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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................23 News Item Text.................................................................................24 What is News Item? ..........................................................................24 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................27 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................27 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................ 39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................49 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................51 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................54 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................55 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................55 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................57 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
.........100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ...106 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 .105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ...............................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)........105 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) .................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) .........................................................................................................................................103 GERUND ......................................................................................................................................101 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...................................99 QUESTION TAGS ...................................................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ..............................................................................................................................................
2. Procedure 12. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Descriptive 10. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Anecdote 9. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Hortatory Exposition 3. News Items 13. Explanation 2. Recount 6. 1. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. These types of text are.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. The language feature. Spoof 5. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Review 7. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Report 4. Analytical Exposition 8. Narrative 11. why is the text made?.
cars. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. it is better to look at the fact. Additionally. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Thirdly. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. as we all know. lung cancer. you may find it hard to sleep at night. which causes them to die. Reiteratio In conclusion. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Secondly. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. the risk is nineteen greater. As we all know. cars are very noisy. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. If you live in the city. the city is very busy. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. and especially talk to someone. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. or concentrate on your homework. Argument Firstly.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. cars create pollution. In one hour in smoky room.
Furthermore. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. In this example of analytical exposition text. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. That wil be true if the conditions. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. As the US. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 .
(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. Additionally. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above Small Notes thesis. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. That is really easy and save time and money. students need book. misalnya car. dsb. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. eraser. government. • Abstract nouns. students need more to reach their progressive development. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. From all of that. dsb. we. misalnya certainly. pen. dsb. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. • Thinking verbs. in this multimedia era. drawing book. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. (Simplified from the jakartapos. misalnya It is important.dsb. misalnya we must preserve. misalnya C. misalnya She must save. ruler and such other stuff. dsb • Modal verbs. Secondly. dsb.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. • Action verbs. • Relating verbs. • Connectives. • Modal adverbs. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. dsb. misalnya firstly. and then complete the transaction. pollution. misalnya policy. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. • Reiteration . dsb. Penguatan pernyataan. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. dsb. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates Ciri Umum: the thesis in another phrases to point the (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: writer'opinion. leaded petrol car. The students just need to brows that online shop. secondly. First. • Technical verbs. misalnya Many people believe. misalnya species of animals. • Bahasa evaluatif. this method will help student to get better understanding. decide which computer or laptop they need. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns.
E. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types.Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Arabic translation. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. India translation will grow better and. Students just need to decide which type they really need. According to Nida. Career in Translation Functionally. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. you might have one link in your dialogue SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. It seems Indonesia. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. Therefore. India is likely being an English speaking country. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. D. If Hindi translation is provided. For instance. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free.
writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. because. Orientation 3.box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Using action verb. write. 3. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Using exclamation words. it's wonderful!. afterward 6. do you know what? 4. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. etc 2. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. listen to this 3. which had been SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Using rhetoric question. then. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. it's awful!. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Using conjunction of time. 2. go. etc • Causal conjunction . credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Crisis 4. Abstract 2. Incident. etc 5. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Using imperative. Using simple past tense 4. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1.
several years but finally they had saved enough money. and turned on the tap. dsb. They had a dream to go to America. Pengenalan (Orientation) Krisis (Crisis) Example of Anecdote Tindakan (Incident) A. Suddenly to my horror. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. misalnya go. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. They had gotten • action verbs. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. seperti then. America. afterwards. Indeed I had to pull her kejadian/peristiwa lucu she’d probably have leant over berdasarkan khayalan atau better the bath to get a peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. write. spitting and hissing at us. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. so we set to. there were being quarantined for long days. look! Ever since then I’ve always(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure put the plug in firmly Abstrak (Abstract) before running the bath water. • seruan/kata seru. The family worked and saved. Five days latter. The father was full of disappointed and anger. He shed tears of disappointment. It had taken isn’t it? dsb. Then I Anecdote running and yelled for my husband. passport. the mighty Titanic. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath. who killed the snake with the handle of Umum: was only three at the time. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. For an instant I stood thereSmall Notes quite paralysed. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! They were making plan to travel with And do you know what? It’s awful. It took hundreds of SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. had shank. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. who luckily came(Cerita Lucu) Ciri a broom. was(a) Tujuan interested in the quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakanout of the way or whole business. dsb.Crisis Incident Coda empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. They were Clark family with (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nine children. The ship. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. The doctor sewed up the boy. Blessing behind Tragedy Koda (Coda) There was a black family in Scotland years ago. their children to America. However few days before their departure.
The Clak family should have been on that ship. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. identifying the phenomenon to be described. • Using simple present tense 4. He thanked God for saving their lives. there is something wrong last minute before it. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. qualities. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. They had to forget their plan.passenger and crew with it. 2. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. describing the phenomenon in parts. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. It was unbelievable but it was. It made they were being quarantined. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. they were left behind. • Description. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. place. You have and so do I. or thing. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. They had dream to travel to America. Examples and structures of the text Identificati MacQuarie University Macquarie University is one of the largest universities 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English . or/and characteristics. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. When the dream will come true. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. but because of the bitten son by a dog. 3. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. When the father heard the news. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The father was angry with his son and God.
She always want to be a trend setter of the day. a railway station is under construction. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. This year. bright color. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. When she are walking on that shoes. In three years1 time. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Today. all her friends. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. She is beautiful. Ballet. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. a grass amphitheatre. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution.on in Australia. Sydney. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. casual. native plants and eucalypts. This shoes really matches on her. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. attractive and trendy. Recently. She really have perfect appearance. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. yet retaining its beautiful site. In 1964. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. The products provide varieties of choice. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Example of Description A. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. She said that the products covered all genders. The style. She is really mad on that shoes. in 2004. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect.
Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Borobudur is located in Magelang. The upper three are circular. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India.The temple is constructed. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Borobudur is well-known all over the world.Budhist temple. Indonesia. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Borobudur temple • Description.8 km of passage and starways. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Cambodia. The way to the summit extends through some 4. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief.boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. B. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . valuable • Using simple present tense. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Borobudur is well-known. Central Java. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.
