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CHAPTER 28ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

ActivPhysics can help with these problems: Section 12, DC Circuits Section 28-1:Circuits and Symbols Problem
1. Sketch a circuit diagram for a circuit that includes a resistor R1 connected to the positive terminal of a battery, a pair of parallel resistors R2 and R3 connected to the lower-voltage end of R1 , then returned to the batterys negative terminal, and a capacitor across R2 .

Solution
A literal reading of the circuit specifications results in connections like those in sketch (a). Because the connecting wires are assumed to have no resistance (a real wire is represented by a separate resistor), a topologically equivalent circuit diagram is shown in sketch (b).

Problem 1 Solution (a).

Problem 1 Solution (b).

Problem
2. A circuit consists of two batteries, a resistor, and a capacitor, all in series. Sketch this circuit. Does the description allow any flexibility in how you draw the circuit?

Solution
In a series circuit, the same current must flow through all elements. One possibility is shown. The order of elements and the polarity of the battery connections are not specified.

Problem 2 Solution.

CHAPTER 28 207

208 CHAPTER 28

Problem
3. Resistors R1 and R2 are connected in series, and this series combination is in parallel with R3 . This parallel combination is connected across a battery whose internal resistance is Rint . Draw a diagram representing this circuit.

Solution
The circuit has three parallel branches: one with R1 and R2 in series; one with just R3 ; and one with the battery (an ideal emf in series with the internal resistance).

Problem 3 Solution.

Section 28-2:Electromotive Force Problem


4. What is the emf of a battery that delivers 27 J of energy as it moves 3.0 C between its terminals?

Solution
q 3 From the definition of emf (as work per unit charge), E = W= = 27 J= C = 9 V.

Problem
5. A 1.5-V battery stores 4.5 kJ of energy. How long can it light a flashlight bulb that draws 0.60 A?

Solution
The average power, supplied by the battery to the bulb, multiplied by the time equals the energy capacity of the battery. For an ideal battery, P = E I, therefore EIt = 4.5 kJ, or t = 4.5 kJ=1.5 V)(0.60 A) = 5 10 3 s = 1.39 h. (

Problem
6. If you accidentally leave your car headlights (current drain 5 A) on for an hour, how much of the 12-V batterys chemical energy is used up?

Solution
The power delivered by an emf is EI, so (if the voltage and current remain constant) the energy converted is EIt = (12 V)(5 A )(3600 s) = 216 kJ.

Problem
7. A battery stores 50 W h of chemical energy. If it uses up this energy moving 3.0 10 4 C through a circuit, what is its voltage?

Solution
The emf is the energy (work done going through the source from the negative to the positive terminal) per unit charge: E = (50 W h )(3600 s/h )=3 10 4 C) = 6 V. (This is the average emf; the actual emf may vary with time.) (

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Section 28-3:Simple Circuits: Series and Parallel Resistors Problem


8. A 47-k resistor and a 39-k resistor are in parallel, and the pair is in series with a 22-k resistor. What is the resistance of the combination?

Solution
( From Equations 28-1 and 3c, R = 22 k + 47(39 k )=47 + 39) = 43.3 k .

Problem
9. What resistance should be placed in parallel with a 56-k resistor to make an equivalent resistance of 45 k?

Solution
( ( The solution for R2 in Equation 28-3a is R2 = R1 Rparallel=R1 Rparallel ) = (56 k)( 45)=56 45) = 229 k.

Problem
10. In Fig. 28-49 all resistors have the same value, R. What will be the resistance measured (a) between A and B or (b) between A and C?

FIGURE

28-49 Problems 10 and 11.

Solution
(a) The resistance between A and B is equivalent to two resistors of value R in series with the parallel combination of ( 3 resistors of values R and 2R. Thus, RAB = R + R + R(2 R)=R + 2 R) = 8 R=. (b) RAC is equivalent to just one resistor of value R in series with the parallel combination of R and 2R (since the resistor at point B carries no current, i.e., its branch 3 3 is an open circuit). Thus RAC = R + R(2 R)= R = 5 R=.

Problem
11. In Fig. 28-49, take all resistors to be 1.0 . If a 6.0-V battery is connected between points A and B, what will be the current in the vertical resistor?

Solution
The circuit in Fig. 28-49, with a battery connected across points A and B, is similar to the circuit analysed in Example 28( 4. In this case, R|| = (1 )(2)=1 + 2 ) = ( 2 ) , and Rtot = 1 + 1 + 2 = 8 . The total current (that through the 3 3 3 3 R (3 battery) is I tot = E= tot = 6 V=8 ) = ( 9 ) A. The voltage across the parallel combination is I tot R || = ( 9 A)( 2 ) = 2 V, 4 4 3 3 ( which is the voltage across the vertical 1 resistor. The current through this resistor is then ( 2 V)=1 ) = 1.5 A.

Problem
12. A defective starter motor in a car draws 300 A from the cars 12-V battery, dropping the battery terminal voltage to only 6 V. A good starter motor should draw only 100 A. What will the battery terminal voltage be with a good starter?

Solution
The starter circuit contains all the resistances in series, as in Fig. 28-10. (We assume RL includes the resistance of the cables, connections, etc., as well as that of the motor.) With the defective starter, VT = E IRint = 6 V = 12 V (300 A ) Rint , so Rint = 0.02 . With a good starter, VT = 12 V (100 A )(0.02 ) = 10 V.

210 CHAPTER 28

Problem
13. What is the internal resistance of the battery in the preceding problem?

Solution
300 The solution of the preceding problem (or the reasoning of Example 28-2) gives Rint = 0.02 (i.e., (12 V 6 V)= A).

Problem

14. Three 1.5-V batteries, with internal resistances of 0.01 , 0.1 , and 1 , each have 1- resistors connected across their terminals. To three significant figures, what is the voltage across each resistor?

Solution

The circuit diagram is like Fig. 28-10, and the voltage across the load (from Kirchhoffs voltage law) is VL = E IRint . ( ( Since I = E=RL + Rint ), VL = ERL =RL + Rint ) (as for a voltage divider). With the given numerical values, VL = (1.5 V)(1 )=1 + Rint ) = 1.49 V, 1.36 V, and 0.750 V, for Rint = 0.01 , 0.1 , and 1 respectively. (

Problem
15. When a 9-V battery is temporarily short-circuited, a 200-mA current flows. What is the internal resistance of the battery?

Solution
I 0 From the equation for a battery short-circuited, in the subsection Real Batteries, Rint = E= = 9 V= .2 A = 45 .

Problem
16. What possible resistance combinations can you form using three resistors whose values are 1.0 , 2.0 , and 3.0 ? (Use all three resistors.)

