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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................23 News Item Text.................................................................................24 What is News Item? ..........................................................................24 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................27 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................27 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................ 39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................49 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................51 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................54 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................55 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................55 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................57 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
...........101 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH......................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ..................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ..................................................105 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ...................................................................................................................103 GERUND ............................................................................................................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung).............................................................................................................106 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ..................................................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)............................99 QUESTION TAGS .......106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.........................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ........................................
Analytical Exposition 8. Hortatory Exposition 3. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. 1. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Procedure 12. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Anecdote 9. News Items 13. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Narrative 11. Spoof 5. 2. The language feature. Report 4. Recount 6. Explanation 2. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. why is the text made?. Review 7. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Descriptive 10. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. These types of text are. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text.
Cars today are our roads biggest killers. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. as we all know. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Example of Analytical Exposition A. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. As we all know. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. cars. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. or concentrate on your homework. and especially talk to someone. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. Additionally. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. If you live in the city. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. you may find it hard to sleep at night.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. cars are very noisy. Reiteratio In conclusion. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. which causes them to die. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. cars create pollution. Thirdly. Secondly. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . In one hour in smoky room. Argument Firstly. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. the risk is nineteen greater. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. lung cancer. it is better to look at the fact. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking.
Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. As the US. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. In this example of analytical exposition text. That wil be true if the conditions. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. Furthermore. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed.
modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. this method will help student to get better understanding. leaded petrol car. • Technical verbs. and then complete the transaction. dsb. in this multimedia era. dsb • Modal verbs. students need book. Penguatan pernyataan. misalnya certainly. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. pollution. • Abstract nouns. Secondly. That is really easy and save time and money. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above Small Notes thesis. (Simplified from the jakartapos. misalnya firstly. First. 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . government. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. misalnya It is important. • Connectives. dsb. misalnya we must preserve. secondly. The students just need to brows that online shop. • Bahasa evaluatif. misalnya car. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. dsb. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. ruler and such other stuff. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Additionally. From all of that. we. eraser. dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. misalnya C. • Reiteration . (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. • Action verbs. misalnya She must save. misalnya species of animals. dsb. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. • Modal adverbs. misalnya Many people believe. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. • Thinking verbs. dsb. decide which computer or laptop they need. misalnya policy. • Relating verbs. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates Ciri Umum: the thesis in another phrases to point the (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: writer'opinion.dsb. pen. students need more to reach their progressive development. dsb. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. drawing book.
Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. According to Nida. Career in Translation Functionally. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. you might have one link in your dialogue SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Arabic translation.Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. D. If Hindi translation is provided. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. E. India translation will grow better and. Therefore. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. For instance. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. It seems Indonesia. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. India is likely being an English speaking country. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Students just need to decide which type they really need.
which had been SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . then. 2. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Using simple past tense 4. Incident. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Crisis 4. afterward 6. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. 3. Using conjunction of time. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. write. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Abstract 2. Using rhetoric question. Using imperative. because. etc • Causal conjunction . Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. it's wonderful!.box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. it's awful!. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Using exclamation words. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. etc 2. etc 5. go. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Orientation 3. listen to this 3. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Using action verb. do you know what? 4.
several years but finally they had saved enough money. The ship. Suddenly to my horror. The doctor sewed up the boy. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. It had taken isn’t it? dsb. The father was full of disappointed and anger. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. For an instant I stood thereSmall Notes quite paralysed. The family worked and saved. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. their children to America. America. misalnya go. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! They were making plan to travel with And do you know what? It’s awful. who killed the snake with the handle of Umum: was only three at the time. write. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. However few days before their departure. Indeed I had to pull her kejadian/peristiwa lucu she’d probably have leant over berdasarkan khayalan atau better the bath to get a peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. was(a) Tujuan interested in the quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakanout of the way or whole business. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. They were Clark family with (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nine children. The family dreams were dashed. had shank. and turned on the tap. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. Then I Anecdote running and yelled for my husband. Pengenalan (Orientation) Krisis (Crisis) Example of Anecdote Tindakan (Incident) A. It took hundreds of SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . Because of the possibility of getting rabies. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath.Crisis Incident Coda empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. look! Ever since then I’ve always(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure put the plug in firmly Abstrak (Abstract) before running the bath water. the mighty Titanic. there were being quarantined for long days. seperti then. spitting and hissing at us. Five days latter. They had a dream to go to America. who luckily came(Cerita Lucu) Ciri a broom. afterwards. He shed tears of disappointment. dsb. • seruan/kata seru. They had gotten • action verbs. Blessing behind Tragedy Koda (Coda) There was a black family in Scotland years ago. dsb. passport. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. so we set to.
Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. They had to forget their plan. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. describing the phenomenon in parts. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. • Description. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. They had dream to travel to America. they were left behind. It was unbelievable but it was. • Using simple present tense 4. but because of the bitten son by a dog. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. It made they were being quarantined. identifying the phenomenon to be described. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. there is something wrong last minute before it. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. The father was angry with his son and God. 2. The Clak family should have been on that ship. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. place. When the dream will come true. When the father heard the news. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. or thing. qualities.passenger and crew with it. You have and so do I. Examples and structures of the text Identificati MacQuarie University Macquarie University is one of the largest universities 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English . He thanked God for saving their lives. 3. or/and characteristics.
Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. In three years1 time. bright color. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. attractive and trendy. in 2004. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. Example of Description A. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. The products provide varieties of choice. When she are walking on that shoes. She always pays much attention on her appearance. This shoes really matches on her. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. She said that the products covered all genders. The style. casual. She really have perfect appearance. a grass amphitheatre.on in Australia. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This year. Sydney. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. yet retaining its beautiful site. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. a railway station is under construction. Today. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Ballet. She is beautiful. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. all her friends. She is really mad on that shoes. native plants and eucalypts. Recently. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. In 1964.
The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. The upper three are circular. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. B. Borobudur temple • Description.The temple is constructed. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. Cambodia. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Borobudur is well-known.8 km of passage and starways.Budhist temple. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Central Java.boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The way to the summit extends through some 4. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Indonesia. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. valuable • Using simple present tense. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification.
• detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. house. two strong legs. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage.my cat. dsb. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. dsb. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. sifat-sifat (characteristic). Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. misalnya. It has very thick fur. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. sharp white fangs. kualitas. misalnya teacher. • berbagai macam adjectives. dsb. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. but my favourite one is a cat. bersifat describing. enough money to take Snow White. misalnya. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. White. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. dsb. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. Description. Misalnya: I have many pets. dsb. • simple present tense. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. misalnya fast. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). classifying. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. My mum is realy cool. a sweet young lady. 2. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. perilaku umum. numbering. • action verbs. better or worse 3. dsb. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away.
“So it is Hakim I will marry”. one of the dwarfs. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. had many suitors. The third sheik.” Doc. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They were also rich and strong. After dinner. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. “what is your name?” Snow White said. which she strikes against herself. They went inside. As they were about to have dinner. The psychological conflict inside Maura. They want to know what next will happen. Hakim. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . “Oh could I? Thank you. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. said. She saw the dwarfs. “Without question. One by one she discarded them. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. Example of Narative A. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. The first gave her some left over food. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. you may live here with us. who received a plate of delicious meat. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. who was called Hakim. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. The dwarfs said. Maura asked them for something to eat. One evening. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. in what way she will decide who the best is. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. “My name is Snow White. “If you wish. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up.” Snow White said. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. The following day.
I will cut the chicken 17 . “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. stayed. dsb. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. the parrot would not say it. housework. misalnya. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. dsb. dsb. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. stepsisters. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. except one word. in the mountain. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). There was no other parrot like it. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. dsb. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. Resolution. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Masalah. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. Penyelesaian masalah. before that. misalnya then. The parrot could say every word. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. Pengenalan tokoh. the man really got very angry. misalnya.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. “You know. long black hair. climbed. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born.dsb. At the first. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. happily ever after. misalnya here. konflik dalam cerita. • action verbs dalam past tense. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. phrase. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Complication. a man had a wonderful parrot. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. soon. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. The name of the place was Catano. waktu. Although he tried hard to teach. He could not bear it. Then he continued to humble. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. two red apples.
There were three death chickens on the floor. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. Next it will be your turn. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. A man and his parrot took place once time. the man attempted to teach the bird. he caught a fish. She attracted Batara Guru so much. paragraph 2. there was a handsome man. To fix this problem. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. The next day. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. stupid parrot”. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. They were married happily. He could not control his mad. Batara Guru could not bear it. As soon as it was free. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. 3.for my meal. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. He opened the door and was very surprised. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. At the moment. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. In the parrot story. They had two daughters. C. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. I will eat you too. rising crisis and climax of the story. He made the fish free. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. He liked fishing. The daughters were crying. It will show the crisis. They found their mother and talked her about it. readers see the problem is finished. After that he left the chicken house. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. In that parrot story. One day. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. The fish begged him to set it free. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. That was the smartest parrot. the man came back to the chicken house. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. 4 are describing the complication.
Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. D. At last. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. In the end. They treated Cinderella very badly. and away went the sisters to it. she was driven to the palace. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. “Now. One day. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. she said. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. “Why are crying. A few days later. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. did not work about the house. Cinderella?” a voice asked. one of her glass slipper was left behind. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. The two step sisters. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. She danced again and again with the king’s son. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Finally. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. The earth formed a very big hole. The mother was shouting angrily. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. Then the earth began to shake. Batara Guru broke his promise. hardworking.The mother was very annoyed. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. In her hurry. the day of the ball came. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. such as scrubbing the floor. and it became a beautiful ball gown. Cinderella”. there was a young girl named Cinderella. “You must leave before midnight”. on the other hand. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Volcanoes started to erupt. Magically. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. It fitted perfectly. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it.”you’ve been such a cheerful. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. They were married and live happily ever after. “Well” said the godmother. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen.
revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Every morning and every evening. Orientation. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. The tiger asked. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. The Smartest Animal. “oh. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. introducing specific participants. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. farmer and his buffalo. Complication: In this Cinderella story. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. Once there was a farmer from Laos. He took his plough and hit the tiger. But the man answered. “it at home”. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Generic Structure Analysis 1. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. “Yes” said the man. Then he said. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. I can’t tell you”. Resolution: Like complication. said the buffalo. “No. One day. After the man went home. 3. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. E. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. Resolution. “Can I see your intelligence?”. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. “you are so big and strong. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Complication. the man is very intelligent”. once in Laos 2. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. In the last paragraph.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly.
Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. answered thinking verb. bowl. plate Method 1. tie. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. the next day past tense. after. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. hit time conjunction. Cook both sides 9. spatula. the man tied the tiger. 50 g cheese. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. was surprised to action verb. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. ¼ cup milk. saw. there was a farmer. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. once. Add milk and whisk well 4. fork. one day connectives. Place on a plate. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . cheese grater.
Example of Procedure A. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. excluded • Steps. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. firstly. next. wait it.10. the following is a guided information SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . put it. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. informing on how to plant chillies. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. etc • Action verb. Here are the steps. Firstly. • Material. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. dry. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. Finally. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. dry a handful seeding. planting is a nice activity. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. It should be in open area Next. put the seeding on the soil. finally. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. put it in another big pot. put. etc • Temporal conjunction.
How does it sound? serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.B. choosing the advantageous topic. reread what you have done. Small Notes Firstly. Fifthly. Some Note: Materials are not required for all sentences are long and some are short.re-read what you've done before publishing. firstly. etc C. misalnya turn. etc • Action verb. • Imperative sentences.com/? expert=Daniel_F_O'connor misalnya. Cut. Don’t mix. menyatakan rinci waktu. Language Feature Analysis • action verbs. • pola kalimat imperative. 2 centimetres from the top. not Procedure (Prosedur) features. Use regular words. write your benefit like you talk Memberi petunjuk tentang cara it. Materials. take the topic of benefits. Edit it necesarily. don’t. Thirdly. Read aloud what melakukan sesuatu melalui you've written. It's so easy to (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: make mistakes which you don't notice the Menggunakan: first time through. might or should help customers but talk about how Aim/Goal. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. showing the method in writing for business. dsb. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. but it will help. Here's a simple checklist to follow. etc • Temporal conjunction. dsb. Steps. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. secondly. to make a cheese omelet. tempat. Mix Procedure text them up and keep things interesting. read. write. Tujuan kegiatan your company will. while. Use a nice rhythm. Writing For Business Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. misalnya then. cara yang akurat. They want to know "What's in it for me?" (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Secondly. informing on how to write for business • Material. a pinch of satlt and SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . misalnya for five minutes. Well. write like you talked. writing the topic like the way it is talked. excluded • Steps/ method. you need an egg. three tablespoons cookin oil. put. Your customers don't care about Ciri Umum: you. Bahan-bahan Fourthly. dsb. Don't (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure describe how your company may. Langkah-langkah. mix. lose the weak words. re-reading what have been written . you don't have to. a quarter cup of milk. fifty gram cheese. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google.
