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Materi Sinyal, Sistem Dan Kontrol 1

Materi Sinyal, Sistem Dan Kontrol 1

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Sinyal dan Sistem

Oleh : Bima Sena Bayu D. Teknik Komputer – PENS @2011

Outline
Sinyal Sistem

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

2

1. Sinyal

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

3

Sub Bahasan
1. Pendahuluan 2. Klasifikasi Sinyal 3. Power Sinyal Waktu Kontinyu 4. Operasi Dasar Sinyal Waktu Kontinyu 5. Sinyal Waktu Kontinyu Periodik 6. Sinyal Waktu Kontinyu Sinusoidal 7. Representasi Sinyal Waktu Diskrit 8. Bentuk Sinyal Waktu Diskrit 9. Power Sinyal Waktu Diskrit 10. Operasi Dasar Sinyal Waktu Diskrit 11. Konsep Dasar Sinyal Waktu Kontinyu dan Sinyal Waktu Diskrit
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 4

(1) Pendahuluan
Apakah Sinyal itu? Fungsi dari variabel bebas yang menyampaikan informasi tentang keadaan atau lingkungan dari sistem secara fisik.
Variabel bebas dapat berupa waktu, jarak, kecepatan, posisi, suhu, tekanan, dll.

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

5

(2) Klasifikasi Sinyal
Berdasarkan jumlah variabel bebas Berdasarkan nilai variabel bebas Berdasarkan sifat

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

6

Klasifikasi Sinyal berdasarkan jumlah variabel bebas Sinyal 1-D

Sinyal 2-D

Sinyal 3-D
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control

Video
7

Klasifikasi Sinyal berdasarkan nilai variabel bebas Sinyal Waktu Kontinyu
Sinyal yang nilainya muncul pada setiap nilai variabel bebas yang mungkin pada range finite maupun infinite (∆t => lim 0)

Sinyal Waktu Diskrit
Sinyal yang nilainya muncul pada kelipatan nilai tertentu dari variabel bebas pada range finite (∆t)
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 8

Klasifikasi Sinyal berdasarkan Sifat
Ada Model Matematik Sinyal Deterministik Dapat Diprediksi Nilainya Tidak Ada Model Matematik Sinyal Acak Tidak Dapat Diprediksi Nilainya
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 9

(3) Power Sinyal Waktu Kontinyu
lim 1 t 0+T 2 Px = ∫ x (t ) • dt T → ∞T t0
Dimana : t = waktu kontinyu T = periode sinyal Px = power sinyal waktu kontinyu x(t) = data pada waktu ke-t
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 10

(4) Operasi Dasar Sinyal Waktu Kontinyu
Time Shifting ==> y(t) = x(t-T) Time Reversal ==> y(t) = x(-t) Addition ==> z(t) = x(t) + y(t) Time Scaling ==> y(t) = x(Ωt) Multiplication with a constant ==> y(t) = αx(t) Multiplication of two signal ==> z(t) = x(t) * y(t) Differentiation ==> y(t) = dx(t)/dt Integration ==> y(t) = x(t)*dt Convolution ==> kombinasi dari beberapa Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 11 operasi sinyal

Time Shifting

y(t) = x(t-T)
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control

T negatif => geser kiri T positif => geser kanan
12

Time Reversal

y(t) = x(-t)
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 13

Addition

z(t) = x(t) + y(t)

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

14

Time Scaling

y(t) = x(Ωt) Ω>1 => rapat Ω<1 => lebar

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

15

Multiplication with a Constant
y(t) = αx(t) α= - Rf/Rin = - 5k/1k = - 5 kali

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

16

(5) Sinyal Periodik

Waktu

Kontinyu

x(t) = x(t + kT)

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

17

(6) Sinyal Sinusoidal

Waktu

Kontinyu
sin(Ωt ) = cos(Ω(t − T )) 4
T = 2π Ω

sin(Ωt ) = cos(Ω(t − 2π

4Ω

))

sin(Ωt ) = cos(Ωt − π )) 2 cos(Ωt ) = sin(Ωt + π ))
2

Euler laws :
A • cos(Ωt ) = A • (e jΩt + e − jΩt ) 2
18

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

(7) Representasi Sinyal Waktu Diskrit
Representasi Fungsi Representasi Tabular
n x(n) ・ -2 -1 0 ・ 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 4 1 0 0

⎧1 ⎪ x(n) = ⎨4 ⎪0 ⎩

untuk n=1,3 untuk n= 2 selain itu

Representasi Deret
x(n) = {….,0,0,1,4,1,0,0,0,0,….}
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 19

(8) Bentuk Diskrit
Unit Sample Unit Step Unit Ramp

Sinyal

Waktu
δ (n) ≡ ⎨
⎧1, untuk n =0 ⎩0, untuk n ≠ 0

⎧1, untuk n ≥ 0 u ( n) ≡ ⎨ ⎩0, untuk n ≤ 0

⎧n, untuk ur ( n) ≡ ⎨ ⎩0, untuk
x(n ) = a
n

n≥0 n≤0

untuk

setiap

n

Unit Exponensial
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 20

(9) Power Sinyal Waktu Diskrit
2 N lim 1 P= ∑ | x ( n) | N → ∞ 2 N + 1n=− N
Dimana : n = nomor sampel (0,1,2,3,….) N = jumlah sampel data P = power sinyal waktu diskrit x(n) = data sampel ke-n
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 21