(b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. misalnya fast.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. misalnya. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. • berbagai macam adjectives. two strong legs. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. misalnya teacher. kualitas. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. but my favourite one is a cat. 2. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. dsb. Description. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. dsb. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. numbering. My mum is realy cool. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. sifat-sifat (characteristic). dsb. It has very thick fur. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. perilaku umum. enough money to take Snow White. a sweet young lady. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. dsb. White. dsb. • simple present tense. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek.my cat. better or worse 3. misalnya. dsb. bersifat describing. sharp white fangs. classifying. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. Misalnya: I have many pets. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. house. • action verbs.
offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. “Oh could I? Thank you. said. Example of Narative A. one of the dwarfs. They were also rich and strong. you may live here with us. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story.” Snow White said. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. Maura asked them for something to eat. who received a plate of delicious meat. Hakim. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. Then Snow White woke up. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. The first gave her some left over food. One by one she discarded them. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. One evening. They went inside. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. “If you wish. “what is your name?” Snow White said. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. The psychological conflict inside Maura. had many suitors. which she strikes against herself. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. There they found Snow White sleeping.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . The dwarfs said. “My name is Snow White.” Doc. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. After dinner. The third sheik. They want to know what next will happen. As they were about to have dinner. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. She saw the dwarfs. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. who was called Hakim. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. “Without question. in what way she will decide who the best is. The following day. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace.
The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. two red apples. a man had a wonderful parrot. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. before that. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. The name of the place was Catano. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. Pengenalan tokoh. There was no other parrot like it. phrase. • action verbs dalam past tense. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. housework. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. dsb. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. Penyelesaian masalah. He could not bear it.dsb. dsb. climbed. Although he tried hard to teach. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. dsb. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. long black hair. misalnya here. The parrot could say every word. “You know. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. At the first. stayed. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. the parrot would not say it. stepsisters. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. Then he continued to humble. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. the man really got very angry. dsb. misalnya. I will cut the chicken 17 . Resolution. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). except one word. soon. konflik dalam cerita. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. in the mountain. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. happily ever after. Masalah. misalnya then. Complication. misalnya. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. waktu.
One day. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. To fix this problem. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. paragraph 2. In that parrot story. That was the smartest parrot. readers see the problem is finished. there was a handsome man. He made the fish free. There were three death chickens on the floor. The fish begged him to set it free. 3. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. At the moment. Batara Guru could not bear it. C. the man came back to the chicken house. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. She attracted Batara Guru so much. He opened the door and was very surprised. They were married happily. he caught a fish. The next day. As soon as it was free. It will show the crisis. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. The daughters were crying. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. He could not control his mad. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. 4 are describing the complication. A man and his parrot took place once time. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story.for my meal. Next it will be your turn. After that he left the chicken house. He liked fishing. I will eat you too. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. the man attempted to teach the bird. In the parrot story. stupid parrot”. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. They found their mother and talked her about it. rising crisis and climax of the story. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. They had two daughters. He felt in love with that fish-woman. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters.
uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Then the earth began to shake. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve.The mother was very annoyed. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. and it became a beautiful ball gown. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. The mother was shouting angrily. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. In the end. They were married and live happily ever after. Finally. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again.”you’ve been such a cheerful. She danced again and again with the king’s son. hardworking. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. One day. Magically. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. Batara Guru broke his promise. and away went the sisters to it. she was driven to the palace. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. A few days later. People believed that the big hole became a lake. she said. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. They treated Cinderella very badly. “Why are crying. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. The earth formed a very big hole. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. Cinderella?” a voice asked. the day of the ball came. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. such as scrubbing the floor. Cinderella”. did not work about the house. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. Volcanoes started to erupt. one of her glass slipper was left behind. The two step sisters. At last. “Well” said the godmother. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. on the other hand. It fitted perfectly. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. D. In her hurry. “Now. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. “You must leave before midnight”.
a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. 3.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. Complication: In this Cinderella story. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. E. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. One day. He took his plough and hit the tiger. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. farmer and his buffalo. After the man went home. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. introducing specific participants. “Yes” said the man. Every morning and every evening. Resolution. But the man answered. “you are so big and strong. Once there was a farmer from Laos. “oh. The tiger asked. “No. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. Resolution: Like complication. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . I can’t tell you”. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. the man is very intelligent”. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. Orientation. said the buffalo. Then he said. “it at home”. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. “Can I see your intelligence?”. Complication. The Smartest Animal. Generic Structure Analysis 1. once in Laos 2. In the last paragraph. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence.
• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. cheese grater. one day connectives. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. answered thinking verb. the man tied the tiger. bowl. was surprised to action verb. Goal: showing the purpose 2. spatula. there was a farmer. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. 50 g cheese. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. hit time conjunction. Place on a plate. after. Cook both sides 9. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . fork. ¼ cup milk. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. once. Add milk and whisk well 4. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. tie. saw. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. plate Method 1. the next day past tense.
dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. Firstly. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. Finally. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. put the seeding on the soil. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. • Material. the following is a guided information SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 .10. excluded • Steps. informing on how to plant chillies. next. etc • Action verb. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. put it. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. planting is a nice activity. Here are the steps. finally. put. dry a handful seeding. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. wait it. etc • Temporal conjunction. Example of Procedure A. firstly. put it in another big pot. dry. It should be in open area Next.
read. dsb. Well. Writing For Business Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. Edit it necesarily. Langkah-langkah. might or should help customers but talk about how Aim/Goal. Your customers don't care about Ciri Umum: you. menyatakan rinci waktu. • pola kalimat imperative. to make a cheese omelet. dsb. Thirdly. fifty gram cheese. They want to know "What's in it for me?" (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Secondly. you don't have to. dsb. showing the method in writing for business. excluded • Steps/ method. Don’t mix. Don't (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure describe how your company may. you need an egg. put. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. reread what you have done. How does it sound? serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. Language Feature Analysis • action verbs. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. three tablespoons cookin oil. Materials. write your benefit like you talk Memberi petunjuk tentang cara it. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. firstly. etc C. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. Steps. Mix Procedure text them up and keep things interesting. take the topic of benefits.B. a pinch of satlt and SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . Small Notes Firstly. don’t.re-read what you've done before publishing. Read aloud what melakukan sesuatu melalui you've written. but it will help. Cut. re-reading what have been written . lose the weak words. Use regular words. 2 centimetres from the top. cara yang akurat. Some Note: Materials are not required for all sentences are long and some are short. Here's a simple checklist to follow. write like you talked. etc • Action verb. etc • Temporal conjunction. Fifthly. informing on how to write for business • Material. choosing the advantageous topic. Bahan-bahan Fourthly. Tujuan kegiatan your company will. secondly. while. misalnya then. tempat. a quarter cup of milk. misalnya for five minutes. misalnya turn. • Imperative sentences. write. Use a nice rhythm.com/? expert=Daniel_F_O'connor misalnya. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. writing the topic like the way it is talked. mix. not Procedure (Prosedur) features. It's so easy to (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: make mistakes which you don't notice the Menggunakan: first time through.
