Anda di halaman 1dari 33

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EMERGENCY TABLE OF CONTENTS

WH-I

Below is a complete list of the standard contents of Airway Manual. Limited or special coverages may not contain all items, but that material which is included should be arranged in the order outlined. TABLE OF CONTENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WH-I INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1 2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Distress Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Transponder Operations Emergency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Distress and Urgency Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 2

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE 3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3.2 Transponder Operations Unlawful Interference with Aircraft in Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3.3 Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 EMERGENCY DESCENT 4.1 Initial Action by the Air Traffic Control Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4.2 Action by the Pilot-in-Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4.3 Subsequent Action by the Air Traffic Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DISTRESS AND URGENCY RADIOTELEPHONY COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES 5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5.2 Radiotelephony Distress Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5.3 Radiotelephony Urgency Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE 6.1 General Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Air-Ground Communications Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Receiver Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Transponder Procedures Radio Communication Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTERCEPTION 7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Action By Intercepted Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Radiocommunication During Interception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Signals for Use in the Event of Interception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Interception Phraseologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEARCH AND RESCUE 8.1 Communication Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Procedures for a Pilot-in-Command Intercepting a Distress Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Procedures for a Pilot-in-Command at the Scene of an Accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Search and Rescue Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 9

10 10 10 10

EMERGENCY AUSTRALIA DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 1 2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-1 ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-1

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WH-II

EMERGENCY TABLE OF CONTENTS

9 JUL 10

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Recommended Procedures for any Emergency Phase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Notification of Emergency Using Datalink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Imposition of Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-3 AU-3 AU-3 AU-3

2 3

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-3 COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 VFR in Class G Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 If in Controlled / Restricted Airspace or IFR in any Airspace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 ATS Surveillance System Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-3 AU-3 AU-4 AU-5

COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVAID FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-5 4.1 If VFR in Class G Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-5 4.2 If in Controlled / Restricted Airspace or if IFR in any Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-5 EMERGENCY CHANGE OF LEVEL IN CONTROLLED AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-5 FORCED LANDING / DITCHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-6 6.1 Pre-Impact Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-6 6.2 Post-Impact Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-6

5 6

INTERCEPTION 1 INTERCEPTION PROCEDURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Action by Intercepted Aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Visual Signals for Use in the Event of Interception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Radio Communication During Interception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-7 AU-7 AU-7 AU-8 AU-9

SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR) 1 2 3 4 5 PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-11 RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-11 ORGANIZATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-11 RESCUE COORDINATION CENTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-11 PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Emergency Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Pilot Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Flight Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Advice to Pilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-11 AU-11 AU-11 AU-11 AU-12

6 7

SEARCH AND RESCUE REGIONS AND FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-12 INFLIGHT EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Radio Failure or Failure to Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Navigational Assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Intercept and Escort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Ditching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-12 AU-12 AU-12 AU-12 AU-12

8 9

THIRD PARTY EMERGENCY REPORTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-12 SEARCH AND RESCUE SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 Assistance of Surface Craft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Emergency Management Australia (EMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Ground-Air Visual Code for Use by Survivors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Ground-Air Visual Code for Use by Ground Search Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Ground-Air Emergency Signals in Use for Australian Civil Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-13 AU-13 AU-13 AU-13 AU-13 AU-13

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9.6 9.7 9.8

Visual Distress Signals Small Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-13 Air-Ground Code in Use by Australian Civil Authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-14 Standard Aircraft Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-14 AU-14 AU-14 AU-14 AU-14 AU-14 AU-14

10 PARTICIPATION IN SEARCHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Charges for Aircraft Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Briefing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Debriefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 AIR SEARCH PATTERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-14 11.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-14 11.2 Visual Search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58AU-14 11.3 Electronic Search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-16 11.4 Mountainous Terrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-18 12 EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-18 AU-18 AU-18 AU-19

13 SURVIVAL RADIO EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-19 RESCUE AND FIRE FIGHTING SERVICES 1 2 3 4 5 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-21 AERODROME CATEGORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-21 HOURS OF SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-21 COMMUNICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-21 4.1 ARFF Emergency Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-21 AERODROME EMERGENCIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Local Standby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Full Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Crash on Airport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Other Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Phraseology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-21 AU-21 AU-21 AU-21 AU-21 AU-21 AU-21

SURVIVAL 1 2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-23 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Improvised Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Ground Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIRST AID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 First Aid Kits in Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 First Aid - Adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 The Chain of Survival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Danger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Respnse / ABC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Head Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Stop Bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Chest Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Wounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-23 AU-23 AU-23 AU-23 AU-23 AU-23 AU-23 AU-23 AU-23 AU-24 AU-24 AU-24 AU-24 AU-24 AU-24

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3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 4

Burns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minor Wounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dehydration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AU-24 AU-24 AU-24 AU-24

ACUTE CARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-24 4.1 Snakebite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-24 4.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-24 DESERT SURVIVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Immediate Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Desert Survival Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Water Procurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEA SURVIVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Immediate Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Allocation of Duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Essential Rules for Sea Survival if Short of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Keep Raft Dry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Discourage Predators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNGLE SURVIVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Immediate Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Essential Rules for Jungle Survival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Shelters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COLD WEATHER SURVIVAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Immediate Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Essential Rules for Cold Weather Survival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Medical Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Shelters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AU-24 AU-24 AU-24 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-25 AU-26 AU-26 AU-26 AU-26 AU-26 AU-26

EMERGENCY CANADA SECTION 1. RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITY 1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 1-1 1.2 Types of Service Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 1-1 1.3 SAR Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 1-1 SECTION 2. FLIGHT PLANNING 2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 2-1 2.2 Request for Search and Rescue Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 2-1 2.3 Missing Aircraft Notice (MANOT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 2-1 2.4 Aiding Persons in Distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 2-1 SECTION 3. EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT) 3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-1 3.2 Categories of ELT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-1 3.3 Installation and Maintenance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-1 3.4 ELT Operating Instructions (Normal Use) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-1 3.5 ELT Operating Instructions (Emergency Use) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-2 3.6 Maximizing the Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-2 3.7 Accidental ELT Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-2 3.8 Testing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-2 3.9 Schedule of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 3-3 SECTION 4. AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE 4.1 Declaring an Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-1 4.2 Action by the Pilot During Emergency Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-1 4.3 VHF Direction Finding (VDF) Assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-1

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4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Transponder Alerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-1 Radar Alerting Maneuvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-1 Emergency Radio Frequency Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-2 Interception Procedures (CAR 602.144) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-3 Downed Aircraft Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-5 Canada Shipping Act Extract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 4-6

SECTION 5. TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD OF CANADA (TSB) 5.1 Aviation Safety Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 5-1 5.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 5-1 5.3 Reporting an Aviation Occurrence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 5-1 5.4 Protection of Occurrence Sites, Aircraft, Components and Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 5-2 5.5 Securitas Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 5-3 5.6 Offices of the TSB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CA 5-3 SEARCH AND RESCUE FACILITIES CANADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CA-41 LATIN AMERICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LA-41 PACIFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-41 SOUTH AMERICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SA-41 EMERGENCY UNITED STATES CHAPTER 6. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES SECTION 1. GENERAL 6-1-1 Pilot Responsibility and Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-1 6-1-2 Emergency Condition Request Assistance Immediately. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-1 SECTION 2. EMERGENCY SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS 6-2-1 Radar Service for VFR Aircraft in Difficulty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-2 Transponder Emergency Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-3 Direction Finding Instrument Approach Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-4 Intercept and Escort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-5 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-6 FAA K-9 Explosives Detection Team Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-7 Search and Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 3. DISTRESS AND URGENCY PROCEDURES 6-3-1 Distress and Urgency Communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-2 Obtaining Emergency Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-3 Ditching Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-4 Special Emergency (Air Piracy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-5 Fuel Dumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-3 US-3 US-3 US-3 US-4 US-5 US-6

US-13 US-13 US-14 US-17 US-18

SECTION 4. TWO-WAY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE 6-4-1 Two-way Radio Communications Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-23 6-4-2 Transponder Operation During Two-way Communications Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-25 6-4-3 Reestablishing Radio Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-25 SECTION 5. AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND FIRE FIGHTING COMMUNICATIONS 6-5-1 Discrete Emergency Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-27 6-5-2 Radio Call Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-27 6-5-3 ARFF Emergency Hand Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US-27

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CHAPTER 6. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES SECTION 1. GENERAL 6-1-1 Pilot Responsibility and Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-1-1 6-1-2 Emergency Condition Request Assistance Immediately. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-1-1 SECTION 2. EMERGENCY SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS 6-2-1 Radar Service for VFR Aircraft in Difficulty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-2-1 6-2-2 Transponder Emergency Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-2-1 6-2-3 Direction Finding Instrument Approach Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-2-1 6-2-4 Intercept and Escort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-2-1 6-2-5 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-2-2 6-2-6 FAA K-9 Explosives Detection Team Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-2-3 6-2-7 Search and Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-2-4 SECTION 3. DISTRESS AND URGENCY PROCEDURES 6-3-1 Distress and Urgency Communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-3-1 6-3-2 Obtaining Emergency Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-3-1 6-3-3 Ditching Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-3-2 6-3-4 Special Emergency (Air Piracy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-3-6 6-3-5 Fuel Dumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-3-7 SECTION 4. TWO-WAY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-4-1 6-4-1 Two-way Radio Communications Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-4-1 6-4-2 Transponder Operation During Two-way Communications Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-4-3 6-4-3 Reestablishing Radio Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-4-3 SECTION 5. AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND FIRE FIGHTING COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-5-1 6-5-1 Discrete Emergency Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-5-1 6-5-2 Radio Call Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-5-1 6-5-3 ARFF Emergency Hand Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US 6-5-1 ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES (Filed alphabetically by sheet title.) Anguilla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 Antigua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 American Samoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Argentina (no ICAO differences published) Aruba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARUBA-1 Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUSTRALIA-1 Bahamas (no ICAO differences published) Barbados . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BARBADOS-1 Belize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BELIZE-1 Bermuda (no ICAO differences published) Bolivia (no ICAO differences published) Bonaire I (no ICAO differences published) Brazil (no ICAO differences published) British Virgin IS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 Brunei (no ICAO differences published) Caicos Is (no ICAO differences published) Cambodia (no ICAO differences published) Cayman Is (no ICAO differences published) Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILE-1 Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COLOMBIA-1 Cook Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see NEW ZEALAND & PAC IS-1 Costa Rica (no ICAO differences published) Cuba (no ICAO differences published) Curacao I (no ICAO differences published) Dominica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 Dominican Republic (no ICAO differences published)