Solution
There are eight combinations using all three resistors. (a) One in series with two in parallel: 3 + 2= = 11=, 2 + 3= = 11= , and 1 + 6= = 11= . (b) One in parallel with two in series: 3 3 4 4 5 5 3 3=3 + 3) = 3= , 2 4(2 + 4) = 4=, and 1 5=1 + 5) = 5= . (c) Three in series: 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 . (d) Three in ( 2 3 ( 6 1 1 1 1 parallel: (1 + 2 + 3 ) = 6= . 11

Problem
17. A partially discharged car battery can be modeled as a 9-V emf in series with an internal resistance of 0.08 . Jumper cables are used to connect this battery to a fully charged battery, modeled as a 12-V emf in series with a 0.02 - internal resistance. How much current flows through the discharged battery?

Solution

Terminals of like polarity are connected with jumpers of negligible resistance. Kirchhoffs voltage law gives E1 E2 IR1 IR2 = 0, or I = (E1 E2 )=R1 + R2 ) = (12 9) V=0.02 + 0.08) = 30 A. ( (

Problem 17 Solution.

Problem
18. You have a number of 50- resistors, each capable of dissipating 0.50 W without overheating. How many resistors would you need, and how would you connect them, so as to make a 50- combination that could be connected safely across a 12-V battery?

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Solution
The 50 combination must be capable of dissipating P = E 2 = = (12 V) 2 = = 2.8 W of power (when connected R 50 across an ideal 12 V battery), so combinations with at least six resistors (capable of dissipating 0.5 W each) must be considered. In order to get the same total resistance as each individual resistor, n parallel branches of n resistors in series are needed (or n branches in series of n resistors in parallel), making a total of n 2 resistors. The smallest n 2 greater than 6 50 is for n = 3. (Alternatively, one could argue that the total current is 12 V= = 0.24 A, while the maximum current in 50 each resistor element is 0.5 W= = 0.1 A, so at least three equal branches in the circuit are needed.)

Problem
19. What is the equivalent resistance between A and B in each of the circuits shown in Fig. 28-50? Hint: In (c), think about symmetry and the current that would flow through R2 .

Solution
(a) There are two parallel pairs ( 1 R1 ) in series, so RAB = 1 R1 + 1 R1 = R1 . (b) Here, there are two series pairs (2 R1 ) in 2 2 2 ( parallel, so RAB = (2 R1 )(2 R1 )=2 R1 + 2 R1 ) = R1 . (c) Symmetry requires that the current divides equally on the right and left sides, so points C and D are at the same potential. Thus, no current flows through R2 , and the circuit is equivalent to (b). (Note that the reasoning in parts (a) and (b) is easily generalized to resistances of different values; the generalization in part (c) requires the equality of ratios of resistances which are mirror images in the plane of symmetry.)

FIGURE

Problem

28-50 Problem 19 Solution.

20. A 6.0-V battery has an internal resistance of 2.5 . If the battery is short circuited, what is the rate of energy dissipation in its internal resistance?

Solution
R For a short-circuited battery, I = E= int , so the dissipated power is P = I 2 Rint = E2 = int = (6 V) 2 = .5 = 14.4 W. R 2

Problem
21. How many 100-W, 120-V light bulbs can be connected in parallel before they below a 20-A circuit breaker?

Solution
R The circuit breaker is activated if I = 120 V= min > 20 A, or if Rmin < 6 . The resistance of each light bulb is 2 2 n R = V = = (120 V) = W = 144 , and n bulbs in parallel have resistance R|| = R= . Therefore R|| Rmin implies P 100 n 144= = 24, so more than 24 bulbs would blow the circuit. 6

Problem
22. What is the current through the 3- resistor in the circuit of Fig. 28-51? Hint: This is trivial. Can you see why?

212 CHAPTER 28

FIGURE

28-51 Problem 22.

Solution
R 3 The current is I3 = V3= 3 = 6 V= = 2 A, from Ohms law. The answer is trivial because the potential difference across the 3 resistor is evident from the circuit diagram. (However, if the 6 V battery had internal resistance, an argument like that in Example 28-5 must be used.)

Problem
23. Take E = 12 V and R1 = 270 in the voltage divider of Fig. 28-5. (a) What should be the value of R2 in order that 4.5 V appear across R2 ? (b) What will be the power dissipation in R2 ?

Solution
( ( ( (a) For this voltage divider, Equation 28-2b gives V2 = R2 E=R1 + R2 ), or R2 = R1V2 =E V2 ) = (270 )( 4.5)=12 4.5) = 162 . (b) The power dissipated (Equation 27-9b) is P2 = V22= 2 = ( 4.5 V) 2= = 125 mW. R 162

Problem
24. A voltage divider consists of two 1.0 -k resistors connected in series across a 160-V emf. If a 10-k resistor is connected across one of the 1.0 -k resistors, what will be the voltage across it?

Solution
11 Resistors of 1 k and 10 k connected in parallel have a combined resistance of (10= ) k (Equation 28-3c), so the R1 = 1 k and R2 = (10= ) k. Equation 28-2b gives 11 altered circuit is a voltage divider (Fig. 28-5) with V2 = ER2=R1 + R2 ) = (160 V)(10= )=1 + 10= ) = 76.2 V. ( 11 ( 11

Problem
25. In the circuit of Fig. 28-52, R1 is a variable resistor, and the other two resistors have equal resistances R. (a) Find an expression for the voltage across R1 , and (b) sketch a graph of this quantity as a function of R1 as R1 varies from 0 to 10R. (c) What is the limiting value as R1 ?

FIGURE

28-52 Problem 25.

Solution
( (a) The resistors in parallel have an equivalent resistance of R|| = RR1=R + R1 ). The other R, and R|| , is a voltage divider ( ( in series with E, so Equation 28-2 gives V|| = E R||=R + R|| ) = E R1=R + 2 R1 ). (b) and (c) If R1 = 0 (the second resistor 21 shorted out), V|| = 0, while if R1 = (open circuit), V|| = 1 E (the value when R1 is removed). If R1 = 10 R, V|| = (10= )E 2 (as in Problem 24).

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Problem 25 Solution.

Problem
26. In the circuit of Fig. 28-53 find (a) the current supplied by the battery and (b) the current through the 6- resistor.

Solution
11 (a) With reference to the solution of the next problem, the resistance of the three parallel resistors in (12= ) , so the ( ( 11 current supplied by the battery is I = E=R1 + R|| ) = (6 V)=23= ) = 2.87 A. (b) The voltage drop across the resistors in 6 11 parallel is V|| = E IR1 = IR|| , and the current through the 6 resistor is I6 = V||= . Thus, I6 = (2.87 A )(2= ) = 522 mA.

FIGURE

28-53 Problem 26 Solution, and Problem 27.

Problem
27. In the circuit of Fig. 28-53, how much power is being dissipated in the 4- resistor?

Solution
11 The three resistors in parallel have an effective resistance of 1= || = (1= + 1= + 1= ) 1, or R|| = (12= ) . Equation 28-2 R 2 4 6 2 11 ( 11 23 gives the voltage across them as V|| = (6 V)(12= )=1 + 12= ) = (72= ) V. Thus, P4 = V || = 4 = (72= ) 2 V 2= = R 23 4 2.45 W.

