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Samskruta Kranti - Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit.

Organizer - www.e-gurukul.net

Topic - Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit' - Level 1

Date - July 10, 17, 24 & 31 -2011 Sundays - 6 to 8 am Indian Standard Time.

Check your local time http://timeanddate.com/worldclock/converter.html


Mode - Live Audio Visual Interactive Online Classroom Sessions.
Trainer - Mrs Rashmi Kashi USA - http://sanskritpearls.blogspot.com

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

||| -|-| |l||l|
Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit
Lesson 4
Beginning Prayers:

7|4|||| l|'| 7|l7||'| ||+|||
|-|||| |||| -|| l||||7||||

shuklaambaradharaM viShNuM shashivarNaM chaturbhujam |
prasannavadanaM dhyaayet sarva vighnopashaantaye ||

-|-|l| ||-|+| | ||l|l'|
l|u|+| l||l| l-|l7+||| | -||

saraswati namastubhyaM varade kaamarUpiNi |
vidyaarambhaM kariShyaami siddhirbhavatu me sadaa ||

||8 |l|'| ||| |%|
|--||+||| ||8 |-| >|| || ||

gururbrahma gururviShNuH gururdevo maheshwaraH |
gurussaakShaat parabrahma tasmai shrI gurave namaH ||
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

Meanings

1. gaNesha shloka:

Robed in white, he pervades the world
Shining in moon-light, four armed Lord
Unto his shining face we pray
For removing all obstacles


2. saraswatI shloka:

Oh goddess saraswati, I pray to thee
You the embodiment of all blessings, bestow boons
Will begin learning vidyaa (knowledge) now
May I attain eminence in everything


3. guru shloka:

Guru is brahmaa viShNu too
Guru is shiva Lord divine
Guru is but the supreme truth
Salutations to my guru

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



Steps to learn a language:

1. An introduction to the language
2. Vocabulary
3. Pronunciation
4. Speaking/Understanding
5. Reading/Writing
6. Sharpening the skills
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



1. Introduction - What is Sanskrit?

-|| || sl| -|-|| (samyak kRutam iti saMskRutam) That which is done very well (refined) is called
Samskrutam. Samskrutam or Sanskrit, also referred to as 'devabhaasha', is a very ancient and complex language.
It's origin is older than the oldest of the languages. It is highly scientific, phonetic and linguistically advanced
language. There is culture, spiritual, moral, medical, mathematical, grammar, astronomy, architecture, art, drama,
poetry, humor and many other genre of literature in the language!! The variety, richness and depth of topics are
unsurpassed yet! The guru-s of the past, transcended knowledge to their pupil exclusively in Sanskrit.

The grammar is so intricate and complex like none other that, it is considered the most unambiguous language
that is suitable for programming computers even! Only, we need people very well versed in both computers and
Sanskrit.

It has been proven by research that the specialty of Sanskrit lays in its entirety. Just the reading, reciting and
speaking in Sanskrit, has proven to stimulate and active different energy points in the body that it provides an
overall wellbeing of that individual! It is one of the very few languages that use all the nerves of the tongue.
Speaking and reciting in Sanskrit, is like a cleanser for the tongue, I once heard! vaakshuddhi (clarity of speech),
comes very easily with this language.

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

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2. Vocabulary:

Built over a period of time
Constant practice
Talking in the head
Substituting words from another language (if lost )
Skimming through the dictionary periodically
Observing the similarities between a language already known
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


3. Pronunciation:

Example 1:
|| |l|
raamaH vadati.

|| ||l|
raamaH vadhati.

What an appalling difference in the meaning! Vadati means tells, vadhati means kills!! Now, is the message,
raama tells or raama kills?

Example 2:
|-|| ||
vasudaiva kuTumbakam|
The whole earth is itself a family.

|-|| ||
vasudeva kuTumbakam|
Mr. Vasudevs family.
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Heres a quick glance at the +||||| (akSharamaalaa).

a aa i I u U Ru RU

lRu
e ai o au
aM aH

ka kha ga gha a
cha Cha ja jha a
Ta Tha Da Dha Na
ta tha da dha na
pa pha ba bha ma

ya ra la va
sha Sha sa
Ha
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


4. Speaking and Understanding:

Comes with constant practice
Keeping the ears open

5. Reading and Writing:

It is best to read and write the language in its own script.
If not aware of the devanaagari script, reading a transliteration is okay. But then, one should learn the
transliteration rules correctly and know the corresponding pronunciations.

6. Sharpening the skills:

Practicing with peers
Speaking
Reciting and comprehending the meanings
Improving the vocabulary
Attending more classes

Once the cornerstone for the language is strong, any kind of architecture on it will automatically hold up!

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



(kriyaapadam) - Verbs
There are 3 persons in a verb, namely
prathama purusha (Third person)
madhyama purusha (Second person)
uttama purusha (First person)

Also, there are 3 numbers, namely
ekavachana (singular)
dvivachana (dual)
bahuvachana (plural)

There is no difference to the verb as per the gender.
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Third person (prathama purusha)

Add -| (saH - he) or -|| (saa - she) to make short sentences.
Or, +||||/+|||| (bhavaan/bhavatI - second person, addressed with respect) can also be used.

Third person; Singular

Meaning


paThati -> Reads

likhati -> Writes

vadati -> speaks/says

gachChati -> Goes

aagachChati -> Comes

phalati -> bears fruit

patati -> falls (down)

pibati -> Drinks

khaadati -> Eats

vikasati -> Blooms

tiShThati -> Stands
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



upavishati -> Sits

bhavati -> Be

aTati -> Wanders

gaayati -> Sings

charati -> moves/grazes

chalati -> Moves

jayati -> Conquers

japati -> Chants

mlayati -> Withers

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Second person (madhyama purusha)

Add || (tvam - you) to make short sentences.

Second person; Singular

Meaning


paThasi -> read

likhasi -> write

vadasi -> speak/say

gachChasi -> Go

aagachChasi -> come

phalasi -> bear fruit

patasi -> fall (down)

pibasi -> drink

khaadasi -> Eat

vikasasi -> bloom

tiShThasi -> stand
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



upavishasi -> Sit

bhavasi -> Be

aTasi -> wander

gaayasi -> sing

charasi -> move/graze

chalasi -> move

jayasi -> conquer

hapasi -> chant

mlayasi -> wither

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


First person (uttama purusha)

Add | (aham - I) to make short sentences.