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Eastern Caribbean States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 Ecuador (no ICAO differences published) El Salvador (no ICAO differences published) Falkland Is (no ICAO differences published) Fiji Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIJI IS-1 French Antilles (no ICAO differences published) French Guiana (no ICAO differences published) French Pacific Overseas Territories (no ICAO differences published) Futuna Is (no ICAO differences published) Grenada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 Guadeloupe (no ICAO differences published) Guam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Guatemala (no ICAO differences published) Guyana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUYANA-1 Haiti (no ICAO differences published) Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see UNITED STATES-1 Honduras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HONDURAS-1 Indonesia (no ICAO differences published) Isla De Pascua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see CHILE-2 Jamaica (no ICAO differences published) Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JAPAN-1 Johnston Atoll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Kiribati. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KIRIBATI-1 Korea, Republic of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KOREA, REPUBLIC OF-1 LAOS (no ICAO differences published) Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MALAYSIA-1 Marshall Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Martinique (no ICAO differences published) Mexico (no ICAO differences published) Micronesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Midway I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Myanmar (no ICAO differences published) Nauru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAURU-1 Netherlands Antilles (no ICAO differences published) Nevis I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 New Caledonia (no ICAO differences published) New Zealand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEW ZEALAND & PAC IS-1 Nicaragua (no ICAO differences published) Niue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see NEW ZEALAND & PAC IS-1 Northern Mariana Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Panama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PANAMA-1 Palau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Papua New Guinea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAPUA NEW GUINEA-1 Paraguay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARAGUAY-1 Peru (no ICAO differences published) Philippines (no ICAO differences published) Puerto Rico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US CAR TERRITORIES-1 St Kitts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 St Lucia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 St Maarten I (no ICAO differences published) St Vincent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 Samoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAMOA-1 Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SINGAPORE-1 Solomon Is (no ICAO differences published) Suriname (no ICAO differences published) Taiwan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAIWAN-1 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THAILAND-1 Tonga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TONGA-1 Trinidad and Tobago I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see E CARIBBEAN STATES-1 Turks Is (no ICAO differences published)
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WH-VIII

EMERGENCY TABLE OF CONTENTS

18 MAR 11

Tuvalu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TUVALU-1 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNITED STATES-1 United States Caribbean Territories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US CAR TERRITORIES-1 United States Pacific Territories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US PAC TERRITORIES-1 Uruguay (no ICAO differences published) Vanuatu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VANUATU-1 Venezuela (no ICAO differences published) Vietnam (no ICAO differences published) Virgin Is. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US CAR TERRITORIES-1 Wake I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see US PAC TERRITORIES-2 Wallis Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see FRENCH PACIFIC-1

JEPPESEN 2006, 2011. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

13 NOV 09

EMERGENCY

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)


Extracted from the following ICAO publications: RULES OF THE AIR, ANNEX 2 AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS, ANNEX 10, VOLUMES I II SEARCH AND RESCUE, ANNEX 12 PROCEDURES FOR AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT, PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) PROCEDURES FOR AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS, PANS-OPS (Doc 8168) Within this chapter, references to the following ICAO Documents are made, however they are not published herein: REGIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY PROCEDURES (Doc 7030) INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE (IAMSAR) MANUAL (DOC 9731)

DEFINITIONS

NOTE: See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL International Civil Aviation Organization Definitions. AIRCRAFT STATION A mobile station in the aeronautical mobile service, other than a survival craft station, located on board an aircraft. DISTRESS A condition of being threatened by serious and/or imminent danger and of requiring immediate assistance. RADIOTELEPHONY NETWORK A group of radiotelephony aeronautical stations which operate on and guard frequencies from the same family and which support each other in a defined manner to ensure maximum dependability of air-ground communications and dissemination of air-ground traffic. RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTER A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue service and for co-ordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region. RESCUE UNIT A unit composed of trained personnel and provided with equipment suitable for the expeditious conduct of search and rescue. SEARCH AND RESCUE SERVICES UNIT A generic term meaning, as the case may be, rescue co-ordination center, rescue subcenter or alerting post. URGENCY A condition concerning the safety of an aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on board or within sight, but which does not require immediate assistance.

b. on Mode A, Code 7500, to indicate specifically that it is being subjected to unlawful interference.

2.2

PRIORITY

2.2.1 An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency, including being subjected to unlawful interference, shall be given priority over other aircraft. (Doc 4444, 15.1.2)

2.3

DISTRESS FREQUENCIES

2.3.1 The ICAO Communication Procedures require that an aircraft in distress when it is airborne should use the frequency in use for normal communications with aeronautical stations at the time. However, it is recognized that, after an aircraft has crashed or ditched, there is a need for designating a particular frequency or frequencies to be used in order that uniformity may be attained on a world-wide basis, and so that a guard may be maintained or set up by as many stations as possible including direction-finding stations, and stations of the Maritime Mobile Service. 2.3.2 The frequency 2182 kHz is the international distress frequency for radiotelephony to be used for that purpose by ship, aircraft and survival craft stations when requesting assistance from the maritime service. 2.3.3 The frequency 4125 kHz is also authorized to enable communications between stations in the maritime mobile service and aircraft stations in distress. 2.3.4 Similarly, the frequency 500 kHz is the international distress frequency for radiotelegraphy to be used for that purpose by ship, aircraft and survival craft stations when requesting assistance from the maritime service. 2.3.5 With respect to survival craft stations the following emergency / distress frequencies are provided: a. VHF 121.5 MHz; b. UHF 243.0 MHz; c. HF 500 kHz, 2182 kHz, 8364 kHz. (Annex 10, Vol V, Chapter 2 Introduction)

2
2.1

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
GENERAL

2.1.1 The various circumstances surrounding each emergency situation preclude the establishment of exact detailed procedures to be followed. (Doc 4444, 15.1.1) 2.1.2 Air traffic control units shall maintain full and complete coordination, and personnel shall use their best judgement in handling emergency situations. (Doc 4444, Part III, 16.1.1) NOTE: To indicate that it is in a state of emergency, an aircraft equipped with an SSR transponder might operate the equipment as follows: a. on Mode A, Code 7700; or

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EMERGENCY

13 NOV 09

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 2.4 TRANSPONDER OPERATIONS EMERGENCY

3
3.1

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE
GENERAL

2.4.1 The pilot of an aircraft in a state of emergency shall set the transponder to Mode A Code 7700 unless ATC has previously directed the pilot to operate the transponder on a specified code. In the latter case, the pilot shall continue to use the specified code unless otherwise advised by ATC. However, a pilot may select Mode A Code 7700 whenever there is a specific reason to believe that this would be the best course of action. (Doc 8168, Vol I, Part III, Section 3, Chapter 1, 1.4).

3.1.1 An aircraft which is being subjected to unlawful interference shall endeavor to notify the appropriate ATS unit of this fact, any significant circumstances associated therewith and any deviation from the current flight plan necessitated by the circumstances, in order to enable the ATS unit to give priority to the aircraft and to minimize conflict with other aircraft. (Annex 2, 3.7) 3.1.2 When an air traffic services unit knows or believes that an aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference, no reference shall be made in ATS air-ground communications to the nature of the emergency unless it has first been referred to in communications from the aircraft involved and it is certain that such reference will not aggravate the situation. (Annex 11, 5.6.2)

2.5

DISTRESS AND URGENCY SIGNALS

NOTE: None of the provisions in this section shall prevent the use, by an aircraft in distress, of any means at its disposal to attract attention, make known its position and obtain help. 2.5.1 Distress Signals 2.5.1.1 The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that grave and imminent danger threatens, and immediate assistance is requested: a. a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group SOS (. . . - - - . . . in the Morse Code); b. a radiotelephony distress signal consisting of the spoken word MAYDAY; c. a distress message sent via data link which transmits the intent of the word MAYDAY; d. rockets or shells throwing red lights, fired one at a time at short intervals; e. a parachute flare showing a red light. (Annex 2, Appendix 1, 1.1) 2.5.2 Urgency Signals 2.5.2.1 The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that an aircraft wishes to give notice of difficulties which compel it to land without requiring immediate assistance: a. the repeated switching on and off of the landing lights; or b. the repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing navigation lights. (Annex 2, Appendix 1, 1.2.1) 2.5.2.2 The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that an aircraft has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on board or within sight; a. a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group XXX; b. a radiotelephony urgency signal consisting of the spoken words PAN, PAN. c. an urgency message sent via data link which transmits the intent of the words PAN, PAN. (Annex 2, Appendix 1, 1.2.2)

3.2

TRANSPONDER OPERATIONS UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE WITH AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT

3.2.1 If there is unlawful interference with an aircraft in flight, the pilot-in-command shall attempt to set the transponder to Mode A Code 7500 in order to indicate the situation: If circumstances so warrant, Code 7700 should be used instead. (Doc 8168, Vol I, Part III, Section 3, Chapter 1, 1.6.1). 3.2.2 If a pilot has selected Mode A Code 7500 and has been requested to confirm this code by ATC (in accordance with 1.1.5), the pilot shall, according to circumstances, either confirm this or not reply at all. (Doc 8168, Vol I) NOTE: If the pilot does not reply, ATC will take this as confirmation that the use of Code 7500 is not an inadvertent false code selection.