Problem
28. A 50- resistor is connected across a battery, and a 26-mA current flows. When the 50- resistor is replaced with a 22- resistor, a 43-mA current flows. What are the batterys voltage and internal resistance?

Solution

The circuit diagram is like Fig. 28-10, and Kirchhoffs voltage law is E IRint IRL = 0. For the two cases given, this may be written as E (26 mA) Rint = (26 mA)(50 ), and E ( 43 mA) Rint = ( 43 mA )( 22 ). Solving for E and Rint , we find Rint = 26 50 43 22 = 20.8 , and E = (26 mA )(50 + 20.8) = 1.84 V. 43 26

Section 28-4:Kirchhoffs Laws and Multiloop Circuits Problem


29. In the circuit of Fig. 28-54 it makes no difference whether the switch is open or closed. What is E3 in terms of the other quantities shown?

Solution
If the switch is irrelevant, then there is no current through its branch of the circuit. Thus, points A and B must be at the

214 CHAPTER 28

same potential, and the same current flows through R1 and R2 . Kirchhoffs voltage law applied to the outer loop, and to the left-hand loop, gives E1 IR1 IR2 + E2 = 0, and E1 IR1 + E3 = 0, respectively. Therefore, E3 = IR1 E1 =

F + E IR E E G+R J R H K
1 1 2 1 2

E2 R1 E1 R2 . R1 + R2

FIGURE

28-54 Problem 29 Solution.

Problem
30. What is the current through the ammeter in Fig. 28-55?

Solution
If the ammeter has zero resistance, the potential difference across it is zero, or nodes C and D are at equal potentials. If I is the current through the battery, 1 I must go through each of the 2 -resistors connected at node A (because 2 VA VC = 1 I (2 ) = VA VD ). At node B, the 2 -resistor inputs twice the current of the 4 -resistor, or 2 I and 1 I 2 3 3 respectively (because VC VB = 2 I (2 ) = 1 I ( 4 ) = VD VB ). Therefore 1 I must go through the ammeter from D to 3 3 6 C, as required by Kirchhoffs current law. To find the value of I, note that the upper pair of resistors are effectively in ( parallel (VC = VD ) as is the lower pair. The effective resistance between A and B is Reff = 2 2 =2 + 2 ) + 2 4 7 7 4 1 1 (2 + 4) = 1 + ( 3 ) = ( 3 ) . Thus I = V= eff , and the ammeter current is 6 I = 6 (6 V)=3 ) = ( 3 ) A = 0.429 A. R ( 7

FIGURE

28-55 Problem 30 Solution.

Problem
31. In Fig. 28-56, what is the equivalent resistance measured between points A and B?

Solution
The effective resistance is determined by the current which would flow through a pure emf if it were connected between I A and B: RAB = E=. Since I is but one of six branch currents, the direct solution of Kirchhoffs circuit laws is tedious (6 6 determinants). (The method of loop currents, not mentioned in the text, involves more tractable 3 3 determinants.) However, because of the special values of the resistors in Fig. 28-56, a symmetry argument greatly simplifies the calculation. The equality of the resistors on opposite sides of the square implies that the potential difference between A and C equals that between D and B, i.e., VA VC = VD VB . Equivalently, VA VD = VC VB . Since VA VC = I1 R, VA VD = I2 (2 R), etc., the symmetry argument requires that both R-resistors on the perimeter carry the same current, I1 , and both 2R-resistors carry current I 2 . Then Kirchhoffs current law implies that the current through E is I1 + I2 , and the current through the central resistor is I1 I 2 (as added to Fig. 28-56). Now there are only two independent branch currents, which can be found from Kirchhoffs voltage law, applied, for example, to loops ACBA, E I1 R I 2 (2 R) = 0, and ACDA, I1 R ( I1 I2 ) R + I2 (2 R) = 0. These equations may be rewritten as I1 + 2 I2 = E= R 7 7 7 I 5. and 2 I1 + 3I2 = 0, with solution I1 = 3E= R and I 2 = 2E= R. Therefore, I = I1 + I2 = 5E= R, and RAB = E= = 7 R=

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(The configuration of resistors in Fig. 28-56 is called a Wheatstone bridge.)

FIGURE

28-56 Problem 31 Solution.

Problem

32. Find all three currents in the circuit of Fig. 28-18, but now with E2 = 1.0 V.

Solution
The currents are (see solution to the next problem): I1 = [( R2 + R3 )E1 R3 E2 ]1 = [( 4 + 1)(6) (1)(1)] A= = 2.07 A 14 I 2 = [ R3 E1 ( R1 + R3 )E2 ]1 = [(1)(6) (2 + 1)(1)] A= = 0.214 A and 14 I 3 = ( R2 E1 + R1 E2 )1 = [( 4 )(6) + (2)(1)] A= = 1.86 A, where 14 = R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1 = (2 )( 4) + ( 4)(1) + (1)(2 ) = 14 2 .

Problem
33. Find all three currents in the circuit of Fig. 28-18 with the values given, but with battery E2 reversed.

Solution
The general solution of the two loop equations and one node equation given in Example 28-5 can be found using determinants (or I1 and I2 can be found in terms of I3 , as in Example 28-5). The equations and the solution are: I1 R1 + 0 + I3 R3 = E1 0 I2 R2 + I3 R3 = E2 I1 I2 I3 = 0 R1 0 1 0 R2 1 0 R2 1 E1 E2 0 0 R2 1 (loop 1), (loop 2), ( node A);

R3 R3 = R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1 , 1 R3 E ( R + R3 ) E2 R3 R3 = 1 2 , 1 R3 E R E2 ( R1 + R3 ) R3 = 1 3 , 1 E1 E R + E1 R2 E2 = 2 1 . 0

E1 1 I1 = E2 0 R1 1 I2 = 0 1 R1 1 I3 = 0 1

14 With the particular values of emfs and resistors in this problem, we find currents of I1 = [( 4 + 1)6 1( 9)] A= = 2.79 A, I 2 = [1 6 (2 + 1)( 9)] A= = 2.36 A, and I3 = [ 4 6 + 2( 9)] A= = 0.429 A. Or, one could retrace the reasoning of 14 14

216 CHAPTER 28

Example 28-5, with E2 = 9 V replacing the original value in loop 2. Then, everything is the same until the equation 9 + 2(6 3I3 ) I3 = 0, or I 3 = ( 3 ) A, I 2 = 1 (6 3 3 ) A = (33= ) A, and I1 = I 2 + I 3 = (39= ) A. 14 14 7 2 7

Problem
34. In Fig. 28-57, take E1 = 6.0 V, E2 = 1.5 V, E3 = 4.5 V, R1 = 270 , R2 = 150 , R3 = 560 , and R4 = 820 . Find the current in R3 , and give its direction.

Solution

The general expressions for the branch currents can be found from the solution to the next problem. Here, we only need Ib = (6 V 1.5 V)(820 ) + ( 4.5 V 1.5 V)( 420 ) = 4.77 mA. (560 )(820 ) + ( 420 )(1380 )

A negative current is downward through E2 in Fig. 28-57.

