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PROCESS DESIGN OF A COMPLETE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT HYDRAULIC DESIGN AND DETAILING OF A COMPLETE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OF 100M3/DAY

(AVERAGE ANNUAL FLOW) TO BE CONSTRUCTED AT DALEEL PETROLEUM SITE, S OF OMAN

BASIC DATA FOR THE PROPOSED STP The following basic data was first of all worked out and stipulated for the proposed sewage treatment plant, on the basis of population, per capita sewage produced, quality of sewage produced, and standards of effluent specified

Average flow= 100 m3/day Peak flow = 300m3/day

Sewarage chartaterstics Influent BOD , 20 OC Effluent Suspended solids Suspended solids pH = 300MG/LITER = 20mg/liter influent= 4600mg/liter effluent= 30mg/liter AROUND 7.5 both influent and effluent

CHOOSING THE TYPE OF SECONDARY TREATMENT Since the desired quality of treated effluent was of high standard , it was decided to design the STP using activated sludge process for the secondary treatment instead of using the trickling filters. Moreover considering the advandages by extended aereation process, specially for smaller plants upto 4 MLD capacity it was decided to use extended aeration type of activated sludge plant, which eliminates primary settling tank as well as sludge digestion tank TREATMENT UNITS The proposed STP will hence contain the following units 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Inlet chamber Screen chamber Aeration tanks for activated sludge treatment Secondary clarifier Sludge drying beds

The hydraulic designs of the above mentioned treatment units is now carried out as follows Peak flow = 300m3/day

Plan dimensions of inlet chamber 1.3x1 m(minimum size) The outflow from inlet chamber shall be taken to the screen chamber A bye pass channel of 400mm dia pipe shall be provided from byepass chamber to final effluent channel to meet any exigencies of the STP

Design of screen chamber 2 nos screen chambers/channels shall be provided as per sound engineering practice The flow from the inlet chamber to screen chamber shall be controlled by C.I penstock gates Qmax=0.00347 m3/sec Assumptions Shape of bar=MS Flats Size= 10mmx50mm (10mm facing flow) Clear spacing between the bars= 20mm Inclination of bars with horizontal = 80 degree(cleaning manually) Assuming velocity normal to screen =0.8m/sec At peak flow, net inclined area required =0.00347/0.8.=0.00434 sqm Gross inclined area= .00434x1.5=.00651 sqm Gross vertical area required=0.00651xsin 80 0.00651x0.9848=0.00641sqm Provide submerge depth 0.3m Width of channel=0.00641/0.3=0.021 m. provide 0.3m Check velocity in duct=0.00347/0.3x0.3=0.0383m/sec Provide 20 bars of 10mmx50mmx20mm clear spacing Screen chamber shall be 60 cm width

DESIGN OF AERATION TANKS No.of tanks=1 Average flow to tank 100m3/day Q=100M3/DAY The total BOD entering STP= 300mg/liter Assuming negligible BOD removed in screen BOD of sewage comoing to aeration Y0=300MG/LITER BOD left in the effluent Ye= 20mg/liter So the BOD removed in activated plant =280mg/liter So the minimum efficiency required in the activated plant= =280/300=93% Ok Since the adopted extended aeration process can remove BOD up 95-98% to Volume of aeration tank can be designed by assuming a suitable value of MLSS and Oc(orF/M)ratio Let us assume MLSS =3000mg/liter(between 3000-5000) F/M ratio=0.12(between 0.18to0.10) Now using the equation F/M=Q/V x Y0/Xt Where Q=100m3/day V=? Y0=300MG/LITER Xt=3000mg/liter(assumed) F/M=0.12(assumed)

0.12=100/V x300/3000 V=83.33m3 Aeration tank dimension Let us adopt an aeration tank of liquid depth of 3.5 m Width 4m The length of tank V/B.D= 83.33/4x3.5=5.95 Say 6m So V=6X4X3.5= 84M3 1. Check for aeration period or HRT(t) t =V/Qx24hr =84/100x24 =20.16 hr Say 22 OK Since it lies between 10to25 hrs 2. Check for volumetric loading Volumetric loading=QxY0/V 100x 300/84 gm/m3 =358gm/m3 =0.36kg/m3 OK Since it should lie between 0.2to0.4 3. Check for sludge ratio(for SVI ranging between 50-150ml/gm) Qr/Q= Xt/1000000/SVI -Xt 3000/1000000/100 -3000 3000/7000 =0.43 But it should be within 0.5to1.0 Hence we will provide 50% sludge recirculation giving SVI=112 Ok 4. Check for SRT 0c V.Xt=ay.Q(Y0-Yg)0c/1+Ke0c Where ay=1.0 constant for municipal sewage w.r.to MLSS

