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ANATOMI & FISIOLOGI TELINGA

http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicin

Telinga Luar
Fungsi : meneruskan suara ke telinga tengah dan melindungi alat alat di sebelah dalamnya terhadap pengaruh luar. Terdiri atas :
Daun telinga ( auricula) Liang telinga ( Meatus Acusticus Externus) Membrana Timpani

Daun Telinga ( Auricula)


Daun telinga terdiri dari tulang rawan elastin kecuali pada bagian lobulus (jar. Fibroareolar)

Perdarahan:
bagian anterior: a. temporalis superficialis bagian posterior: a. auricularis posterior

Liang Telinga
Panjang: 2.5cm pada orang dewasa 1/3 lateral : tulang rawan, bentuk huruf s
Mengandung: folikel rambut, glandula sebacea, modifikasi glandula sudorifera Sekresi kedua glandula ditambah debu & epitel serumen

2/3 medial: bagian tulang


Mengandung sedikit kelenjar tanpa folikel rambut

Membran timpani

Fungsi: merubah gelombang suara menjadi getaran mekanis, u/ diteruskan melalui tulang2 pendengaran Bentuk elips, diameter 1cm, berwarna putih mengkilat seperti mutiara, permukaan konkaf Terdiri dari 2 bagian: pars tensa, pars flaccida 4 lapisan (luar dalam): kulit, lapisan fibrosa radial & sirkuler, lapisan mukosa

http://www.arthursclipart.org/medical/senseorgans/

Telinga Tengah (Cavitas Tympanica)


Terdiri atas: Udara Tulang pendengaran (maleus, incus, stapes) Otot (m. stapedius, m. tensor tympani) Chorda tympani Fungsi: tulang pendengaran: meneruskan & memperbesar transmisi getaran suara ke membran timpani m. Tensor tympani: menarik manubrium mallei ke medial ( amplitudo getaran)

Tulang-tulang pendengaran

http://www.arthursclipart.org/medical/senseorgans/ear%20bones.gif http://www.phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/middle_ear.GIF

Malleus
Manubrium mallei tangkai yg melekat pd permukaan dlm membrana tympani Caput mallei berarticulatio dng incus dan distabilkan dng adanya ligamentum mallei superius Collum mallei Processus anterior mallei

Incus
Corpus incudis berhubungan dng malleus melalui articulatio incudomallearis Crus breve incudis Crus breve incudis Crus longum incudis

Corpus incudis

Crus longum incudis

Stapes
Basis stapedis Crus anterius stapedius & crus posterius stapedis Caput stapedis
Caput stapedis

Crus anterius stapedius & crus posterius stapedis Basis stapedis

Tuba Eustachius

Fungsi: 1. mengalirkan udara ke telinga tengah. udara di telinga tengah diserap darah tekanan di telinga tengah membran timpani relaksasi 2. Mengalirkan mukus yg normal diproduksi di telinga tengah keluar menuju hidung untung mencegah akumulasi

http://familydoctor.co.uk/media/upload/EU

Telinga Dalam
Terdiri atas: Saluran-saluran tulang (labyrinthus osseus) Spatium perilymphaticum terdapat kantung & saluran yaitu labyrinthus membranaceus yg berisi endolymph Sistem ini dikelilingi oleh cairan perilympha

labyrinthus osseus
Canales semisircularis 2/3 lingkaran
anterior (superior) posterior lateralis

Vestibulum
Sacculus Utriculus
Bag, labyrinthu s membran aceus

Cochlea berbentuk kulit keong


http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicine

labyrinthus Membranaceus
Berisi endolympha & terdiri atas: Ductus semicircularis 3 buah, pelebaran pd satu ujungnya (ampulla membranacea) berisi crista ampullaris sensor dari pergerakan endolympha terhadap pergerakan kepala Utriculus & saculus Utriculus mendeteksi gerakan kepala di bidang sagital (atas & bawah) Macula sacculi gerakan kepala di bidang frontal Ductus cochearis Organ corti reseptor getaran suara

labyrinthus osseus perilimfe komposisi: ion yg serupa dng CES di tempat lain, namun kandungan proteinnya sangat rendah labyrinthus Membranaceus endolimf kandungan Na rendah, K tinggi. Konsentrasi protein kecil

http://www.arthursclipart.org/medical/senseorg

http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicine

http://www.americanflyers.net/aviationlibrary/pilots_hand

http://www.patient.co.uk/p

Fisiologi Pendengaran

http://www.theuniversityhospital.com/cochlearweb/i

http://www.robinsoneye.com

http://arch1design.com/blog/wp-content/uploa

http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/ana

1). Sound waves are propagated through the air. 2). The pinna and the auditory canal focus the waves. 3). Sound wave strikes the tympanic membrane and starts it vibrating. 4). The malleus is secured to the membrane and passes the same total forces through thestapes and into the oval window. 5). The oval window is smaller so the force becomes concentrated. (pressure is related to area) 6). The wave is passed on to the cochlea and the fluid filled chamber vibrates. It also causes the fluid to vibrate the round window. Fluids cannot be compressed. So when the stapes moves in and out and the membrane moves up and down the round or cochlear window will also move in and out. 7). Hair cells in the Organ of Corti are stimulated by activity in the membrane High pitch activates cells near oval window and low pitch activates cells further away. 8). Stimuli are sent to the spiral ganglia and the cochlear nerve. 9). To the auditory reflex center of the midbrain. 10). To the thalamus. 11). To the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. 12). Each auditory cortex receives input from both ears. 13). Cortical processing distinguishes wavelengths and sounds.

http://www.kids-ent.com/images/cl

Ear infections are more common in children because their eustachian tubes are shorter, narrower, and more horizontal than in adults, making the movement of air and fluid difficult. Bacteria can become trapped when the tissue of the eustachian tube becomes swollen from colds or allergies. Bacteria trapped in the eustachian tube may produce an ear infection

http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/graphics

http://www.pediatriconcall.com/fordoctor/DiseasesandCondition/infectious_diseases/images/Ear2%5B1%5D.jpg

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/08

Otitis Media Akut


Epidemiologi

http://www.cps.ca/english/statements/id/ID0

http://www.australianprescriber.com/upload/issue_files/1704_97_1.gif

http://www.cps.ca/english/statements/I

http://www.jfponline.com/images/5411/5411JFP_Supplement-fig1.jpg

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