(10) Operasi Waktu Diskrit

Dasar

Sinyal

Sample Shifting ==> y[n] = x[n-N] Sample Reversal ==> y[n] = x[-n] Addition ==> z[n] = x[n] + y[n] Multiplication with a constant ==> y[n]= αx[n] Multiplication of two signal ==> z[n] = x[n] * y[n]

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

22

Pembangkitan Sinyal Sinus Diskrit Dengan menggunakan Matlab 6.1
n=40; n1=1:n; f=1/(0.5*n); x1(n1)=sin(2*pi*f*n1); stem(n1,x1(n1))

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

23

Sample Shifting
n=40; n1=1:n; f=1/(0.5*n); figure(1); clf; x1(n1)=sin(2*pi*f*n1); subplot(3,1,1); stem(n1,x1(n1)) x2(n1)=sin(2*pi*f*(n1-5)); subplot(3,1,2); stem(n1,x2(n1)) x3(n1)=sin(2*pi*f*(n1+5)); subplot(3,1,3); stem(n1,x3(n1))
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 24

Addition
n=40; n1=1:n; f=1/(0.5*n); figure(1); clf; x1(n1)=sin(2*pi*f*n1); subplot(3,1,1); stem(n1,x1(n1)) x2(n1)=sin(2*pi*f*(n1-5)); subplot(3,1,2); stem(n1,x2(n1)) x(n1)=x1(n1)+x2(n1); subplot(3,1,3); stem(n1,x(n1))
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 25

2. Sistem

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

26

Sub Bahasan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pengertian Sistem Sistem Waktu Kontinyu dan Sistem Waktu Diskrit Sifat-Sifat Sistem Dasar Sistem Linier dan Sistem Tidak Linier Sifat Sistem Linier

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

27

Pengertian Sistem
Proses yang menghasilkan sebuah sinyal keluaran dalam rangka merespon sebuah sinyal masukan. Sinyal masukan sistem yang kontinyu dan keluaran sistem yang kontinyu, seperti pada elektronik analog. Sinyal masukan sistem diskrit dan keluaran sistem diskrit, seperti pada program komputer yang memanipulasi nilai yang disimpan dalam array.
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 28

Sistem Waktu Kontinyu
Sistem dimana sinyal masukan waktu kontinyu diterapkan dan menghasilkan sinyal keluaran waktu kontinyu.

x(t)

Sistem Waktu Kontinyu x(t) => y(t)

y(t)

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

29

Sistem Waktu Diskrit
Sistem yang mengubah sinyal masukan waktu diskrit kedalam sinyal keluaran waktu diskrit. x[n] Sistem Waktu Kontinyu x[n] => y[n] y[n]

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

30

Sifat-Sifat Sistem Dasar
Sistem dengan dan tanpa memory Sistem Invertibilitas dan Sistem Inversi Kausalitas Stabilitas Invariansi Waktu Linearitas

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

31

Sistem Dengan dan Tanpa Memory
Sistem dikatakan tanpa memory jika keluarannya untuk setiap harga variabel bebas pada waktu yang diberikan bergantung hanya pada masukan waktu yang sama.
Contoh : y[n]=(2x[n]-x2[n])2

Sistem dikatakan menggunakan memory jika sistem dapat menahan atau menyimpan informasi mengenai harga masukan yang bukan harga masukan saat ini.
Contoh :
Bima Sena Bayu D.

y[n]=Σx[k] ; akumulator y[n]=x[n-1] ; delay Signal, System y[n]=Σx[k]+x[n] and Control

32

Sistem Invertibilitas dan Sistem Inversi
Sistem invertibel jika masukan yang tertentu menghasilkan keluaran yang tertentu. Jika sistem invertibel, maka ada sistem inversi yang diseri dengan sistem asli, menghasilkan keluaran yang sama dengan masukan ke sistem pertama. x[n] y[n] w[n]=x[n] Sistem Inversi Sistem

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

33

Kausalitas
Sistem adalah kausalitas, jika setiap waktu keluaran hanya tergantung pada harga masukan saat ini dan yang lalu.

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

34

Stabilitas
Stabilitas merupakan sifat sistem yang dapat merespon masukan kecil menjadi sebuah tanggapan yang tidak menyimpang.

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

35

Invariansi Waktu
Sifat sebuah sistem secara konseptual adalah tetap berdasarkan waktu.

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

36

Linearitas
Sistem linier merupakan sistem yang memiliki sifat superposisi. Konsep Superposisi :
Dekomposisi Synthesis

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

37

Sifat Sistem Linier
Sebuah sistem disebut linier jika memenuhi 2 sifat matematik :
Homogeneity Additivity

Dan terdapat sifat tambahan ketiga, yaitu :
Shift Invariance

Serta terdapat sifat khusus, yaitu :
Komutatif

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

38

Homogeneity
Definisi Homogenity, sebuah sistem dikatakan homogen jika sebuah amplitudo berubah pada masukan menghasilkan sebuah perubahan amplitudo yang identik pada keluaran. Jika x[n] menghasilkan y[n], maka k.x[n] menghasilkan k.y[n], dimana k adalah konstanta.