which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. spatula. participant. place) 3.pepper. Next. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Elaboration (background. fork. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Next. Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. you need some tools. Listen carefully. Focusing on circumstances 2. frying pan. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Resource of information 3. Language Feature of News Item 1. cheese grater. First. Generic Structure of News Item 1. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Main event 2. bowl and plate. The accident. such as. time. add First. 2. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Using material process 4. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town.
June 01. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. in tertuang dalam bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. less then 10 percent are woman. woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. many women who contract HIV are housewives. “But this just a suggestion. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. a Background Events. pendengar Sources atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. komentar Star Newspaper. tempat their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” kejadian dsb. Malaysian Aids Council president. In the past the headline event was held behind closed door. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. he said in the report. even though they know they have HIV” she said. Women are the first ones to get exploited by terlibat. SMA Students’ Modul of English (Source The Jakarta Post. which was • Informasi singkat celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. it’s up saksi kejadian.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Sumber Memberitakan kepada Informasi pembaca. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: International Aids Memorial day. news report said. 745 Malaysian women were identified verbs as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. pendapat para ahli. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. 2008) 25 . Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Newsworthy events. Example of Procedure A. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every Kejadian inti. Latar belakang “This is not to debate them but to protect kejadian. but the number is steadily rising. Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Sources. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. • Menggunakan action Last year. to them”. dsb. orang yang them.
Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. Islamic law executed more than 130 people.bbc. SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . Rape. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. Hong Kong. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia. named Suwartin. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery.news. Last year. the Saudi Interior Minister said. She had relationship the boy for five months. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. May 6. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. 2008) An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said.Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. The maid. Indonesian Maid beheaded (Adapted from Reuters.co. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. (Taken from: www. Then the maid was arrested.
Background 3. etc 4. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. and social text. deliberately. Using material process. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. carry. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Background 2. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. could. 2. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. hopefully. should. etc • Using modalities. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. must. however. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. on the hand. Statemen I think we should have homework because it helps us to t of issue learn and revise our work. historic. and Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to Preview SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . contrastive. and causal connection. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. execute. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. may.Background 1. hope. similarly. etc • Using adverbial of manner. Resource. believe. feel. behead. law of serious crimes. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. etc • Using additive.
Homework is really good because it helps with our education. doing homework is not a great idea. and produces huge amounts of energy. England in 1956. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Statemen t of various viewpoint s But. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. many times. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. It is reliable. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world.remember what they have learned. Example of Discussion Text A. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. so it is not expansive to make. It produces small amount of waste. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies.
it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. Kesimpulan. on the hand. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. misalnya smoking is harmful. believe. dsb. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. nuclear power is very. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. should have been. Elaborasi (uraian). • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. dsb. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. misalnya deliberately. hope. . It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. This example of discussion text present the two poles. could 29 be. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. very dangerous. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. alcohol.On the other hand. must. Furthermore. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. Gagasan Pokok 2. • adverbials of maner. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. In many social activities. should. although it is reliable. dsb. memberikan informasi secara padu.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. dsb. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. dsb. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. however. hopefully. perception and recommendation. seperti perhaps. Elaborasi (uraian). misalnya similarly. dsb. dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. misalnya feel. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. Elaborasi (uraian). contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. misalnya uniforms.
2. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. believe. farmer. (Taken from: www. Using modalities. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. Many farmer and even conservationists. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. geography and history text books. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Recommendation. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy.bbc. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. scientific and cultural phenomena. B. Supporting point. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . hunting fox. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. conservationists. social. Contrastive point. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. however. must. Using connectives. Using thinking verb. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy.co. It is often found in science.
explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. rain. sun. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. next. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. Sequenced explanation. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. to begin with. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Language Feature • • • • 4.• • General statement. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Example of Explanation Text A. Featuring generic participant. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. etc Using chronological connection. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed.
Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. The earth is actually closer to the sun in kalimat pasif winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. It is called as rotation. is not because as much people think we are complex sentences. It takes 365 days or a year. The sun seems to rise in the morning. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. noun phrase. conjunctions of time dan cause. action verbs. misalnya word chopping. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours.uk) SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . It causes day and night. misalnya the temperature. This process is called revolution.panda. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. earthquakes. closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the bahasa teksni. Tsunami always bring great damage. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. But that is the case. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. (Taken from: www. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan.ictteachers. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. The earth also moves around the sun. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. misalnya the large cloud. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front.org) B. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. abstract nouns. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. simple present tense. sosialbudaya. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. passive voice. (simplified from www. This adverbial phrases. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. dunia ilmiah.co. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. earth. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.
Focusing on the writer 2. Using chronological connection. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Recommendation 3. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using passive voice 9. you would be forgiven. Using thinking verb 5. surely. Using pasive voice. Explanation.where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. Using modal adverb. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Arguments 3. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. certainly. important. Using temporal connective.Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Using action verb 4. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. daylight. I feel that when you travel through the country. so. Thesis 2. 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . the earth is actually closer to the sun. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. Using abstract noun. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Using evaluative words. but. firstly. valuable. trustworthy. etc 8. advantage. etc 7. secondly. policy. etc 6. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. etc 3.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. 2. then. Using present tense. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). Using simple present tense 4.
of course. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. Considering some facts mentioning above.Those who want to penalise older . Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. and the possibility of being aggressive. and short sleep duration. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . Meanwhile. especially violence. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. Recently. consumerism and so on. who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. stress. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. pornography. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. However. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Recomendation I feel that country people.
example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. If it is a hortatory text. Both take place as argumentative essays. In the first paragraph. B. sales letter. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. So when students want to throw away their litters. When we look at classroom. they can find the dust bins easily. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. school corridors and schoolyard. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. there papers. advertising. More Dust Bins is Cleaner.presenting the supporting arguments. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. Basically. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. mineral water cops. In many social activities. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. and napkin everywhere. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. speech campaign. and news advertorial. straws. More dust bins should be put beside each step.
