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Nomenclature

Symbol r1 r2 rpinn Lai Lact Qta Qal Qpl Qca Qcp Qtl Qcl Ata Aal Apl Aca Acp Atl Acl Dt tins ct Ts Tp Tann Tamb Tsurf Tins Vm Ps Meaning Angle used in determining area Emissivity of insulation lagging Outer radius of process fluid pipe Outer radius of steam tracer pipe Inner radius of process fluid pipe Length of insulation between annulus and air for bare tracer Length of insulation between annulus and air for cemented tracer Energy transfer between tracer and annulus Energy transfer between annulus and air Energy transfer between process pipe and air Energy transfer between cement and annulus Energy transfer between cement and process fluid pipe Energy transfer between bare tracer and air Energy transfer between cement and air Effective area of tracer exposed to annulus Effective area of annulus exposed to air Effective area of process pipe exposed to air Effective area of cement exposed to annulus Effective area of cement exposed to process fluid pipe Effective area of tracer exposed to air Effective area of cement exposed to air Diameter of tracer pipe Insulation thickness Cement thickness Saturated steam temperature Process fluid temperature Annulus temperature Ambient design temperature Outer surface temperature Average insulation temperature Wind velocity Saturated steam pressure Units radians m m m m m J J J J J J J m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m m m K K K K K K m/s kPa V

qt hc ho kw kins m n L

Overall heat transmittance from cemented tracer to process fluid pipe Heat transfer coefficient in still air Heat transfer coefficient at surface Thermal conductivity of pipe wall Thermal conductivity of insulation Mass flow rate of steam Amount of bare or cemented tracers Length of tracer connected to pipe

W/m2K W/m2K W/m2K W/mK W/mK kg/h tracers m

VI