First person; Singular

Meaning


paThaami -> read

likhaami -> write

vadaami -> speak/say

gachChaami -> go

aagachChaami -> come

phalaami -> bear fruit

pataami -> fall (down)

pibaami -> drink

khaadaami -> eat

vikasaami -> bloom

tiShThaami -> stand
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



upavishaami -> sit

bhavaami -> be

aTaami -> wander

gaayaami -> sing

charaami -> move/graze

chalaami -> move

jayaami -> conquer

japaami -> chant

mlayaami -> wither

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

||||| (naamapadam) Nouns

There are 3 genders in the nouns
Masculine (pullinga)
Feminine (strIlinga)
Neuter (napumsakalinga)
(The gender is generally decided by the ending of the noun.)

Even here, there are 3 numbers, namely
ekavachana (singular)
dvivachana (dual)
bahuvachana (plural)

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Conversation between two people:

Lalitaa:
+||| ||| l|
bhavataH naama kim?
What is your name? (addressing a male)

Ananta:
|| ||| || sl|
mama naama anantaH iti|
My name is Ananta.

+|||| ||| l|
bhavatyaaH naama kim?
What is your name? (addressing a female)

Lalitaa:
|| ||| |l||| sl|
mama naama lalitaa iti|
My name is Lalitaa.

(Yes, there are two you-s in Sanskrit, as per gender, when speaking with respect. If one is talking to a friend or a peer, it
would just be || (tvam), without any gender difference.)
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Ananta:
+|||| | |-|l|
bhavatI kutra vasati?
Where do you live?

Lalitaa:
l|-| || |-||l|
ahaM Princeton nagare vasaami|
I live in Princeton.

+|||| | |-|l|
bhavaan kutra vasati?
Where do you live?

Ananta:
l+|l+|| || |-||l|
ahaM Philadelphia nagare vasaami|
I live in Philadelphia.

+|||| l |l|
bhavatI kiM paThati?
What are you studying?

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

Lalitaa:
7|| +|||| ||l|
ahaM dashama kakShaayaaM paThaami|
I am studying in 10
th
grade.

Ananta:
+|||| 7|||| l-|| |7| l-|
bhavatyaaH shaalaa kasmin pradeshe asti?
Your school is in which area?

Lalitaa:
|| 7|||| l| l|-| || | l-|
mama shaalaa api prinsTan nagare eva asti|
My school is also in Princeton city itself.

+|||| | || |l|
bhavaan kutra kaaryaM karoti?
Where do you (male/female) work?

Ananta:
l|l-|||| || |l|
ahaM chikitsaalaye kaaryaM karomi|
I work at the hospital.

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

Lalitaa:
+|||| -|+|||'| |l|l l||| ||||||
bhavaan sambhaaShaNa pariShadi kimartham aagatavaan?
Why did you come to the spoken Sanskrit sessions?

Ananta:
-|-| ||||||| || s7 |-||, | ||||||
saMskRute vaartaalaapaM kartum ichChukaH aasam, ataH aagatavaan|
I was willing to converse in Sanskrit, hence I came.

Lalitaa:
+|||| | || ||7l|
bhavaan atra katham aagachChati?
How do you come here?

Ananta:
|-| ||| | ||7|l|
ahaM bas yaane atra aagachChaami|
I come by bus.

+|||| || ||7l|
bhavatI katham aagachChati?
How do you come?

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

Lalitaa:
||| | ||7|l|
aham chalan atra aagachChaami|
I come walking.

Ananta:
+|||| | -|||| l-| ||
bhavatyaaH gRuhaM samIpe asti vaa?
Is your house close by?

Lalitaa:
||! || | -|||| | l-|
Aam! mama gRuhaM samIpe eva asti|
Yes! My home is very close by.

Ananta:
+|||| | l| ||| -|l|
bhavatyaaH gRuhe kati janaaH santi?
How many people are in your house?

Lalitaa:
|| | ||| ||| -|l|
mama gRuhe chatvaaraH janaaH santi|
There are 4 people in my house.

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

Ananta:
+|||| -||| |-|l|
bhavatyaaH saardhaM ke ke vasanti?
Who all live with you?

Lalitaa:
|| -|||| ||, ||, +|||| | |-|l|
mama saardham ambaa, janakaH, bhraataa cha vasanti|
My mother, father and brother live with me.

+|||| %| +||||| ||7l| ||
bhavaan shvaH kakShaayaam aagachChati vaa?
Will you come to the class tomorrow?

Ananta:
| 7|4|| +||
na shakyate bhoH|
It wont be possible.

Lalitaa:
| | 7|4||
kutaH na shakyate?
Why is it not possible.

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

Ananta:
l|| ||, %| ll|| ||| l-| | ||| | 7|4||
kimarthaM chet, shvaH ki~jchit kaaryam asti| ataH aagantuM na shakyate|
Because, I have some work tomorrow. Hence, I wont be able to come.

Lalitaa:
-|, |||l| ||-| || l||||
astu, aagaami vaasare punaH milaavaH|
Alright, we will meet next week.

Ananta:
-|, |l || l||||
astu, tarhi punaH milaavaH|
Alright then, we will meet again.
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



Question words we learnt today:

kim what


kutra where

kaH who

kimartham why


kutaH why

kadaa when

katham how

kati how many

kasmin Which

vaa or, is it

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


subhaaShita for the day:

|

||
-

ratnaakaraH kiM karoti svaratnaiH
vindhyaachalaH kiM karibhiH karoti |
shrIkhanNDakaNDaiH malayaachalaH kiM
paropakaaraaya sataaM vibhUtayaH ||
- subhaaShitaratnabhaaNDaagaara

Meaning of the subhAShita:
What will the ocean do with his own gems? What will the vindhyaa mountain do with the elephants (dwelling)
there? Of what use are the sandal trees to the malaya mountain? Wealth of the noble is for the benefaction of
others.
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Connotation:
Anyone will splurge their wealth on themselves. There is no greatness in that! An ocean is a store house of
multitudes of gems. But does he use even a single piece of rock to deck himself up! The vindhyaa mountain is the
house for many a herds of elephants. He doesn't direct them to work for his needs! There are sandal trees on the
malaya mountain like no other place. But the mountain doesn't have any use for it either!

Similarly, the noble do not obsess over their possessions, but put it use for the benefit of others. They neither have
any selfishness nor attachment towards their material possessions. 'The utility of their wealth for the right
purpose' takes more priority for them, than 'for whom it is being used'!