How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. When they think about continuing study. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year.When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. the available time will be more flexible for them. In the other hand. when they think about straightly seeking job. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. So. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. it will be quite confusing. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. As result. it will be very hard to looking for job. As the alternative method of studying. Where should be after High School?. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. In the same way. C. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. they will think hard about the time and cost. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. students do not have problem of discomfort any more.
Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English .government dsb. misalnya important. we must save. misalnya should be. dsb. make. dsb. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. dsb. misalnya certainly. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. animal. Albert Smith is the proof. Argument. Connectives. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. plant.dsb. misalnya species of animals. Action verbs. as it is. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. dsb. now there is a way out. there is a way out of financial problem. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. he drives a sport car. Modal adverbs. dsb. felt Using simple present tense. part per part . Generic Structure of Report 1. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. doesn’t seem to have been . Millions from Property Market. reward Using action verb. misalnya I believe . Modal verbs. misalnya firstly. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. public place. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. etc which will be discussed in general 2. give up.we. dsb. Recommendation. We can show the way to give up work. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. Relating verbs.misalnya policy. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. etc Using thinking verb. secondly. misalnya We must preserve. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. are you tired?. dsb. Thinking verbs. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Technical verbs.D. misalnya. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. valuable.
male platypus does not need any burrow to stay.• • Using conditional logical connection. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. driving the fish before them. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. beating the water furiously with their wings. Platypus' eyes and head are small. so. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. stating general classification. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. and lakes. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. the animal of platypus. Platypus. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. and woolly layer of fur. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. rivers. etc Using simple present tense 4. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. In the other hand. Platypus lives in streams. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. As the bird lifts its head. Example of Report Text A. when. A group. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. perhaps two dozen birds. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore.
Description. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). dsb. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. istilah teknis. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. atau gejala-gejala sosial. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. benda buatan manusia. misalnya lizards cannot fly. dsb. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. lingkungan. misalnya. but. keterangan. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. the animal of platypus conditional. apa adanya. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. qualities. habits or behaviors. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Platypus lives in streams. in terms of parts. logical connective. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. kegunaannya jika non natural. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. dsb. dsb. dsb. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . male platypus does not need any burrow. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. dan klasifikasinya. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification.
so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Using action verb. Focusing on people. He bought some new furniture and moved in. ate. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Kejadian/peristiwa He took him to a policeman and said. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. animals or certain things 2. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story.1. Told in chronological order 4. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. Language Feature of Spoof 1. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Its social function is to entertain and share the story. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Twist 3. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Dave found a nice office. Events 3. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it.’ replied the man. Orientation 2. etc 3. Using adverb of time and place 4. ran. Kejadian/peristiwa The next day the policeman saw the same / kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. ‘ I have / kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. ‘ take him to the zoo’. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. 2. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending.
Event 2: He had his new office. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. “Hey Abu Nawas. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. In his office. He suddenly became a 1. Event 1: Being rich. Then “Remember. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. benda tertentu. binatang. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. Instead leaving the country. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. He had not left the country yet. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. “You want me. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). run. “Yes. verbs. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. Then the man said to Dave. conversation on the phone. “If that is what you want. no children. B. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. misalnya eat. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. I want you to leave the country. terduga atau lucu). Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house.
The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. (Adapted from S. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. The King continued “And now. look at you. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. I do not step on the ground. So you see. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. I could not bear it. The king was not able to say anything.guards. The play was very interesting. And since yesterday. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. I could not hear the actors. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C.I got very angry.In the end. I turned around. Your Majesty. I do not step on the ground of this country”. They did not pay any attention. I have been walking on this stilts. “I remember exactly what you said. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. The king wondered and said “Abu. You have not left this country”. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. They were talking very loudly. young man and young woman. You walk on stilts like a child. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. I turned around again. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas.I did not enjoy it. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. were talking noisily. I had a very good seat.
the policeman saw the man in the same park. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. “It’s none of your business. “When I came here with my old clothes. It’s a private conversation”. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. So. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. “Eat the food. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. The host at once got up and came to meet him. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. The next day. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. When he arrived in the party. nobody looked at me. He put his coat and said. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. you give food to my coat instead of me”. D. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. Getting Nasreddin's answer. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. "Take it to the zoo!". He took it to a policeman and said. The man was still carrying the penguin. they just shook the head. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly.
saw. look. etc • Using action verb. today I am taking it to the movie". Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. go.did. So. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. my group. in the park Told in chronological order. Even. The following day. was. I. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. etc • Using chronological connection. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . were. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. etc • Using simple past tense 4. then. carry. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. change. place and time 2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. first. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. policeman Using action verb. once.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. walk up Using adverb of time and place. chronological order by days. Reorientation: It is optional. Orientation: Introducing the participants. penguin. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. He. They were in the park Event1. Generic Structure of Recount 1. etc • Using linking verb. heard. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3.