participant. Elaboration (background. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. you need some tools. Listen carefully. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. add First.pepper. Using material process 4. Next. Language Feature of News Item 1. 2. Focusing on circumstances 2. cheese grater. fork. Next. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. The events are considered newsworthy or important. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Generic Structure of News Item 1. spatula. The accident. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. First. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. place) 3. frying pan. Main event 2. time. such as. bowl and plate. Resource of information 3. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: International Aids Memorial day. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Newsworthy events. 745 Malaysian women were identified verbs as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every Kejadian inti. he said in the report. Women are the first ones to get exploited by terlibat. many women who contract HIV are housewives. • Menggunakan action Last year. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. less then 10 percent are woman. woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. it’s up saksi kejadian. but the number is steadily rising. which was • Informasi singkat celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Example of Procedure A. dsb. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. In the past the headline event was held behind closed door. even though they know they have HIV” she said. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. news report said. Malaysian Aids Council president. Latar belakang “This is not to debate them but to protect kejadian. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. pendengar Sources atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. SMA Students’ Modul of English (Source The Jakarta Post.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Sumber Memberitakan kepada Informasi pembaca. pendapat para ahli. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. June 01. Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Sources. tempat their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” kejadian dsb. komentar Star Newspaper. to them”. 2008) 25 . a Background Events. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. “But this just a suggestion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. orang yang them. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. in tertuang dalam bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim.
2008) An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . had worked with the boy family for 11 years. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. Hong Kong. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. Then the maid was arrested. May 6. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Last year.Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising.news. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Saudi Arabia. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. The maid. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. (Taken from: www.co. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. named Suwartin. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. Indonesian Maid beheaded (Adapted from Reuters. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. She will be sentenced in two week’s time.bbc. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. She had relationship the boy for five months. Rape.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event.
may. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. deliberately. and causal connection. similarly. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. etc • Using modalities. Statemen I think we should have homework because it helps us to t of issue learn and revise our work.Background 1. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. execute. believe. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. historic. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. law of serious crimes. etc • Using additive. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. carry. feel. behead. etc • Using adverbial of manner. Background 3. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. should. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. could. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. on the hand. Resource. Background 2. 2. however. and social text. contrastive. must. Using material process. hopefully. and Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to Preview SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . hope. etc 4.
I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. It is reliable. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. and produces huge amounts of energy. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. many times. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. It produces small amount of waste. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal.remember what they have learned. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Statemen t of various viewpoint s But. so it is not expansive to make. doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. England in 1956. Example of Discussion Text A. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine.
a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. alcohol. misalnya similarly.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. very dangerous. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. perception and recommendation. dsb. dsb. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. misalnya feel. nuclear power is very. misalnya smoking is harmful. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. This example of discussion text present the two poles. although it is reliable. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. dsb. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. however. memberikan informasi secara padu. Elaborasi (uraian). should have been. should. misalnya uniforms. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. Kesimpulan. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. seperti perhaps. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. believe. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. hope. . In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. dsb. In many social activities. on the hand. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. misalnya deliberately. Elaborasi (uraian). hopefully. Elaborasi (uraian). contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. Gagasan Pokok 2. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. dsb. dsb. • adverbials of maner. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. Furthermore.On the other hand. must. could 29 be.
Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Using modalities.co. scientific and cultural phenomena. It is often found in science. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . farmer. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. B. conservationists. Many farmer and even conservationists. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Using thinking verb. however. geography and history text books. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Contrastive point. social. Recommendation. Using connectives. 2. believe. Supporting point. hunting fox. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. (Taken from: www.bbc. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. must.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance.
Example of Explanation Text A. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Sequenced explanation. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. to begin with. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities.• • General statement. etc Using chronological connection. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). next. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. rain. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Language Feature • • • • 4. Featuring generic participant. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. sun. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.
The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. abstract nouns. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. (Taken from: www. (simplified from www.org) B.co. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. The earth is actually closer to the sun in kalimat pasif winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. This process is called revolution. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. earthquakes. passive voice. action verbs.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam.uk) SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. misalnya the temperature.ictteachers. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. It takes 365 days or a year. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. The sun seems to rise in the morning. misalnya the large cloud. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. The earth also moves around the sun. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. It is called as rotation. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. misalnya word chopping. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease.panda. earth. This adverbial phrases. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. sosialbudaya. dunia ilmiah. simple present tense. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. conjunctions of time dan cause. is not because as much people think we are complex sentences. noun phrase. closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the bahasa teksni. But that is the case. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. It causes day and night. Tsunami always bring great damage.
Using passive voice 9. Using chronological connection. but. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Using simple present tense 4. daylight. Explanation. Using present tense. advantage. secondly. Thesis 2. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. etc 7. the earth is actually closer to the sun. then. etc 3. 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Using pasive voice. policy. so. Using evaluative words. Arguments 3. certainly. Focusing on the writer 2. Using abstract noun.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Using temporal connective.Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Using action verb 4. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. surely. you would be forgiven. important. firstly. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere).where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Recommendation 3. Using thinking verb 5. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. valuable. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. I feel that when you travel through the country. trustworthy. 2. Using modal adverb. etc 8. etc 6.