3.3

PROCEDURES

3.3.1 The following procedures are intended as guidance for use by aircraft when unlawful interference occurs and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of this fact. (Annex 2, Attachment B) 3.3.2 Unless considerations aboard the aircraft dictate otherwise, the pilot-in-command should attempt to continue flying on the assigned track and at the assigned cruising level at least until able to notify an ATS unit or within radar coverage. (Annex 2, Attachment B, 2.1) 3.3.3 When an aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful interference must depart from its assigned track or its assigned cruising level without being able to make radiotelephony contact with ATS, the pilot-incommand should, whenever possible; a. attempt to broadcast warnings on the VHF emergency frequency and other appropriate frequencies, unless considerations aboard the aircraft dictate otherwise. Other equipment such as on-board transponders, data links, etc., should also be used when it is advantageous to do so and circumstances permit; and

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1 MAY 09

EMERGENCY

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)


b. proceed in accordance with applicable special procedures for in-flight contingencies, where such procedures have been established and promulgated in ICAO Document 7030 Regional Supplementary Procedures; or c. if no applicable regional procedures have been established, proceed at a level which differs from the cruising levels normally used for IFR flight by: 1. 150m (500 ft) in an area where a vertical separation minimum of 300m (1000 ft) is applied; or 2. 300m (1000 ft) in an area where a vertical separation minimum of 600m (2000 ft) is applied. (Annex 2, Attachment B, 2.2) 5.1.1.1 At the commencement of any subsequent communication in distress and urgency traffic, it shall be permissible to use the radiotelephony distress and urgency signals. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.1.2.1) 5.1.2 The originator of messages addressed to an aircraft in distress or urgency condition shall restrict to the minimum the number and volume and content of such messages as required by the condition. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.1.3) 5.1.3 If no acknowledgement of the distress or urgency message is made by the station addressed by the aircraft, other stations shall render assistance, as prescribed in 5.2.2 and 5.3.2 respectively. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.1.4) NOTE: Other stations is intended to refer to any other station which has received the distress or urgency message and has become aware that it has not been acknowledged by the station addressed. 5.1.4 Distress and urgency traffic shall normally be maintained on the frequency on which such traffic was initiated until it is considered that better assistance can be provided by transferring that traffic to another frequency. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.1.5) NOTE: 121.5 MHz or alternative available VHF or HF frequencies may be used as appropriate. 5.1.5 In cases of distress and urgency communications, in general, the transmissions by radiotelephony shall be made slowly and distinctly, each word being clearly pronounced to facilitate transcription. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.1.6)

4
4.1

EMERGENCY DESCENT
INITIAL ACTION BY THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL UNIT

4.1.1 Upon receipt of advice that an aircraft is making an emergency descent through other traffic, all possible action shall be taken immediately to safeguard all aircraft concerned. When deemed necessary, air traffic control units shall immediately broadcast by means of the appropriate radio aids, or if not possible, request the appropriate communications stations immediately to broadcast an emergency message. (Doc 4444, Part III, 15.1.4)

4.2

ACTION BY THE PILOT-INCOMMAND

4.2.1 It is expected that aircraft receiving such a broadcast will clear the specified areas and standby on the appropriate radio frequency for further clearances from the air traffic control unit. (Doc 4444 Part III, 15.1.4)

5.2

RADIOTELEPHONY DISTRESS COMMUNICATIONS

4.3

SUBSEQUENT ACTION BY THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL UNIT

4.3.1 Immediately after such an emergency broadcast has been made the area control center, the approach control office, or the aerodrome control tower concerned shall forward further clearances to all aircraft involved as to additional procedures to be followed during and subsequent to the emergency descent. The ATS unit concerned shall additionally inform any other ATS units and control sectors which may be affected. (Doc 4444, Part III, 15.1.4)

5
5.1

DISTRESS AND URGENCY RADIOTELEPHONY COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES


GENERAL

5.1.1 The radiotelephony distress signal MAYDAY and the radiotelephony urgency signal PAN PAN shall be used at the commencement of the first distress and urgency communication respectively. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.1.2)

5.2.1 Action by the Aircraft in Distress 5.2.1.1 In addition to being preceded by the radiotelephony distress signal MAYDAY, preferably spoken three times, the distress message to be sent by an aircraft in distress shall: a. be on the air-ground frequency in use at the time; b. consist of as many as possible of the following elements spoken distinctly and, if possible, in the following order: 1. name of the station addressed (time and circumstances permitting); 2. the identification of the aircraft; 3. the nature of the distress condition; 4. intention of the person in command; 5. present position, level (i.e., flight level, altitude, etc., as appropriate) and heading. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.1.1) NOTE: a. The foregoing provisions may be supplemented by the following measures; 1. the distress message of an aircraft in distress being made on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz or another aeronautical mobile frequency, if considered necessary

JEPPESEN, 1999, 2009. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

EMERGENCY

1 MAY 09

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)


or desirable. Not all aeronautical stations maintain a continuous guard on the emergency frequency; 2. the distress message of an aircraft in distress being broadcast, if time and circumstances make this course preferable; 3. the aircraft transmitting on the maritime mobile service radiotelephony calling frequencies; 4. the aircraft using any means at its disposal to attract attention and make known its conditions (including the activation of the appropriate SSR mode and code); 5. any station taking any means at its disposal to assist an aircraft in distress; 6. any variation on the elements listed under b. above, when the transmitting station is not itself in distress, provided that such circumstance is clearly stated in the distress message. b. The station addressed will normally be that station communicating with the aircraft or in whose area of responsibility the aircraft is operating. 5.2.2 Action by the Station Addressed or First Station Acknowledging the Distress Message 5.2.2.1 The station addressed by aircraft in distress, or first station acknowledging the distress message shall: a. immediately acknowledge the distress message; b. take control of the communications or specifically and clearly transfer that responsibility, advising the aircraft if a transfer is made; c. take immediate action to ensure that all necessary information is made available, as soon as possible, to: 1. the ATS unit concerned; 2. the aircraft operating agency concerned, or its representative, in accordance with preestablished arrangements; NOTE: The requirement to inform the aircraft operating agency concerned does not have priority over any other action which involves the safety of the flight in distress, or of any other flight in the area, or which might affect the progress of expected flights in the area. d. warn other stations, as appropriate, in order to prevent the transfer of traffic to the frequency of the distress communication. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.2.1) 5.2.3 Imposition of Silence 5.2.3.1 The station in distress, or the station in control of distress traffic, shall be permitted to impose silence, either on all stations of the mobile service in the area or on any station which interferes with the distress traffic. It shall address these instructions to all stations, or to one station only, according to circumstances. In either case, it shall use: STOP TRANSMITTING; the radiotelephony distress signal MAYDAY. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.3.1) 5.2.3.2 The use of the signals specified in 5.2.3.1shall be reserved for the aircraft in distress and for the station controlling the distress traffic. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.3.2) 5.2.4 Action by All Other Stations 5.2.4.1 The distress communications have absolute priority over all other communications, and a station aware of them shall not transmit on the frequency concerned, unless: a. the distress is cancelled or the distress traffic is terminated; b. all distress traffic has been transferred to other frequencies; c. the station controlling communications gives permission; d. it has itself to render assistance. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.4.1) 5.2.4.2 Any station which has knowledge of distress traffic, and which cannot itself assist the station in distress, shall nevertheless continue listening to such traffic until it is evident that assistance is being provided. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.4.2) 5.2.5 Termination of Distress Communications and of Silence 5.2.5.1 When an aircraft is no longer in distress, it shall transmit a message cancelling the distress condition. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.5.1)

5.2.5.2 When the station which has controlled the distress communication traffic becomes aware that the distress condition is ended, it shall take immediate action to ensure that this information is made available, as soon as possible, to: a. the ATS unit concerned; b. the aircraft operating agency concerned, or its representative, in accordance with pre-established arrangements. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.5.2) 5.2.5.3 The distress communication and silence conditions shall be terminated by transmitting a message, including the words DISTRESS TRAFFIC ENDED, on the frequency or frequencies being used for the distress traffic. This message shall be originated only by the station controlling the communications when, after the reception of the message prescribed in 5.2.5.1 , it is authorized to do so by the appropriate authority. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.2.5.3)

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1 MAY 09

EMERGENCY

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 5.3


5.3.1

RADIOTELEPHONY URGENCY COMMUNICATIONS

Action by the Aircraft Reporting an Urgency Condition (except Medical Transports) 5.3.1.1 In addition to being preceded by the radiotelephony urgency signal PAN PAN, preferably spoken three times and each word of the group pronounced as the French word panne, the urgency message to be sent by an aircraft reporting an urgency condition shall: a. be on the air-ground frequency in use at the time; b. consist of as many as required of the following elements spoken distinctly and, if possible, in the following order: 1. the name of the station addressed; 2. the identification of the aircraft; 3. the nature of the urgency condition; 4. the intention of the person in command; 5. present position, level (i.e., flight level, altitude, etc., as appropriate) and heading; 6. any other useful information. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.3.1.1) NOTE: a. The foregoing provisions are not intended to prevent an aircraft broadcasting an urgency message, if time and circumstances make this course preferable. b. The station addressed will normally be that station communicating with the aircraft or in whose area of responsibility the aircraft is operating.