We stayed at David and Della’s house. They slept part of the way. The room had perfect view of the park. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. Events Reorientatio In the afternoon we went home. Then. B. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. They gave them food and drink. n Example of Recount text A. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. It can be what the writer has done. Instead of keys for the room. They had variety of food. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They went to London. the thing is an experience. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. Mr. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. On the third floor. They had booked fourteen days tour. At the end of the 14-day. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . read. Richard’s family was on vacation. In writer's point of view. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. The officers were pleasant.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. They are Mr. The two week in London went by fast. they inserted a key-card to open the door. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. and Mrs. This includes travel and accommodation. Richard with two sons. It was scary. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. Vacation to London Mr. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. There was a film for their entertainment. They had a very pleasant flight. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. hear.
past tense. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. It reveals the conflict among the participants. waktu dan cara. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. Reorientation. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. then on Monday. after that. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. The event happened smoothly. She was happy dsb. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. the second was to Ubud. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. misalnya beautiful. Pengenalan. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. but. he was ready. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. misalnya and. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example.Small Notes and felt. recount describes series of events in detail. In simple way. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. the monkey. at my house. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. On the other hand. C. di mana dan kapan. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. dsb. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. we dsb. The first one was to Singaraja. run dsb. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. Events. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. sleep. misalnya go. The first stop was at Batubulan. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. kejadian atau kegiatan. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. On the day of the tour. the on Tuesday. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. misalnya yesterday. misalnya We went to the zoo. • • • • • . dsb. It is a busy but quiet town. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. what happened on Sunday. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. 46 slowly dsb. then. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. misalnya David. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. Rekaman peristiwa. funny. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. kejadian atau kegiatan.
walked. my car lunched on one side. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. then. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. was. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. I was on the car. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. etc E. I • Using chronological connectives. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. all his day was spent on the beach. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. using first person point of view. The next stop was Celuk. Even I could not move my car at all. introducing the participant. I was on the car las week. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. moved. stating the writer's personal note. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. Events. I was on my car. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. etc. describing a series of event which happened. When the earthquake happened. D. I was trapped by the rock. like matchsticks. made. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. The car lunched to one side. in the town. earthquake happened. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . Suddenly my car lunched to one side. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. When I reached my town. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. left. and. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. to the left. There were rocks everywhere. Although nothing was left. He was quiet satisfied.a center of stone sculpture. Re-orientation. suddenly • Using linking verb. I did not know that it was an earthquake. were • Using action verb. I thought I got flat tire. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week.
In this ceremony we wore black clothes. In the text. Then. 48 • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . chanting. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. After that. They were great matches. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. and dancing. A recount text has an orientation. During the day.Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. However. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. my uncle. we were feasting. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. Questions 1. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. Several days before the ceremony was done. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. the ceremony was quite elaborate. Those words and phrases are: First. The funeral was performed in two phases. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. On the last day. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. It took about a week. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. Overall. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. my brother. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. In the night. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. you find words and phrases used to start. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Meanwhile. a series of events in chronological order. Finally. and end your composition. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. After that. Then. and then moved the corpse to face north. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. connect a sentence with the next one. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. there were also buffalo matches. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. First.
Review Text What is review text 1. Using adjectives SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . It is personal idea about the product. As I said in my previous post. services which want to be sold. worthy. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. valuable. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. useful. quality of the product which will be known publicly. It can be product. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. or just a site which want to be known publicly. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Definition Review is one of text genres. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. After clearly explanation.• Finally. Dominant Language features: 1. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Focus on specific participants 2. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. etc. uniqueness. 3. It states the parts.
Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. In some (Interpretativ instances this works. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. for example ..housekeeping is still housekeeping. Using long and complex clauses 4.. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. I was truly moved by the last page. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. this was not my favorite. however. intriguing.3.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. and all of the Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. Using metaphor 4. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. and ultimately satisfying. and parts of it do seem long. fast-paced. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. magical or no. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. I cried!) as sad as it was. He goes from being a warm-hearted. and this part I loved. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. A few other changes in this book . like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. Still a 50 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Examples and structures of the text Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan / I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. especially with being a teenager and all.you feel a whole new level of e recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. depressing feel. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. I actually liked the ending (and yes. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds.
he should understand well the language and aspect of India. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. Again. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. In certain case. Eyeglasses for children. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. Similarly. Recording Mommy Journey SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . easy and not complicated design. it will be quite difficult to make translation. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. woman and man are available choice. if he works with Farsi translation. It straightly goes to the end user. The translation experts. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. aluminum and rimless frame are available. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. such as India translation will help to fix the problem.really good book. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. It is real. Titanium. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. The site is quite simple but very informative. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . with some editing it would have been great. lexical. If we visit the site. The experts who have grammatical. However. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. Example of Review text Zenni Optical.
Life itself is a journey. For Rosemarie, a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid, the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did, does and will do daily. The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;
Good Young Mother Rangkuman. It is about a young mother. It has a title (Evaluative of yummy mummy. This blog is representative Summation) of her idea of becoming young mother. He (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: pours her thought and opinion on this blog in Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to Menggunakan: monetizing it • adjectives This blog has fresh physical appearance. menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good; She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look • klausa panjang dan kompleks; fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her • metafor. monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52
buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
SMA Students’ Modul of English
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. product case or problem. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used.interest for them to want to interview you. between report and descriptive text. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. It will talk about bicycle in general. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. wheel style. how to make a good kite. phenomena. goods. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. its parts. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. colour. In the other hand. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. What make different. In short. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. report is written after getting careful observation. If we talk about. lengh. For example how to make a cup of tea. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. etc. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. is the scope of the written object. it belongs to report text. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. eg: bicycle. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. descriptive text will convey more focus. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. Mostly. physical strengh. animal and scientific object. Procedure. However if they are analyzed carefully. They give the detail description on something. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is.
It can be what the writer has done. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. etc is the best example of the procedure text. Procedure. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text.is the best example of the procedure text. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. secondly prepare the cup. It is such word. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . For example how to make a cup of tea. what happened on Sunday. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. In writer's point of view. Explanation is such a scientific written material. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. and so on. How a tornado form. first boil water. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. goods. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. The event happened smoothly. phenomena. They give the detail description on something. secondly prepare the cup. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. how to make a good kite. recount describes series of events in detail. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. and so on. read. first boil water. In simple way. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. hear. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. product case or problem. It reveals the conflict among the participants. and felt. It is such word. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. the on Tuesday. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Explanation. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. On the other hand. the thing is an experience. then on Monday.
texts are divided into several types. Arguments 3. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Using thinking verbs 4. 18. analytical exposition. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. recount. and news item. These variations are known as GENRES. 17. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. How a tornado form. 23. review. Using adverbs 5. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. 14. Using action verbs 3. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Using modals 2. Reaction 5. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Coda. 22. Using adjective 6. Thesis 2. spoof. Crisis 4. 25. hortatory exposition. report.Explanation. anecdote. Explanation is such a scientific written material. descriptive. Dominant Language Features: 57 . 19. explanation. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. 15. Abstract 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. They are narrative. procedure. 26. Using technical terms SMA Students’ Modul of English 7. 24. 20. Orientation 3. 16. discussion.