FIGURE

28-57 Problem 34 Solution, and Problems 35 and 36.

Problem
35. With all the values except E2 in Fig. 28-57 as given in the preceding problem, find the condition on E2 that will make the current in R3 flow upward.

Solution
Let us choose the positive sense for each of the three branch currents in Fig. 28-57 as upward through their respective emfs (at least one must be negative, of course), and consider the two smaller loops shown. Kirchhoffs circuit laws give: I a + I b + Ic = 0 ( R1 + R2 ) I a R3 Ib = E1 E2 R3 I b + R4 Ic = E3 E2 ( top node) (left loop) (right loop).

Solve for I a and I c from the loop equations and substitute into the node equation: (E1 E2 ) + R3 I b (E E2 ) + R3 I b + Ib + 3 = 0. R1 + R2 R4 Then Ib = R4 (E2 E1 ) + ( R1 + R2 )(E2 E3 ) , R3 R4 + ( R1 + R2 )( R3 + R4 )

with similar expressions for I a and Ic . One can see that I b is positive if R4 (E2 E1 ) + ( R1 + R2 )(E2 E3 ) > 0, or E2 > R4 E1 + ( R1 + R2 )E3 (820 )(6 V) + ( 420 )( 4.5V) = = 5.49 V. R1 + R2 + R4 (1240 )

Problem

36. Suppose that all resistors in Fig. 28-57 have the same value R and that E1 = E3 = E and E2 = 2 E. Find expressions for the currents in the four resistors, and give their directions.

Solution
When all the resistors are equal to R and E1 = E3 =
1 2

E2 = E, the solution to the previous problem gives Ib = 3E= R, and 5

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Ia = Ic =

(E1 E2 ) + R3 I b E + 3E= 5 E = = R1 + R2 2R 5R (E3 E2 ) + R3 I b E + 3E= 5 2E = = . R4 R 5R

(Positive currents are upward through their respective emfs in Fig. 28-57.)

Problem
37. Figure 28-58 shows a portion of a circuit used to model the electrical behavior of long, cylindrical biological cells such as muscle cells or the axons of neurons. Find the current through the emf E3 , given that all resistors have the same value R = 1.5 M and that E1 = 75 mV, E2 = 45 mV, and E3 = 20 mV. Be sure to specify the direction of the current.

Solution
The circuits in Figs. 28-57 and 58 each have three branches (with emfs and total resistances Ea , Ra , Eb , Rb , and Ec , Rc ) connected in parallel between two nodes. (The emfs and currents in each branch are taken as positive upward in the figures.) The expression for I b in the solution to Problem 35 can be used for any permutation of indices a, b, and c (any order of parallel branches is equivalent). For example, in Fig. 28-58, take b to be the third branch etc., so that Eb = E3 = 20 mV, Rb = 2 R, Ea = 75 mV, Ra = 2 R, Ec = 45 mV, and Rc = R, with R = 1.5 M. Then
Ib = (Eb Ea ) Rc + (Eb Ec ) Ra (E Ea ) R + (Eb Ec )2 R = b = (3Eb 2Ec Ea )= R = (60 90 75) mV= M 8 12 Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra 4 R2 + 2 R2 + 2 R2

= 8.75 nA.

FIGURE

28-58 Problems 37, 38.

Problem
38. An electrochemical impulse traveling along the cell modeled in Fig. 28-58 changes the value of emf E3 so that now it supplies an upward current of 40 nA. Assuming the rest of the circuit remains as described in the preceding problem, what is the new value of E3?

Solution
The relation between Ib and the circuit emfs and resistances, given in the solution to the previous problem, can be solved for Eb = E3 in Fig. 28-58, resulting in Eb = 1 (8 RI b + 2Ec + Ea ) . For I b = 40 nA and the rest of the circuit elements the 3 same, E3 =
1 3

(8 1.5 M 40 nA + 90 mV + 75 mV) = 215 mV.

Section 28-5:Electrical Measuring Instruments Problem


39. A voltmeter with 200-k resistance is used to measure the voltage across the 10-k resistor in Fig. 28-59. By what percentage is the measurement in error because of the finite meter resistance?

218 CHAPTER 28

FIGURE

28-59 Problems 39 and 40.

Solution
( The voltage across the 10 k resistor in Fig. 28-59 is (150 V)(10)=10 + 5) = 100 V (the circuit is just a voltage divider as described by Equations 28-2a and b), as would be measured by an ideal voltmeter with infinite resistance. With the real voltmeter connected in parallel across the 10 k resistor, its effective resistance is changed to R|| = (10 k)(200 k) (210 k) = 9.52 k, and the voltage reading is only (150 V)(9.52 )=9.52 + 5) = 98.4 V, or about 1.64% lower. (

Problem
40. An ammeter with 100- resistance is inserted in the circuit of Fig. 28-59. By what percentage is the measurement in error because of the nonzero meter resistance?

Solution
( The current in the circuit of Fig. 28-59 is I = (150 V)=5 + 10 ) k = 10 mA. With the ammeter inserted, the resistance is ( increased and the current drops to (150 V)=5 + 10 + 0.1) k = 9.93 mA, about 0.662% lower.

Problem
41. A neophyte mechanic foolishly connects an ammeter with 0.1- resistance directly across a 12-V car battery whose internal resistance is 0.01 . What is the power dissipation in the meter? No wonder it gets destroyed!

Solution
( The current through the misconnected ammeter is I = E=Rint + Rm ), so the power dissipated in it is P = I 2 Rm = 2 2 2 E Rm =Rint + Rm ) = (12 V= .11 ) (0.1 ) = 119 kW (comparable to a small toaster-oven). ( 0 .

Problem
42. The voltage across the 30-k resistor in Fig. 28-60 is measured with (a) a 50-k voltmeter, (b) a 250-k voltmeter, and (c) a digital meter with 10-M resistance. To two significant figures, what does each read?

FIGURE

Solution

28-60 Problem 42 Solution.

With a meter of resistance Rm connected as indicated, the circuit reduces to two pairs of parallel resistors in series. The ( 2 total resistance is Rtot = (30 k) Rm=30 k + Rm ) + 40 k= . The voltage reading is Vm = Rm I m = Rm (30 k) I tot (30 k + Rm ), where I tot = (100 V)= tot (the expression for Vm follows from Equation 28-2, with R1 and R2 as the R above pairs, or from I m as a fraction of I tot , as in the solution to Problem 65). For the three voltmeters specified, I tot = 2.58 mA, 2.14 mA, and 2.00 mA, while Vm = 48.4 V, 57.3 V, and 59.9 V, respectively. (After checking the calculations, round off to two figures. Of course, 60 V is the ideal voltmeter reading.)

Problem
43. In Fig. 28-61 what are the meter readings when (a) an ideal voltmeter or (b) an ideal ammeter is connected between points A and B?

