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MENGOLAHANALISISKONJOINDENGANSPSS15 Oleh:Suryana,M.Si www.statistikaterapan.wordpress.com Analisiskonjoinadalahsebuahteknikgunamengukurpreferensikonsumenterhadapatribut(spesifikasi ataufitur)sebuahprodukataujasa.Analisiskonjoinberdasarkanpadasubjektifitaskonsumenterhadap beberapakombinasifituryangditawarkan.Subjektifitaskonsumeninidiukurmelaluiperingkat(rank) atauskore(skalalikert).Hasilanalisiskonjoinberupainformasikuantitatifyangdapatmemodelkan preferensikonsumenuntukbeberapakombinasifiturproduk. Analisiskonjointerdiridaribeberapatahap.Pertama,memilihbeberapakombinasiatributdanleveldari masingmasingatribut.Selanjutnya,kombinasiatributinidiberiperingkatolehbeberaparesponden (konsumen).Terakhir,analisisterhadappenilaianrespondendilakukanuntukmengetahuipreferensi konsumen. SPSS15menggunakanpendekatanfullprofiledimanaperingkatdarikombinasiprodukditentukanoleh leveldarisemuafaktortertentu.Masalahnyaadalahmeskipuntelahdengansangatselektifdipilih kombinasifiturprodukyangpalingberpotensitetapijumlahkombinasiyangdihasilkansangatbanyak.

k. Jikaada4faktordengan3levelakanmenghasilkan81kombinasiproduk(3x3x3x3).Seorangkonsumen akankesulitanmemberiperingkatdarike81kombinasiproduktersebutselainmembutuhkanwaktu yangrelatiflama. Untukmengatasimasalahini,disainyangdigunakanbukanfullfactordesignmelainkanfractional factorialdesign.Dengandesainini,sebagiandariseluruhkombinasiprodukdipilihyangbebarbenar berpengaruhterhadapefekutama.Efekinteraksitidakdiperhatikan.Desainsepertiitudikenaldengan namaorthogonalarray.Pembentukankombinasiatributyangmemenuhisifatorthogonalinimenjadi tahapawalyangsangatpenting. A. MembentukDesainOrthogonal Definisiyangcukupsingkatnamunjelasmengenaidesaionorthogonalsepertikutipanberikut:
In an orthogonal array table, balance is achieved because each level of a factor occurs an equal number of times with each level of each of the other factors. Note that all complete factorials in which there are an equal number of repeats for each factorlevel combination are orthogonal arrays. Some fractional factorials are orthogonal arrays, some are not. (Mason, 2003).

Tampakbahwadalamdesainorthogonal,jumlahkemunculandarisetiaplevelsuatuatributselalusama. Mason(2003)mencontohkandesainorthogonaldanbukanorthogonalsepertipadaTabel7.8.Pada Tabel7.8kiritampakbahwasetiapleveldarimasingmasingatributmunculsatukali.Sebaliknyapada Tabelkanan,kombinasi121muncul2kalisementarakombinasilainnyahanyasatkali.

UntukmembangkitkanorthogonalplandalamSPSS15digunakansintaksberikut
ORTHOPLAN [FACTORS=varlist ['labels'] (values ['labels'])...] [{/REPLACE }] {/OUTFILE='savfile'|'dataset'} [/MINIMUM=value] [/HOLDOUT=value] [/MIXHOLD={YES}] {NO }

Contohpenggunaanyasepertiberikut
*Generate Orthogonal Design . SET SEED 2000000. ORTHOPLAN /FACTORS=Merek 'Merek HP' ( 1 'Nokia' 2 'Samsung' 3 'Siemen') Harga 'Harga HP' ( 1 '< 1juta' 2 '1 - 3 juta' 3 '> 3 juta') Garansi 'Garansi HP' ( 1 'Pabrik' 2 'Distributor') /OUTFILE='D:\DATA/HP_Plan.SAV' .

BentukDataPlandariContohyangpenulisgunakanadalah

B. DATA Setelahmembentukorthogonalplan,langkahselanjutnyaadalahmembuatfiledatayangberisihasil penilaianrespondenterhadapprifilproduk.Jikaada18kombinasiprofilyangditawarkan,maka respondenharusmemberikanpenilaiandariprodukyangpalingdiinginkanpadaperingkatpertama hinggaprodukyangpalingtidakdiinginkanpadaperingkat18.Identitasrespondenharustercatat sebagaivariabelidentitas.Tampilandatapreferensikonsumensepertiberikut. Gambarmenunjukkan5konsumen.Konsumen1palingmenginginkanprofilke20yaituHPdengan merekSamsungdenganHargaRp.425.000,dangaransidistributor.Sebaliknya,profilHPke19(tidak tampakpadaGambar)denganmerekSiemen,HargaRp.2.050.000,dangaransidistributoradalahyang palingtidakdiinginkan.Demikianseterusnya.