Orientation 2. Using action verb 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using saying verbs 58 . Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using Simple Present Tense 2. General statement 2. Using exclamations. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Evaluation 3. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using technical terms 7. Resolution SMA Students’ Modul of English 5. Complication 4. Using Past Tense 2. Using noun phrase 5. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Goal/Aim 2. Materials/Equipments 3.1. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using adverbial phrase 6. Background event(s) 3. Using material process 3. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using passive voice 4. Using action verbs 3. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverb 4. Explanation 3. Generic Structure: 1. Short. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3.
But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT 59 . Using action verb 3. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person.4. Arguments 3. In simple word. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using modals 3. Using adjective 7. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using thinking verb 4. Using adverbs : time. Arguments for and against 3. place and manner. Using general and abstract noun 9. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Issue 2. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Thesis 2. Using modality 7. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using adverbs 6. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. place or thing in detail. Using thinking verbs 5. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION SMA Students’ Modul of English Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using technical terms 8. Identification 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 4. Using adverb 4. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Description Language Features: 1.
Orientation 2. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Using action verb 3. or Past Perfect Tense. Event(s) 3. Event(s) 3. fable. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Orientation 60 . Commonly narrative text is found in story book. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. In the contrary. myth. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: SMA Students’ Modul of English 1. Using Past Tense 2. Using adverb 4. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Introducing group or general aspect 2.Purpose: to presents information about something. as it is. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. etc while recount text is found in biography. General classification 2. social conflict or psychological conflict. Generic Structure 1. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Using action verb 3. folklore. whether Simple Past Tense. Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Orientation 2.
6. descriptive. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1.exposition. label. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. map. tabel. tahun. 8. Using adjectives 3. Interpretative Recount 4. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. Focus on specific participants 2. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. 10. tanggal. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. 9. 5. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap.2. SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . penjelasan. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 7. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. tempat. dsb. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. 4. diagram dsb. 3. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. grafik. Evaluation 3. Continuous text misalnya narrative. Evaluation 5. biasanya tentang nama. Using long and complex clauses 4. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. spoof dsb. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 1. 2.
f) Menentukan makna kata. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. d) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.11. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… c) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. b) Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. it is small. i) Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… e) Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . fluffy. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. And cute. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____.” The underlined word mean ____ g) Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. h) Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___.
So when students want to throw away their litters. more dust bins…. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. school corridors and school yard.. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. and some more also the corridors. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. What is the writer’s intention? To …. readers to do something good. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. They put their litters on the proper places. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . 1. When we look at classrooms. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out.. straws. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. in every ten meters. they can find the dust bins easily. outside of the classrooms. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. a number of dust bins should be increased.EXERCISES. Besides. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. and napkins here and there. According to the writer. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. there are paper mineral water cups.
patriotism and yeas. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. 5. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. Although usually simple. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. spelling and culture. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. The generic structures of the text are …. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. What is the text about …. practicing selective listening comprehension. lexically and poetically. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. Last but not least.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. translating songs. Furthermore. They provide variety and fun. songs are relaxing. even revolution. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . place or time reference. religion. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. songs in general also use simple conversational language. From the elaboration above. In addition. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Secondly. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Firstly. shopping malls. which is just what many learners look for sample text. with a lot of repetition. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. learning vocabulary. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture.
Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on.“They provide variety and fun. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. smoking in restaurants is impolite. Therefore. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers.” The underlined word refers to ….What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. smoking in a restaurant is impolite.. 11.Since we can find a thesis.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. Firstly. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. It must not be allowed because it is rude. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14.. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.9. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. Based on the text. The word reasons mean…. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. not just in restaurants. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. Finally. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• • • •
Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
Mr. Very nice to meet you. Likewise. mother. Mrs. Watson. Introducing someone else my name is. I'm. Ritter. Carrie. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Hi Jack. 2. Nice to meet you too. Pleased to meet you. I don't believe we've met before. my my my my my my my my my brother. Ms. Bob.. And you. Penny Pitcher. father. Jack. student. Harris. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself.. Mary Jones. Mr.. • I want to introduce you to …. Cindy.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Nice to meet you. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. This is my friend. co-worker. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. sister. friend. boss. I'm Linda 1. teacher.. It's a pleasure to meet you. Harris.
when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. I am. are you a new student. Arnys? Retno : Okay. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. e. Hi. hotel. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Adib. Adib : Hi. Situation: Adib. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. we still have half an hour before the class starts. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Shall we go to the canteen?. this is Retno. and Retno are new students. Arnys.g.g. They meet at the students’ orientation course. My name is Adib. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Good sir afternoon madam Mr Jones evening Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. I’m Arnys. a restaurant. Adib : Anyway. Retno. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. By the way.
Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. thanks. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. . Not so bad. . See you soon /later /tomorrow. thanks. • Good bye. . . Bye. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. thank you. . • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you.Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. thanks. (informal) Would you like to . . Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. Very well. Do you wanna . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. before leaving. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . shake hands with other Virga :… women.
.? Would you like .. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.Some responds of inviting. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.. let’s not. I’d be delighted to. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .. ..I’d like very much .a chocolate bar? .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.I’d love to ..if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .Yes..I’d be happy/glad to accept . Receiving . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it..
Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . you very much. helped carry your grocery bags. Happy new year. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Thanks.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Happy birthday to you. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. returned your lost wallet. complimented you on your necktie. I need it. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Thank you.
That’s too bad e.• • • Oh.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. and congratulations Special Days . How kind of you to say so. What’s shame b. That’s pity f. not really. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . That’s a nuisance d. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . It’s nice of you to say so. Expressing of sympathy on minor a.. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . What’s pity c. holidays and other special occasions.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc..use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .
l. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. i. I feel disappointed. h. I’m really sorry for them d.B. I feel … b. f. …. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . I enjoyed it I love it. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. feel unpleased with …. k. Send my deepest condolence! f. How Awful! d. c. Expression Displeasure a. I’m sorry to hear that b. Goodness! b. m. d. g. I’m really sad to … c. I’m so happy …. I’m delighted. b. e. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. j. How dreadful! C. I’m sorry about that c. d. How terrible! c. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. It was terrifi c.. I feel ….
but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang.Satisfaction. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.