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FIGURE

28-61 Problem 43.

Solution
(a) An ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance, so AB is still an open circuit (as shown on Fig. 28-61) when such a voltmeter ( is connected. The meter reads the voltage across the 20 k resistor (part of a voltage divider), or (30 V)20=20 + 10) = 20 V (see Equation 28-2a or b). (b) An ideal ammeter has zero resistance, and thus measures the current through the points A and B when short-circuited (i.e., no current flows through the 20 k resistor). In Fig. 28-61, this would be I AB = 30 V= = 3 mA. (Such a connection does not measure the current in the original circuit, since an ammeter should be 10 connected in series with the current to be measured.)

Problem
44. A resistor draws 1.00 A from an ideal 12.0-V battery. (a) If an ammeter with 0.10- resistance is inserted in the circuit, what will it read? (b) If this current is used to calculate the resistance, how will the calculated value compare with the actual value?

Solution
1 (a) The internal resistance of an ideal battery is zero, so the resistor has a value of R = 12 V= A = 12 . With the I = V=R + Rm ) = 12 V= .1 = 0.992 A. (b) If the resistance of the ammeter were neglected in the ( 12 ammeter in place, 0 calculation, one would obtain R = 12 V=.992 A = 12.1 (off by 0.83%), but subtraction of Rm is a correction easily included.

Section 28-6:Circuits with Capacitors Problem


45. Show that the quantity RC has the units of time (seconds).

Solution
A V C The SI units for the time constant, RC, are ()( F ) = (V= )(C= ) = (s= )(C) = s, as stated.

Problem

46. If capacitance is given in F, what will be the units of the RC time constant when resistance is given in (a) , (b) k , (c) M? Your answers eliminate the need for tedious power-of-10 conversions.

Solution
(a) ()( F ) = s (see previous problem), (b) ( k)( F ) = 10 3 10 6 s = ms, (c) (M)( F ) = s.

Problem
47. Show that a capacitor is charged to approximately 99% of the applied voltage in five time constants.

Solution
After five time constants, Equation 28-6 gives a voltage of VC = = 1 e 5 = 1 6.74 10 3 ' 99.3% of the applied E voltage.

Problem

48. An uncharged 10- F capacitor and a 470-k resistor are connected in series, and 250 V applied across the combination. How long does it take the capacitor voltage to reach 200 V?

220 CHAPTER 28

Solution
For the RC circuit described, Equation 28-6 gives the voltage across the capacitor, as a function of time. Thus, VC = RC ( 50 E(1 e t= ) or t = RC ln[E=E VC )] = (10 F )( 470 k) ln(250= ) = 7.56 s.

Problem
49. Figure 28-62 shows the voltage across a capacitor that is charging through a 4700- resistor in the circuit of Fig. 28-29. Use the graph to determine (a) the battery voltage, (b) the time constant, and (c) the capacitance.

FIGURE

28-62 Problem 49 Solution.

Solution
(a) For the circuit considered, the voltage across the capacitor asymptotically approaches the battery voltage after a long time (compared to the time constant). In Fig. 28-62, this is about 9 V. (b) The time constant is the time it takes the capacitor voltage to reach 1 e 1 = 63.2% of its asymptotic value, or 5.69 V in this case. From the graph, ' 1.5 ms. (c) 4700 = 0.319 F. The time constant is RC, so C = 1.5 ms=

Problem
e 50. The voltage across a charging capacitor in an RC circuit rises to 1 1= of the battery voltage in 5.0 ms. (a) How long will it take to reach 1 1= 3 of the battery voltage? (b) If the capacitor is charging through a 22-k resistor, what is its e capacitance?

Solution
(a) Equation 28-6 and the given circuit characteristics imply that the time constant is = RC = 5.0 ms. Therefore, in three R 22 time constants, or 15 ms, the capacitor is charged to 1 e 3 of the battery voltage. (b) Evidently, C = = = 5 ms= k = 0.227 F.

Problem

51. A 1.0 - F capacitor is charged to 10.0 V. It is then connected across a 500-k resistor. How long does it take (a) for the capacitor voltage to reach 5.0 V and (b) for the energy stored in the capacitor to decrease to half its initial value?

Solution
A capacitor discharging through a resistor is described by exponential decay, with time constant RC (see Equation 28-8), RC RC 2 2 t= = UC (0)e 2 t= is the energy stored (see Equation 26-8b). and, of course, UC (t ) = 1 CV (t ) 2 = 1 CV 0 e 2 2 V 2 U 2 (a) V (t )= (0) = 1= implies t = RC ln 2 = (500 k)(1 F )( 0.693) = 347 ms. (b) Uc (t )= c ( 0) = 1= implies 1 t = 2 RC ln 2 = 173 ms.

Problem
52. A capacitor used to provide steady voltages in the power supply of a stereo amplifier charges rapidly to 35 V every

CHAPTER 1221 L

1= of a second. It must then hold that voltage to within 1.0 V for the next 1= s while it discharges through the 60 60 amplifier circuit. If the circuit draws 1.2 A from the 35-V supply (a) what is its effective resistance and (b) what value of capacitance is needed?

Solution
1 (a) The effective resistance of a circuit that draws 1.2 A from a constant 35 V supply is 35 V=.2 A = 29.2 . (b) To keep the voltage within the prescribed range for the discharging capacitor (Equation 28-8), the time constant must satisfy RC ln( 34 60 V= 0 = e t= 34= , or RC t= 35= ). For t = 1= s and R = 29.2 , one finds C 19.7 mF. V 35

Problem
53. A capacitor is charged until it holds 5.0 J of energy. It is then connected across a 10-k resistor. In 8.6 ms, the resistor dissipates 2.0 J. What is the capacitance?

Solution
RC Equation 28-8 gives a voltage V = V0 e t= for a capacitor discharging through a resistor. If 2 J is dissipated in time t, the energy stored in the capacitor drops from U 0 = 5 J to U = 3 J (assuming there are no losses due to radiation, etc.). Since RC R U ( 3 U = 1 CV 2 , U 0 = = (V0= ) 2 = e 2 t= and we may solve for C: C = 2t= ln(U 0 = ) = 2(8.6 ms)=10 k) ln(5= ) = 3.37 F. U V 2

Problem

54. A 2.0- F capacitor is charged to 150 V. It is then connected to an uncharged 1.0 - F capacitor through a 2.2-k resistor, by closing switch S in Fig. 28-63. Find the total energy dissipated in the resistor as the circuit comes to equilibrium. Hint: Think about charge conservation.

FIGURE

28-63 Problem 54.

Solution
When current stops flowing (at t = ), the potential difference across the capacitors is equal, but the total charge is just the initial charge. Thus, V1 () = V2 () V (), and Q2 (0) = Q1 () + Q2 (). Since Q = CV , C1V1 () + C2 V2 () = C2 V2 (0) 2 ( or V () = V2 (0)C2 =C1 + C2 ) = 2 V2 (0). The energy stored in the capacitors is initially U (0) = 1 C2 V 2 (0) = 3 2
1 2

(2 F )(150 V) 2 = 22.5 mJ, and finally U () = 1 (C1 + C2 )V 2 () = 1 (3 F )(100 V) 2 = 15.0 mJ. The difference, 2 2 U = 7.50 mJ, is dissipated in the resistor (except for a negligible amount of radiated energy).