If you have much, give your wealth; if you have little, certainly give your heart :). There is never a scarcity for that!
Do anything heartily. The results will increase multifold.
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit
Lesson 1 Homework


(skalitaan pUrayata) - Correct the errors

Correct Answers
1

saH paThasi|

saH paThati|
2

saa khaadaami|

saa khaadaati|
3

bhavatI gachaami|

bhavatI gachaati|
4

bhavaan likhati|

bhavaan likhati|
5

raamaH tarasi|

raamaH tarati|
6

ahaM vadati|

ahaM vadaami|
7

tvaM pibati|
|
tvam pibasi|
8


kRuShNaH upavishasi|


kRuShNaH
upavishati|
9

devaH hasaami|

devaH hasati|
10

lalitaa lasasi|

lalitaa lasati|
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


(saMskRute likhantu) - Write in Sanskrit


1 Who ran?
?
kaH adhaavat?
2 What will you drink?
| l ?
tvaM kiM pibasi?
3 Why did you not come?

?
bhavaan kutaH na
aagatavaan?
4 When did raama go?
?
raamaH kadaa
gatavaan?
5 How many people will speak?
?
kati janaaH vadanti?
6 Which chapter is she reading?
?
saa kasmin adhyaayaM
paThati?
7 Why did she cry?
?
saa kimarthaM roditi?
8 Where will raama sit?

?
raamaH kutra
upvishati?
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



-|-| ( saMskRute likhantu) - Write in Sanskrit
1
?
2

?
3

4

,
5

?
6

1 Your school is in which area?

2 Where do you live?

3 I work at the hospital.

4 I was willing to speak in Sanskrit, hence I came.

5 Is your house close by?

6 We will meet next week.


Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

Question words review:

kim what


kutra where

kaH who

kimartham why


kutaH why

kadaa when

katham how

kati how many

kasmin which

vaa or, is it

Verbs and their endings review:
Third person
-
-ti
Second person
-
-si
First person
-|l|
-aami
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Heres a quick glance at the +||||| (akSharamaalaa) again.

a aa i I u U Ru RU

lRu
e ai o au
aM aH

ka kha ga gha a
cha Cha ja jha a
Ta Tha Da Dha Na
ta tha da dha na
pa pha ba bha ma

ya ra la va sha Sha sa Ha
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

+||'||| |l|l||| (akSharaaNaam utpattivichaaraH)

- (l|-|||||) - gutteral
a aa ka-varga visarga(visarjaneeya) - kaNThya

- - palatal
e ee cha-varga y and sh - taalavya

- - cerebral
Ru RU Ta-varga r Sh - mUrdhaanya

- - dental
lRu ta-varga l s - dantya

- ( preceding ) - labial
u U p-varga upadhmaaneeya (ardhavisarga before p ph) - oShThya

- nasal
~j m ~g N n naasikaa


e ai - kaNThataalu

-
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

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o ou - kaNThoShTam

-
v - dantoShTham

( preceding )
jihvaamUleeya (ardhavisarga before k kh) jihvaamUlam

( ) -
aM (anuswaara) - naasikaa

Shloka:
|
||

ekamaatro bhavet hrasvaH dvimaatro deergha uchyate |
trimaatrastu pluto j~neyaH vya~njanaM tvardhamaatrakam ||

One maatraa kaala (unit of measure) for hrasva (short vowel)
Two maatraas for dIrgha (long vowel)
Three maatraas for pluta (prolated vowel)
Half maatraa for vya~njana (consonant)
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Case study


vibhaktiH Case In English

prathamaa Nominative Subject
.
sam. Prathamaa Vocative Vocative

dvitiyaa Accusative to, Object


tRutiyaa Instrumental with, by

chaturthI Dative for

pa~nchamI Ablative from, than

ShaShTI Genitive Of, s

saptamI Locative in, on

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

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|0| l|+|l (ShaShThI vibhakti) Sixth case examples


1

raamasya pustakam

- Raama's book

2


kRuShNasya vaMshI

- Krishna's flute

3

rameshasya lekhanI

- Ramesha's pen

4

gajasya dantam

- elephant's tooth

5

devasya ratham

- God's chariot chariot of God
6

sUryasya prakaasham

- sun's light

7


lekhakasya kRutiH

- writer's work work of the writer
8

vidyaalayasya
shikShakaH

- school's teacher teacher of the school
9

gopaalasya sutaa

- Gopaala's daughter daughter of Gopaala
10

arjunasya dhanuH

- Arjuna's bow

11

tasya agrajaH

- his elder brother


Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

12

maalaayaaH maalikaa

- Maala's garland

13

lataayaaH puShpam

- creeper's flower
flower of the
creeper
14

ramaayaaH patiH

- Ramaa's husband husband of Ramaa
15

umaayaaH
adhyayanam

- Umaa's study

16

shailajaayaaH chitram

- Shailajaa's picture

17

uShaayaaH sutaH

- Usha's son son of Usha
18

bhaaShaayaaH
akSharam

- language's alphabet
alphabet of the
language
19

kakShaayaaH ChaatraH

- class's students students of the class
20

chintaayaaH
pariNaamaH

- anxiety's effect effect of anxiety
21

naasikaayaaH agram

- nose's tip tip of the nose
22

tasyaaH bhaginI

- her sister

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology



23


udyaanasya vRukShaH

- park's tree tree of the park
24

akSharasya aarambhaH

- alphabet's beginning
beginning of the
alphabet
25

ambarasya varNam

- sky's color color of the sky
26


anRutasya phalam

- lie's reward reward of lies
27

auShadhasya
prabhaavaH

- medicine's effect effect of medicine
28

tasya puShpam

- it's flower

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology


Conversation example:
PrakaashaH:
-||+||||
suprabhaatam|
Good morning.
KiraNaH:
-||+|||| 7|| ||
suprabhaatam| kushalaM vaa?
Good morning. Doing well?

PrakaashaH:
|| +|||| | l-|
aam| bhavaan kathaM asti?
Yes. How are you?

KiraNaH:
|l| 7|||
ahamapi kushalam|
I am also doing well.

l| || |-| ||
kim etat? pustakaM vaa?
What is this? Book is it?

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

PrakaashaH:
||
aam|
Yes.

KiraNaH:
|| -| |-| l-|
etat kasya pustakaM asti?
Whose book is this?