Ke=0.06(constant for municipal sewage) Y0=300mg/liter Ye=20mg/liter V=84M3 Xt=3000mg/liter Q=100M3/DAY =22.72 DAYS OK Since it is between 10to25 days The adopted tank size is thus OK Henceadopt an aeration tank having overall size of 6meter lengthx4meter width and 3.5 meter depth and 0.6m of free board The outlet weir shall be of adjustable type The effluent from aeration tank will be taken to final clarifier The inflow to the secondary clarifier shall be by means of 250mm dia pipe which will give a velocity of 0.78m/sec at peak flow Aerator Sizing BOD applied to each tank=300mg/liter Average flow in tank=100m3/day BOD to be removed =100x.300= =30kg/day =1.25kg/hr Oxygen requirement 1.2kg/kg BOD applied Peak oxygen demand =125% Oygen transfer capacity of the aerator in standard conditions =1.9kg/kwh =1.41kg/HP/hr Oxygen transfer capacity of aerators at field conditions 0.7x1.41 0.98kg/HP/hr Oxygen to be applied in tank 1.2x1.25x1.25 1.8kg/hr HP of aerator required=1.8/.98 =1.83 Say 2HP Provide 2 generators of 1HP each 1. Check formixing considerations

As per practice, power required for mixing 0.02kw/m3 Volume of aeration tank =84m3 SHPrequired=0.02x84=1.68kw HP REQUIRED= 1.68/0.97=1.73 Considering a power margin of 25% on motor rating Motor HP required =1.73x1.25=2.17HP Provide 3 HP motor/aerators in tank The dimension of the tank selected on the basis of suitable aerator motor is the zone of influence The zone influence of aerator will be 11msq With depth 3.5m The submergence of the aerator will be between 75mm to 115 mm DESIGN OF CLARRIFIER No of clarifier=01 Average flow=100m3/day Recirculated flow say50% 50m3/day Total flow=150m3/day Provide hydraulic detension time of =2hrs Volume of tank(exclusive of hopper portion) 150x2/24= =12.5m3 Assuming liquid depth of 3.5 m AREA 12.5/3.5 =3.58M3 Surface loading rate of average flow =15m3/m2/day Surface area to be provided 100/15 =7m2 Dia of circular tank D=7x4/3.14 square root =2.98m Say 3.2 meter ACTUAL AREA PROVIDED=8SQ.M 1. CHECK FOR WEIR LOADING

2. AVERAGE FLOW 3. 100M3/DY WEIR LOADING=100/3.14X3.2 =9.95M3/DAY/M Ok 2. Check for solids loading Recirculated flow =50m3/day Average flow =100m3/day MLSS in the tank=3000mg/liter Total solid flow =100+50 x 3= 450kg/day Solid loading =450/7 =64.28kg/day/m2 Provide 8 meter dia and 3.5 meter depth Hopper slope 1 in 12 Free board=0.3m

Sludge will be withdrawn from clarifier through CI pipe The sludge will be taken to the return sludge pump house THE TREATED EFFLUENT AFTER CHLORINATION CAN USED AS AND FOR IRRIGATION PURPOSES THROUGH A STORAGE TANK AND PUMP AFTER MEDIA FILTERATION Note : the ref book has not mentioned media filteration of effluent

RETURN SLUDGE PUMP HOUSE

Total return flow =50m3/day =0.0347m3/min Detention time =15 min Volume of wet well 0.0347x15 =0.52m3 Provide wet well =2.5x1.5x1.8 m SWD PROVIDE DRY WELL =2.5X2.5 Provide 2 nos pumps each of 0.05MLD capacity in the dry well for returning the sludge to aeration tank The return sludge pipe line shall be 150 mm dia Excess sludge shall be taken to drying beds by providing necessary fittings in the main return sludge header The sludge feed line to the drying bed shall be 150 mm dia

DESIGN OF SLUDGE DRYING BEDS Sludge applied to drying bed 100kg/MLD Sludge supplied =10kg/day Sp gravity =1.015 Solid content 1.5% Volume of sludge

10/1.5%x1/1000x1.015 =0.7m3/day No of cycle in one year =33 Period of cycle 365/33 11days Volume of sludge =0.7x11 7.7 m3 Spreading layer of 0.3m/cycle area of bed required 7.7/0.3 =26 5.2x5.2m One bed Or split as site conditions

PREPARED BY C.N.SATHEESAN

REFERENCE ENVIORMENTAL ENGINEERING VOLII SEWAGE DISPOSAL AND AIR POLLUTION ENGG BY S K GARG