However. of course. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. stress. Recently. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. and the possibility of being aggressive. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. and short sleep duration. Meanwhile. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. especially violence. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption.Those who want to penalise older . who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. pornography. consumerism and so on. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Recomendation I feel that country people. Considering some facts mentioning above. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 .
presenting the supporting arguments. If it is a hortatory text. there papers. Both take place as argumentative essays. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. and napkin everywhere. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. More dust bins should be put beside each step. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. advertising. Basically. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. In the first paragraph. SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . B. So when students want to throw away their litters. When we look at classroom. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. and news advertorial. In many social activities. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. they can find the dust bins easily. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. straws. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. sales letter. mineral water cops. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. school corridors and schoolyard. speech campaign.
it will be quite confusing. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. Where should be after High School?. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. When they think about continuing study. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. So. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly.When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. In the other hand. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. C. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. when they think about straightly seeking job. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. they will think hard about the time and cost. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. In the same way. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. As the alternative method of studying. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. the available time will be more flexible for them. it will be very hard to looking for job. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . For those who succeed soon will think to decide. As result.
dsb.we. Modal adverbs. are you tired?. Technical verbs. part per part . reward Using action verb. dsb. animal. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Connectives. misalnya certainly. misalnya important. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. misalnya I believe . Generic Structure of Report 1. Albert Smith is the proof. valuable. Relating verbs. Millions from Property Market. Thinking verbs. give up. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2.government dsb. dsb. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. he drives a sport car. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Modal verbs. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. public place. misalnya We must preserve. dsb. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. secondly.dsb. We can show the way to give up work. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. there is a way out of financial problem. Argument. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. Action verbs. felt Using simple present tense. doesn’t seem to have been . as it is. misalnya firstly. we must save. etc which will be discussed in general 2.misalnya policy. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. misalnya species of animals. etc Using thinking verb. dsb. dsb. misalnya. Recommendation. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. misalnya should be. make. now there is a way out. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. plant.D. dsb.
The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. driving the fish before them. Example of Report Text A. so. A group. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. when. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. In the other hand. and lakes. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill.• • Using conditional logical connection. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. rivers. etc Using simple present tense 4. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. the animal of platypus. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. perhaps two dozen birds. and woolly layer of fur. stating general classification. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. Platypus lives in streams. Platypus' eyes and head are small. beating the water furiously with their wings. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds.
Description. dsb. atau gejala-gejala sosial. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. but. istilah teknis. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . in terms of parts. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. dsb. misalnya. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. male platypus does not need any burrow. Platypus lives in streams. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. benda buatan manusia. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. dsb. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. qualities. dan klasifikasinya. logical connective. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. lingkungan. the animal of platypus conditional. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. misalnya lizards cannot fly. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. apa adanya. habits or behaviors. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. keterangan. kegunaannya jika non natural. dsb.
Using action verb. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Told in chronological order 4. etc 3. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Language Feature of Spoof 1. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Kejadian/peristiwa He took him to a policeman and said. Focusing on people. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . 2. ‘ I have / kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office.’ replied the man. ate. Events 3.1. Using adverb of time and place 4. Dave found a nice office. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. animals or certain things 2. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. ran. Kejadian/peristiwa The next day the policeman saw the same / kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Twist 3. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Orientation 2. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did.
“Hey Abu Nawas. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. run. Instead leaving the country. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. Event 1: Being rich. misalnya eat. “Yes. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. no children. He suddenly became a 1. conversation on the phone. B. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. He had not left the country yet. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. Then the man said to Dave. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . “You want me. In his office.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. I want you to leave the country. Then “Remember. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. verbs. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). binatang. benda tertentu. terduga atau lucu). “If that is what you want. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. Event 2: He had his new office. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house.
Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. young man and young woman. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. (Adapted from S. The king wondered and said “Abu. The king was not able to say anything. You walk on stilts like a child. The play was very interesting. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. I turned around again. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. I had a very good seat. I could not hear the actors. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. I turned around. I do not step on the ground of this country”.In the end. “I remember exactly what you said.guards. They did not pay any attention. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. I could not bear it. They were talking very loudly. look at you.I got very angry. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. I do not step on the ground. Your Majesty. I have been walking on this stilts. So you see. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. And since yesterday. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. were talking noisily. The King continued “And now. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. You have not left this country”. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily.I did not enjoy it. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace.
Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. The next day. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . nobody looked at me. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. It’s a private conversation”. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. “When I came here with my old clothes. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. the policeman saw the man in the same park. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. The host at once got up and came to meet him. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. “It’s none of your business. So. He took it to a policeman and said. When he arrived in the party. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. "Take it to the zoo!". He put his coat and said. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. you give food to my coat instead of me”. they just shook the head. The man was still carrying the penguin. D. “Eat the food. Getting Nasreddin's answer.
then. etc • Using action verb.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. walk up Using adverb of time and place. etc • Using simple past tense 4. today I am taking it to the movie". first. Even. change. saw. So. go. chronological order by days. etc • Using chronological connection. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. policeman Using action verb. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. The following day. Generic Structure of Recount 1. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. Orientation: Introducing the participants. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. etc • Using linking verb. Reorientation: It is optional. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . heard. carry. my group. I. penguin. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. They were in the park Event1.did. was. were. He. place and time 2. in the park Told in chronological order. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. once. look. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist.
They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. Then. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. hear. They gave them food and drink. The room had perfect view of the park. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. In writer's point of view. the thing is an experience. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. We saw cockatoos having a shower. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Richard with two sons. It was scary. This includes travel and accommodation. They had a very pleasant flight. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They went to London. It can be what the writer has done. Vacation to London Mr. We stayed at David and Della’s house. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They had variety of food. they inserted a key-card to open the door. Events Reorientatio In the afternoon we went home. They slept part of the way. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. They had booked fourteen days tour. The two week in London went by fast. read. and Mrs. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They arranged the transfer to a hotel.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. The officers were pleasant. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. Instead of keys for the room. n Example of Recount text A. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. There was a film for their entertainment. Mr. Richard’s family was on vacation. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They are Mr. At the end of the 14-day. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. B. On the third floor. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 .
dsb. On the other hand. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. the monkey. sleep. Events. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. at my house. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. Reorientation. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. misalnya yesterday. he was ready. misalnya and. On the day of the tour. Rekaman peristiwa. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. the on Tuesday. kejadian atau kegiatan. Pengenalan. di mana dan kapan. but. It is a busy but quiet town. run dsb. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. dsb. SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. funny. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. after that. 46 slowly dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. we dsb. C. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. then. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. The first stop was at Batubulan. recount describes series of events in detail. what happened on Sunday. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. In simple way. misalnya We went to the zoo. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. misalnya David. the second was to Ubud. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. waktu dan cara. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. misalnya beautiful. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. • • • • • . The first one was to Singaraja. She was happy dsb. The event happened smoothly. kejadian atau kegiatan. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours.Small Notes and felt. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. then on Monday. misalnya go. past tense. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure.