PrakaashaH:
|| || |-||
etat mama pustakam|
This book is mine.

KiraNaH:
l-|| |-|-| ||
asmin pustakasya lekhakaH kaH?
Who is the books author?

Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

www.e-gurukul.net | Ancient Scientific Knowledge Meets Modern Technology

PrakaashaH:
l-|| |-|-| || '|7|| |||
asmin pustakasya lekhakaH kRuShNasharma mahodayaH|
This books author is Mr. Krishna Sharma.

KiraNaH:
'|7||-| |||| ||| l-| -| || |-| -|||| |-|l|
kRuShNasharmasya lekhanam uttamam asti| saH mama gRuhasya samIpe vasati|
Krishna Sharmas writing is very good. He lives in my homes vicinity.

PrakaashaH:
u ||||| |7|l|
adya ahaM granthaalayaM gachChaami|
Now I will go to the library.

KiraNaH:
+|||| -| -||| |7l|
bhavaan kasya saardhaM gachChati?
In whose company will you go?

PrakaashaH:
||||| -||| |7|l|
ahaM lataayaaH saardhaM gachChaami|
I shall go in Lataas company.

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KiraNaH:
||||| || || ||l|| l-|
lataayaaH ambaa mama adhyaapikaa asti|
Lataas mother is my teacher.

PrakaashaH:
| || -|| l |||l|
evaM vaa? saa kiM paaThayati?
Is that so? What does she teach?

KiraNaH:
-|| || -|-|+|||||| u|l|| l-| -|| |l||-|-| ||||, |+|-| | |||l|
saa mama saMskRutabhaShaayaaH adyaapikaa asti| saa kaalidaasasya naaTakaan, vRukShasya adhaH
paaThayati |
She is my teacher of Sanskrit language. She teaches Kaalidaasas dramas, under a tree .

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PrakaashaH:
|! |l'|||
aho! ramaNiyam|
Wow! Splendid.

KiraNaH:
|| -|||
aam| satyam|
Yes. True.

PrakaashaH:
-| +|| -|||-| +||| ||7|l| ||||
astu bhoH| samayasya abhaavaH| aagachChaami taavat|
Alright. Scarcity of time. Will be back then.

KiraNaH:
-|, 7|+| +|||
astu, shubhaM bhUyaat|
Alright, may all be well.
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7| |||| (shabda ma~njUShaa) Vocabulary


hari om

- Hello

suprabhaatam

- good morning

namaste

- Salutations

bhavaan

-
you (addressing with respect,
male)

bhavatI

-
you (addressing with respect,
female)

bhavataH

-
your (addressing with respect,
male)

bhavatyaaH

-
your (addressing with respect,
female)

shrIman

- respected sir

shrImatI

- respected madam
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astu

- Ok

mastu

- not ok

aam

- Yes

na

- No

tarhi

- Then

dhanyavaadaH

- thank you

kShamyataam

- excuse me / sorry

kaH

- who (male)

kaa

- who (female)

kim

- What


kutra

- Where

kadaa

- When

kimartham

- Why
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shvaH

- tomorrow

adya

- today / now

hyaH

- yesterday

mama

- My

aham

- I

tvam

- You

tava

- Your

saH

- He

saa

- She

tava

- Your

api

- Also

asti

- have/be/exist
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subhaaShita 1:
|

||
-

Transliteration:
takShkasya viShaM dante makShikaayaashcha mastake |
vRushchikasya viShaM puchche sarvaange durjanasya cha ||
- chaaNakya nIti

Meaning of the subhAShita:
The teeth of a snake are poisonous, so is the bees head. The tail of a scorpion is poisonous whereas durjana (evil
doer) has poison in all parts of his body.
Connotation:
Animals have poison in different parts of their body as a mode of protection from their predators. They have it
only in a particular part of their body, like - a snake in its teeth, a bee in its head (the sting is located in its head)
and a scorpion in its tail. Also, they don't use it unless provoked. But an evil doer has poison in all parts, in the
sense that his thought, actions, words, intentions, etc are all poisonous. (Many a times, he doesn't even need to be
provoked). Beware of them!

pada vigrahaH:
|
takShkasya viShaM dante makShikaayaaH cha mastake |

||
vRushchikasya viShaM puchche sarva a~nge durjanasya cha ||
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subhaaShita 2:

||

Transliteration:
hastasya bhUShaNaM daanaM satyaM kaNThasya bhUShaNaM |
shrotrasya bhUShaNaM shaastraM bhUShaNaiH kiM prayojanam ||

Meaning of the subhAShita:
The adornment of the hand is giving; embellishment of the throat is the truth; enhancement of the ear is good
counsel (scriptures); what is the use/need for (other) ornaments?

Connotation:
To look pretty, one may consider decking themselves up with necklaces, bracelets, ear rings, toe rings, finger rings,
what else and what not! That is what is promoted (by the media) all around, in every which way possible. The
poet opines that these are futile and worthless. The true adornments are totally different!

The true adornment for a hand is not a shiny bracelet, but the act of giving. Giving something to the needy,
assisting someone in their hardships, extending a hand of assurance to someone in distress. The true act of giving
is done in discretion. It is not advertised to the world with cameras, photos and pictures. It is done with no
expectations in return either. That beautifies the hand.

The purpose of the throat or neck is not to hang a sparkling necklace around! Truth is the true embellishment for
the neck. How can one tell small white lies here and there, a couple big ones somewhere... and hope to achieve the
eternal purpose of life - the quest for truth!! Speaking the truth always is the very purpose of having a voice.

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Flashy ear rings may entice the eye from the outside. But the reason these sense organs were given to us was, to
perceive the scriptures. Listen to good counsel and put them to use. That enhances the both the presence and
purpose of the ears.

