridors. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. readers to do something good. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. and napkins here and there. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment.
there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Firstly. Secondly. patriotism and yeas. songs are relaxing. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. translating songs. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. learning English can be enjoyable and fun.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. shopping malls. The generic structures of the text are …. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. They provide variety and fun. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. learning vocabulary. with a lot of repetition. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. place or time reference. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Last but not least. which is just what many learners look for sample text. In addition. Furthermore. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. What is the text about …. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. lexically and poetically. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. even revolution. practicing selective listening comprehension. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . Although usually simple. religion. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. From the elaboration above. songs in general also use simple conversational language. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. 5. spelling and culture.
.9. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on.“They provide variety and fun. The word reasons mean…. smoking in restaurants is impolite.” The underlined word refers to …. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. not just in restaurants. Therefore. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. 11. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10.. Based on the text. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.Since we can find a thesis. Firstly. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . It must not be allowed because it is rude. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. Finally.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• • • •
Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
• I want to introduce you to …. Introducing someone else my name is. I'm Linda 1. And you. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. It's a pleasure to meet you. 2. Mrs. Cindy. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Nice to meet you too. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Hi Jack. Mr. Jack. Ritter. sister.. boss. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. I don't believe we've met before.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. co-worker. Nice to meet you. my my my my my my my my my brother. Very nice to meet you. Ms. teacher. Penny Pitcher. friend.. Likewise. Carrie.. Watson. Harris.. Pleased to meet you. Mary Jones. student. father. mother. Bob. I'm. Mr. Harris. This is my friend.
and Retno are new students. hotel. a restaurant.g. Adib : Hi. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Adib : Anyway. are you a new student. I’m Arnys. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. Hi. My name is Adib. They meet at the students’ orientation course. this is Retno. e. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Retno. Adib. By the way. Shall we go to the canteen?. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Arnys. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. I am. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Good sir afternoon madam Mr Jones evening Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Arnys? Retno : Okay. Situation: Adib.g.
Not so bad. Bye. shake hands with other Virga :… women. . 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. . thank you. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. • Good bye. thanks. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. . thanks. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . . (informal) Would you like to . • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. before leaving. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. See you soon /later /tomorrow. .Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. Very well. . . Do you wanna . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. thanks. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne.
if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 . Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. Receiving . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.. I’d be delighted to..Yes.a chocolate bar? . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.I’d love to . .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like. let’s not.. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .I’d be happy/glad to accept ....I’d like very much ..Some responds of inviting.? Would you like ..
Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Happy birthday to you. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Thanks. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. you very much. I need it. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Happy new year. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. returned your lost wallet. helped carry your grocery bags. complimented you on your necktie.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Thank you.
That’s a nuisance d.• • • Oh. What’s pity c. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . holidays and other special occasions.. and congratulations Special Days . What’s shame b. How kind of you to say so. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A.. It’s nice of you to say so. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . That’s too bad e. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. That’s pity f. not really.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 ..B. I’m really sad to … c. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. Expression Displeasure a. d. b. How Awful! d. I’m sorry about that c. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. I feel …. feel unpleased with …. e. Send my deepest condolence! f. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. h. How terrible! c. I’m really sorry for them d. c. I’m so happy …. I feel disappointed. j. g. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. …. d. I’m sorry to hear that b. I’m delighted. I feel … b. m. k. Goodness! b. i. f. It was terrifi c. l. I enjoyed it I love it. How dreadful! C.
but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan.Satisfaction. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang.
I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. say • Absolutely.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. … If you ask me. • I am with you • Definitely. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. As I see. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. In my opinion….. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain.. In my opinion.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. • Yes. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I think the other one’s better. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . I agree • I know what you mean. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. What do you think of this refrigerator? So.
kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. Fear. that's not a good idea. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. No. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. I don't think that's what happened. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No.
• Ugh. it’s killing me! 2. • I’m sick. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .. • Thank God for ./I feel ill. • I’m glad it was done.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like I love it I like it I am keen on it I am crazy about it We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea Dislike I don’t really like it I dislike it I am not really interested in… I can’t enjoy… (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. it’s very painful! • Oh. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1.. • I feel sick...Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.