I was on my car. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. Even I could not move my car at all. The car lunched to one side. earthquake happened. D. using first person point of view.a center of stone sculpture. stating the writer's personal note. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. He was quiet satisfied. When I reached my town. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. was. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. I was on the car. suddenly • Using linking verb. Although nothing was left. Events. my car lunched on one side. I • Using chronological connectives. left. moved. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. Re-orientation. all his day was spent on the beach. were • Using action verb. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. etc. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. etc E. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. The next stop was Celuk. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. I did not know that it was an earthquake. in the town. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. I thought I got flat tire. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. I was on the car las week. introducing the participant. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. and. walked. like matchsticks. describing a series of event which happened. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. to the left. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . then. There were rocks everywhere. made. I was trapped by the rock. When the earthquake happened.
The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. A recount text has an orientation. Then. the ceremony was quite elaborate. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. First. It took about a week. my brother. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. However. Then. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. The funeral was performed in two phases. a series of events in chronological order. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. After that. On the last day. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. Those words and phrases are: First. In the text. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. They were great matches. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. Several days before the ceremony was done. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. During the day. Questions 1. and end your composition. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. 48 • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . there were also buffalo matches. After that. Overall. Finally.Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. we were feasting. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. and dancing. and then moved the corpse to face north. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. Meanwhile. you find words and phrases used to start. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. In the night. connect a sentence with the next one. chanting. my uncle. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan.
He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. It is personal idea about the product. 3. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. It can be product. Review Text What is review text 1. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. worthy. or just a site which want to be known publicly. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. uniqueness. It states the parts. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. useful. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Dominant Language features: 1. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Using adjectives SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . As I said in my previous post. Focus on specific participants 2.• Finally. Definition Review is one of text genres. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. After clearly explanation. etc. quality of the product which will be known publicly. services which want to be sold. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. valuable. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression.
and parts of it do seem long. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here.housekeeping is still housekeeping. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. I cried!) as sad as it was. and this part I loved. Using metaphor 4. Using long and complex clauses 4. The stories were bright.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. In some (Interpretativ instances this works. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. intriguing. Examples and structures of the text Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan / I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. He goes from being a warm-hearted. this was not my favorite. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house.. A few other changes in this book . however. for example . considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing.. especially with being a teenager and all. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. depressing feel. and all of the Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. and ultimately satisfying. magical or no.you feel a whole new level of e recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. Still a 50 SMA Students’ Modul of English . I actually liked the ending (and yes. fast-paced. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. I was truly moved by the last page. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures.3. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight.
Recording Mommy Journey SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . Titanium. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. Similarly. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. it will be quite difficult to make translation. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. It straightly goes to the end user. It is real. However. aluminum and rimless frame are available.really good book. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. if he works with Farsi translation. lexical. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. with some editing it would have been great. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. In certain case. woman and man are available choice. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. easy and not complicated design. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. The site is quite simple but very informative. If we visit the site. Eyeglasses for children. The translation experts. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. The experts who have grammatical. Again. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. The eyeglasses are designed for different users.
Life itself is a journey. For Rosemarie, a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid, the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did, does and will do daily. The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;
Good Young Mother Rangkuman. It is about a young mother. It has a title (Evaluative of yummy mummy. This blog is representative Summation) of her idea of becoming young mother. He (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: pours her thought and opinion on this blog in Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to Menggunakan: monetizing it • adjectives This blog has fresh physical appearance. menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good; She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look • klausa panjang dan kompleks; fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her • metafor. monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52
buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
SMA Students’ Modul of English
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
goods. physical strengh. phenomena. descriptive text will convey more focus. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. In the other hand. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. product case or problem. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. colour. between report and descriptive text. Mostly. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. is the scope of the written object. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. What make different. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. how to make a good kite. It will talk about bicycle in general. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. lengh. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. For example how to make a cup of tea. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. Procedure. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. etc. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. animal and scientific object. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. eg: bicycle. In short. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. However if they are analyzed carefully.interest for them to want to interview you. wheel style. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. report is written after getting careful observation. its parts. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. If we talk about. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . it belongs to report text. They give the detail description on something.
For example how to make a cup of tea. goods. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. In writer's point of view. It is such word. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text.is the best example of the procedure text. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. and felt. phenomena. etc is the best example of the procedure text. the thing is an experience. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. They give the detail description on something. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Explanation. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It reveals the conflict among the participants. how to make a good kite. SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . On the other hand. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. recount describes series of events in detail. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. first boil water. hear. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. secondly prepare the cup. In simple way. and so on. read. It can be what the writer has done. secondly prepare the cup. The event happened smoothly. How a tornado form. product case or problem. first boil water. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Procedure. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It is such word. what happened on Sunday. and so on. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. the on Tuesday. then on Monday. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure.
17. explanation. report. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 8. Dominant Language Features: 57 . it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Arguments 3. analytical exposition. Crisis 4. anecdote. Using adjective 6. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. 22. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. and news item. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Using modals 2. 18.Explanation. Using adverbs 5. recount. 15. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. 14. hortatory exposition. Using thinking verbs 4. Using action verbs 3. Using technical terms SMA Students’ Modul of English 7. These variations are known as GENRES. 19. spoof. 20. Reaction 5. 25. descriptive. Coda. 26. Thesis 2. procedure. 24. 16. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. review. 23. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 3. They are narrative. Abstract 2. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. discussion. How a tornado form. texts are divided into several types.