C. ANALISIS KONJOINT 1. PengolahanAnalisisKonjoin


Secara umum, sintaks SPSS 15 untuk mengolah analisis konjoin sebagai berikut: CONJOINT [PLAN={* }] {'savfile'|'dataset'}

[/DATA={* }] {'savfile'|'dataset'} /{SEQUENCE}=varlist {RANK } {SCORE } [/SUBJECT=variable] [/FACTORS=varlist['labels'] ([{DISCRETE[{MORE}]}] { {LESS} } {LINEAR[{MORE}] } { {LESS} }

{IDEAL {ANTIIDEAL [values['labels']])] varlist...

} }

[/PRINT={ALL** {ANALYSIS {SIMULATION {NONE [/UTILITY=file]

} [SUMMARYONLY]] } } }

[/PLOT={[SUMMARY] [SUBJECT] [ALL]}] {[NONE**] }

Darisintaksumumdiatas,dapatdiketahuibahwauntukmengolahanalisisikonjoindiperlukanduabuah file,yaitufilePLANyangberisikombinasiatributdanlevelyangmemenuhisifatORTHOGONALPLANdan filedata.Untukmendefinisikanfileplan,sintaks CONJOINTPLAN={isikanalamatfileplan} Contoh: CONJOINTPLAN=D:/DATA/HP_Plan.sav Dalamhalini,penulismenyimpanfileplandengannamaHP_Plan.savyangdiletakkandifolderD:/DATA. Selanjutnya,filekitajugaharusmendefinisikanfiledatadengansintaks /DATA={isikanalamatfiledata} CONTOH: /DATA=D:/DATA/HP_Prefs.sav SPSS15menyediakan3pilihandalammencatatrespondarikonsumen.Pertama,setiapnomorprofil dicatatdalamfiledatadimulaidariprofilyangpalingdiinginkanhinggaprofilyangpalingtidak diinginkan.Sintaksyangdigunakanadalah /SEQUENCE=varlist Kedua,filedataberisiperingkatdariprofildimulaidariprofilpertamahinggaprofiltertakhir.Sintaks yangdigunakanadalah /RANK=varlist Ketiga,filedataberisiskor(skalalikert)untukmasingmasingprofil.Sintaksyangdigunakanadalah

/SCORE=varlist Disini,penulismenggunakanduapencatatanyaitusequencedanscoresecaraterpisah.Untukitu, sintaksselengkapnyapenulissajikansebagaibeikut:


CONJOINT PLAN='D:\EXERCISE\HP_Plan.sav' /DATA='D:\EXERCISE\SCORE.sav' /SCORE=PROF1 TO PROF20 /SUBJECT=ID /FACTORS=merek (discrete more) harga (linear more) garansi (discrete more) /PRINT=ALL /PLOT=ALL.

JikasintaksdiatasdieksekusidenganmengklikRUNALL, Akandihasilkanoutputsebagaimanapadahal719darioutputterlampir: Hinggatahapaniniprosespengolahananalisiskonjointelahselesaidilakukan.SemogaTulisanini bermanfaat. Referensi: Robert L. Mason, Richard F. Gunst, and James L. Hess. (2003). Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments: With Applications to Engineering and Science. Second Edition. A JOHN WILEY & SONS PUBLICATION. SPSS 15 HELP OPTION.

LAMPIRAN OUTPUT ..... GET FILE='D:\EXERCISE\HP_Prefs.sav'. DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT. GET FILE='D:\EXERCISE\ORTHO.SAV'. DATASET NAME DataSet2 WINDOW=FRONT. GET FILE='D:\EXERCISE\HP_Plan.sav'. DATASET NAME DataSet3 WINDOW=FRONT. DATASET ACTIVATE DataSet1. DATASET CLOSE DataSet2. DATASET ACTIVATE DataSet3. CONJOINT PLAN='D:\EXERCISE\HP_Plan.sav' /DATA='D:\EXERCISE\HP_Prefs.sav' /SEQUENCE=PREF1 TO PREF20 /SUBJECT=ID /FACTORS=Merek (Discrete More) Harga (Linear More) Garansi (Discrete More) /PRINT=all.