This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. but it is not a very strong dislike.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. BUT "I don't really like it. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu." This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 .
Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. That’s a real embarrassment. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. I won’t No problem Not likely Mmm You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. I was so ashamed. Informal Situations … really makes me mad.. I will. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes..I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 .please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance Refusal I should be delighted to I regret to say that come we find ourselves By all means unable to go I have no objection I’m afraid it’s not I’d be happy to possible Sure I’m afraid not Yeah Sorry OK No. I’m extremely unhappy about this.
Palupi : OK.. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Excuse me if I'm out of line.. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright. It's your fault for (doing something).. Right away. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Of course...menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. Blame (keluhan. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English.. Don't get me wrong. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. Certainly. I'm sorry to bother you...... There may have been a misunderstanding about. Sure. but I think we should.. but. but. Complaint. I think you might have forgotten to. Maybe you forgot to..
Pete.. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. Sorry for. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.. Apology (penyesalan. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . I'd like to apologise for.... meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. I'm so sorry. To say why you're sorry Sorry about.. I didn't mean to lose your book. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.simply starters! Regret. I …. Sorry for taking your DVD. Examples I'm really sorry. to express regret an exclamation a word.. I'll clear up later. to ask for forgiveness.. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier..
trouble unhappiness... It is impossible There’s a possibility of his winning Probably She is on the way the game/ that he will win the May be he needs more time game. NOTE : 1. She might not be at home SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 . It’s possible that he’ll win the There is a little chance that …. there is a possibility . game. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.. distress.… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible .. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability. Several ways of indicating possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet.... possibility are: There is a good chance that …..
doing something are: I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.they.. Expressions to show I don’t think I have the ability capability are : I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it. Expressions used to ask I can do it possibility or capability of There is a chance that I can do it. Would there be any possibility of 4. WAKTU V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.they.it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English .she.? incapability are: Do you think we are capable of ….it She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Now At present At this moment To day Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I. 3.you.she.she.you.? I can’t do it Is it possible for me to …? I’m not sure I’m capable of doing Are we capable enough to …? it. Expressions to show ….we Has utk S= he.it) Every… (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally Do utk S= I. I’m capable of doing it 2. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES Present Tense (Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) POLA KET.we Always dll Does utk S= he.
we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Before/when + Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) S + V2 (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.they.he. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang akan Will utk semua Sabjek (S) dilakukan di waktu Shall utk S = I.she.it Were utk S= you. selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.saat berbicara Father has been at his office perbuatan/tindakan since 12 tsb telah hours ago.we yang akan datang) N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… Future Continuous V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time (Menyatakan tomorrow aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan SMA Students’ Modul of English 86 .
Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have If + past perfect (menyatakan suatu +V3 pengandaian pada N= (+) S + would/should + masa lampau. have been + adj/n/adv sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been By + ket.waktu SMA Students’ Modul of English 87 .waktu aktivitas yang akan + V-ing telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ perbuatan/keadaan N= (+) S + would/should + be + yang akan datang adj/n/adv dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.
is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . Fred : Juda. they are succesful. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. a.does/am. practised d.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. works d. will have worked c. is. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2. worked e. will be practising c. “Srimpi”. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. Iwan : Yes. has been working b. a. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. the telephone rang twelve times.(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. have been practising b. are Was.is.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. was parctising e.
the meeting ___ by the time we get there. have been cleaning c. starts c. will have lived b. were cleaning b. carry d. My family ____ when the postman arrived. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. has stopped looking for a job SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. will have started e. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. was carrying 3. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. will start b. will have had lunch b. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. a. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. am carrying b. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. cleaned e. This sentence means that Ann ___. clean d. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. a. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. carried e. has got a new job d. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. have lunch d. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. have been living c. have been having lunch c. will be started 2. If we don”t hurry. will have lunch e. a. would have started d. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. a. was living e. a. have carried c.berlangsung. a. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. am living d.
