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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION QUESTION BANK

SUBJECT CODE : EC2403

SEM / YEAR : VII/ IV

RF AND MICROWAVE ENGINEERING UNIT I TWO PORT RF NETWORKS-CIRCUIT REPRESENTATION

PART A ( 2 MARKS) 1. Write the properties of RF / MW. 2. Write the disadvantages of RF / MW. 3. List the applications of RF / MW. 4. Write the RF spectrum band. 5. What is Skin effect? 6. Write the expression for skin depth. 7. Given the diameter of AWG 50 is 1.0 mil. What is the diameter of AWG 14? 8. Draw the equivalent circuit of resistor at RF / MW. 9. Draw the equivalent circuit of capacitor at RF / MW. 10. Define Q. 11. List the applications of inductor in RF circuits. 12. What are the different methods to extend the frequency range of inductor? 13. Define a two port network. 14. Define impedance parameter. 15. Define admittance parameter. 16. Define h parameter. 17. What is the other name of ABCD parameter define it. 18. Define S parameter. 19. What is T parameter? 20. Define a reciprocal network. 21. State Reciprocity Theorem. 22. What is symmetrical reciprocal network? 23. Define lossless network. 24. State the unity property of S matrix. 25. State the zero property of S matrix. 26. What is Unitary matrix? PART B (16 Marks) 1. Explain in detail the various applications of RF / MW. 2. With neat diagrams explain in detail RF / MW versus DC or low AC signals. 3. Explain in detail the properties of wire and resistor at RF 4. Explain in detail the properties of capacitor at RF. 5. Explain in detail the properties of inductor at RF 6. Explain in detail the various types of low frequency parameters. 7. Explain the formulation of S parameters. 8. Explain in detail the different properties of S parameter. 9. Explain about transition matrix. 10. Explain the analysis of reciprocal lossless network.

UNIT II RF TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER DESIGN AND MATCHING NETWORKS

PART A ( 2 MARKS) Draw the generic amplifier system. What are the key amplifier parameters? Define Transducer Power Gain. State Maximum power transfer theorem. What is matching network? Mention the different functions of matching network. Draw the different types of two component network or L section networks. Define forbidden region. Draw the forbidden regions for the different L section matching network for the source impedance of 50 ohms. 10. Mention the different noise parameters in transistors. 11. Write the expression for unilateral figure of merit. 12. Write the expression for the stability factor of an amplifier. 13. What is the relation between nodal quality factor and loaded quality factor? 14. Draw the two topologies of single stub matching networks. 15. What is the main drawback of single stub matching network? 16. Draw the general topology of a T type matching network. 17. What is the need for matching network 18. Write the expression for the length of open and short circuit stub. 19. Define loaded Q 20. Draw an Pi matching network configuration 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. PART B ( 16 MARKS ) 1. Derive the amplifier power relations. 2. The output impedance of a transmitter operating at a frequency of 2 GHz is ZT = (150 +j75) ohms. Design an L section matching network such that maximum power is delivered to antenna whose input impedance is ZA = ( 75 +j15 ) ohms. 3. Write the general procedure for designing an L section matching network using smith chart. 4. Using smith chart, design all possible configurations of discrete two element matching network that matches the source impedance ZS = (50 +j25 ) ohms to the load ZL = ( 25 - j 50 ) ohms. Assume Z0 = 50 ohms and the operating frequency of f = 2 GHz. 5. Derive the expression for the stability factor of an amplifier. 6. What is the need for matching networks? Explain in detail about single stub matching. 7. With an example explain about the double stub matching network. 8. Design a R type matching network that transforms a load impedance ZL = ( 60 j30) ohms into a Zin = ( 10 + j20 ) ohms input impedance and that has a maximum nodal quality factor of 3. Compute the values for the matching network components, assuming that the matching is required at f = 1 GHz. 9. Design a Pi matching network that transforms a load impedance of ZL = (10 j10) ohms into an input impedance of Zin = ( 20 + j 40 ) ohms. Assume f = 2.4 GHz. 10. For a load impedance of ZL = ( 60 j45 ) ohms, design two single stub matching networks that transform the load to a Zin = ( 75 + j90 ) ohms input impedance.

Assume Z0 = 75 ohms
UNIT III MICROWAVE PASSIVE COMPONENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why is S-matrix used in MW analysis? 6. Give the properties of impedance [x]&admittance[y] matrix? 7. Difference between Isolator and Circulator? 8. Give the applications of directional coupler 9. What is the principle of Microwave phase shifter? 10. What are junctions? Give some examples? 11. What is Tee junction? Give two examples 12. Give the S-matrix of E-plane Tee. 13. Give the S-matrix of H-plane Tee 14. Give the S-matrix of Magic Tee 15. What is hybrid ring? What is the other name of it? 16. Name some wave guide components used to change the direction of the guide. 17. What are the different types of Directional coupler? 18. What are nonreciprocal devices? Give two examples 19. Give some coupling parameters of directional coupler? 20. State the unitary property of Scattering matrix? 21. What are ferrites and give its properties? 22. Give some examples of ferrite devices? 23. List two microwave devices using faraday rotation principles. 24. What is Faradays rotation law? 25. What is Gyrator? 26. What is the principle of Microwave phase shifter? 27. Why isolators are called uniline? 28. Give the applications of directional coupler. 29. What are the properties of scattering matrix for a lossless junction? 30. What is transmission matrix? PART B (16 Marks) 1. Derive the S-matrix for E-plane and H-plane tee using S parameter theory.? 2. Derive the S-matrices for magic tee? 3. Explain the operation of Directional coupler and its types. Derive the S matrix of it.? 4. Explain in detail about Attenuator and circulator? 5. Explain the concept of phase shifters? 6. Explain in detail about Isolator and Faraday rotation of Isolator? 7. Explain the concept of circulator and derive the s-matrices for Three port and four port circulator? 8. Explain in detail the S matrix formulation of two port network and its properties. 9. Describe the concept of N port scattering matrix representation.