I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. In my opinion. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. say • Absolutely. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. • I am with you • Definitely. I think the other one’s better. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. As I see. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I agree • I know what you mean. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. • Yes. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. … If you ask me.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain.. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . In my opinion….
that's not a good idea. I don't think that's what happened. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . No. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. kita bisa mengatakan: Well.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. Fear. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No.
.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . • I’m glad it was done. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1... it’s very painful! • Oh. • I feel sick. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.. • Ugh./I feel ill. • Thank God for . • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like I love it I like it I am keen on it I am crazy about it We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea Dislike I don’t really like it I dislike it I am not really interested in… I can’t enjoy… (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • I’m sick.. it’s killing me! 2.
kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something." This is not very strong. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. BUT "I don't really like it. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. It means that you do not like something. but it is not a very strong dislike.
I was so ashamed. I won’t No problem Not likely Mmm You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure.. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. That’s a real embarrassment. I’m extremely unhappy about this.. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I will. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance Refusal I should be delighted to I regret to say that come we find ourselves By all means unable to go I have no objection I’m afraid it’s not I’d be happy to possible Sure I’m afraid not Yeah Sorry OK No. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 .
menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.. but. Excuse me if I'm out of line.. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Maybe you forgot to.. Sure... Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright. Of course.. Blame (keluhan. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive..Palupi : OK. It's your fault for (doing something). Right away. Complaint. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. I'm sorry to bother you.. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Don't get me wrong. Certainly... There may have been a misunderstanding about. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English ... but I think we should. I think you might have forgotten to. but...
... I'm so sorry. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. I didn't mean to lose your book. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. Pete. to ask for forgiveness. to express regret an exclamation a word. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. Apology (penyesalan...simply starters! Regret. I …... Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 .... To say why you're sorry Sorry about. Sorry for taking your DVD. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. I'd like to apologise for. Sorry for. Examples I'm really sorry. I'll clear up later.
possibility are: There is a good chance that ….. It is impossible There’s a possibility of his winning Probably She is on the way the game/ that he will win the May be he needs more time game... Several ways of indicating possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet.trouble unhappiness. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.. game. NOTE : 1...… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . distress... there is a possibility . • Is it possible to …? • Yes. It’s possible that he’ll win the There is a little chance that …. She might not be at home SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .
LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES Present Tense (Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) POLA KET.she. doing something are: I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it. Expressions to show I don’t think I have the ability capability are : I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English .it) Every… (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally Do utk S= I.she..we Always dll Does utk S= he.she.you. Expressions to show …. I’m capable of doing it 2.you.we Has utk S= he.? incapability are: Do you think we are capable of ….? I can’t do it Is it possible for me to …? I’m not sure I’m capable of doing Are we capable enough to …? it. Expressions used to ask I can do it possibility or capability of There is a chance that I can do it.it She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Now At present At this moment To day Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I.they. WAKTU V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.they. Would there be any possibility of 4. 3.
we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Before/when + Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) S + V2 (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.it Were utk S= you.saat berbicara Father has been at his office perbuatan/tindakan since 12 tsb telah hours ago.he. selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.we yang akan datang) N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… Future Continuous V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time (Menyatakan tomorrow aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan SMA Students’ Modul of English 86 .she. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang akan Will utk semua Sabjek (S) dilakukan di waktu Shall utk S = I.they.
have been + adj/n/adv sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu SMA Students’ Modul of English 87 .waktu aktivitas yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been By + ket. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have If + past perfect (menyatakan suatu +V3 pengandaian pada N= (+) S + would/should + masa lampau.waktu aktivitas yang akan + V-ing telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ perbuatan/keadaan N= (+) S + would/should + be + yang akan datang adj/n/adv dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.
was parctising e.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. have been practising b. are Was.(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. a. is. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2. Iwan : Yes. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . “Srimpi”.does/am.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1.is. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. the telephone rang twelve times. a. has been working b. worked e. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. they are succesful. practised d. works d. will be practising c. will have worked c. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. Fred : Juda.
a. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. was carrying 3. have lunch d. a. will be started 2. will have had lunch b. will have started e. have carried c. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. have been having lunch c. will have lived b. would have started d. has stopped looking for a job SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . will start b. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. was living e. carried e. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau.berlangsung. am living d. have been cleaning c. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. has got a new job d. My family ____ when the postman arrived. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. have been living c. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. a. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. This sentence means that Ann ___. If we don”t hurry. a. will have lunch e. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. were cleaning b. carry d. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. am carrying b. starts c. clean d. a. a. cleaned e.
has been attending e. She ___ the lectures. have been c. Learn all these. He ____ there for three weeks. a. started to work 6 months a go c. have been 6. I forget to bring your book. had forgotten e. attended c. but I ____ there many times. has been e. is d. a. My father is still in Bali. Reni goes to her university every morning. caused d. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. was d. will be b. a. was e. has attended b. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. were causing b. have caused c. will have been c. He ____ ill for a week. a. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. has been b. sir. would forget 8. has forgotten d. is still looking for a job 4. would be b. a. forgot c. will have been c. Student : All right. learn d. a. sir. am learning 10. She studies business.b.00 tomorrow. has worked for six months e. had been 7. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. will have learnt c. forgets b. am d. will be attending d. was e. I ____ them by then. would be attended SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . a. will be learning b. Is it right? Student : Yes. When airport are located in the center of citied. will cause 5. had been 9. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. causes e. have learnt e. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week.
(!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag? (!) He ordered/commanded me. “ I have a present for you in my bag. keterangan waktu. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. struktur kalimat. pronoun (kata ganti orang). “I do not have a present for you in my bag” (?) He asked.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct (+) He said. where. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. (-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag.” (-) He said. (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there. (?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag. “Don’t bring your bag here!” Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag. when. who. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what.DIRECT . why. (?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag. how. “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered me. Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 91 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous SMA Students’ Modul of English . “Do I have a present for you in my bag?” (?) He asked me. dan tempat.