Short. Orientation 2. Using adverbial phrase 6. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Using technical terms 7. Using action verb 3. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Background event(s) 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using action verbs 3. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using saying verbs 58 . Using Past Tense 2. Resolution SMA Students’ Modul of English 5. Using adverb 4. Explanation 3. Complication 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1.1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using exclamations. Using passive voice 4. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using noun phrase 5. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Goal/Aim 2. General statement 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. Evaluation 3. Materials/Equipments 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. Using material process 3. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Generic Structure: 1. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.
g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. place or thing in detail. Using thinking verbs 5. Using adverb 4. Using technical terms 8. Arguments 3. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adjective 7. Identification 2. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using action verb 3. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using adverbs 6. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using general and abstract noun 9. Description Language Features: 1. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION SMA Students’ Modul of English Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Arguments for and against 3. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT 59 . Using action verbs 4. Using modality 7. Using adverbs : time. Thesis 2. Using modals 3. place and manner. Using general and abstract noun 5.4. Using thinking verb 4. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Issue 2. In simple word.
we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: SMA Students’ Modul of English 1. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. as it is. Introducing group or general aspect 2. General classification 2. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. etc while recount text is found in biography. Using action verb 3. Using action verb 3. In the contrary. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. or Past Perfect Tense. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Event(s) 3. Using conditional logical connection 3. Event(s) 3. Orientation 2. fable. Using Past Tense 2. social conflict or psychological conflict. folklore. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. myth. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 2. whether Simple Past Tense. Orientation 60 . Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using adverb 4. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place.Purpose: to presents information about something. Generic Structure 1. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using Past Tense 2.
TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. spoof dsb. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. descriptive. tabel. label. map. penjelasan. grafik. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Evaluation 3. 7. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . Evaluation 5. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Using long and complex clauses 4. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. tanggal. Using adjectives 3. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. 6. 5. Interpretative Recount 4. 9. diagram dsb. biasanya tentang nama. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. 1. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. 10. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. 4. Focus on specific participants 2. tahun.exposition. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. 2. 8. dsb. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. tempat. 3.2. Continuous text misalnya narrative.
Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . i) Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… e) Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. fluffy.” The underlined word mean ____ g) Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. And cute. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… c) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. h) Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. f) Menentukan makna kata. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. it is small. d) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.11. b) Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan.
straws. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 .. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. and napkins here and there.EXERCISES. there are paper mineral water cups. 1. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. They put their litters on the proper places. and some more also the corridors. more dust bins…. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. outside of the classrooms. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3.. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. When we look at classrooms. Besides. they can find the dust bins easily. So when students want to throw away their litters. What is the writer’s intention? To …. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. school corridors and school yard. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. a number of dust bins should be increased. According to the writer. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. in every ten meters. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. readers to do something good.
spelling and culture. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. In addition. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. 5. shopping malls. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. lexically and poetically. Last but not least. which is just what many learners look for sample text. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Although usually simple. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. From the elaboration above. even revolution. practicing selective listening comprehension. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. songs are relaxing. They provide variety and fun. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. patriotism and yeas. The generic structures of the text are …. songs in general also use simple conversational language. learning vocabulary. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Firstly. Secondly. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . Furthermore. What is the text about …. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. religion. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. translating songs. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. place or time reference. with a lot of repetition.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable.
harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. not just in restaurants. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers.Since we can find a thesis. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. smoking in restaurants is impolite. Therefore. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. Finally.9. 11. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. Based on the text.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group.. Firstly. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. The word reasons mean…..The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.“They provide variety and fun.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. It must not be allowed because it is rude. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others.” The underlined word refers to ….
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• • • •
Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
mother. Penny Pitcher. Mr. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. I don't think we've actually met formally yet.. Carrie. Mrs. Nice to meet you. • I want to introduce you to …. student. 2. I don't believe we've met before. father. teacher. Jack.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. co-worker. Ritter. Mr.. Bob. Pleased to meet you. Harris. Introducing someone else my name is. boss.. I'm. friend. Watson. Ms. Mary Jones. sister. Very nice to meet you. And you.. I'm Linda 1. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Likewise. Harris. Hi Jack. This is my friend. my my my my my my my my my brother. It's a pleasure to meet you. Nice to meet you too. Cindy.
Arnys? Retno : Okay. hotel. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Hi. They meet at the students’ orientation course. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. Shall we go to the canteen?. Arnys. I’m Arnys. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Good sir afternoon madam Mr Jones evening Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. this is Retno.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet.g. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. Adib. and Retno are new students. we still have half an hour before the class starts.g. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. My name is Adib. Adib : Hi. Retno. are you a new student. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. a restaurant. e. I am. Situation: Adib. Adib : Anyway. By the way. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 .
thanks. • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. . . . . shake hands with other Virga :… women. Very well. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. . let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . thanks. See you soon /later /tomorrow. • Good bye. . Do you wanna . . Not so bad. before leaving. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. thanks. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. .Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Bye. thank you. (informal) Would you like to . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions.
.I’d like very much .Some responds of inviting.I’d love to . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 ..Yes. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. let’s not.. I’d be delighted to.to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome..That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.a chocolate bar? . Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks..... Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.I’d be happy/glad to accept . Receiving .? Would you like .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.
Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. complimented you on your necktie. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Thank you. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . you very much. Happy new year. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. helped carry your grocery bags. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Thanks. Happy birthday to you. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. I need it. returned your lost wallet. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you.
It’s nice of you to say so. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .. That’s pity f. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 .• • • Oh. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. What’s shame b.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. That’s a nuisance d. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. What’s pity c. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. holidays and other special occasions.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . That’s too bad e. and congratulations Special Days . How kind of you to say so.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .. not really.
I’m really sad to … c. i. f. d. I enjoyed it I love it. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. How terrible! c. I’m so happy …. I feel …. b. I’m sorry to hear that b.. j. d. I’m delighted. k. h. How dreadful! C. g. feel unpleased with …. I’m sorry about that c. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. m. It was terrifi c. c. e. I feel … b. I feel disappointed. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . l. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. Expression Displeasure a. I’m really sorry for them d. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. Goodness! b. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. How Awful! d. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. ….B. Send my deepest condolence! f.
Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.Satisfaction. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.