Beauty is skin deep. External ornaments can only beautify so much. Beautify the soul from the inside with these
true adornments and that lasts forever.

pada vigrahaH:

|
hastasya bhUShaNaM daanaM satyaM kaNThasya bhUShaNaM |

||
shrotrasya bhUShaNaM shaastraM bhUShaNaiH kiM prayojanam ||
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Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit
Lesson 2 Homework

Write the ShaShThI vibhakti of the following words

Words in 1st case Meanings

- Words in 6th case Meanings
1

ajaH goat

-

ajasya goat's
2

gajaH elephant

-

gajasya elephant's
3

siMhaH lion

-

siMhasya lion's
4

khagaH bird

-

khagasya bird's
5

ChaatraH student

-

Chaatrasya student's



6

kanyaa girl

-

kanyaayaaH girl's
7

aashaa
wish (a girl's
name)

-

aashaayaaH aasha's
8

naukaa boat

-

naukaayaaH boat's
9

chinttaa anxiety

-

chinttaayaaH anxiety's
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10

devataa goddess

-

devataayaaH godess's



11

uttaram answer

-

uttarasya answer's
12

akSharam alphabet

-

akSharasya alphabet's
13

netram Eye

-

netrasya eye's
14

jalam water

-

jalasya water's
15

phalam fruit

-

phalasya fruit's
16

dhanam money/wealth

-

dhanasya wealth's

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Translate to sanskrit

samkRute (in sanskrit) transcript
1 elephant's eye

gajasya netram
2 goddesss wealth

devataayaaH dhanam
3 fruit of anxiety

chintaayaaH phalam
4 student's alphabet

Chaatrasya akSharam
5 girl's boat

kanyaayaaH naukaa
6 bird's eye

khagasya netram
7 lion's ear

siMhasya karNam
8 Aashaa's neck

aashaayaaH kaNTham



Correct the errors

phrases (in sanskrit) meaning corrected sentences
1
,
this (he) is raama,
his sister
,
2
,
this (she) is sitaa,
her deer
,
3
,
this (he) is shyaama,
his book
,
4
,
this (he) is a teacher,
his knowledge
,
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5

,
this is a tree,
it's fruit
| |+|,
6
,
this is a forest,
it's lion
,
7
,
this (she) is ushaa,
her daughter
,
8
,
this (he) is gopaala,
his daughter
,

above pharases in transcription

1 eShaH raamaH, tasyaaH bhaginI
this (he) is raama,
his sister eShaH raamaH, tasya bhaginI
2 eShaa sItaa, tasya hariNaH
this (she) is sitaa,
her deer eShaa sItaa, tasyaaH hariNaH
3 eShaH shyaamaH, tasyaaH pustakam
this (he) is shyaama,
his book eShaH shyaamaH, tasya pustakam
4 eShaH adhyaapakaH, tasyaaH j~naanam
this (he) is a teacher,
his knowledge eShaH adhyaapakaH, tasya j~naanam
5 etat vRukShaM, tasyaaH phalam
this is a tree,
it's fruit eShaH vRukShaH, tasya phalam
6 etat vanaM, tasya siMhaH
this is a forest,
it's lion etat vanaM, tasya siMhaH
7 eShaa uShaa, tasya sutaa
this (she) is ushaa,
her daughter eShaa uShaa, tasyaaH sutaa
8 eShaH gopaalaH, tasyaaH putrI
this (he) is gopaala,
his daughter eShaH gopaalaH, tasya putrI

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Revision with a |l|| prahelikaa (riddle):
Question:


na tasyaadirna tasyaantaM madhye yastasya tiShThati |
tavaapyasti mamaapyasti yo jaanaati sa paNDitaH ||

Exposition:
Solve this (prahelikaa - riddle).

After splitting the composite words (sandhis), it could be read as -



na tasya aadiH na tasya antaM madhye yaH tasya tiShThati |
tava api asti mama api asti yaH jaanaati saH paNDitaH ||

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Meaning:
It has a '' in the beginning, '' in the end. In between sits a ''.
You have it too, I have it too, he who know is a wise man (paNDita)!

Answer:
If the clues are put together, the word comes out to be ''! means 'eye'. It starts
with a 'na' and ends with a 'na', has a 'ya' in between. You have it and I have it too. That
would be an eye! That is the answer!
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|||| l|+|l. -|||| l|+|l, |||l'|, |'||l| | (prathamaa vibhakti, saptamI vibhakti, aakaaraNi,
varNaani cha) first case, seventh case examples, shapes and colors too:

Colors

Shapes

raktaH

- Red

chaturbhujaH

- square

nIlaH

- Blue

vartulaH

- circle

haritaH

- Green

trikoNaH

- triangle

pItaH

- Yellow

aayataH

- rectangle

naara~ngaH

- Orange


pi~ngalaH

- Brown

paaTalaH

- Pink

dhUmalaH

- Purple

dhUsaraH

- Grey


kRuShNaH

- Black

shwetaH

- White

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, (prathamaa, saptamI vibhakti) 1st and 7th case examples

1st case meaning

7th case meaning
1

kaalaH time

-

kaale in time
2

graamaH village

-

graame in the village
3

nagaraH city

-

nagare in the city
4

vidyaalayaH school

-

vidyaalaye in the school
5

aashramaH hermitage

-

aashrame in the hermitage
6

koshaH pocket

-

koshe in the pocket
7

raamaH raama

-

raame in raama
8

karaH hand

-

kare in hand
9

paadapaH plant

-

paadape in the plant
10

sUryaH sun

-

sUrye in the sun
11

alasaH lazy

-

alase in the lazy
12

samudraH sea

-

samudre in the sea
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13

bhagavadgItaa bhagavadgItaa

-

bhagavadgItaayaam in the gItaa
14

meghaa cloud

-

meghaayaam in the cloud


15

jananI mother

-

jananyaam in the mother


16

vIthI street

-

vIthyaam in the street


17

ga~ngaa ganges

-

ga~ngaayaam in the ganges


18

shaakhaa branch

-

shaakhaayaam in the branch


19


pRuthivI earth

-

pRuthivyaam on earth
20

sabhaa assembly

-

sabhaayaam in the assembly

21

saMskRutam Sanskrit

-


saMskRute in Sanskrit
22

modakam sweet dish



-

modake in the sweet dish
23

kShetram field

-

kShetre in the field
24

j~naanam knowledge

-

j~naane in the knowledge
25

vadanam face

-

vadane in the face
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Choose the correct answer:














1. ||+|| ||| ||| l-| rakte chaturbhuje nIlaH vartulaH asti|

2. ||| ||+|| ||| l-| nIle chaturbhuje raktaH vartulaH asti|

3. ||| ||| ||+|| l-| nIle vartule raktaH chaturbhujaH asti|





|| (uttaram) - 1
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1. l| ||| ||| l||'| l-| harite vartule nIlaH trikoNaH asti|

