Anda di halaman 1dari 46

HVDC and HVDC Light An alternative power transmission system

Symposium on Control & Modeling of Alternative Energy Systems, April 2, 2009.

Mats Larsson, Corporate Research, ABB Switzerland Ltd

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 1

Outline
What is HVDC ? Technical Aspects of HVDC Transmission HVDC Technologies Classic and Light Control of HVDC Links Grid Applications of HVDC Some control problems related to HVDC Conclusion
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 2

What is HVDC ? High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission


HVDC converter station > 1000 MW, classic Overhead lines Two conductors HVDC converter station > 1000 MW, classic

AC Grid

AC Grid

Alternative: submarine cables

HVDC converter station < 1200 MW, Light

Land or submarine, cables or overhead line

HVDC converter station < 1200 MW, Light

AC Grid

AC Grid

Power / energy direction


ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 3

Why is HVDC Alternative ? Battle of the Currents (~1880s-90s)


AC AC 3 phase system Power transformer DC No reliable technology for voltage conversion Difficult to interrupt The early isolated grids were a mix of AC and DC DC In the end all nationwide power grids were based on AC technology Most DC grids were eventually phased out

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 4

The Early Days of HVDC Milestone The first Commercial HVDC Link
Island Gotland to Swedish Mainland 100 kV / 20 MW ~100 kM distance AC cable difficult Commissioned in 1954 Mercury-arc valves Refurbished in 1970 Uprated to 150kV/130MW Thyristor valves Second pole built in 1986
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 5

AC vs DC Cables Reactive Power Charging


Lines and cables act as capacitors When energized a charging current is generated For DC only only once For AC charged and discharged each half-period Reactive Power charging is proportional to:
voltage squared length of cable frequency

Qch = CV 2 = LcV 2 P = S max 2 Qch 2 max

In practice AC cables longer than 100km not practical Problem does not exist for DC cables

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 6

AC versus DC Transmission Underground/Underwater Cables


Cable Transfer Capability v Distance (1200 A Rating)
Transfer Capability (MW) 1200 230 kV 345 kV 500 kV 0 0 50 100 150 Distance (km )

320 kV DC

AC and DC capacity increases with square of voltage AC transfer capacity diminishes dramatically with distance, due to reactive power charging DC transfer capacity almost unaffected by distance
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 7

AC versus DC Transmission Overhead Transmission Lines


Max Line Capability v Distance 6000
Max Line Loading (MW)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Transmission Distance (mi)

345 kV AC 500 kV AC 765 kV AC 500 kV DC 660 kV DC 800 kV DC

AC and DC capacity increases with square of voltage AC transfer capacity diminishes with distance, due to voltage and angle stability limit For AC Switching stations are required every ~400kms
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 8

DC transfer capacity almost unaffected by distance

AC Versus DC Transmission Losses


Example 1200 MW rated capacity HVDC Classic Additional converter losses (~ 0.6 %) Lower line losses

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 9

Visual Impact of AC/DC Transmission


(underground)

HVDC Light

Conventional alternating HVDC Classic while dramatically Mitigating the environmental impactslines current of power
improving grid efficiency and reliability

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 10

3 Generations of HVDC
Transistor (IGBT)

Thyristor Gen 2 Thyristor Gen 1 Mercury Arc

HVDC Light Year

1954

1970

1980

2000

HVDC Classic
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 11

Core HVDC Technologies


HVDC Classic Current source converters Line-commutated thyristor valves Requires 50% reactive compensation (35% harmonic filter) Minimum short circuit capacity > 2x converter rating Fast active power control Conv. Losses ~0.6 %

HVDC Light Voltage source converters Self-commutated IGBT valves Requires no reactive power compensation (~15% HF) Weak system, black start Compact Fast active and reactive power control Conv. Losses ~ 1.6%
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 12