Conjoint Analysis
[DataSet3] D:\EXERCISE\HP_Plan.sav
Warnings All factors are orthogonal. Model Description Relation to Ranks or Scores Discrete (more) Linear (more) Discrete (more)

N of Levels Merek Harga Garansi 3 4 2

Subject 1: 1.00
Utilities Utility Estimate .667 -1.833 1.167 .625 -.625 .550 1.100 1.650 2.200 6.958

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant)

Std. Error 1.757 2.061 2.061 1.318 1.318 1.179 2.358 3.536 4.715 3.258

Page 1

Importance Valuesb Mereka 50.847 Garansi a 21.186 Harga 27.966 a. Reversed b. 2 reversals

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error .550 1.179 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .318 .115 Kendall's tau .288 .062 Kendall's tau for Holdouts -1.000 .021 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Subject 2: 2.00
Utilities Utility Estimate .833 -.292 -.542 .250 -.250 1.450 2.900 4.350 5.800 4.667

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant) Importance Valuesb Mereka 22.088 Garansi a 8.032 Harga 69.880 a. Reversed b. 2 reversals

Std. Error 1.713 2.009 2.009 1.285 1.285 1.149 2.299 3.448 4.597 3.176

Page 2

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error 1.450 1.149 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .381 .073 Kendall's tau .271 .074 Kendall's tau for Holdouts .667 .087 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Subject 3: 3.00
Utilities Utility Estimate .833 -1.542 .708 1.625 -1.625 .500 1.000 1.500 2.000 7.042

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant) Importance Valuesb Mereka 33.333 Garansi a 45.614 Harga 21.053 a. Reversed b. 2 reversals

Std. Error 1.671 1.959 1.959 1.253 1.253 1.121 2.242 3.362 4.483 3.098

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error .500 1.121 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .433 .047 Kendall's tau .339 .035 Kendall's tau for Holdouts -.333 .248 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Page 3

Subject 4: 4.00
Utilities Utility Estimate .167 1.792 -1.958 .625 -.625 -.300 -.600 -.900 -1.200 9.208

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant) Importance Valuesb Mereka 63.559 Garansi a 21.186 Hargaa 15.254 a. Reversed b. 3 reversals

Std. Error 1.751 2.053 2.053 1.313 1.313 1.175 2.349 3.524 4.699 3.247

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error -.300 1.175 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .327 .108 Kendall's tau .237 .103 Kendall's tau for Holdouts .333 .248 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Subject 5: 5.00

Page 4

Utilities Utility Estimate -.500 .625 -.125 .000 .000 -.150 -.300 -.450 -.600 9.000

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant) Importance Valuesb Mereka 71.429 Garansi .000 Hargaa 28.571 a. Reversed b. 2 reversals

Std. Error 1.843 2.161 2.161 1.382 1.382 1.236 2.472 3.708 4.945 3.417

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error -.150 1.236 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .106 .348 Kendall's tau .119 .263 Kendall's tau for Holdouts .000 .500 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Overall Statistics
Utilities Utility Estimate .400 -.250 -.150 .625 -.625 .410 .820 1.230 1.640 7.375

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant)

Std. Error .731 .857 .857 .548 .548 .490 .981 1.471 1.962 1.356

Page 5

Importance Values Merek 48.251 Garansi 19.204 Harga 32.545 Averaged Importance Score Coefficients B C ffi i t Estimate .410 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .416 .055 Kendall's tau .335 .039 Kendall's tau for Holdouts -.548 .139 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Number of Reversals Factor Merek Garansi Harga 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 2 2 2 2 3 2

Subject

Subject 1.00 Subject 2.00 Subject 3.00 Subject 4.00 Subject 5.00

Reversal Summary N of Reversals N of Subjects 2 4 3 1 This table displays the number of subjects that have the given number of reversals.

NEW FILE. DATASET NAME DataSet4 WINDOW=FRONT. DATASET ACTIVATE DataSet1. SAVE OUTFILE='D:\EXERCISE\SCORE.sav' /COMPRESSED. SAVE OUTFILE='D:\EXERCISE\SCORE.sav' /COMPRESSED. DATASET ACTIVATE DataSet3. CONJOINT PLAN='D:\EXERCISE\HP_Plan.sav' /DATA='D:\EXERCISE\SCORE.sav' /SCORE=PROF1 TO PROF20 /SUBJECT=ID /FACTORS=merek (discrete more) harga (linear more) garansi (discrete more) /PRINT=ALL /PLOT=ALL.