2. ||| l||'| l| ||| l-| nIle trikoNe haritaH vartulaH asti|

3. ||| ||| l| l||'| l-| nIle vartule haritaH trikoNaH asti|






|| (uttaram) - 3
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1. ||| ||| l| l||'| l-| pIte aayate haritaH trikoNaH asti|

2. l| ||| ||| l||'| l-| harite aayate pItaH trikoNaH asti|

3. l| l||'| ||| ||| l-| harite trikoNe pItaH aayataH asti|







|| (uttaram) - 3
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Recap:













||+|| ||| ||| l-| rakte chaturbhuje nIlaH vartulaH asti|
In the red square, is a blue circle.

||| ||| l| l||'| l-| nIle vartule haritaH trikoNaH asti|
In the blue circle, is a green triangle.

l| l||'| ||| ||| l-| harite trikoNe pItaH aayataH asti|
In the green triangle, is a yellow rectangle.

||| |||... l|l| ||l-|! pIte aayate kimapi naasti!
In the yellow rectangle. there is nothing .
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Indeclinables

|, ||, ||, |0|, | s||l (atra, tatra, purataH, pRuShThataH, kutra, ityaadi)


atra

- here

tatra

- there

purataH

- in front


pRuShThataH

- at the back


kutra

- where


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Conversation: (using the indeclinables, questions, 6
th
and 7
th
case)
Nikhitaa:
||, || |||| |
ambaa, mama lekhanI kutra?
Mother, where is my pen?

Mother:
|| | l-| ||
tatra eva asti khalu?
It is there only, isnt it?

Nikhitaa:
||, | ||l| ||l-|
ambaa, atra kutraapi naasti|
Mother, it is nowhere here.

Mother:
||l||| |l, ||-| |l, ||l||||...
utpIThikaayaaH upari, ma~nchasya upari, kapaaTikaayaam...
On top of the table, on top of the cot, in the cabinet

Nikhitaa:
||l| ||l-| ||!
kutraapi naasti ambaa!
It is not there anywhere mother!

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Mother:
|-|-| | l-| ||, ||| | |l||| || sl| |7||
pustakasya adhaH asti vaa, athavaa adha patitaa vaa iti pashyatu|
Is it under the book, or see if it has fallen down.

Nikhitaa:
|-|-| | l| ||l-| | | |l||| l|
pustakasya adhaH api naasti| adhaH na patitaa api|
It is not under the book also. It hasnt fallen down also.

Mother:
l|| |||||
pituH lekhanIdhare?
In fathers penholder?

Nikhitaa:
l|| ||||| l| ||l-|
pituH lekhanIdhare api naasti|
It is not in fathers penholder also.

Mother:
s7|||-| ||0, |-| ||, ||| |-| -||...
Ishaanasya prakoShThe, tasya koShe, athavaa tasya syUte...?
In Ishaans room, his case, or his bag?


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Nikhitaa:
-||| ||'| |||| ||l| ||l-|....
sarvatra anveShaNaM kRutavatI| kutraapi naasti....
I searched everywhere. It is not anywhere.

||, ||! |||| |||| | 7||||| |l |-|||
aam, ambaa! lekhanI praaptaa| atra shayyaayaaH upari aasIt|
Yes, mother! Found the pen. It is here on the bed.

Mother:
|||| || |7|, | -||||l|, || ||'| |l|
praaptaa vaa? pashya, ekatra sthaapayati, anyatra anveShaNaM karoti|
Found is it? See, you keep in one place, search in another.

l| |-|, -|-||l| |l | -|l| | | |||l| ||
api vatse, sasyaani bahiH eva santi| antaH na aanayati vaa?
Also dear, the saplings are outside only. Will you not get them in?

Nikhitaa:
||, ||l| -|-||l| | |||||l|
ambaa, etaani sasyaani kutra aaropayaami?
Mother, where shall I plant these seedlings?



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|-| || ||| |-| |0|
gRuhasya purataH athavaa gRuhasya pRuShThataH?
In front of the house or behind the house?

Mother:
|l|| || |||||
mallikaaM purataH aaropayatu|
Plant the jasmine in the front.

7|||-|-||l| |0| |||||l|
shaakaasasyaani pRuShThataH aaropayaami|
Will plant the vegetable plants in the back.

Nikhitaa:
-| ||, |l|
astu ambaa, karomi|
Alright mother, will do so.


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Vocabulary:


chintaa maastu

- don't worry

saadhu saadhu

- good, good/ very good


kRupayaa

- please

?
kushalam vaa?

- doing well?


kutrataH

- from where

tathaiva astu

- so be it

samIchInam

- good

kila

- is it
?
kimanyat?

- what else?

sarvathaa

- certainly

labdham

- found

samaaptam

- done/finished
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idaanIm

- right now

tadaanIm

- then

aavashyakam

- necessary

smarati

- remember

vismarati

- not remember/forget

evameva

- just/just like that

tadanantaram

- after that

nissa~nkocham

- without hesitation

a~ngIkRutam

- agreed

maa

- don't

prayatnam

- try

shakyate

- possible

tathaa

- thus/so
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kiyat

- how much

eva

- thus

kimapi

- anything

prayojanam

- use

uchitam

- appropriate/correct/free

ekavaaram

- one time/once
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SubhaaShita of the day:


-

Transliteration:
vane raNe shatrujalaagnimadhye
mahaarNave parvatamastake vaa
suptaM pramattaM viShamasthitaM vaa
rakShanti puNyaani puraakRutaani
- neetishataka

Meaning of the subhAShita:
In a forest, in a battle, amongst enemies, amidst water or fire, in a vast ocean or on the tip of a mountain, while
asleep, awake or in danger - virtuous deeds from the past are the protectors.

Commentary:
As you sow, so shall you reap!

If one has performed virtuous deeds in the past, the fruit of those deeds will come to his rescue in times of trouble.
puNya (pure, holy deeds) is as if, it were a bank. If we have a positive balance, we could withdraw cash in times of
need. If it is already marked in red with a negative balance, there is no way that we can count on getting any
returns from that account.
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When a person is facing any kind of calamities, natural or manmade, he does not have to worry about coming out
of the situation. His prior deeds of virtue will bring him out unscathed, at the end of the tunnel.