• I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. I agree • I know what you mean. • Yes. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. … If you ask me. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain.. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . you should buy the florescent light bulbs. As I see. say • Absolutely. • I am with you • Definitely. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. In my opinion. I think the other one’s better.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)….. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. In my opinion….
kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. that's not a good idea. No. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I don't think that's what happened. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. Fear.
• Thank God for .. • I feel sick. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally.. • I’m glad it was done. it’s very painful! • Oh. • Ugh... Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1./I feel ill. it’s killing me! 2. • I’m sick.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like I love it I like it I am keen on it I am crazy about it We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea Dislike I don’t really like it I dislike it I am not really interested in… I can’t enjoy… (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English ..
but it is not a very strong dislike. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 .Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. BUT "I don't really like it. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu." This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something.
. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance Refusal I should be delighted to I regret to say that come we find ourselves By all means unable to go I have no objection I’m afraid it’s not I’d be happy to possible Sure I’m afraid not Yeah Sorry OK No. I will..I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . That’s a real embarrassment. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I was so ashamed. I won’t No problem Not likely Mmm You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. I’m extremely unhappy about this.
Certainly. Blame (keluhan.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.... It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. I think you might have forgotten to..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but.. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English .Palupi : OK. There may have been a misunderstanding about... but I think we should.. but. Complaint. but.... Maybe you forgot to. I'm sorry to bother you. Right away. Excuse me if I'm out of line. Of course. Don't get me wrong. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English.. Sure. It's your fault for (doing something). Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright.
.. I …... Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess.. I didn't mean to lose your book..simply starters! Regret.. to ask for forgiveness. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. Sorry for. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . to express regret an exclamation a word. I'm so sorry. Sorry for taking your DVD. Examples I'm really sorry. I'll clear up later. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. Pete. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly.. Apology (penyesalan.. I'd like to apologise for. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. To say why you're sorry Sorry about.
.. there is a possibility ...… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible ...trouble unhappiness. • Is it possible to …? • Yes. It’s possible that he’ll win the There is a little chance that ….. NOTE : 1.. game. She might not be at home SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 . possibility are: There is a good chance that …. It is impossible There’s a possibility of his winning Probably She is on the way the game/ that he will win the May be he needs more time game. Several ways of indicating possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability. distress.
we Has utk S= he. Would there be any possibility of 4..it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English .they.we Always dll Does utk S= he. Expressions to show ….it She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Now At present At this moment To day Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES Present Tense (Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) POLA KET.she.? I can’t do it Is it possible for me to …? I’m not sure I’m capable of doing Are we capable enough to …? it. WAKTU V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. Expressions to show I don’t think I have the ability capability are : I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.she.you. Expressions used to ask I can do it possibility or capability of There is a chance that I can do it.they. doing something are: I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it. I’m capable of doing it 2.you.it) Every… (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally Do utk S= I.she. 3.? incapability are: Do you think we are capable of ….
he.we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Before/when + Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) S + V2 (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau. selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.it Were utk S= you. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang akan Will utk semua Sabjek (S) dilakukan di waktu Shall utk S = I.we yang akan datang) N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… Future Continuous V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time (Menyatakan tomorrow aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan SMA Students’ Modul of English 86 .she.they.saat berbicara Father has been at his office perbuatan/tindakan since 12 tsb telah hours ago.
Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have If + past perfect (menyatakan suatu +V3 pengandaian pada N= (+) S + would/should + masa lampau.waktu aktivitas yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been By + ket.waktu SMA Students’ Modul of English 87 .datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket. have been + adj/n/adv sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang akan + V-ing telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ perbuatan/keadaan N= (+) S + would/should + be + yang akan datang adj/n/adv dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.
have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2. has been working b. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. have been practising b. worked e. a. was parctising e. the telephone rang twelve times. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. a. is. practised d. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing.is. Fred : Juda. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 .are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. will be practising c. are Was. they are succesful. “Srimpi”.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am.(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. will have worked c.does/am. works d. Iwan : Yes.
The librarian suddenly heard a noise. have been having lunch c. will have lived b. a. am living d. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. carry d. carried e. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. will start b. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. have carried c. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. clean d. cleaned e. a. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. has got a new job d. a. am carrying b. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. a. were cleaning b. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. If we don”t hurry. This sentence means that Ann ___. has stopped looking for a job SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . have lunch d. was living e. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. will have lunch e. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. a. have been living c. a. My family ____ when the postman arrived. have been cleaning c.berlangsung. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. was carrying 3. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. would have started d. starts c. will be started 2. will have started e. will have had lunch b.
was d. would be attended SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . had been 9. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. have learnt e. will have been c. but I ____ there many times. forgot c. sir. a. had been 7. would forget 8. have been c. a. started to work 6 months a go c. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. causes e. will be attending d. She studies business. Reni goes to her university every morning. will be b. has been attending e. has been e. a.b. have been 6. will have learnt c. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. caused d. She ___ the lectures. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. would be b. is still looking for a job 4. Is it right? Student : Yes. had forgotten e. will be learning b. has been b. were causing b. is d. I ____ them by then. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. have caused c. has worked for six months e. Student : All right. was e. a. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. attended c. was e. He ____ ill for a week. When airport are located in the center of citied. has attended b. learn d. forgets b. am d. a. sir. Learn all these. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. will cause 5. He ____ there for three weeks. My father is still in Bali. am learning 10. has forgotten d.00 tomorrow. a. I forget to bring your book. a. will have been c.
Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct (+) He said. Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 91 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous SMA Students’ Modul of English . “ I have a present for you in my bag. (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there. why. “Don’t bring your bag here!” Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag. pronoun (kata ganti orang). Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1.DIRECT . “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag? (!) He ordered/commanded me. who. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. (?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. keterangan waktu. “Do I have a present for you in my bag?” (?) He asked me. (!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.” (-) He said. “I do not have a present for you in my bag” (?) He asked. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. (-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag. (?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag. “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered me. when. struktur kalimat.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. dan tempat. where. how.