Modular Design
Thyristor Module

HVDC Classic Thyristor valves Thyristor modules Thyristors

Thyristors

Submodule StakPak Chip

HVDC Light IGBT valves IGBT valve stacks StakPaks Submodules

IGBT Valve Stacks

Cable Pair
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 13

Chips

Evolution of HVDC Link Capacity


HVDC Classic 6400 MW +/- 800 kV

HVDC Light 1200 MW +/- 320 kV

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 14

Control of HVDC The Thyristor Power Converter


6-pulse converter Commutation controlled by firing angle alpha () Udc 0 < < 90 Rectifier mode 90 < < 180 Inverter mode DC voltage ~ cos()

Current ripple on DC side Non-sinusoidal currents AC side

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 15

Control of HVDC Classic Link Control

Id

IR IS IT u
uR uS uT IR IS IT 4 6 2 1 3 5 Ud

UdR and UdI voltage controllable U U dI I dc = dR through: R firing angle (fast) tap changer (slow)
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 16

Pdcr = U dR I dc =

U dR (U dR U dI ) R

Control of HVDC Light The VSC Converter


300 00K .0 200 00K .0

PWM Icc: Controller has 2 outputs


9 m 0.000 1 0m 00.00

0 00K .0

-200 00K .0 8 m 0.000

Modulation index -> controls Udc Phase angle -> controls AC phase angle on AC Side Can implement:

u DC1 uAC-ref1
+ AC voltage control
PWM internal current control

uAC1

i -

u
+

DC-ref1

DC voltage control

DC Voltage Control AC Voltage Control AC Power Control Frequency control

qref1

ref1

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 17

Control of HVDC Light Link Control

u DC1 uAC-ref1
+ AC voltage control
PWM internal current control

u DC2 i uAC2 uAC-ref2

u - AC1

i uDC-ref2 uDC-ref1 +
DC voltage control

+
DC voltage control ref1 pref2

AC voltage control PWM internal current control

qref1

ref2

Principle control of HVDC-Light

One side control Udc One side controls power flow


ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 18

Both can control AC Voltage/Reactive power

Comparison of Reactive Power Characteristics

HVDC Classic Operating Range

P-Q Diagram

HVDC Classic (~ SVC with TCR+FC, -0.5Pd / +0 MVAr)


Operating Area

Active Power (p.u.)

HVDC Light (~ STATCOM, 0.5Pd/+0.5Pd MVar) HVDC Light terminals can act as virtual generators
Reactive Power (p.u.)

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 19

HVDC Light Operating Range

Control System Structure

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 20

Grid Applications of HVDC Asynchronous Connection


AC connection between grids may be difficult Stability issues Undersea cables Frequencies 50/60 Hz Benefits: Controllability - Cross border trading The networks can retain their independence HVDC interconnections Scandinavia-Continental Europe NORDEL grid UCTE Grid
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 21

An HVDC link can never be overloaded HVDC transmission will act as a firewall against cascading disturbances.

Grid Applications of HVDC Bulk Power Transport


DC Lines cheaper than AC for same rating DC terminals more expensive than AC Most line project breaks even at > 700km, in favour of DC Benefits Smaller right of way Lower losses No increase in Short-circuit current No intermediate switching stations
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 22

Grid Applications of HVDC Grid Bottlenecks Embedded HVDC


Benefits: Increased Power Transfer Capability Damping of Interarea Oscillations Rapid Power Flow Control Dynamic Voltage Support (HVDC Light)

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 23

Grid Applications of HVDC Offshore Wind Connection e.g. Borkum 2 Germany


Scope 400 MW HVDC Light Offshore Wind 150 kV HVDC Light Cables (route = 130 km by sea + 75 km by land) Serves 80 x 5 MW offshore wind turbine generators Controls collector system ac voltage and frequency Project Basis Customer: E.ON Netz GmbH Germany gets gets access to clean wind power with higher capacity factor than land based wind generation Enhances main grid stability
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 24

Grid Applications of HVDC Multi-terminal HVDC Light


c)

Benefits Excellent Characteristics for Multiterminal Applications Flexible DC grid power flow control Independent P and Q control at each converter station. DC grid configuration can be radial, ring or meshed; can be easily reconfigured and expanded. Well suited for cable connection Applications In-city networks Offshore wind collector system

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 25

Grid Applications of HVDC Light Blackstart


EstLink - Finland-Estonia 350 MW/330kV HVDC Light 100 kM Capable of blackstart on Estonian side

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 26

Grid Applications of HVDC Vision 20xx -The 100 % Renewable Scenario


The European Supergrid Paralell DC Backbone Grid A Perfect Application of HVDC Open Research topics DC grid protection systems Coordinated control of DC Converters Multiterminal HVDC Classic challenging
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 27

A Control Engineers View of Power Systems


Large-scale Substantial nonlinearity Uncertainty Changing operating point Mix of continuous and discrete control variables System model has differential-algebraic structure A good example of a complex system !