will cause 5. a. but I ____ there many times. has been attending e. has been b. will have been c. am d. sir. was d. He ____ there for three weeks. Student : All right.00 tomorrow. has worked for six months e. was e. a. would be attended SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . a. is still looking for a job 4. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. had been 9. had been 7. has attended b. have been 6. will be b. He ____ ill for a week. My father is still in Bali. a. attended c. have learnt e. a. has forgotten d. will have been c. has been e. was e. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. Learn all these. caused d. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. am learning 10. learn d. Reni goes to her university every morning. had forgotten e. When airport are located in the center of citied. I forget to bring your book. started to work 6 months a go c. a. have been c. sir. will be attending d. would be b. forgets b. will have learnt c. is d. forgot c. would forget 8. will be learning b. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK.b. causes e. She ___ the lectures. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. She studies business. Is it right? Student : Yes. I ____ them by then. were causing b. a. have caused c.
(!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then. Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 91 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous SMA Students’ Modul of English .DIRECT . where. (-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag. pronoun (kata ganti orang). “I do not have a present for you in my bag” (?) He asked. struktur kalimat. when. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. why.” (-) He said. “Don’t bring your bag here!” Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag. “ I have a present for you in my bag. “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag? (!) He ordered/commanded me. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. how.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct (+) He said. who. keterangan waktu. (?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered me. (?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). dan tempat. “Do I have a present for you in my bag?” (?) He asked me. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses.
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … The preceeding …before …earlier The day before The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .
if I opened my mouth e. Herman. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. if Mary was absent d. to be not so noisy c. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. that I open his mouth d. a. I am very noisy b. why Mary was absent e. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course.1. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. to open my mouth b. opened my mouth c. mom. why Mary had been absent c. He said ____ the previous day. had gone to his country d. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. he went to his country b. he goes to his country c. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . a. The baby is sleeping. that Mary had been absent b. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. not to be so noisy e. Herman : Okay. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. he has gone to his country e. I wasn’t so noisy d.
not spend c. “What are you doing now?”. he asked me ____”. c. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. a. d. what were you doing now. I hadn’t cleaned d. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. Mira closed the window. I forgot to bring your book. b. a. It was windy outside. 4. 7. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. Slamet. Mira. a. not spending b. what I was doing then. he asked. what I am doing now. c. It is windy outside. e. Mira closed the window. He asked me ____ a. would forget 3. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. did I have an appointment d. Ari : What did he say. a. 6. he does not clean e. SMA Students’ Modul of English . e. do not spend d. when is my appointment b. a. what are you were doing now d. forgot c. b. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. he would not clean c. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. I got a headache. he hasn’t cleaned 2. Closed the window. going with us b.Soal-Soal Latihan 1. not to spend e. can he go with us e. he headn’t cleaned b. If he could go with us d. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. It is windy outside. has forgotten d. It was windy outside. Mother said. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. “ ___________” a. Anto : I am sorry Lina. how was my appointment e. that I had an appointment 94 5. forgets b. had forgotten e. wether he goes with us c. Does Mira close the window.
My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. “don’t make noise. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. “Can I find you a hotel?”. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. c. b. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. e. to finish my work c. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. She told the children don’t make noise b. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. She said the children didn’t make noise c. 10. Mean____ a. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. finished your work e.c. finish your work d. children”. d. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . to finish your work b. She told the children not to make noise. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. e. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. She didn’t say the children should noise d. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. Father said. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. My friend said to me. whether I had appointment 8. a. she said.