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … The preceeding …before …earlier The day before The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .
don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. to open my mouth b. opened my mouth c. a. that I open his mouth d. he goes to his country c. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. he has gone to his country e. I wasn’t so noisy d. had gone to his country d. if I opened my mouth e.1. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. He said ____ the previous day. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. mom. I am very noisy b. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. The baby is sleeping. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. Herman. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. why Mary was absent e. why Mary had been absent c. he went to his country b. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. a. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. that Mary had been absent b. Herman : Okay. to be not so noisy c. if Mary was absent d. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. not to be so noisy e.
It was windy outside. It is windy outside. has forgotten d. If he could go with us d. forgot c. b. “What are you doing now?”. a. he hasn’t cleaned 2. he asked me ____”. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. It was windy outside. Mira closed the window. he would not clean c. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. Does Mira close the window. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. not to spend e. It is windy outside. I hadn’t cleaned d. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. SMA Students’ Modul of English . a. what were you doing now. a. 4. He asked me ____ a. what are you were doing now d. I forgot to bring your book. forgets b. “ ___________” a. not spend c. not spending b.Soal-Soal Latihan 1. he does not clean e. 6. Closed the window. wether he goes with us c. what I am doing now. he headn’t cleaned b. a. had forgotten e. did I have an appointment d. Mother said. b. a. Mira. what I was doing then. Ari : What did he say. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. I got a headache. going with us b. Mira closed the window. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. Anto : I am sorry Lina. how was my appointment e. he asked. do not spend d. when is my appointment b. e. c. e. would forget 3. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. Slamet. that I had an appointment 94 5. 7. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. can he go with us e. c. d.
finished your work e. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. My friend said to me. finish your work d. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. to finish my work c. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. She said the children didn’t make noise c. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. to finish your work b. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. children”. b. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. She told the children don’t make noise b. c. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. “don’t make noise. She didn’t say the children should noise d. “Can I find you a hotel?”. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. d. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. 10.c. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She told the children not to make noise. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. she said. Father said. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. e. whether I had appointment 8. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. a. e. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. Mean____ a.
was kicked c. The announcement ____ twice.Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) Active S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + Ving S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + Ving+ S +would +have+been+V-ing Passive S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. kicks d. she ____ a. was kicking b. kicked e. A : Look! The girl is crying. SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 .
is sold d. a. was postponed d. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. is born d. Y : Really. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. R. have arranged b. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. a. is being built c. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3.? a. will be unloaded b. A big dam ___ in this area next year. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. are unloaded c. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. would be born b.a. have been arranged 3. was it abolishing d. a. was arranged e. will be born 2. was born e. a. when…. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. had been sold c. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was being postponed e. were sold b. a. will be built e. have been unloaded d. has to be postponed b. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. were being unloaded e. are sold e.A. has been born c. is arranged d. has arranged c. was it to abolish b. has been built b. to be abolished c. did it abolish e. has been postponed c. will build d. would be built SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 .
At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. a. was being promised c. The passive form is ____ a. will be taken d. has promised d. took c. had destroyed e. had been demilishing b. has been promising b. a. he ____ to the nearest hospital. has been cleaned 5. will be destroyed b. She looks after the baby well. demolishing d. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. a. was taken b. was being cleaned d. is being destroyed c. will be promised 10. is being rewarded b. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. a. destroyed d. is being taken e. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. the baby was looked after well c. the baby would be well looked after 7. the baby is well looked after b. a.4. is demolishing c. is being demolished e. will be rewarded 8. was destroyed 6. was being demolishing 9. will be promised e. has been rewarded c. is being cleaned e. a. will clean b. has been taken SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. cleaned c. the baby will be well looked after d. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. rewarded d. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. the baby is being looked after well e. was rewarded e.
Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh: large larger largest SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. yaitu: 1. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most c.DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.
Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. itulah yang diharapkan. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. -le. Apa yang diucapkan. I will buy a new car. did. will. dll. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. -er. dll. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. shall. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Contoh: If I have much money. can. may. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Present Conditional (type 2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . -ow. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. had. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku.4.). did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. (jika saya punya uang. have/has. was/were. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • • • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada.
Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. which. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. whose. whom. 3. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. Contoh : (+) If I had time. I would go to the beach with you. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1.Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kalau kalimatnya (+). of which. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. I would have written you a letter.
which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. They are printed in English. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. (its surface/permukaannya meja. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4.Contoh: We know a lot of people. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. your. his. I met him last week. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. our.) 2. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. sebuah benda. Their car has been stolen. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Contoh: We saw the people. I bought it last year. Meja yg dimaksud the table) SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . (him = the man. their. her. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. its. Its surface is not smooth. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people.
She has the shoemaker mend her shoes SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . Where 8. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that.7. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me.
5. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.our.to be used to. The manager gets the letter typed. Jogging makes us fresh.their. get used to. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. 2. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. Before leaving. his. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing).Amir’s. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). 4. on.your.S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. Setelah possessive adjective (my. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Consider Avoid Delay Enjoy Finish Quit Mind Miss Postpone Recall Regret Report 104 SMA Students’ Modul of English . The manager has the letter typed. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). he said nothing. I got the mechanic to repair my car. can’t help/can’t bear. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. 3. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). to be worth. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. to be busy. before dll.her. 6. I had mechanic repair my car.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 Contoh: . We went home after the rain stopped.V ketimbang main video game) 4. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. a. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. b.V. yaitu: 1. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. as soon as. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.Juned prefers combro to deblo. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . after.Dita would rather watch T. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. than plays a video game. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: .Can’t help Resume Deny Risk Resist Siggest Practice Advise Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.V better than radio. 3.I like T. Menunjukan waktu: before.V .Kokom likes reading better than watching T.Dona prefers dancing to singing. c. . when. while.
if. d. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. b. While he was reading her novel.Amir and I go to school everyday. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . 2. we cut the vegetables into small pieces.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. that.He is both wise and good. c. for. Since I have no money. 1. a.d. we put them into frying pan. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. Next. Contoh: . Finally.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (….I went to your house but you weren’t at home. e. I can’t treat you. or. we must prepare the ingredients. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. then. (dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . finally. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. somebody knocked on the door. c.Although it was raining. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . we put some sauce and salt. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. he come on time. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident.He is not only active but also clever.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . since. first. next. although/though. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. After that. 3. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . b. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) .You can read this book if you like. but. after that. a. dll.
Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .arti asalnya.
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