Problem

55. For the circuit of Example 28-9, take E = 100 V, R1 = 4.0 k, and R2 = 6.0 k , and assume the capacitor is initially uncharged. What are the currents in both resistors and the voltage across the capacitor (a) just after the switch is closed and (b) a long time after the switch is closed? Long after the switch is closed it is again opened. What are I1, I2, and VC (c) just after this switch opening and (d) a long time later?

Solution
In addition to the explanation in Example 28-9, we note that when the switch is in the closed position, Kirchhoffs voltage law applied to the loop containing both resistors yields E = I1 R1 + I2 R2 , and to the loop containing just R2 and C, VC = I2 R2 R 4 . (a) If the switch is closed at t = 0 , Example 28-9 shows that VC (0) = 0, I2 (0 ) = 0, and I1 (0) = E= 1 = 100 V= k = t = , Example 28-9 also shows that I1 () = I2 () = E=R1 + R2 ) = 100 V= k = ( 10 25 mA. (b) After a long time, 10 mA, and VC () = I2 () R2 = (10 mA )(6 k) = 60 V. (c) Under the conditions stated, the fully charged capacitor (VC = 60 V) simply discharges through R2. (R1 is in an open-circuit branch, so I1 = 0 for the entire discharging process.) R 6 The initial discharging current is I2 = VC = 2 = 60 V= k = 10 mA. (d) I 2 and VC decay exponentially to zero.

222 CHAPTER 28

Problem
56. In the circuit of Fig. 28-64 the switch is initially open and both capacitors initially uncharged. All resistors have the same value R. Find expressions for the current in R2 (a) just after the switch is closed and (b) a long time after the switch is closed. (c) Describe qualitatively how you except the current in R3 to behave after the switch is closed.

FIGURE

28-64 Problem 56 Solution.

Solution
(a) An uncharged capacitor acts instantaneously like a short circuit (see Example 28-9), so initially (t = 0 ) all of the R current from the battery goes through R1 and C1, and none goes through R2 and R3. Thus, I1 (0) = E= , and I 2 (0) = I3 (0) = 0. (b) A fully charged capacitor acts like an open circuit (when responding to a constant applied emf ), so after a long time (t = ) , all of the current goes through R1 and R2 in series, and none goes through R3. Thus I1 () = I2 () = E= R, and 2 I3 () = 0. (c) One can easily guess that I1 and I2 respectively decrease and increase monotonically from their initial to their final values, and that I3 first increases from, and then decreases to zero. (One can use the loop and node equations to solve for the currents. They turn out to be linear combinations of two decaying exponentials with different time constants.)

Problem
57. In the circuit for Fig. 28-65 the switch is initially open and the capacitor is uncharged. Find expressions for the current I supplied by the battery (a) just after the switch is closed and (b) a long time after the switch is closed.

FIGURE

28-65 Problem 57.

Solution
(a) Just after the switch is closed, the uncharged capacitor acts instantaneously like a short circuit and the resistors act like ( 3 two parallel pairs in series. The effective resistance of the combination is 2 ( R)(2 R)=R + 2 R) = 4 R=, and the current I (0) = 3E= R. (b) A long time after the switch is closed, the capacitor is fully charged and acts 4 supplied by the battery is like an open circuit. Then the resistors act like two series pairs in parallel, with an effective resistance of ( 1 ) ( R + 2 R) = 2 3R=. The battery current is I () = 2E= R. 2 3

Problem
dt 58. Obtain an expression for the rate ( dV= ) at which the voltage across a charging capacitor increases. Evaluate your result at time t = 0, and show that if the capacitor continued charging steadily at this rate it would be fully charged in exactly one time constant.

Solution

The loop law for a battery charging a capacitor through a resistor is E IR VC = 0. Differentiate this and use Equation dt dt dt RC C 28-4 to obtain ( dVC = ) = d (E IR)= = R( dI= ) = R( I= ) = I= . ( I (t ) is given in Equation 28-5.) For an initially I0 = E= (an uncharged capacitor acts like a short circuit), so the initial rate of increase of the R uncharged capacitor,

CHAPTER 1223 L

dt RC capacitors voltage is ( dVC = ) 0 = E= = E= . If the capacitor were to charge steadily at this rate (i.e., if the voltage were dt a linear function of time, ( dVC = ) 0 t = Et= ), the voltage would reach its final value (VC () = E) in just one time constant (i.e., VC () = Et= for t = ).

Paired Problems Problem


59. A 3.3-k resistor and a 4.7-k resistor are connected in parallel, and the pair is in series with a 1.5-k resistor. What is the resistance of the combination?

Solution
Equation 28-3c for the resistance of the parallel pair, combined with Equation 28-1 for the resistance of this in series with ( the third resistor gives an effective resistance of Reff = 1.5 k + (3.3)( 4.7) k=3.3 + 4.7) = 3.44 k.

Problem
60. Find the value of R in Fig. 28-66 that will make the resistance between points A and B equal to R.

FIGURE

28-66 Problem 60.

Solution
( As in the previous problem, Reff = 1 + (3 ) R=3 + R), so Reff = R implies ( R 1 )( R + 3 ) = (3 ) R. Solving this quadratic equation for the positive value of the resistance, we find R = 1 (1 + 13 ) = 2.30 . 2

Problem
61. A batterys voltage is measured with a voltmeter whose resistance is 1000 ; the result is 4.36 V. When the measurement is repeated with a 1500- meter the result is 4.41 V. What are (a) the battery voltage and (b) its internal resistance?

Solution
The internal resistance of the battery ( Ri ) and the resistance of the voltmeter ( Rm ) are in series with the batterys emf, so ( ( the current is I = E=Ri + Rm ). The potential drop across the meter (its reading) is Vm = IRm = ERm=Ri + Rm ). From the ( ( given data, 4.36 V = E(1 k)=Ri + 1 k) and 4.41 V = E(1.5 k)=Ri + 1.5 k) , which can be solved simultaneously for 4 4 E and Ri. One obtains Ri + 1 k = E(1 k= .36 V) and Ri + 1.5 k = E(1.5 k= .41 V), or E = (1.5 k 1 k) 4 and Ri = ( 4.51 V)(1 k= .36 V) 1 k = 35.2 . 1 F.5 k 1 k I = 4.51 V H V 4.36 V K 4.41
1

Problem
62. An ammeter with a resistance of 1.4 is connected momentarily across a battery (not the way to treat an ammeter!) and it reads 9.78 A. When the measurement is repeated with a meter whose resistance is 2.1 the reading is 7.46 A. What are (a) the battery voltage and (b) its internal resistance?