5.3.3 Action by Other Stations 5.3.3.1 The urgency communications have priority over all other communications, except distress, and all stations shall take care not to interfere with the transmission of urgency traffic. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.3.3.1) 5.3.4 Action by an Aircraft Used for Medical Transports 5.3.4.1 The use of the signal described in 5.3.4.2, shall indicate that the message which follows concerns a protected medical transport pursuant to the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.3.4.1)

Action by the Station Addressed or First Station Acknowledging the Urgency Message 5.3.2.1 The station addressed by an aircraft reporting an urgency condition, or first station acknowledging the urgency message, shall: a. acknowledge the urgency message; b. take immediate action to ensure that all necessary information is made available, as soon as possible, to: 1. the ATS unit concerned; 2. the aircraft operating agency concerned, or its representative, in accordance with preestablished arrangements; NOTE: The requirement to inform the aircraft operating agency concerned does not have priority over any other action which involves the safety of the flight in distress, or of any other flight in the area, or which might affect the progress of expected flights in the area. c. if necessary, exercise control of communications. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.3.2.1)

5.3.2

5.3.4.2 For the purpose of announcing and identifying aircraft used for medical transports, a transmission of the radiotelephony urgency signal PAN PAN, preferably spoken three times, and each word of the group pronounced as the French word panne, shall be followed by the radiotelephony signal for medical transports MAY-DEE-CAL, pronounced as in the French mdical. The use of the signals described above indicates that the message which follows concerns a protected medical transport. The message shall convey the following data: a. the call sign or other recognized means of identification of the medical transports; b. position of the medical transports; c. number and type of medical transports; d. intended route; e. estimated time enroute and of departure and arrival, as appropriate; and f. any other information such as flight altitude, radio frequencies guarded, languages used and secondary surveillance radar modes and codes. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.3.4.2) 5.3.5 Action by the Station Addressed or by Other Stations Receiving a Medical Transports Message 5.3.5.1 The provisions of 5.3.2 and 5.3.3 shall apply as appropriate to stations receiving a medical transports message. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.3.3.5.1)

6
6.1

COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE
GENERAL RULES

6.1.1 An aircraft operated as a controlled flight shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and establish two-way communication as necessary with, the appropriate air traffic control unit, except as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority in respect of aircraft forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome. (Annex 2, 3.6.5.1) NOTE 1: SELCAL or similar automatic signalling devices satisfy the requirement to maintain a listening watch. NOTE 2: The requirement for an aircraft to maintain an air-ground voice communication watch remains in affect after CPDLC has been established.

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INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)


6.1.2 If a communication failure precludes compliance with 6.1.1, the aircraft shall comply with the communication failure procedures in 6.2 below, and with such of the following procedures as are appropriate. The aircraft shall attempt to establish communications with the appropriate air traffic control unit using all other available means. In addition, the aircraft, when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, shall keep a watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals. (Annex 2, 3.6.5.2) 6.1.2.1 If in visual meteorological conditions, the aircraft shall: a. continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions; b. land at the nearest suitable aerodrome; and c. report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate air traffic control unit. (Annex 2, 3.6.5.2.1) 6.1.2.2 If in instrument meteorological conditions or when the pilot of an IFR flight considers it inadvisable to complete the flight in accordance with 6.1.2.1 the aircraft shall: a. unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreement, in airspace where radar is not used in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 20 minutes following the aircrafts failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan; b. in airspace where radar is used in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 7 minutes following: 1. the time the last assigned level or minimum flight altitude is reached; or 2. the time the transponder is set to Code 7600; or 3. the aircrafts failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point; whichever is later, and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan; c. when being radar vectored or having been directed by ATC to proceed offset using RNAV without a specified limit, rejoin the current flight plan route no later than the next significant point, taking into consideration the applicable minimum flight altitude; d. proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid or fix serving the destination aerodrome and, when required to ensure compliance with e. below, hold over this aid or fix until commencement of descent; e. commence descent from the navigation aid or fix specified in d. at, or as close as possible to, the expected approach time last received and acknowledged; or, if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resulting from the current flight plan; f. complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid or fix; and g. land, if possible, within thirty minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in e. or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later. NOTE: a. The provision of air traffic control service to other flights operating in the airspace concerned will be based on the assumption that an aircraft experiencing radio failure will comply with the rules in 6.1.2.2. b. See also AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL International Civil Aviation Organization Rules of the Air. (Annex 2, 3.6.5.2.2)

6.2

AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE

6.2.1 When an aircraft station fails to establish contact with the aeronautical station on the designated frequency, it shall attempt to establish contact on another frequency appropriate to the route. If this attempt fails, the aircraft station shall attempt to establish communication with other aircraft or other aeronautical stations on frequencies appropriate to the route. In addition, an aircraft operating within a network shall monitor the appropriate VHF frequency for calls from nearby aircraft. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.1) 6.2.2 If the attempts specified under 6.2.1 fail, the aircraft station shall transmit its message twice on the designated frequency(ies), preceded by the phrase TRANSMITTING BLIND and, if necessary, include the addressee(s) for which the message is intended. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.2) Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) Recommendation In network operation, a message which is transmitted blind should be transmitted twice on both primary and secondary frequencies. Before changing frequency, the aircraft station should announce the frequency to which it is changing. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.2.1)

6.3

RECEIVER FAILURE

6.3.1 When an aircraft station is unable to establish communication due to receiver failure, it shall transmit reports at the scheduled times, or positions, on the frequency in use, preceded by the phrase TRANSMITTING BLIND DUE TO RECEIVER FAILURE. The aircraft station shall transmit the intended message, following this by a complete repetition. During this procedure, the aircraft shall also advise the time of its next intended transmission. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.3.1)

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1 MAY 09

EMERGENCY

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)


6.3.2 An aircraft which is provided with air traffic control or advisory service shall, in addition to complying with 6.3.1, transmit information regarding the intention of the pilot-in-command with respect to the continuation of the flight of the aircraft. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.3.2) 6.3.3 When an aircraft is unable to establish communication due to airborne equipment failure it shall, when so equipped, select the appropriate SSR code to indicate radio failure. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.3.3) the identity of the intercepted aircraft and the nature of the flight; and if no contact has been established and if practicable, repeating this call on the emergency frequency 243.0 MHz; d. if equipped with SSR transponder, select Mode A, Code 7700, unless otherwise instructed by the appropriate air traffic services unit. (Annex 2, Appendix 2, 2.1) 7.2.2 If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by visual signals, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the visual instructions given by the intercepting aircraft. (Annex 2, Appendix 2, 2.2) 7.2.3 If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by radio, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the radio instructions given by the intercepting aircraft. (Annex 2, Appendix 2, 2.3)

6.4

TRANSPONDER PROCEDURES RADIO COMMUNICATION FAILURE

6.4.1 The pilot of an aircraft losing two-way communications shall set the transponder to Mode A Code 7600. (Doc 8168, Vol I, Part III, Section 3, Chapter 1, 1.5) NOTE: A controller who observes an SSR response indicating selection of the communications failure code will determine the extent of the failure by instructing the pilot to SQUAWK IDENT or to change code. If it is determined that the aircraft receiver is functioning, further control of the aircraft will be continued using code changes or IDENT transmission to acknowledge receipt of clearances. Different procedures may be applied to Mode S equipped aircraft in areas of Mode S coverage.

7.3

RADIOCOMMUNICATION DURING INTERCEPTION

7
7.1

INTERCEPTION
GENERAL

7.3.1 If radio contact is established during interception but communication in a common language is not possible, attempts shall be made to convey instructions, acknowledgement of instructions and essential information by using the phrases and pronunciations in paragraph 7.5 and transmitting each phrase twice. (Annex 2, Appendix 2, 3)

NOTE: The word interception in this context does not include intercept and escort service provided, on request, to an aircraft in distress, in accordance with the Search and Rescue Manual (Annex 2, 3.8). 7.1.1 Interception of civil aircraft shall be governed by appropriate regulations and administrative directives issued by contracting States in compliance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation, and in particular Article 3(d) under which contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their State aircraft, to have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft. Accordingly, in drafting appropriate regulations and administrative directives due regard shall be had to the provisions contained in the AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL International Civil Aviation Organization Rules of the Air, and the following paragraphs. (Annex 2, 3.8.1)

7.2

ACTION BY INTERCEPTED AIRCRAFT

7.2.1 An aircraft which is intercepted by another aircraft shall immediately: a. follow the instructions given by the intercepting aircraft, interpreting and responding to visual signals in accordance with the specifications in paragraph 7.4; b. notify, if possible, the appropriate air traffic services unit; c. attempt to establish radiocommunication with the intercepting aircraft or with the appropriate intercept control unit, by making a general call on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz, giving
q$z

JEPPESEN, 1999, 2009. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

EMERGENCY

1 MAY 09

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 7.4


7.4.1

SIGNALS FOR USE IN THE EVENT OF INTERCEPTION


Signals Initiated by Intercepting Aircraft and Responses by Intercepted Aircraft (Annex 2, Appendix 1, 2.1) INTERCEPTING Aircraft Signals DAY or NIGHT Rocking aircraft and flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals (and landing lights in the case of a helicopter) from a position slightly above and ahead of, and normally to the left of, the intercepted aircraft (or to the right if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter) and, after acknowledgement, a slow level turn, normally to the left, (or to the right in the case of a helicopter) onto the desired heading. NOTE: a. Meteorological conditions or terrain may require the intercepting aircraft to reverse the positions and direction of turn given above in series 1. b. If the intercepted aircraft is not able to keep pace with the intercepting aircraft, the latter is expected to fly a series of racetrack patterns and to rock the aircraft each time it passes the intercepted aircraft. DAY or NIGHT An abrupt breakaway maneuver from the intercepted aircraft consisting of a climbing turn of 90 degrees or more without crossing the line of flight of the intercepted aircraft. DAY or NIGHT Lowering landing gear (if fitted), showing steady landing lights and overflying runway in use or, if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter, overflying the helicopter landing area. In the case of helicopters, the intercepting helicopter makes a landing approach, coming to hover near to the landing area. MEANING You have been intercepted. Follow me. INTERCEPTED MEANING Aircraft Responds Understood, DAY or NIGHT Rocking aircraft, flashing navigational will comply. lights at irregular intervals and following. NOTE: Additional action required to be taken by intercepted aircraft is prescribed in paragraph 7.2.

SERIES 1

You may proceed.

DAY or NIGHT Rocking the aircraft.

Understood, will comply.

Land at this aerodrome.

DAY or NIGHT Lowering landing gear, (if fitted), showing steady landing lights and following the intercepting aircraft and, if, after overflying the runway in use or helicopter landing area, landing is considered safe, proceeding to land.

Understood, will comply.