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

39

Static Linearity and Sinusoidal Fidelity
Homogeneity, additivity, and shift invariance are important because they provide the mathematical basis for defining linear systems. Unfortunately, these properties alone don't provide most scientists and engineers with an intuitive feeling of what linear systems are about. The properties of static linearity and sinusoidal fidelity are often of help here. These are not especially important from a mathematical standpoint, but relate to how humans think about and understand linear systems. You should pay special attention to this section. Static linearity defines how a linear system reacts when the signals aren't changing, i.e., when they are DC or static. The static response of a linear system is very simple: the output is the input multiplied by a constant. That is, a graph of the possible input values plotted against the corresponding output values is a straight line that passes through the origin. This is shown in Fig. 5-5 for two common linear systems: Ohm's law for resistors, and Hooke's law for springs. For comparison, Fig. Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and for 5-6 shows the static relationship Control two nonlinear systems: 40 a pn junction diode, and the magnetic properties of iron.

Static Linearity and Sinusoidal Fidelity
An important characteristic of linear systems is how they behave with sinusoids, a property we will call sinusoidal fidelity: If the input to a linear system is a sinusoidal wave, the output will also be a sinusoidal wave, and at exactly the same frequency as the input. Sinusoids are the only waveform that have this property. For instance, there is no reason to expect that a square wave entering a linear system will produce a square wave on the output. Although a sinusoid on the input guarantees a sinusoid on the output, the two may be different in amplitude and phase. This should be familiar from your knowledge of electronics: a circuit can be described by its frequency response, graphs of how the circuit's gain and phase vary with frequency. Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 41

Contoh Homogeneity
Static linearity defines how a linear system reacts when the signals aren't changing, i.e., when they are DC or static. The static response of a linear system is very simple: the output is the input multiplied by a constant.

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

42

Contoh Homogeneity (Hukum Ohm)

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

43

Additivity
Definisi Additivity, sebuah sistem dikatakan additif jika penambahan sebuah sinyal melewati sinyal lainnya tanpa saling berinteraksi. Secara formal, jika x1[n] menghasilkan y1[n] dan jika x2[n] menghasilkan y2[n], maka x1[n]+x2[n] menghasilkan y1[n]+y2[n].

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

44

Contoh Additivity Op-Amp)

(Adder

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

45

Shift Invariance
Definisi Shift Invariance, sebuah sistem dikatakan shift invariance jika pergeseran pada sinyal masukan menyebabkan pergeseran yang identik pada sinyal keluaran. Dalam matematika, jika x[n] menghasilkan y[n], maka x[n+s] menghasilkan y[n+s], dimana s adalah konstanta.
Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 46

Komutatif
Sifat komutatif pada sistem linier, ketika dua atau lebih sistem linier disusun secara seri / kaskade, urutan dari sistem tidak mempengaruhi karakteristik dari kombinasi sistem secara keseluruhan.

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

47

Contoh Sistem Linier (1)
Wave propagation such as sound and electromagnetic waves Electrical circuits composed of resistors, capacitors, and inductors Electronic circuits, such as amplifiers and filters Mechanical motion from the interaction of masses, springs, and dashpots (dampeners) Systems described by differential equations such as resistorcapacitor-inductor networks Multiplication by a constant, that is, amplification or attenuation of the signal Signal changes, such as echoes, resonances, and image blurring The unity system where the output is always equal to the input Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 48

Contoh Sistem Linier (2)
The null system where the output is always equal to the zero, regardless of the input Differentiation and integration, and the analogous operations of first difference and running sum for discrete signals Small perturbations in an otherwise nonlinear system, for instance, a small signal being amplified by a properly biased transistor Convolution, a mathematical operation where each value in the output is expressed as the sum of values in the input multiplied by a set of weighing coefficients. Recursion, a technique similar to convolution, except previously calculated values in the output are used in Bima Sena Bayu D. Signal, System and Control 49 addition to values from the input

Contoh Sistem Non Linier (1)
Systems that do not have static linearity, for instance, the voltage and power in a resistor: P=V2R , the radiant energy emission of a hot object depending on its temperature: R=kT 4 , the intensity of light transmitted through a thickness of translucent material, etc. Systems that do not have sinusoidal fidelity, such as electronics circuits for: peak detection, squaring, sine wave to square wave conversion, frequency doubling, etc. Common electronic distortion, such as clipping, crossover distortion and slewing Multiplication of one signal by another signal, such as in amplitude modulation and automatic gain controls

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

50

Contoh Sistem Non Linier (2)
Hysteresis phenomena, such as magnetic flux density versus magnetic intensity in iron, or mechanical stress versus strain in vulcanized rubber Saturation, such as electronic amplifiers and transformers driven too hard Systems with a threshold, for example, digital logic gates, or seismic vibrations that are strong enough to pulverize the intervening rock

Bima Sena Bayu D.

Signal, System and Control

51

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