Solution
The internal resistance of the battery ( Ri ) and the ammeters resistance ( Rm ) are still in series with the battery (as in the ( previous problem), but the ammeter reading is the total current I = E=Ri + Rm ). Thus, the given data require E =

224 CHAPTER 28

( Ri + 1.4 )(9.78 A) = ( Ri + 2.1 )(7.46 A) , which have as solutions Ri = (2.1 )(7.46) (1.4 )(9.78) = 0.851 , and E = (0.851 + 1.4)(9.78) V = 22.0 V. (9.78 7.46)

Problem
63. In Fig. 28-67, take E1 = 12 V, E2 = 6.0 V, E3 = 3.0 V, R1 = 1.0 , R2 = 2.0 , and R3 = 4.0 . Find the current in R2 and give its direction.

Solution
An obvious reconfiguration of the circuit in Fig. 28-67 results in a circuit like that in Fig. 28-57, with R1 replacing ( R1 + R2 ), R2 for R3 , R3 for R4 , and E3 for E3 . Thus, the solution to Problem 35, properly altered, gives Ib = (E2 E1 ) R3 + (E2 + E3 ) R1 (6 12)( 4 ) + (6 + 3)(1) = A = 1.07 A. R1 R2 + R1 R3 + R2 R3 (1)(2 + 4) + (2)( 4)

(A negative current is opposite to the direction of the emf E2 .)

FIGURE

28-67 Problem 63.

Problem
64. (a) With all values except E2 as given in the preceding problem, find E2 such that there is no current in this battery. (b) What are the currents in R1 and R2 under these conditions?

Solution
( (a) I b in the previous problem is zero if (E3 + E2 ) R1 = (E1 E2 ) R3 , or E2 = (E1 R3 E3 R1 )=R1 + R3 ) = (12 4 3 1) V=1 + 4) = 9 V. (b) With no current in the branch containing E2 and R2, the current in the outer loop (use ( ( ( the loop law) is just I = (E1 + E3 )=R1 + R3 ) = (12 + 3) V=1 + 4) = 3 A.

Problem
65. In Fig. 28-68 what are the meter readings when (a) an ideal voltmeter or (b) an ideal ammeter is connected between points A and B?

Solution

(a) An ideal voltmeter has Rm = (AB open circuited), so VAB is just the voltage across the 5.6 k resistor. This is part of ( a voltage divider (in series with the 4.7 k resistor), so Equation 28-2 gives VAB = (24 V)(5.6)=5.6 + 4.7) = 13.0 V. (b) An ideal ammeter has Rm = 0 (AB short circuited), so IAB is just the current through the 3.3 k resistor. This is part of ( parallel combination, R|| = (3.3 k)(5.6)=3.3 + 5.6) = 2.08 k, which, in series with the 4.7 k resistor, draws a total ( current of I tot = 24 V=2.08 + 4.7) k = 3.54 mA. Now, two resistors in parallel form a current divider, each one taking a R R fraction of the total current, given by I1 = ( R||= 1 ) I tot , and I2 = ( R||= 2 ) I tot , respectively. (This follows directly from 3 3 Ohms law: V|| = I tot R|| = I1 R1 = I2 R2 .) Therefore, in the case of the ideal ammeter, I AB = ( R||=.3 k) I tot = (2.08=.3) (3.54 mA) = 2.23 mA.

CHAPTER 1225 L

FIGURE

28-68 Problem 65 Solution.

Problem
66. In Fig. 28-68 what are the meter readings when (a) a voltmeter with 50-k resistance or (b) an ammeter with 150- resistance is connected between points A and B ?

Solution
With realistic instruments in the circuit of the previous problem, we will need to find the current in the branch containing AB. This has resistance 3.3 k + Rm , and is in parallel with 5.6 k, yielding an effective resistance R|| = (3.3 k + Rm ) (5.6 k)=8.9 k + Rm ). The total resistance across the battery terminals is Rtot = R|| + 4.7 k, so I tot = (24 V)= tot . As in ( R ( part (b) of the previous solution, I AB = I tot R||=3.3 k + Rm ). (a) For the voltmeter with Rm = 50 k, R|| = 5.07 k, Rtot = 9.77 k, I tot = 2.46 mA, and I AB = 0.234 mA. The voltmeter reading is VAB = I AB Rm = (0.234 mA)(50 k) = 11.7 V. (b) For the ammeter with Rm = 150 , R|| = 2.13 k, Rtot = 6.83 k, I tot = 3.51 mA, and I AB = 2.17 mA, which is the ammeter reading.

Problem
67. An initially uncharged capacitor in an RC circuit reaches 75% of its full charge in 22.0 ms. What is the time constant?

Solution
ln ln From Equation 28-6, VC = = 75% = 1 e t= , which implies e t= = 4, or = t= 4 = 22 ms= 4 = 15.9 ms. E

Problem

68. Find the resistance needed in an RC circuit to bring a 20- F capacitor from zero charge to 45% of its full charge in 140 ms.

Solution
ln[ ( ln( 0 20 As in the previous solution, = RC = t= 1=1 45%)] = 140 ms= 1= .55) = 234 ms, so R = 234 ms= F = 11.7 k.

Supplementary Problems Problem


69. Suppose the currents into and out of a circuit node differed by 1 A. If the node consists of a small metal sphere with diameter 1 mm, how long would it take for the electric field around the node to reach the breakdown field in air (3 MV/m)?

Solution

The charge on the node (whether positive or negative) accumulates at a rate of 1 A = 1 C per second, so q(t ) = (1 A )t (where we assume that q(0 ) = 0 ). If the node is treated approximately as an isolated sphere, the electric r r field strength at its surface, k q = 2 = k (1 A )t= 2 , equals the breakdown field for air, when t = (3 MV/m )(0.5 mm ) 2=9 10 9 m/ F )(1 A) = 83.3 s. (

Problem
70. A problem on dairy farms is stray voltage, caused by corroded wiring, poor wiring practices, or ground currents associated with nearby power lines. These conditions can result in several volts of potential difference between metal objects such as watering bowls, feed troughs, or milking equipment, and the ground. Cows feel slight shocks that make

226 CHAPTER 28

them nervous resulting in reduced milk output. As a result, farmers can face serious financial losses. Figure 28-69 shows a circuit model for a stray voltage situation; the 1.5-k resistor represents the resistance of corroded connections and poor wiring; you can assume the ground has negligible resistance. (a) The resistance from a cows mouth to hoof is approximately 350 . How much current will flow through the cow in the situation shown? (It takes only about 1 mA to affect milk production.) In an effort to diagnose the problem, the farmer moves the cow aside and connects a multimeter between the watering bowl and ground. What will it read if its set to measure (b) voltage and (c) current?

