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# Analysis of Variance

(ANOVA)

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Why ANOVA?
To compare differences between group means
Example: Is there any significant difference in satisfaction
between users of the following three computer operating
systems

## The variables Type Scale

Satisfaction Dependent Interval
Operating systems Independent Nominal
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Basis for the comparison
Total variance which is partitioned into Between
and Within-group

Between group

Total Variance

Within group

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Which of the following data sets indicate differences between the
two groups?

Data 1: Data 2:
Group Group
A B A B
30 21 13 25
14 28 12 26
26 14 15 28
15 31 14 27
27 16 15 26
13 12 12 30
25 27 17 29
Range 17 19 Range 5 5
Mean 21.4 21.3 Mean 14 27.3
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Assumptions Underlying
One-way ANOVA
1. The dependent variable is normally distributed for each
of the populations as defined by the different levels of
the factor (independent variable)
2. The variances of the dependent variable are the same for
all populations
3. The cases represent random samples from the
populations and the scores on the test variable are
independent of each other

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What to expect?

Post hoc
comparison

re n ce
i f fe
Sig .d
Test Omega and
hypothesis Eta squares
No
s ig
. di
ffe
r en
ce

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z
bas statistics for Social Science
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Steps in ANOVA
1. State the null and alternative hypotheses
HO: µ1 = µ2 = µ3
HA: Not all means are equal
2. Calculate the test statistic
F-ratio
3. Determine critical value
4. Make your decision
5. Make conclusion

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Step 1: State the hypotheses
HO: µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = ……..
HA: Not all means are equal

Depends on number of
groups

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Step 2: Calculate test statistic
1. Calculate sum of squares

a. SST = ∑ X 2

(∑X)
2

b. SSB = ∑
T j2

(∑X)
2

n N
c. SSW = SST − SSB

a. df B = k − 1
b. dfW = N − k
c. dfT = N − 1

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3. Calculate Mean Squares 4. Calculate F-ratio
SSB
a. MSB = F=
MSB
df B MSW
SSW
b. MSW =
dfW

## Summary ANOVA table:

Source SS df MS F
Between-group SSB k-1 MSB F-ratio
Within-group SSW N-k MSW
Total SST N-1

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Step 3: Determine critical value
Critical value is based on:
n Significance level (α)
o Degrees of freedom Fdfdfwb = FNk −−1k

Step 4: Decision
Manual:
Reject HO: Fcal > Fcritical
Fail to reject HO: Fcal ≤ Fcritical
SPSS:
Reject HO: sig-F < α
Fail to reject HO: sig-F ≥ α

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Step 5: Conclusion
Reject HO:
Significant difference between the groups
Fail to reject HO:
No significant difference between the groups

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Additional Analysis I:

Post-hoc Comparison
Tukey’s HSD (Honestly Significant Difference)

MSW
HSD = qk , dfW , α
n

## Criteria to determine difference:

Sig difference: Mean difference > HSD
No sig. difference: Mean difference ≤ HSD

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Additional Analysis II:

Omega Square
Amount of variance of the dependent variable attributed
to the independent variables

df B ( F − 1)
ωˆ 2 =
df B (F − 1) + N

Eta Square
Proportion of variance of dependent variable that is
attributed to the independent variable
SSB
η2 =
SST

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