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1 MAY 09

EMERGENCY

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)


7.4.2 Signals Initiated by Intercepted Aircraft and Responses by Intercepting Aircraft (Annex 2 Appendix 1, 2.2) INTERCEPTED MEANING Aircraft Signals DAY or NIGHT Raising landing Aerodrome you gear (if fitted) and flashing landing have designated lights while passing over runway is inadequate. in use or helicopter landing area at a height exceeding 300m (1000) but not exceeding 600m (2000) (in the case of a helicopter, at a height exceeding 50m (170) but not exceeding 100m (330) above the aerodrome level, and continuing to circle runway in use or helicopter landing area. If unable to flash landing lights, flash any other lights available. DAY or NIGHT Regular switching on and off of all available lights but in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing lights. DAY or NIGHT Irregular flashing of all available lights. Cannot comply. INTERCEPTING Aircraft Responds DAY or NIGHT If it is desired that the intercepted aircraft follow the intercepting aircraft to an alternate aerodrome, the intercepting aircraft raises its landing gear (if fitted) and uses the Series 1 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. If it is decided to release the intercepted aircraft, the intercepting aircraft uses the Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. DAY or NIGHT Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. MEANING Understood, follow me.

SERIES 4

Understood, you may proceed.

Understood.

In distress.

DAY or NIGHT Use Series Understood. 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.

7.5

INTERCEPTION PHRASEOLOGIES (Annex 2, Appendix 2, Table 2.1)


use by INTERCEPTED Aircraft Pronunciation1 Meaning KOL SA-IN (call My call sign is (call sign) sign) Understood will VILL-KO comply Unable to comply KANN NOTT REE-PEET AM LOSST MAYDAY HI-JACK Repeat your instruction Position unknown I am in distress I have been hijacked I request to land at (place name) I require descent

Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING Aircraft Phrases for Phrase Pronunciation1 Meaning Phrase What is your call CALL SIGN (call CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN sign? sign)2 Follow me FOLLOW FOL-LO WILCO DESCEND YOU LAND PROCEED DEE-SEND YOU LAAND PRO-SEED Descend for CAN NOT landing Land at this REPEAT aerodrome You may proceed AM LOST MAYDAY HIJACK3

LAND (place LAAND (place name) name) DESCEND DEE-SEND 1 In the Pronunciation column, syllables to be emphasized are bold / underlined. 2 The call sign required to be given is that used in radiotelephony communications with air traffic services units and corresponding to the aircraft identification in the flight plan. 3 Circumstances may not always permit, nor make desirable, the use of the phrase HIJACK.

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10

EMERGENCY

1 MAY 09

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)

8
8.1

SEARCH AND RESCUE


COMMUNICATION FREQUENCIES

8.1.1 Where there is a requirement for the use of high frequencies for search and rescue scene of action coordination purposes, the frequencies 3023 kHz and 5680 kHz shall be employed. (Annex 10, Vol V, 2.2.1) NOTE: Where civil commercial aircraft take part in search and rescue operations, they will normally communicate on the appropriate enroute channels with the flight information center associated with the rescue co-ordination center concerned.

d. act as instructed by the rescue co-ordination center or the air traffic services unit. (Annex 12, 5.6.2) 8.3.2 If the first aircraft to reach the scene of an accident is not a search and rescue aircraft it shall take charge of on-scene activities of all other aircraft subsequently arriving until the first search and rescue aircraft reaches the scene of the accident. If, in the meantime, such aircraft is unable to establish communication with the appropriate rescue co-ordination center or air traffic services unit, it shall, by mutual agreement, hand over to an aircraft capable of establishing and maintaining such communications until the arrival of the first search and rescue aircraft. (Annex 12, 5.6.2.1) 8.3.3 When it is necessary for an aircraft to direct a surface craft to the place where an aircraft or surface craft is in distress, the aircraft shall do so by transmitting precise instructions by any means at its disposal. If no radio communication can be established the aircraft shall use the appropriate visual signal in paragraph 8.4. (Annex 12, 5.6.5) 8.3.4 When it is necessary for an aircraft to convey information to survivors or surface rescue units, and two-way communication is not available, it shall, if practicable, drop communication equipment that would enable direct contact to be established, or convey the information by dropping a hard copy message. (Annex 12, 5.6.3) 8.3.5 When a ground signal has been displayed, the aircraft shall indicate whether the signal has been understood or not by the means described in 8.3.4 or, if this is not practicable, by use of the appropriate visual signal in paragraph 8.4. (Annex 12, 5.6.4)

8.2

PROCEDURES FOR A PILOT-INCOMMAND INTERCEPTING A DISTRESS TRANSMISSION

8.2.1 Whenever a distress transmission is intercepted by a pilot-in-command of an aircraft, the pilot shall, if feasible: a. acknowledge the distress transmission; b. record the position of the craft in distress if given; c. take a bearing on the transmission; d. inform the appropriate rescue coordination centre or air traffic services unit of the distress transmission, giving all available information; and e. at the pilots discretion, while awaiting instructions, proceed to the position given in the transmission. (Annex 12, 5.7)

8.3

PROCEDURES FOR A PILOT-IN-COMMAND AT THE SCENE OF AN ACCIDENT

8.3.1 When a pilot-in-command observes that either another aircraft or a surface craft is in distress, the pilot shall, if possible and unless considered unreasonable or unnecessary: a. keep the craft in distress in sight until compelled to leave the scene or advised by the rescue coordination centre that it is no longer necessary; b. determine the position of the craft in distress; c. as appropriate, report to the rescue coordination centre or air traffic services unit as much of the following information as possible. type of craft in distress, its identification and condition; its position, expressed in geographical co-ordinates or in distance and true bearing from a distinctive landmark or from a radio navigation aid; time of observation expressed in hours and minutes UTC; number of persons observed; whether persons have been seen to abandon the craft in distress; on-scene weather conditions; apparent physical condition of survivors; apparent best ground access route to the distress site; and

8.4

SEARCH AND RESCUE SIGNALS

8.4.1 General 8.4.1.1 The air-to-surface and surface-to-air visual signals in this section shall, when used, have the meaning indicated therein. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used. (Annex 12, 5.8.1) 8.4.1.2 Upon observing any of the signals given in this section, aircraft shall take such action as may be required by the interpretation of the signal given. (Annex 12, 5.8.2) 8.4.2 Signals with Surface Craft NOTE: The following replies may be made by surface craft to the signal in 8.4.2.1: For acknowledging receipt of signals: a. the hoisting of the Code pennant (vertical red and white stripes) close up (meaning understood); b. the flashing of a succession of Ts by signal lamp in the Morse code; c. the changing of heading to follow the aircraft. For indicating inability to comply: a. the hoisting of the international flag N (a blue and white checkered square);

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INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)


b. the flashing of a succession of Ns in the Morse code. 8.4.2.1 The following maneuvers performed in sequence by an aircraft mean that the aircraft wishes to direct a surface craft towards an aircraft or a surface craft in distress: a. circling the surface craft at least once; b. crossing the projected course of the surface craft close ahead at low altitude and: 1. rocking the wings; or 2. opening and closing the throttle; or 3. changing the propeller pitch. NOTE: Due to high noise level on-board surface craft, the sound signals in (2) and (3) may be less effective than the visual signal in (1) and are regarded as alternative means of attracting attention. c. heading in the direction in which the surface craft is to be directed. Repetition of such maneuvers has the same meaning. (Annex 12, Appendix A, 1.1) 8.4.2.2 The following maneuver by an aircraft means that the assistance of the surface craft to which the signal is directed is no longer required: crossing the wake of the surface craft close astern at a low altitude and: a. rocking the wings; or b. opening and closing the throttle; or c. changing the propeller pitch. (Annex 12, Appendix A, 1.2) NOTE: See Note following 8.4.2.1b. 8.4.3 Ground-Air Visual Signal Code 8.4.3.1 Symbols shall be at least 2.5m (8) long and shall be made as conspicuous as possible. (Annex 12, Appendix A, 2.3) NOTE: a. Symbols may be formed by any means such as: strips of fabric, parachute material, pieces of wood, stones or such like material; marking the surface by tramping, or staining with oil, etc. b. Attention to the signals may be attracted by other means such as radio, flares, smoke, reflected light, etc. 8.4.3.2 Ground-air Visual Signal Code For Use By Survivors (Annex 12, Appendix A, 2.1) MESSAGE Require assistance Require medical assistance No or Negative Yes or Affirmative Proceeding in this direction CODE SYMBOL V X N Y 8.4.3.3 Ground-air Visual Signal Code For Use By Rescue Units (Annex 12, Appendix A, 2.2) MESSAGE Operation completed We have found all personnel We have found only some personnel We are not able to continue. Returning to base Have divided into two groups. Each proceeding in direction indicated Information received that aircraft is in this direction Nothing found. Will continue to search CODE SYMBOL LLL LL ++ XX

No. 1 2 3 4

1222702914000

6 7

NN

8.4.3.4 Air-to-ground Signals 8.4.3.4.1 The following signals by aircraft mean that the ground signals have been understood: a. during the hours of daylight: by rocking the aircrafts wings; b. during the hours of darkness: flashing on and off twice the aircrafts landing lights or, if not so equipped, by switching on and off twice its navigation lights. (Annex 12, Appendix A, 3.1) 8.4.3.4.2 Lack of the above signal indicates that the ground signal is not understood. (Annex 12, Appendix A, 3.2)

No. 1 2 3 4 5

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EMERGENCY

BELIZE-1

ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES


ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES

GENERAL

In general, the Emergency, Unlawful Interference, Communications Failure and Interception procedures are in conformity with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures.

EMERGENCY
SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR IN-FLIGHT CONTINGENCIES
The following procedures are provided for guidance only. Although all possible contingencies cannot be covered, they provide for cases of inability to maintain the assigned level due to weather, aircraft performance and pressurization failure. They are applicable primarily when rapid descent, turn-back, or both, are required. The pilots judgement shall determine the sequence of actions taken, having regard to the specific circumstances. If an aircraft is unable to continue flight in accordance with its ATC clearance, a revised clearance shall, whenever possible, be obtained prior to initiating any action, using the radiotelephony distress or urgency call as appropriate. If prior clearance cannot be obtained, an ATC clearance shall be obtained at the earliest possible time and, in the meantime, the aircraft shall broadcast its position (including the ATS route designator) and intentions, on frequency 121.5 MHz at suitable intervals until ATC clearance is received.