PART A ( 2 MARKS) State the properties of S matrix? What is ABCD matrix? What are the advantages of ABCD matrix? Define S -matrix?

10.

Write notes on the following: Rat Race , corners bends and twists.

UNIT IV MICROWAVE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

PART A ( 2 MARKS) 1. State square law of diode. Which diode exhibits this law? 2. Whats Gunn effect? 3. How negative resistance is achieved in IMPATT? 4. Compare transistors and Transfer Electron Devices (TEDS). 5. Give advantages and disadvantages of IMPATT diode. 6. What is Avalanche transit time Devices? 7. List advantages of using Gunn diodes over IMPATT diodes. 8. What is the basic difference between IMPATT and TRAPATT diodes? 9. What is the effect of transit time? 10. What is the operating frequency of TRAPATT devices? 11. What are the applications of TRAPATT devices? 12. What are the elements that exhibit Gunn effect? 13. What are the applications of Gunn Diode? 14. What is negative resistance? 15. .Explain stable amplification mode. 16. What are the factors reducing efficiency of IMPATT diode? 17. Explain plasma formation in TRAPATT diode 18. What is negative resistance in gunn diode? 19. What is Transferred electron effect? 20. What are time parameter for TEDS 21. What are the various modes of transferred electron oscillators? 22. List the type of circuit used for IMPATT diode circuits. 23. What is parametric amplifier? 24. Give the Manley Rowe power relation and mention its application. 25. What is meant by degenerate parametric amplifier? 26. What is the condition for parametric up converter and down converter? 27. What is idler circuit and idler frequency? 28. Write the advantages of MMICs over discrete circuits. 29. Write the ideal characteristics of substrate and conductor materials. 30. Mention some properties resistive and dielectric materials. PART B (16 MARKS) 1. What is Gunn effect? Explain this phenomenon using two-valley theory. 2. Explain the operation , construction and application of IMPATT diode aided by various diagrams. 3. Explain several modes of operation of Gunn diode with the keep of sketches. With its V-I characteristic. 4. Explain the operation , construction and application of TRAPATT. 5. What is parametric devices? Explain the working of a parametric up and down converter?

31. What is the basic difference between IMTT and TRAPATT diodes? 32. What is the basic difference between IMPATT and TRAPATT diode

6. 7. 8.
10. 11. 12. 13.

Derive the Manley Rowe power relations. What are the basic materials used in MMIC and mention its properties. Explain in detail MMIC fabrication techniques.
Explain the operation characteristics and applications of microwave BJTs. Explain the operation characteristics and applications of microwave FETs. Explain the Principle and operation of tunnel diodes. Describe the principle and operation of Varactor and Step recovery diodes. UNIT V MICROWAVE TUBES AND MEASUREMENTS

PART A ( 2 MARKS) What are the high frequency effects in conventional tubes? What are the assumptions for calculation of RF power in Reflex Klystron? Give the drawbacks of klystron amplifiers. What are the applications of reflex klystron ? What is the purpose of slow wave structures used in TWT amplifiers? How are spurious oscillations generated in TWT amplifier? State the method to suppress it. 7. State the applications of TWT. 8. How the klystron amplifier can act as klystron oscillator? What are the applications of klystron amplifier? 9. What do you mean by O-type tubes? Name some O-type tubes. 10. Define Transit time in Reflex klystron. 11. What is drift space? 12. Compare TWTA and Klystron amplifier 13. What is CFA? State the applications of CFA. 14. State the applications of magnetrons. why magnetron is called as cross filed device? 15. What is BWO? State the applications of BWO. 16. What are the principal limitations of conventional negative grid electron tubes? 17. What is frequency pulling and frequency pushing in magnetrons? 18. What are microwave detector? 19. Differentiate baretter and thermistor? 20. What are tunable detector? 21. What is slotted section with line carriage? 22. What is the main purpose of slotted section with line carriage? 23. What is a VSWR meter? 24. What is Bolometer? 25. What is calorimeter? 26. Mention the disadvantages of single bridge circuit ? 27. Define insertion loss? 28. How will you determine the VSWR and return loss in reflectometer method? 29. List the different types of Impedance measurement methods? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
30. How do you measure microwave frequency?

PART B ( 16 MARKS ) 1.Explain in detail about 2-cavity klystron amplifier. 2. Describe with neat sketch the constructional details and principle of operation of a reflex klystron tube. 3. Explain about TWT amplifiers. 4. Explain about magnetron oscillator and derive the Hull cut off condition . 5. Write down RWH theory of gunn diode. 6.Explain about the measurement of power. 7. Explain with block diagram how the wavelength of an unknown microwave signal is measured. 8. Explain in detail the measurement of load impedance through slotted line method.. 9. Explain about the measurement of SWR. 10. Explain about the measurement of Q and describe a technique of measuring the Phase shift provided by the network. 11. Explain in detail the principle of operation of multi cavity klystron. 12. Derive the expressions for bunched beam current and efficiency of reflex klystron.