Keep the faith and do good to others!

pada vigrahaH:

---
vane raNe shatru-jala-agni-madhye

-
maha arNave parvata-mastake vaa

-
suptaM pramattaM viShama-sthitaM vaa


rakShanti puNyaani puraa kRutaani
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Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit
Lesson 3 Homework

(gRuhapaaTham )

(saMskRute likhantu) - Write in Sanskrit



1 in the green tree -


harite vRukShe
2 in the mountain -

parvate
3 in the pink circle -

paaTale vartule
4 behind the house -


gRuhasya pRuShThataH
5 in the school -

paaThashaalaayaam
6 in the pen -

lekhanyaam
7 in the purple bag -

dhUmale syUte
8 here or there -

atra vaa tatra vaa
9 Anywhere -


Kutraapi
10 under the book -

pustakasya adhaH

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(swavaakyaan rachayantu) - Make your own sentences
1


kutra

-

?
mama syUtaM kutra asti?
2

atra

-

atra sarve pratibhaashaalinaH|
3

tatra

-

gaNakayantraM tatra asti|
4

anyatra

-

anyatra anveShaNaM karomi|
5

sarvatra

-


haritaaH vRukShaaH sarvatra santi|
6

eva

-

saa eva vidyaalayasya adhyaapikaa|
7

api

-

saH api pustakaM paThati|
8

vaa

-
?
bhavatI phalam ichChati vaa rasam ichChati?
Meanings
1 Where is my bag? 5 Green trees are everywhere.
2 Everyone here is talented. 6 He himself is the school's teacher.
3 The is a computer there. 7 He also reads the book
4 I will search elsewhere. 8 You (feminine, addressed with respect) like fruit or juice?

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(arthaan likhantu) - Write the meanings

1

There is a flower in the creeper.
2

A student studies in the university.
3


Monkey lives in the tree.
4
|
Boy plays on the sea shore.
5

Vehicle moves on the road
6

Fruits are in a store/shop.
1 lataayaaM puShpam asti| There is a flower in the creeper.
2 ChaatraH vidyaalaye paThati| Student studies in the university.
3 vaanaraH vRukShe vasati| Monkey lives in a tree.
4 baalakaH samudratIre krIDati| Boy plays in the sea shore.
5 yaanaM maarge sa~ncharati| Vehicle moves on the road
6 aapaNe phalaani santi| There are fruit in the store/shop.

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Parts of the body:
eye

netram
nose

naasikaa
mouth

mukham
ear

karNaH
head

shiraH
hair

keshaH
cheek

kapolaH
chin

chibukam
neck

kaNThaH
stomach

udaram
hand

hastaH
finger
((
a~ngulI (hastaa~ngulI)
leg

paadaH
toe
((
a~ngulI (paadaa~ngulI)
knee

jaanu
face

aananam
shoulder

skandhaH
tongue
l|5|
jihvaa
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The popular rhyme:
Head shoulders knees and toes
Knees and toes
Eyes and ears and mouth and nose
Head shoulders knees and toes.

Translated to saMskRutam, by me

, ,



, ,



, ,

,

, ,



shiraH skandhau jaanu a~ngulyaH
jaanu a~ngulyaH


shiraH skandhau jaanu a~ngulyaH
jaanu a~ngulyaH



netre karNau mukhaM naasikaa


shiraH skandhau jaanu a~ngulyaH
jaanu a~ngulyaH

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Numbers

1

ekam
2

dve
3

trINi
4

chatvaari
5

pa~ncha
6

ShaT
7

sapta
8

aShTa
9

Nava
10

Dasha
Days of the week


bhaanuvaasaraH Sunday

somavaasaraH Monday

ma~ngalavaasaraH Tuesday

budhavaasaraH Wednesday

guruvaasaraH Thursday

shukravaasaraH Friday

shanivaasaraH Saturday

adya Today

hyaH Yesterday

parahyaH Day before yesterday

praparahyaH Day before, day before yesterday

shwaH Tomorrow

parashwaH Day after tomorrow

praparashwaH Day after, day after tomorrow
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Questions:
1. u +|||||-| ||, %|........................
adya bhaanuvaasaraH chet, shvaH ........................

2. %| -|||||-| ||, |%|........................
shvaH somavaasaraH chet, parashvaH ........................

3. |%| 7|+||-| ||, ||%| ........................
parashvaH shukravaasaraH chet, praparashvaH ........................

4. ||||-| ||, u........................
hyaH budhavaasaraH chet, adya ........................

5. mU qsuxU ci, A ........................
parahyaH ma~ngalavaasaraH chet, adya ........................

6. 7|l|||-| ||, %|........................
hyaH shanivaasaraH chet, shvaH ........................

7. -||| l| l||l| -|l|
saptaahe kati dinaani santi?

8. ||| l| || -|
aanane kati netre staH?
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9. Wxi Mi Asr xli?
haste kati a~ngulyaH santi?

10. mSr Mi Asr -|l|
paadayoH kati a~ngulyaH santi?


(1. If today is Sunday, tomorrow is........................
2. If tomorrow is Monday, day after tomorrow is........................
3. If day after tomorrow is Friday, day after day after tomorrow is........................
4. If yesterday was Wednesday, today is........................
5. If day before yesterday was Tuesday, today is........................
6. If yesterday was Saturday, tomorrow is........................
7. In a week how many days are there?
8. In the face how many eyes are there?
9. In the hand, how many fingers are there?
10. In the hand, how many fingers are there?)






Answer Key: -|||||-|: qsuxU: 7|l|||-|: |||-|: |||-|: -|||||-|: -||: : ||: 7|
(somavaasaraH; ma~ngalavaasaraH; shanivaasaraH; guruvaasaraH; guruvaasaraH; somavaasaraH; sapta; dve; pa~ncha; dasha)
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Riddle:



kRuShNamukhI na maarjaarI dvijihvaa na cha sarpiNi |
pa~nchabhartaa na paa~nchaalI yo jaanaati sa paNDitaH ||

Exposition:
This verse is a (prahelikaa), a riddle. The challenge is to solve it!

-
-
kRuShNa-mukhI na maarjaarI dvi-jihvaa na cha sarpiNi |
pa~ncha-bhartaa na paa~nchaalI yaH jaanaati saH paNDitaH ||

Meaning:
Black faced, not a cat; double tongued, not a snake;
Has 5 care-takers, not draupadI (of mahaabhaarata); he who knows is a clever person.

Answer:
(lekhanI) - A Pen!