SEARCH AND RESCUE


ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures are not presently established in Belize. SAR facilities are limited and may not be immediately available.

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24 SEP 04

EMERGENCY

COLOMBIA-1

ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES

GENERAL
In general, the Emergency, Unlawful Interference, Communications Failure, Interception and Search and Rescue procedures are in conformity with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures.

intercept procedures and the disabling action or consequences for not adhering to them. If an aircraft is parked on an active or inactive runway and is intercepted by Colombian Air Force aircraft, should proceed as follows: a. When the Colombian Air Force aircraft passes over the airport twice following the runway bearings: at night the aircraft should turn all lights on and the pilot in command should establish immediate radio communications with the Colombian Air Force aircraft, by calling: 1. the airports controlled frequency 2. the airport 122.9Mz, or uncontrolled frequency is

EMERGENCY
BOMB THREATS
When a bomb threat is received, and if time permits, an evaluation of the situation will be made and an alarm classified as CONDITION GREEN or CONDITION RED will be issued. CONDITION GREEN The estimated risk is low, as the threat is considered to be a prank. Normally the aircrew will not be informed of alarms classified Condition Green. CONDITION RED The immediate implementation of alarm procedures for a bomb on board an aircraft. In this case the code used is BRAVO WHISKEY in lieu of Bomb Alarm on communication channels to avoid inappropriate revelations.

3. using the emergency frequency 121.5Mz; indicating the aircraft identification number, the name of the pilot in command, last flight plan filed, current conditions and intentions. b. If the aircraft has the engines running, the pilot in command should proceed to shut down the engines and stop the aircraft either on the runway or in the parking area, remaining visible at all times. c. If the communications equipment in your aircraft is out of service for some reason the ground crew should use the ground to air signals in the Manual de Normas, Rutas, y Procedimientos ATS Colombia. d. The crew should follow the instructions given by the intercept aircraft and wait for the authorities to arrive. e. If the crew of your aircraft does not follow the instructions given by the interceptor aircraft, you and your aircraft will suffer the consequences as Colombian Air force aircraft may fire upon you.

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE
Messages and signals to be used in the event of Unlawful Interference (hijacking). a. The flight is being hijacked TRANSPONDER CODE 7500; b. The present situation is desperate TRANSPONDER CODE 7700; c. A desperate situation requiring action the flaps remain down after landing. d. No intervention required Retract the flaps after landing. NOTE: 1. If a flight without radio contact with ATC uses transponder code 7700 after using code 7500, ATC will assume that the flight has experienced another in-flight emergency besides being hijacked, and will implement necessary procedures for both situations. 2. When in areas where the transponder is not functional, the pilot must transmit via VHF or HF, TRANSPONDER 7500 or TRANSPONDER 7700. In addition, for communications on company frequencies transponder codes should be used in lieu of the word HIJACKING to avoid inconvenient revelations.

ATTITUDES ASSUMED BY THE MILITARY AUTHORITY ON INTERCEPTION


Permission Authorization so that the intercepted aircraft continues their flight plan, once the situation has been determined, or once the aircraft has been directed outside the restricted area or prohibited area. To Yield Event in which the intercepted aircraft follows orders which will allow the Colombian Air Force not to fire upon them. Instructions will be given to the intercepted aircraft to go to either an airport that is close, or to a controlled runway. Immobilize The ability to restrict the mobility of an aircraft after it has landed, until the judicial authority is present and informed of all facts and orders received. Uselessness The main objective of the Colombian Air Force interceptor aircraft is to leave the intercepted aircraft unable to operate. Neutralization The ability to stop a hostile aircraft from violating the airspace. The neutralization of an aircraft covers the destruction, the immobilization of the aircraft in the air or on land. This order is given by the Comandante de la Fuerza Area.

INTERCEPTION
All aircraft not in conformity with International Regulations and existing guidelines are subject to Interception by military aircraft, when said aircraft are not in compliance with civil aviation rules. Air Defense aircraft will maintain full compliance with regulations and procedures approved by ICAO on the interception of civilian aircraft. All aircraft operators should be familiar with internationally approved

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COLOMBIA-2

EMERGENCY

24 SEP 04

ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES


Hostile Aircraft (TH) The violation of the national air space by an aircraft that presumably is doing something illicit or has indicated that it will somehow threaten the vital centers of the nation, the people, the resources and/or the armed forces. This situation forces the use of force to minimize or avoid this purpose. In the same way, if an hostile aircraft disobeys the instructions from the Colombian Air Force aircraft, the interceptor will fire upon the aircraft with the exclusive permission from the Comandante de la Fuerza Aerea Colombiana. Examples are: a. Foreign aircraft that enter the Colombian air space without permission. b. An aircraft that enters a Prohibited Area without permission. c. An aircraft that is flying under 3000 in a radius of 40NM near a radar station and/or a military unit without identification. d. An aircraft that has been intercepted and disobeys the instructions from the interceptor or goes into an evasive, aggressive or attack position. e. An aircraft that has landed at a legal or illegal airport without the proper authorization from the Unidad Administrativa Especial de la Aeronautica Civil (U.A.E.A.C.) f. An aircraft that is operating during night hours from illicit airports or without a flight plan.

g. An aircraft that has been intercepted and the crew immediately starts throwing objects from it that has ignored the interceptors instructions. h. An aircraft that over flies any military station under 3000' without permission. i. In an emergency situation where the aircraft has been intercepted performing an illicit action (kidnapping) or for technical reasons, the declaration or statement of the events that occurred from the intercepted aircrafts pilot in command will not be accepted.

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EMERGENCY

24 SEP 04

ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES


Hostile Aircraft (TH) The violation of the national air space by an aircraft that presumably is doing something illicit or has indicated that it will somehow threaten the vital centers of the nation, the people, the resources and/or the armed forces. This situation forces the use of force to minimize or avoid this purpose. In the same way, if an hostile aircraft disobeys the instructions from the Colombian Air Force aircraft, the interceptor will fire upon the aircraft with the exclusive permission from the Comandante de la Fuerza Aerea Colombiana. Examples are: a. Foreign aircraft that enter the Colombian air space without permission. b. An aircraft that enters a Prohibited Area without permission. c. An aircraft that is flying under 3000 in a radius of 40NM near a radar station and/or a military unit without identification. d. An aircraft that has been intercepted and disobeys the instructions from the interceptor or goes into an evasive, aggressive or attack position. e. An aircraft that has landed at a legal or illegal airport without the proper authorization from the Unidad Administrativa Especial de la Aeronautica Civil (U.A.E.A.C.) f. An aircraft that is operating during night hours from illicit airports or without a flight plan.

g. An aircraft that has been intercepted and the crew immediately starts throwing objects from it that has ignored the interceptors instructions. h. An aircraft that over flies any military station under 3000' without permission. i. In an emergency situation where the aircraft has been intercepted performing an illicit action (kidnapping) or for technical reasons, the declaration or statement of the events that occurred from the intercepted aircrafts pilot in command will not be accepted.

JEPPESEN SANDERSON, INC., 1994, 2004. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

12 MAR 04

EMERGENCY

HONDURAS-1

ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES

GENERAL
In general, the Emergency, Unlawful Interference, Communications Failure, Interception and Search and Rescue procedures are in conformity with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures.

INTERCEPTION
Honduras uses the following visual signals in the event of interception. Signals Initiated by Intercepting Aircraft and Responses by Intercepted Aircraft SERIES 1 INTERCEPTING Aircraft Signals DAY or NIGHT Rocking wings and flashing navigation lights (landing lights in the case of helicpters) from a position slightly above and ahead of, and normally, to the left of intercepted aircraft (to the right in the case of helicopters) and, after acknowledgement, a slow turn to the left (or to the right in the case of helicopters) to the desired heading. NOTE: Meteorological conditions or terrain may require the intercepting aircraft to reverse the positions and directions of turn indicated above. 2 DAY or NIGHT An abrupt breakaway maneuver from the intercepted aircraft consisting of a climbing turn of 90 degrees or more without crossing the line of flight of the intercepted aircraft. You may proceed. AIRPLANES: DAY or NIGHT Rocking wings. HELICOPTERS: DAY or NIGHT Rocking the aircraft. Land at this aerodrome. AIRPLANES: DAY or NIGHT Lowering landing gear, showing a steady landing light, following the intercepting aircraft and, if after overflying the runway landing is considered safe, proceeding to land. Understood, will comply. Understood, will comply. MEANING You have been intercepted. Follow me. INTERCEPTED Aircraft Responds DAY or NIGHT Rocking wings, flashing navigational lights at regular intervals and following. MEANING Understood, will comply.

DAY or NIGHT Circling aerodrome, lowering landing gear and overflying runway in direction of landing or, if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter, overflying the helicopter landing area.

JEPPESEN SANDERSON, INC., 1994, 2004. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

HONDURAS-2

EMERGENCY

12 MAR 04

ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES


Signals Initiated by Intercepted Aircraft and Responses by Intercepting Aircraft SERIES 4 INTERCEPTED Aircraft Signals DAY or NIGHT Raising the landing gear (if gear was lowered) and flashing landing lights while passing over landing runway (area of landing in the case of helicopters) at a height exceeding 300 meters (1,000 feet) but not exceeding 600 meters (2,000 feet) (in the case of helicopters, at a height exceeding 50 meters (170 feet) but not exceeding 100 meters (330 feet)) above the aerodrome level, and continuing to circle the aerodrome. If unable to flash landing lights, flash any other lights available. MEANING Aerodrome you have designated is inadequate. INTERCEPTING Aircraft Responds DAY or NIGHT If it is desired that the intercepted aircraft follow the intercepting aircraft to an alternate aerodrome, the intercepting aircraft raises its landing gear and uses the Series 1 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. MEANING Understood, follow me.