FIGURE

28-69 Stray voltage can bankrupt a dairy farm. (Problem 70)

Solution
(a) The equivalent circuit for the stray voltage contains just an emf in series with resistances representing the corroded ( connections and the cow, so the current is I = 5.0 V=1500 + 350) = 2.70 mA. Suppose that the farmers multimeter Rm is or 0 when set for voltage or current) and replace the cows resistance with Rm. behaves like an ideal meter (i.e., ( Then (b) when set for voltage, it reads 5.0 V (really Vm = IRm = (5.0 V) Rm =1.5 k + Rm ) as Rm ), and (c) when set 1 (1 for current it reads 5.0 V=.5 k = 3.33 mA (really 5.0 V= .5 k + Rm ) as Rm 0).

Problem
71. In Fig. 28-70, what is the current in the 4- resistor when each of the following circuit elements is connected between points A and B: (a) an ideal ammeter; (b) an ideal voltmeter; (c) another 4.0- resistor; (d) an uncharged capacitor, right after its connected; (e) long after the capacitor of part (d) is connected; (f ) an ideal 12-V battery, with its positive terminal at A; (g) a capacitor initially charged to 12 V, right after its connected with its positive plate at A; (h) long after the capacitor in part (g) is connected?

Solution
(a) An ideal ammeter connected across AB short-circuits the 4 resistor, so I 4 = 0 . (This is a dangerous connection ( unless the ammeter can handle 3 A.) (b) An ideal voltmeter across AB maintains the open circuit, so I 4 = 6 V=2 + 4) = [ ( 1 A. (c) Another 4 resistor in parallel across AB divides the total current equally; I tot = 6 V=2 + 4 4=4 + 4)] = 1.5 A, and I 4 = 0.75 A. (d) The instantaneous voltage across an uncharged capacitor is zero, so AB is momentarily shortdt circuited and I 4 = 0, as in (a). (e) When the capacitor is fully charged ( dq= = 0) it behaves like an open circuit, so I 4 = 1 A, as in (b). (f ) Kirchhoffs voltage law applied to the loop containing just AB (with the ideal 12 V emf) and the 4 resistor, gives 12 V = I 4 ( 4 ), or I 4 = 3 A. (g) Instantaneously, a capacitor charged to 12 V appears like the battery dt in (f ) when first connected, so I 4 = 3 A. (h) Charge leaves the capacitor until, after a long time, dq= = 0 = IC and it appears like an open circuit. Then I 4 = 1 A, as in (b) and (e).

FIGURE

28-70 Problem 71 Solution.

CHAPTER 1227 L

Problem
72. A resistance R is connected across a battery with internal resistance Rint . Show that the maximum power dissipation in R occurs when R = Rint . Note: This is not the way to treat a battery! But it is the basis for matching loads in amplifiers and other devices; for example, a stereo amplifier designed to drive 8- speakers has internal resistance close to 8 .

Solution
( The current for the connection described is I = E=Rint + R), so the power dissipated in the resistor is P = I 2 R = 2 2 E R=Rint + R) . This inherently positive function of R is zero for R = 0 and R = , so it must have a maximum at some ( dR intermediate value of R. The condition for the maximum is dP= = 0, which implies ( Rint + R) 2 2 R( Rint + R) = 0, or R = Rint .

Problem

73. A parallel-plate capacitor is insulated with a material of dielectric constant and resistivity Since the resistivity is . finite, the capacitor leaks charge and can be modeled as an ideal capacitor in parallel with a resistor. (a) Show that the time constant of the capacitor is independent of its dimensions (provided the spacing is small enough that the usual parallel-plate approximation applies) and is given by 0 . (b) If the insulating material is polystyrene ( = 2.6, = 1016 m), how long will it take for the stored energy in the capacitor to decrease by a factor of 2?

Solution
d (a) In the parallel plate approximation, the electric field between the plates is constant, E = V= , the leakage current d density is uniform, J = E= , and the capacitance is C = 0 A= . These relations imply that the resistance of the dielectric I JA ( A slab between the plates is R = V= = V= = V=EA= ) = d= , and the time constant for discharging through the 2 A d dielectric is = RC = ( d= )( 0 A= ) = 0 . (b) The stored energy in the capacitor, UC = 1 CV C , decays with half the 2 voltage time constant, i.e., UC =
1 2 RC C (V0 e t= ) 2 = 1 2 RC ( 2 CV02 e 2 t= = U 0 e t=RC= ) . To decay by 50% takes time t =

( RC= )ln 2 = ( 0 = )ln 2. With the values given for polystyrene, t = (2.6)(8.85 pF/m )(1016 m ) 1 ln 2 = 7.97 10 4 s 2 2 2 = 22.2 h.

Problem
74. Of the total energy drawn from a battery in charging an RC circuit, show that only half ends up as stored energy in the capacitor. Hint: What happens to the rest of it? You will need to integrate.

Solution
RC The power supplied by the battery charging a capacitor (initially uncharged) in an RC circuit is P = EI = (E2 = )e t= , R RC 2 t= 2 0 where we used I from Equation 28-5. The total energy supplied is U bat = 0 P dt = (E = ) 0 e R dt = CE (e e ) = 2 2 1 1 1 CE2 . This is twice the energy stored in the fully charged capacitor, UC () = 2 CV () = 2 CE = 2 U bat . The other half

of the energy supplied by the battery is dissipated in the resistor. (U R =

z I R dt = (E =R) z e
0 2 2 0

2 t= RC

dt =

1 2

CE 2 . )

Problem
75. Write the loop and node laws for the circuit of Fig. 28-71, and show that the time constant for this circuit is R1 R2 C=R1 + R2 ). (

Solution

Consider the loops and node added to Fig. 28-71. Kirchhoffs laws are E = I1 R1 + I2 R2 , VC = I2 R2 , and IC = I1 I2 . C dt Since VC = q= and IC = dq= , the equations can be combined to yield E I1 R1 I2 R2 = E ( IC + I2 ) R1 I 2 R2 = E IC R1

F I( R V GJ R HK
C 2

+ R2 ) = E IC R1

q = 0. CR2 =R1 + R2 ) (

This is exactly in the same form as the first equation, solved in the text, in the section The RC Circuit: Charging (with I IC , R R1 and C CR2 =R1 + R2 )), so the time constant for the circuit is = CR1 R2 =R1 + R2 ) (the ratio of the ( (

228 CHAPTER 28

coefficients of IC and q).

FIGURE

28-71 Problem 75 Solution.

Problem
76. The circuit in Fig. 28-72 extends forever to the right, and all the resistors have the same value R. Show that the equivalent resistance measured across the two terminals at left is 1 R(1 + 5 ). Hint: You dont need to sum an infinite 2 series.

FIGURE

28-72 Problem 76.

Solution
Since the circuit line is infinite, the addition or deletion of one more element leaves the equivalent resistance unchanged. Diagrammatically:

Problem 78 Solution. ( The right-hand picture represents R in series with the parallel combination R and Req, therefore Req = R + RReq =R + Req ). 2 Req , one finds Req RReq R 2 = 0, or Req = 1 (1 + 5 ) R (only the positive root is physically meaningful for Solving for 2 a resistance).