Page 6

Conjoint Analysis
[DataSet3] D:\EXERCISE\HP_Plan.sav
Warnings All factors are orthogonal. Model Description Relation to Ranks or Scores Discrete (more) Linear (more) Discrete (more)

N of Levels Merek Harga Garansi 3 4 2

Subject 1: 1.00
Utilities Utility Estimate -.083 -.833 .917 -.563 .563 -.675 -1.350 -2.025 -2.700 4.771

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant) Importance Valuesb Mereka 35.714 Garansi 22.959 Hargaa 41.327 a. Reversed b. 2 reversals

Std. Error .478 .560 .560 .358 .358 .320 .641 .961 1.281 .885

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error -.675 .320

Harga

Page 7

Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .689 .002 Kendall's tau .578 .002 Kendall's tau for Holdouts .000 .500 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Subject 2: 2.00
Utilities Utility Estimate -.250 .125 .125 .188 -.188 .075 .150 .225 .300 2.938

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant) Importance Valuesb Merek 38.462 Garansi a 38.462 Harga 23.077 a. Reversed b. 1 reversals

Std. Error .583 .684 .684 .438 .438 .391 .783 1.174 1.566 1.082

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error .075 .391 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .188 .243 Kendall's tau .156 .225 Kendall's tau for Holdouts .224 .342 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Subject 3: 3.00

Page 8

Utilities Utility Estimate -.917 .083 .833 -.188 .188 -.125 -.250 -.375 -.500 3.229

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant) Importance Valuesb Merek 70.000 Garansi 15.000 Hargaa 15.000 a. Reversed b. 1 reversals

Std. Error .549 .644 .644 .412 .412 .369 .737 1.106 1.474 1.018

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error -.125 .369 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .492 .026 Kendall's tau .443 .015 Kendall's tau for Holdouts .183 .359 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Subject 4: 4.00
Utilities Utility Estimate -.167 .333 -.167 .875 -.875 -.850 -1.700 -2.550 -3.400 5.292

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant)

Std. Error .430 .504 .504 .322 .322 .288 .577 .865 1.154 .797

Page 9

Importance Valuesb Mereka 10.417 Garansi a 36.458 Hargaa 53.125 a. Reversed b. 3 reversals

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error -.850 .288 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .775 .000 Kendall's tau .626 .001 Kendall's tau for Holdouts .183 .359 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Subject 5: 5.00
Utilities Utility Estimate -.417 -.542 .958 .688 -.688 -.025 -.050 -.075 -.100 3.854

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant) Importance Valuesb Mereka 50.847 Garansi a 46.610 Hargaa 2.542 a. Reversed b. 3 reversals

Std. Error .490 .575 .575 .368 .368 .329 .658 .987 1.316 .909

Page 10

Coefficients B Coefficient Estimate Std. Error -.025 .329 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .604 .007 Kendall's tau .456 .014 Kendall's tau for Holdouts -.183 .359 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Overall Statistics
Utilities Utility Estimate -.367 -.167 .533 .200 -.200 -.320 -.640 -.960 -1.280 4.017

Merek

Garansi Harga

N S Si Distributor Pabrik 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

(Constant)

Std. Error .161 .188 .188 .120 .120 .108 .215 .323 .431 .298

Importance Values Merek 41.088 Garansi 31.898 Harga 27.014 Averaged Importance Score Coefficients B C ffi i t Estimate -.320 Correlationsa Value Sig. Pearson's R .810 .000 Kendall's tau .588 .001 Kendall's tau for Holdouts .183 .359 a. Correlations between observed and estimated preferences

Harga

Page 11

Number of Reversals Factor Harga Garansi Merek 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 3 3

Subject

Subject 1.00 Subject 2.00 Subject 3.00 Subject 4.00 Subject 5.00

Reversal Summary N of Reversals N of Subjects 1 2 2 1 3 2 This table displays the number of subjects that have the given number of reversals.

Individual Subject Utilities


ID
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 0.5

1.0

Utility

0.0

-0.5

-1.0 N S Si

Merek HP

Page 12

Individual Subject Utilities


ID
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 0.5

1.0

Utility

0.0

-0.5

-1.0 Distributor Pabrik

Garansi HP

Page 13

Individual Subject Utilities


ID
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00

Utility

-1

-2

-3

-4 425000 1300000 2050000 4500000

Harga HP

Page 14

Individual Subject Importance


ID
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00

60

Averaged Importance

40

20

0 Merek HP Harga HP Garansi HP

Factor

Page 15

Summary Utilities

0.6

0.4

Utility

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4 N S Si

Merek HP

Page 16

Summary Utilities

0.2

0.1

Utility

0.0

-0.1

-0.2 Distributor Pabrik

Garansi HP

Page 17

Summary Utilities

0.00

-0.25

-0.50

Utility

-0.75

-1.00

-1.25

425000

1300000

2050000

4500000

Harga HP
B = -.3200

Page 18

Importance summary

50

40

Averaged Importance

30

20

10

0 Merek HP Harga HP Garansi HP

Factor

Page 19