If it is decided to release the intercepted aircraft, the intercepting aircraft uses the Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. 5 DAY or NIGHT Regular switching on and off of all available lights in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing lights. DAY or NIGHT Irregular flashing of all available lights. Cannot comply. DAY or NIGHT Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. DAY or NIGHT Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.

Understood, you may proceed. Understood.

In distress.

Understood.

END

JEPPESEN SANDERSON, INC., 1994, 2004. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

12 MAR 04

EMERGENCY

PANAMA-1

ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES

GENERAL
In general, the Emergency, Unlawful Interference, Communications Failure, Interception and Search and Rescue procedures are in conformity with ICAO

Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures.

INTERCEPTION
The following visual signals are used over the territory and territorial waters of Panama in the event of interception.

Signals Initiated by Intercepting Aircraft and Responses by Intercepted Aircraft SERIES 1 INTERCEPTING Aircraft Signals DAY or NIGHT Rocking wings and flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals, from a position slightly above and ahead of, and normally, to the left of intercepted aircraft or to the right if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter and, after acknowledgement, a slow level turn, normally to the left or to the right in the case of a helicopter. MEANING You have been intercepted. Follow me. INTERCEPTED Aircraft Responds AIRPLANES: DAY or NIGHT Rocking wings, flashing lights at irregular intervals and following. MEANING Understood, will comply.

NOTE: 1. Meteorological conditions or terrain may require the intercepting aircraft to take up a position slightly ead of and to the right of the intercepted aircraft, and to make the subsequent turn to the right. 2. If the intercepted aircraft is not able to keep pace with the intercepting aircraft, the latter is expected to fly a series of race-track patterns and to rock its wings each time it passes the intercepted aircraft. You may proceed.

NOTE: Additional action required to be taken by intercepted aircraft is prescribed in the EMERGENCY Section, ACTION BY INTERCEPTED AIRCRAFT.

DAY or NIGHT An abrupt breakaway maneuver from the intercepted aircraft consisting of a climbing turn of 90 degrees or more without crossing the line of flight of the intercepted aircraft.

AIRPLANES: DAY or NIGHT Rocking wings. HELICOPTERS: DAY OR NIGHT Rocking the aircraft

Understood, will comply.

DAY or NIGHT Lowering landing gear (if fitted), showing steady landing flights, and overflying runway in direction of landing or, if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter, overflying the helicopter landing area. In the case of helicopters, the intercepting helicopter makes a landing approach, coming to a hover near the landing area.

Land at this aerodrome.

AIRPLANES: DAY or NIGHT Lowering landing gear, showing staedy landing lights and following the intercepting aircraft and, if after overflying the runway in use, or helicopter landing area, landing is considered safe, proceeding to land.

Understood, will comply.

JEPPESEN SANDERSON, INC., 1994, 2004. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

PANAMA-2

EMERGENCY

12 MAR 04

ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES


Signals Initiated by Intercepted Aircraft and Responses by Intercepting Aircraft SERIES 4 INTERCEPTED Aircraft Signals DAY or NIGHT Raising landing gear (if fitted) and flashing landing lights while passing over landing runway, or helicopter landing area, at a height exceeding 300m (1,000') but not exceeding 600m (2,000') [in the case of a helicopter, at a height exceeding 50 M(170 ft) but not exceeding 100 M (330 ft)] above the aerodrome level, and continuing to circle the runway in use, or helicopter landing area. If unable to flash landing lights, flash any other lights available. DAY or NIGHT Regular switching on and off of all available lights in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing lights. DAY or NIGHT Irregular flashing of all available lights. MEANING Aerodrome you have designated is inadequate. INTERCEPTING Aircraft Responds DAY or NIGHT If it is desired that the intercepted aircraft follow the intercepting aircraft to an alternate aerodrome, the intercepting aircraft raises its landing gear and uses the Series 1 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. If it is decided to release the intercepted aircraft, the intercepting aircraft uses the Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. MEANING Understood, follow me. Understood, you may proceed.

Cannot comply.

DAY or NIGHT Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.

Understood.

In distress.

DAY or NIGHT Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.

Understood.

END

JEPPESEN SANDERSON, INC., 1994, 2004. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

10 DEC 10

EMERGENCY

UNITED STATES-1

UNITED STATES - ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES

GENERAL
In general, the Emergency, Unlawful Interference, Communications Failure, Interception and Search and Rescue procedures are in conformity with the Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures contained in ICAO Annexes and Documents.

EMERGENCY
A pilot in any distress or urgency condition should climb, if possible, for improved communications, and better radar and direction finding detection. However, it must be understood that unauthorized climb or descent under IFR conditions within controlled airspace is prohibited, except as permitted by FAR 91.3(b) (in an emergency the pilot in command may deviate from any rule to the extent required to meet that emergency). If unable to immediately establish communications with an air traffic facility/agency, squawk Mode A/3, Code 7700/Emergency and Mode C.

It is the pilots prerogative to refuse intercept and escort service. Escort services will normally be provided to the nearest adequate airport. Should the pilot receiving escort services continue on to another location after reaching a safe airport, or decide not to divert to the nearest safe airport, the escort aircraft is not obligated to continue and further escort is discretionary.

EXPLOSIVES DETECTION (DOG HANDLER TEAMS)


At many major airports a program has been established by the FAA to make available explosives detection dog/handler teams. These teams were established so that an aircraft in flight that receives a bomb threat can be directed to an airport with a dog handler team. The following list contains those locations that presently have a team in existence. If you desire this service, notify your company or an FAA facility. If due to weather or other considerations an aircraft with a suspected hidden explosive problem were to land or intending to land at an airport other than those listed, it is recommended to call the FAAs Washington Operations Center (telephone 202-267-3333) or have an air traffic facility contact the above center requesting assistance.

INTERCEPT AND ESCORT


If specifically requested by a pilot in difficulty or if a distress condition is declared, Search and Rescue (SAR) coordinators will take steps to intercept and escort an aircraft. Steps may be initiated for intercept and escort if an urgency condition is declared and unusual circumstances make such action advisable.

EXPLOSIVES DETECTION (DOG HANDLER TEAM) LOCATIONS Houston, Texas Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Atlanta, Georgia Intercontinental (KIAH) -Intl (KPIT) The Hartsfield Intl (KATL) Birmingham, Alabama Jacksonville, Florida Portland, Oregon Intl (KBHM) Intl (KJAX) Intl (KPDX) Boston, Massachusetts Kansas City, Missouri Salt Lake City, Utah Logan Intl (KBOS) Intl (KMCI) Intl (KSLC) Buffalo, New York Los Angles, California San Francisco, California Greater Intl (KBUF) Intl (KLAX) Intl (KSFO) Memphis, Tennessee Charlotte, North Carolina San Juan, Puerto Rico Intl (KMEM) Charlotte/Douglas Intl (KCLT) Luis Munoz Marin Intl (TJSJ) Miami, Florida Seattle, Washington Chicago, Illinois Intl (KMIA) Tacoma Intl (KSEA) OHare Intl (KORD) Milwaukee, Wisconsin St Louis, Missouri Cininnati, Ohio Gen Mitchell Intl (KMKE) Northern Kentucky Intl (KCVG) Lambert Intl (KSTL) Tucson, Arizona Dallas Ft Worth, Texas New Orleans, Louisiana Intl (KTUS) Intl (KDFW) Armstrong New Orleans Intl (KMSY) Denver, Colorado Orlando, Florida Tulsa, Oklahoma Denver Intl (KDEN) Orlando (KMCO) Intl (KTUL) Detroit, Michigan Phoenix, Arizona Metro Wayne Co (KDTW) Sky Harbor Intl (KPHX)

MINIMUM FUEL ADVISORY


Be aware that this is not an emergency situation but merely an advisory that indicates an emergency situation is possible should any undue delay occur. Advise ATC of minimum fuel status when fuel supply has reached a state where, upon reaching destination, any undue delay is not acceptable.

A minimum fuel advisory does not imply a need for traffic priority. If the remaining usable fuel supply suggests the need for traffic priority to ensure a safe landing, declare an emergency, account low fuel, and report the fuel remaining in minutes.

JEPPESEN, 2001, 2010. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

UNITED STATES-2

EMERGENCY

10 DEC 10

UNITED STATES - ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE
SPECIAL EMERGENCIES (AIR PIRACY)
A special emergency is a condition of air piracy, or other hostile act by a person(s) aboard an aircraft, which threatens the safety of the aircraft or its passengers. The pilot of an aircraft reporting a special emergency condition should: a. If circumstances permit, apply distress or urgency radiotelephony procedures. Include the details of the special emergency. b. If circumstances do not permit the use of prescribed distress or urgency procedures, transmit on the airground frequency in use at the time as many as possible of the following elements spoken distinctly and in the following order: 1. Name of the station addressed (time and circumstances permitting); 2. The identification of the aircraft and present position; 3. The nature of the special emergency condition and pilot intentions (circumstances permitting); 4. If unable to provide this information, use code words and/or transponder setting as follows: Spoken Words TRANSPONDER SEVEN FIVE ZERO ZERO. Meaning Am being hijacked/forced to a new destination; Transponder Setting Mode 3/A, Code 7500. If it is possible to do so without jeopardizing the safety of the flight, the pilot of a hijacked passenger aircraft, after departing from the cleared routing over which the aircraft was operating, will attempt to do one or more of the following, insofar as circumstances may permit: a. Maintain a true airspeed of no more than 400 kt, and preferably an altitude between 10,000 and 25,000. b. Fly a course toward the destination which the hijacker has announced. If these procedures result in either radio contact or an air intercept, the pilot will attempt to comply with any instructions received which may direct him to an appropriate landing field or alter the aircrafts flight path off its current course, away from protected airspace.

NOTE: It is not intended that the requirement to land as soon as practicable be construed to mean as soon as possible. The pilot retains the prerogative of exercising his/her best judgement and is not required to land at an unauthorized airport, at an airport unsuitable for the type of aircraft flown, or to land only minutes short of the destination airport. If the failure occurs in IFR conditions, or if VFR conditions cannot be complied with, the pilot shall continue the flight according to the following requirements.