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 28

Open Control Issues Related to HVDC Transient Stability


A fault will cause nearby generators to slow down or accelerate Fast fault clearance and strong network critical
55

Clearing time
Speed (Hz)

Objective Use fast controllability of HVDC Non-linear control problem Response time ~ 0.1 s
20

170 ms
50

100 ms
45 0 5 10 Time (s) 15

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 29

Open Control Issues Related to HVDC Small-signal Stability


Poor or negative damping of pulsating power flows

52 51 Speed (Hz) 50 49 48

Use fast modulation of HVDC active and reactive power Multi-modal control Response time ~ 0.1-0.2s Adaptive and learning control ?

10 Time (s)

15

20

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 30

ABB Track Record HVDC Projects 1954-2010


Nelson River 2 CU-project Vancouver Island Pole 1 Valhall Troll Highgate Hllsjn Chateauguay Hagfors Outaouais Skagerrak 1&2 Skagerrak 3 QuebecKonti-Skan 1 New England Konti-Skan 2 Baltic Cable Tjreborg English Channel Drnrohr Greece - Italy Sardinia-Italy Cross Sound Sapei Eagle Pass Sharyland Vizag II ChandrapurItaipu Padghe Inga-Shaba Rihand-Delhi Cahora Bassa Vindhyachal Cahora Bassa Upgrade Brazil-Argentina Murray link Interconnection I&II Fenno-Skan Gotland 1 Gotland 2 Gotland 3 Gotland Estlink Kontek SwePol NorNed Sakuma Gezhouba-Shanghai Three Gorges-Guandong Three Gorges-Changzhou Three Gorges-Shanghai Leyte-Luzon Broken Hill New Zealand 1 New Zealand 2 Directlink

Rapid City Square Butte Pacific Intertie Pacific Intertie Upgrading Pacific Intertie Expansion Intermountain Blackwater

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 31

52 HVDC Classic Projects 11 HVDC Light Projects

since 1954 since 1997

Conclusion
AC transmission is standard but has limitations HVDC not a new technology Bulk power transfer over large distances Controllability of Active Power Undersea or asynchronous connections Ratings up to 6400 MW HVDC Light Controllability of Active and Reactive Power Inexpensive cable technology Offshore as well as underground cable applications Ratings up to 1200 MW Multiterminal: off-shore collector grid, DC Supergrid(?), city DC distribution
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 32

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 33

800kV HVDC Video

800 kV HVDC
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 34

Summary: Transmission Solutions Technical Characteristics


Attributes
Power flow control Reactive power demand

HVAC

HVDC Classic

HVDC Light
Continuous 0 to Pr No reactive power demand

None unless PST or Continuous series reactor 0.1Pr to Pr 3 I^2 X - 3 V^2 B Reactive power demand 0.5Pr Switched shunt banks 35% in filters + 15% in capacitors Slow - switched filters, capacitors & reactors + LTC

Reactive power compensation & control

Shunt reactors / Capacitors

STATCOM + 15% in fixed filters

AC voltage control Practical Distance Limit


ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 35

None

Dynamic virtual generator

~ 400 km OH ~50-100 km Cable

none

None, also suited for underground cable

Example Asynchronous Connection EstLink HVDC Light between Finland and Estonia
Contract signed: In service: Project duration: Capacity: AC voltage: DC voltage: DC cable length: Converters: Special features: Rationale: April 2005 November 2006 19 months 350 MW 330 kV at Harku 400 kV at Espoo 150 kV 2 x 105 km (31 km land) 2 level, OPWM Black start Estonia, no diesel Electricity trade Asynchronous Tie Long cable crossing Dynamic voltage support Black start
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 36