What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. The announcement ____ twice. she ____ a. kicked e.Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) Active S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + Ving S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + Ving+ S +would +have+been+V-ing Passive S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. A : Look! The girl is crying. SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . kicks d. was kicked c. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. was kicking b.
was arranged e. was it abolishing d. a. has to be postponed b. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. were being unloaded e. was it to abolish b. have been unloaded d. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. is sold d. a. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. A big dam ___ in this area next year.a. did it abolish e. is born d. a. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. will be born 2. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. has been born c. would be built SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . a. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. was postponed d. are sold e. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. will be unloaded b. will build d.? a. would be born b. are unloaded c. is being built c. has been postponed c. was being postponed e. had been sold c. when…. have arranged b. were sold b. has arranged c. have been arranged 3. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. was born e. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. will be built e. a. is arranged d. Y : Really. to be abolished c. R. has been built b.A.
the baby would be well looked after 7. rewarded d. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. will be promised 10. destroyed d. took c. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. was destroyed 6. has been taken SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. is being rewarded b. has been promising b. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. the baby is well looked after b. cleaned c. will be destroyed b. a. is being demolished e. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. was taken b. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. is being cleaned e. he ____ to the nearest hospital. the baby will be well looked after d. will be promised e. a.4. has promised d. a. a. will clean b. is being taken e. is being destroyed c. the baby is being looked after well e. will be taken d. has been rewarded c. was being demolishing 9. will be rewarded 8. had destroyed e. was rewarded e. the baby was looked after well c. has been cleaned 5. a. a. had been demilishing b. was being cleaned d. demolishing d. was being promised c. The passive form is ____ a. She looks after the baby well. is demolishing c.
Contoh: large larger largest SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most c. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2.DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. yaitu: 1. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3.
Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku.). Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. was/were. (jika saya punya uang. did. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Present Conditional (type 2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. may. Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Apa yang diucapkan. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. have/has. itulah yang diharapkan. had. dll. -er. -ow. dll. I will buy a new car. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • • • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. will.4. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. can. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. shall. -le. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Contoh: If I have much money.
whose. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. I would go to the beach with you. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . whom. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Kalau kalimatnya (+). tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja).Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). Kalau kalimatnya (+). which. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Contoh : (+) If I had time. I would have written you a letter. 3. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. of which.
O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. its. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. our. Its surface is not smooth. Contoh: We saw the people. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. Meja yg dimaksud the table) SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . sebuah benda. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. your. They are printed in English. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. I met him last week. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. (its surface/permukaannya meja. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. Their car has been stolen. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. his. her. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories.Contoh: We know a lot of people. I bought it last year. their.) 2. (him = the man. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store.
(mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 .7. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Where 8. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.
2. I had mechanic repair my car.our. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. he said nothing. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. Gerund digunakan bila: 1.Amir’s. his. The manager has the letter typed. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1).S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). 5. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. I got the mechanic to repair my car. Before leaving.their. 4. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Consider Avoid Delay Enjoy Finish Quit Mind Miss Postpone Recall Regret Report 104 SMA Students’ Modul of English . O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). 3. can’t help/can’t bear. to be busy. 6. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing).her. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. Jogging makes us fresh. get used to. Setelah possessive adjective (my. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. to be worth. on. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. before dll.to be used to. The manager gets the letter typed.your.
V ketimbang main video game) 4.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. . (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. yaitu: 1. as soon as. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 Contoh: . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. b.V. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . c. We went home after the rain stopped. Menunjukan waktu: before. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat.Juned prefers combro to deblo. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . a. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city.V . PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1.V better than radio. after. than plays a video game. when.Dita would rather watch T. 3.I like T.Can’t help Resume Deny Risk Resist Siggest Practice Advise Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .Dona prefers dancing to singing.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. while. SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 .
although/though. c. or. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. first. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) .He is not only active but also clever. we put some sauce and salt. if. then. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. we put them into frying pan. for.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . (dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .You can read this book if you like.Although it was raining.Amir and I go to school everyday. a. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . d. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . Next. Finally. since. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. b. we must prepare the ingredients. While he was reading her novel. 3. Since I have no money. c. after that.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. a. somebody knocked on the door.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. e. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . 2. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. 1. After that. finally.He is both wise and good. but. Contoh: . he come on time.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. b. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. that. next. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first.d. I can’t treat you. dll.
Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.arti asalnya. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .
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