ROUTE REQUIREMENTS
a. By the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received; b. If being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance; c. In the absence of an assigned route, by the route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance; or d. In the absence of an assigned route or a route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance, by the route filed in the flight plan.

ALTITUDE REQUIREMENTS
At the highest of the following altitudes or flight levels for the route segment being flown: a. The altitude or flight level assigned in the last ATC clearance received; b. The minimum altitude (converted, if appropriate, to the minimum flight level) for IFR operations; or c. The altitude or flight level ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance. NOTE: 1. The intent of the rule is that a pilot who has experienced two way radio failure should select the appropriate altitude for the particular route segment being flown and make the necessary altitude adjustments for subsequent route segments. If the pilot received an expect further clearance containing a higher altitude to expect at a specified time or fix, he/ she should maintain the highest of the following altitudes until that time or fix: (a) His/her last assigned altitude; or (b) The minimum altitude/flight level for IFR operations. 2. Upon reaching the time/fix specified, the pilot should commence climb to the altitude he/she was advised to expect. If the radio failure occurs after the time/fix specified, the altitude to be expected is not applicable and the pilot should maintain an altitude consistent with 1.a. or b. above. 3. If the pilot receives an expect further clearance containing a lower altitude, the pilot should maintain the highest of 1.a. or b. above until that time/fix specified for Leave Clearance Limit in the following paragraphs.

COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE
Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two way communications failure when operating under IFR shall comply with the following conditions. If the failure occurs in VFR conditions, or if VFR conditions are encountered after the failure, the pilot shall continue the flight under VFR and land as soon as practicable. This procedure also applies while operating in Class A airspace.

JEPPESEN, 2001, 2010. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

10 DEC 10

EMERGENCY

UNITED STATES-3

UNITED STATES - ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES LEAVE CLEARANCE LIMIT
When the clearance limit is a fix from which an approach begins, commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the expect further clearance time if one has been received, or if one has not been received, as close as possible to the estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC) estimated time enroute. If the clearance limit is not a fix from which an approach begins, leave the clearance limit at the expect further clearance time if one has been received, or if none has been received, upon arrival over the clearance limit, and proceed to a fix from which an approach begins and commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC) time enroute.

SEARCH AND RESCUE


VISUAL EMERGENCY SIGNALS
NOTE: Visual Emergency Signals are in addition to ICAO Ground-Air Visual Codes for use by Survivors and Rescue Units. If you are forced down and are able to attract the attention of the pilot of a rescue airplane, the body signals illustrated can be used to transmit messages as the aircraft circles over your location. Stand in the open when making the signals. Be sure that the background, as seen from the air, is not confusing. Go through the motions slowly and repeat each signal until you are positive that the pilot understands you.

VISUAL EMERGENCY SIGNALS

1279295671000

1279295671000

1279295671000

NEED MEDICAL ASSISTANCEURGENT Used only when life is at stake

CAN PROCEED SHORTLY WAIT IF PRACTICABLE One arm horizontal

ALL OKDO NOT WAIT Wave one arm overhead

1279295671000

1279295671000

1279295671000

NEED MECHANICAL HELP OR PARTSLONG DELAY Both arms horizontal

DROP MESSAGE Make throwing motion

DO NOT ATTEMPT TO LAND HERE Both arms waved across face

JEPPESEN, 2001, 2010. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

UNITED STATES-4

EMERGENCY

10 DEC 10

UNITED STATES - ICAO DIFFERENCES OR STATE SPECIAL PROCEDURES


VISUAL EMERGENCY SIGNALS (continued)

1279295671000

1279295671000

OUR RECEIVER IS OPERATING Cup hands over ears

LAND HERE Both arms forward horizontally, squatting and point in direction of landing Repeat

1279295671000

PICK US UPAIRCRAFT ABANDONED Both arms vertical

1279295671000

1279295671000

NEGATIVE (NO) White cloth waved horizontally

AFFIRMATIVE (YES) White cloth waved vertically AIRCRAFT RESPONSE SIGNALS

1279288159000

1279288161000

AFFIRMATIVE (YES) Dip nose of aircraft several times

NEGATIVE (NO) Fishtail aircraft

1279293590000

1279293592000

MESSAGE RECEIVED AND UNDERSTOOD BY AIRCRAFT: Day or moonlight - Rocking wings Night - Green flashes from signal lamp.

MESSAGE RECEIVED AND NOT UNDERSTOOD BY AIRCRAFT: Day or moonlight - Making a complete right-hand circle Night-Red flashes from signal lamp.

q$z

JEPPESEN, 2001, 2010. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

24 FEB 06

EMERGENCY RULES AND PROCEDURES

US CAR TERRITORIES-1

RULES AND PROCEDURES

GENERAL

Explosives Detection (Dog Handler Teams) A program has been established by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to make available an explosives detection dog/handler team at San Juan, Puerto Rico (Luis Munoz Marin Intl). This team was established so that aircraft can be searched if a bomb threat is received. If this service is desired, notify your company or an FAA facility. If due to weather or other considerations an aircraft with a suspected hidden explosive problem were to land or intending to land at an airport other than Luis Munoz Marin Intl, it is recommended to call the FAAs Washington Operations Center (telephone 202-426-3333) or have an air traffic facility contact the above center requesting assistance.

In general, the Emergency, Unlawful Interference, Communications Failure, Interception and Search and Rescue procedures are in conformity with the Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures contained in ICAO Annexes and Documents. Flights shall operate in accordance with the provisions of Annex 2, and the procedures detailed in ICAO Annexes and Documents shall apply except over United States Territories, Federal Aviation Regulations control procedures and definitions apply.

UNITED STATES TERRITORIES WITHIN THE CARIBBEAN ICAO REGION.


Puerto Rico (San Juan FIR) Virgin Is (San Juan FIR)

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE
SPECIAL EMERGENCIES (AIR PIRACY)
A special emergency is a condition of air piracy, or other hostile act by person(s) aboard an aircraft, which threatens the safety of the aircraft or its passengers. The pilot of an aircraft reporting a special emergency condition should: a. If circumstances permit, apply distress or urgency radio-telephony procedures. Include the details of the special emergency. b. If circumstances do not permit the use of prescribed distress or urgency procedures, transmit on the air-ground frequency in use at the time as many as possible of the following elements spoken distinctly and in the following order: 1. Name of the station addressed (time and circumstances permitting); 2. The identification of the aircraft and present position; 3. The nature of the special emergency condition and pilot intentions (circumstances permitting); 4. If unable to provide this information, use code words and/or transponder as follows: Spoken Words TRANSPONDER SEVEN FIVE ZERO ZERO. Meaning Am being hijacked/forced to a new destination; Transponder Setting Mode 3/A, Code 7500. If it is possible to do so without jeopardizing the safety of the flight, the pilot of a hijacked passenger aircraft, after departing from the cleared routing over which the aircraft was operating, will attempt to do one or more of the following, insofar as circumstances may permit: a. Maintain a true airspeed of no more than 400 kt, and preferably an altitude between 10,000 ft and 25,000 ft. b. Fly a course toward the destination which the hijacker has announced.

EMERGENCY
SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR IN-FLIGHT CONTINGENCIES
The following procedures are provided for guidance only. Although all possible contingencies cannot be covered, they provide for cases of inability to maintain the assigned level due to weather, aircraft performance and pressurization failure. They are applicable primarily when rapid descent, turn-back, or both, are required. The pilots judgement shall determine the sequence of actions taken, having regard to the specific circumstances. A pilot in any distress or urgency condition should climb, if possible, for improved communications, and better radar and direction finding detection. However, it must be understood that unauthorized climb or descent under IFR conditions within controlled airspace is prohibited, except as permitted by FAR 91.3(b) (in an emergency the pilot-in-command may deviate from any rule to the extent required to meet that emergency). If the emergency authority of 14 CFR Section 91.3(b) is used to deviate from the provisions of an air traffic control clearance, the pilot in command must notify ATC as soon as possible and obtain an amended clearance. Intercept and Escort If specifically requested by a pilot in difficulty or if a distress condition is declared, Search and Rescue (SAR) coordinators will take steps to intercept and escort an aircraft. Steps may be initiated for intercept and escort if an urgency condition is declared and unusual circumstances make such action advisable. It is the pilots prerogative to refuse intercept and escort service. Escort services will normally be provided to the nearest adequate airport. Should the pilot receiving escort services continue on to another location after reaching a safe airport, or decide not to divert to the nearest safe airport, the escort aircraft is not obligated to continue and further escort is discretionary.

JEPPESEN SANDERSON, INC. 1994, 2006. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

US CAR TERRITORIES-2

EMERGENCY RULES AND PROCEDURES

24 FEB 06

If these procedures result in either radio contact or an air intercept, the pilot will attempt to comply with any instructions received which may direct him to an appropriate landing field.

COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE
Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two-way communications failure when operating under IFR shall comply with the following conditions. If the failure occurs in IFR conditions, or if VFR conditions cannot be complied with, the pilot shall continue the flight according to the following requirements.

ROUTE REQUIREMENTS
a. By the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received; b. If being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance; c. In the absence of an assigned route, by the route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance; or d. In the absence of an assigned route or a route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance, by the route filed in the flight plan.

ALTITUDE REQUIREMENTS
At the highest of the following altitudes or flight levels for the route segment being flown: a. The altitude or flight level assigned in the last ATC clearance received; b. The minimum altitude (converted, if appropriate, to the minimum flight level) for IFR operations; or c. The altitude or flight level ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance.

TRANSPONDER OPERATION
If an aircraft with a coded radar beacon transponder experiences a loss of two-way radio capability, the pilot should adjust the transponder to reply on Mode 3/A, Code 7600. The pilot should understand that the aircraft may not be in an area of radar coverage.

JEPPESEN SANDERSON, INC. 1994, 2006. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.