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … The preceeding …before …earlier The day before The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .
if I opened my mouth e. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. that Mary had been absent b. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. to open my mouth b. opened my mouth c. Herman. a. Herman : Okay. he went to his country b. The baby is sleeping. mom. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. he has gone to his country e. why Mary had been absent c. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. not to be so noisy e. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. a. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. I wasn’t so noisy d. to be not so noisy c. had gone to his country d. I am very noisy b. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. he goes to his country c.1. He said ____ the previous day. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. why Mary was absent e. that I open his mouth d. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. if Mary was absent d. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a.
It was windy outside. going with us b. do not spend d. forgot c. Closed the window. c.Soal-Soal Latihan 1. “ ___________” a. forgets b. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. how was my appointment e. he would not clean c. I hadn’t cleaned d. Mother said. e. 7. he hasn’t cleaned 2. If he could go with us d. what are you were doing now d. I got a headache. I forgot to bring your book. e. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. what were you doing now. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. “What are you doing now?”. what I am doing now. had forgotten e. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. can he go with us e. wether he goes with us c. It was windy outside. He asked me ____ a. what I was doing then. that I had an appointment 94 5. he asked. Anto : I am sorry Lina. Mira closed the window. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. a. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. not to spend e. has forgotten d. b. a. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. d. not spend c. a. Mira closed the window. Slamet. It is windy outside. Mira. Ari : What did he say. Does Mira close the window. 6. SMA Students’ Modul of English . a. not spending b. c. he asked me ____”. he does not clean e. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. b. did I have an appointment d. a. It is windy outside. he headn’t cleaned b. would forget 3. when is my appointment b. 4.
S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. b. finish your work d. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. children”. c. e. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She didn’t say the children should noise d. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. to finish my work c. She told the children don’t make noise b. to finish your work b. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. 10. “don’t make noise. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . She told the children not to make noise. finished your work e. a. whether I had appointment 8. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. She said the children didn’t make noise c. My friend said to me. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan.c. “Can I find you a hotel?”. she said. e. Mean____ a. d. Father said.
kicked e. she ____ a. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . was kicked c.Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) Active S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + Ving S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + Ving+ S +would +have+been+V-ing Passive S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. The announcement ____ twice. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. A : Look! The girl is crying. was kicking b. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. kicks d.
is being built c. was it to abolish b. will build d. will be built e.A. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. have been unloaded d. are sold e. to be abolished c. was postponed d.a. R. is born d. a. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. was born e. will be unloaded b. has to be postponed b. a. a. would be built SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . A big dam ___ in this area next year. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. will be born 2. did it abolish e. were sold b. has arranged c. Y : Really. would be born b. has been postponed c. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. was it abolishing d. was being postponed e. has been built b. is arranged d.? a. had been sold c. are unloaded c. were being unloaded e. have arranged b. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. a. was arranged e. have been arranged 3. when…. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. has been born c. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. a. is sold d. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price.
the baby was looked after well c. was being cleaned d. will be rewarded 8. rewarded d. She looks after the baby well. a. has been cleaned 5. will be taken d. will be destroyed b.4. had destroyed e. has been rewarded c. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. a. has been promising b. was being promised c. has promised d. demolishing d. destroyed d. is being destroyed c. was rewarded e. a. will clean b. took c. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. is being rewarded b. is being demolished e. the baby would be well looked after 7. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. a. the baby will be well looked after d. is demolishing c. a. had been demilishing b. has been taken SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . The passive form is ____ a. a. will be promised e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. is being cleaned e. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. the baby is being looked after well e. will be promised 10. the baby is well looked after b. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. was being demolishing 9. cleaned c. was taken b. is being taken e. he ____ to the nearest hospital. was destroyed 6.
Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. yaitu: 1. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most c. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal.DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh: large larger largest SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 .
itulah yang diharapkan. dll. was/were. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. did. can. will. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. I will buy a new car. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. may. shall. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • • • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5.). Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. (jika saya punya uang. Present Conditional (type 2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . dll. -le. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some.4. -er. Apa yang diucapkan. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. -ow. had. Contoh: If I have much money. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. have/has. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan.
Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Kalau kalimatnya (+). 3. which. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). I would have written you a letter. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Kalau kalimatnya (+). of which. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 .Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. whose. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. whom. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. I would go to the beach with you.
Meja yg dimaksud the table) SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 .Contoh: We know a lot of people. her. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. I met him last week. your. Its surface is not smooth. Contoh: We saw the people. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. sebuah benda. Their car has been stolen. I bought it last year. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. our. They are printed in English. its. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. his. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. (its surface/permukaannya meja. their. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. (him = the man.) 2. jabatan sebagai objek) 3.
Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). Where 8.7. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me.
6. his. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. Setelah possessive adjective (my. The manager has the letter typed.Amir’s. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. Contoh : My hobby is cycling.our. get used to. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. he said nothing.her. Jogging makes us fresh. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Before leaving. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me.your. to be worth. 2. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. to be busy. The manager gets the letter typed. 3. before dll. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap.to be used to. 4. I got the mechanic to repair my car. 5. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1).S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). can’t help/can’t bear. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Consider Avoid Delay Enjoy Finish Quit Mind Miss Postpone Recall Regret Report 104 SMA Students’ Modul of English . I had mechanic repair my car. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). on.their.
I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. while.Can’t help Resume Deny Risk Resist Siggest Practice Advise Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. Menunjukan waktu: before. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .I like T. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . a. . PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. after.Juned prefers combro to deblo.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. 3. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . yaitu: 1. b.V better than radio. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3.Dita would rather watch T. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. c.V.V ketimbang main video game) 4. SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. We went home after the rain stopped. as soon as.V .Kokom likes reading better than watching T. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 Contoh: .Dona prefers dancing to singing. than plays a video game. when.
we put them into frying pan. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . 1.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . c.He is not only active but also clever. we put some sauce and salt. Since I have no money. a. he come on time. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. d. While he was reading her novel. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. I can’t treat you. that.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. next. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. 3. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . somebody knocked on the door. Finally. if.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . for. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. then. we must prepare the ingredients. although/though.Although it was raining. c. a. since. Contoh: . Next. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . finally. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. dll. b. After that.d. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) .He is both wise and good.Amir and I go to school everyday. (dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . Menunjukan tanda urutan: first.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . e. first. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of.You can read this book if you like. or. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. 2. after that.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. b. but.
Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .arti asalnya.
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