EstLink Test of Black Start Capabilities

Estonian part of the network deenergized Network reenergized using the HVDC terminal in Estonia

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 37

Bulk Power Transport Example Xiangjiaba - Shanghai 800 kV UHVDC Project


Scope
Power: 6400 MW (4 x 1600 MW converters) 800 kV DC transmission voltage System and design engineering Supply and installation of two 800 kV converter stations including 800 kV HVDC power transformers and switchgear

Project Basis
Customer: State Grid Corporation of China Project delivers 6400 MW of Hydro Power from Xiangjiaba Power Plant in SW China Length: 2071 km (1286 mi), surpasses 1700 km Inga-Shaba as worlds longest Pole 1 commissioned in 2010, pole 2 in 2011 AC voltage: 525 kV at both ends

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 38

Caprivi Link, NamPower


+ 350 kV 300 MW

300 MW - 350 kV 300 MW, 350 kV HVDC Light Monopole with ground electrodes Expandable to 600 MW, 350 kV Bipole 350 kV HVDC Overhead Line Links Caprivi region of NE Namibia with power network of central Namibia and interconnects with Zambia, Zimbabwe, DR Congo, Mozambique Improves voltage stability and reliability Length of 970 km DC and 280 km (400kV) AC

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 39

Caprivi Link - Salient features


+ 300/600 MW import to 280/560 MW export without filter switching or stop at 0 MW 200 MVAr for continuous voltage stabilizatiion of 400 kV/320 kV AC networks at Gerus/Zambezi Stable and robust power transmission verified for low short-circuit powert down to 300 MVA Black start of Caprivi AC system Restart after DC line faults due to lightning and bushfires, 500 ms after fault clearing including deionization time

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 40

Xiangjiaba - Shanghai 800 kV UHVDC Project


Scope
Power: 6400 MW (4 x 1600 MW converters) 800 kV DC transmission voltage System and design engineering Supply and installation of two 800 kV converter stations including 800 kV HVDC power transformers and switchgear Valves use 6 inch thyristors and advanced control equipment

Project Basis
Customer: State Grid Corporation of China Project delivers 6400 MW of Hydro Power from Xiangjiaba Power Plant in SW China Length: 2071 km (1286 mi), surpasses 1700 km IngaShaba as worlds longest Pole 1 commissioned in 2010, pole 2 in 2011 AC voltage: 525 kV at both ends

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 41

SouthWestlink, SVK and Statnett


Stage 1, 2008 2 x 1200 MW converters 200 km underground cable 200 km a.c. OHL upgrade 220 400 kV

Stage 2, 2010 1 x 1200 MW converter About 350 km underground cable

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 42

SouthWestlink, breakthrough in UG transmission


Jan 17 2008, two major TSO, Svenska Kraftnt (SVK) and Statnett, decided to build the worlds largest underground system. Three terminals rated 1200 MW Total distance 500 550 km Accelerated interest in applying the new technology for underground transmission by other TSO

ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 43

Transfer Capacity OHL HVDC Light


MW
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 km
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 44

HVDC Light

380 kV OHL

100 km

200 km

300 km

400 km

Cross Sound Cable, Transnergie, USA


Customers need
Enable power exchange between Connecticut and Long Island, USA. Improve security of power supply in this area

ABBs response
Turnkey 330 MW 150 kV HVDC Light transmission system including 40 km subsea cable, delivered in 21 months

Customers benefits
The Cross Sound link improves the reliability of power supply in the Connecticut and New England power grids, while providing urgently needed electricity to Long Island.
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 45

Troll A Precompression project, Statoil


Customers need
Enable power supply from mainland to platform to minimise emission of large amounts of CO2 and unnecessarily high fuel consumption.

ABBs response
Turnkey 2x40 MW 60 kV HVDC Light offshore transmission system

Customers benefits
With electric power supplied from shore, for power supply as well as compressor drivers, CO2 emissions from offshore installations are eliminated.
ABB Group April 14, 2009 | Slide 46