Nib of a pen is black with ink; the nib is split in the middle to allow flow of ink. The 5 fingers that hold it are its
care takers. Did you know the answer? Are you clever :).
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Present participle indeclinable:
|| (tum) is added to the root word to form infinitive. They denote purpose.
(tumun anta avyaya)


paThati

-

paThitum to read

likhati

-

lekhitum to write

vadati

-

vaktum to say

gachChati

-

gantum to go

aagachChati

-

aagantum to come

phalati

-

phalitum to bear fruit



patati

-

patitum to fall

pibati

-

paatum to drink

khaadati

-

khaaditum to eat

vikasati

-

vikasitum to bloom
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tiShThati

-

sthaatum to stay

aTati

-

aTitum to roam

chalati

-

chalitum to move

jayati

-

jetum to win

nayati

-

netum to carry/lead

shruNoti

-

shrotum to hear


pRuchChati

-

praShTum to ask

pashyati

-

draShTum to see

dadaati

-

daatum to give

karoti

-

kartum to do
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Past passive participles indeclinables:
4|| (ktvaa) is added to the root word of one verb, to indicate one job done and starting another.

(ktvaa pratyaya) - Past passive participles


paThati

-

paThitvaa having read

likhati

-

likhitvaa having written

vadati

-

uktvaa having said

gachChati

-

gatvaa having gone

phalati

-

phalitvaa having borne fruit

patati

-

patitvaa having fallen

pibati

-

pItvaa having drunk
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khaadati

-

bhuktvaa having eaten

tiShThati

-

sthitvaa having stayed

nayati

-

nItvaa having led/having carried

shruNoti

-

shrutvaa having heard


pRuchChati

-

pruShTvaa having asked

pashyati

-

dRuShTvaa having seen

dadaati

-

datvaa having given

karoti

-


kRutvaa having done




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Past active participles:
Adding the (ktavat) pratyaya makes these words and they have the same meaning as the verbal past tense.
They agree with the nouns gender, case and number.

(ktavat pratyaya)


Masculine

Feminine

paThati reads

paThitavaan read

paThitavatI

likhati writes

likhitavaan wrote

likhitavatI

vadati tells

uktavaan said

uktavatI

gachChati goes

gatavaan went

gatavatI

aagachChati comes

aagatavaan came

aagatavatI

aTati roams

aTitavaan roamed

aTitavatI

patati falls

patitavaan fell

patitavatI

pibati drinks

pItavaan drank

pItavatI

khaadati eats

khaaditavaan ate

khaaditavatI
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tiShThati stands/stays

sthitavaan stood/stayed

sthitavatI

nayati leads/carries

nItavaan led/carried

nItavatI

shruNoti hears/listens

shrutavaan heard/listened

shrutavatI


pRuchChati asks

pRuShTavaan asked


pRuShTavatI

pashyati sees

dRuShTavaan saw

dRuShTavatI

dadaati gives

dattavaan gave

dattavatI

karoti does

kRutavaan did


kRutavatI
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Present continuous tense:
Adding l-| to these past tense verbs, makes it Present continuous!

Ex:
l|l||||| l-| (ahaM likhitavatI asmi|)
I am writing.

-| || |||| l-| (saH kaaryaM kRutavaan asti|)
He is doing the work.

Past tense:
Adding a -| (sma) to the end of the sentence with a verb in present tense makes it past tense.

Ex:
|| ||| -||l| -| (raamaH kaanane sa~ncharati sma|)
raama used to roam in the forest.

-| ||| -||| +|l| -| (saH baalye sarvadaa krIdati sma|)
He always used to play in his childhood.

7||||-||| 7|||| l|0|l| -| (ahaM shaalaasamaye sheeghram uttiShThaami sma|)
I used to wake up early in school time.
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|| || (laghu kathaa) Short Story:
7|||| l-| -| 7|||| || |7l| l|||-|||, |+|+||| | || |7l|
ekaH shRugaalaH asti| saH shRugaalaH vanaM gachChati| pipaasayaa, bubhukShayaa cha vanaM gachChati|
There is a fox. That fox goes to the forest. Thirsty and hungry, goes to the forest.

s| |7l|, || |7l| s|-|| |7l|
itaH gachChati, tataH gachChati| itastataH gachChati|
He goes here, he goes there. He goes here and there.

|| l|l| | |+|| l|l| | |+||
tatra kimapi na labhate| kimapi na labhate|
Nothing is available there. Nothing is available.

>||| +||l| l|| +||l| -| l |l| l |l|
shraantaH bhavati| khinnaH bhavati| saH kiM karoti? kiM karoti?
He gets tired. He gets weary. What does he do? What does he do?

|||| |7|l| l+|'|| |7|l| || |7|l| |7| |7|l|
vaamataH pashyati| dakShiNataH pashyati| agrataH pashyati| pRuShTataH pashyati|
Looks to the left. Looks to the right. Looks to the front. Looks to the back.

-| |||| ||| |||| || l | |7|l| l | |7|l|
svedaH jaayate| tRuShaa jaayate| tatra kiM cha pashyati| kiM cha pashyati|
Sweat emerges. Thirst crops up. What does he see there? What else does he see?
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-| |7|l| |+|||||| || |7|l| |+||+|| |l |l |||-| 7|| | |+||
saH pashyati draakShaalataam| tatra pashyati draakShaaphalam| upari upari lataasu dRushyate cha
tatphalam|
He sees grapes. There he sees grapes. Up, up, in the creepers, sees that fruit.

|| || |-| || -| |||| -| l |l| -| l | |l|
tat dRuShTvaa tasya mukhe rasaH jaayate| saH kiM karoti? saH kiM cha karoti?
Seeing that, his mouth waters. What does he do? What else do he do?

||| ||l| l||| ||l| l|||| ||l| || || ||l|
ekavaaram utpatati| dvivaaram utpatati| trivaaram utpatati| punaH punaH utpatati|
Jumps once. Jumps twice. Jumps thrice. Jumps again and again.

-| |||| |-| >|| |||| l ||l| -| l ||l|
svedaH jaayate tasya shramaH jaayate| kiM kathayati? saH kiM kathayati?
Sweat emerges, his toil rises. What does he say? What does he say?

|| |+||+||, || |+||+|| s|| ||l| |||, ||||| | |l|! ||||| | |l|!!
'aamlaM draakShaaphalam', 'aamlaM draakShaaphalam' ityeva kathayati| kathayan, palaayanaM cha karoti!
palaayanaM cha karoti!!
Sour grapes, sour grapes, is all he declares. Saying, he runs away too! Runs away too!!

l|||-| +|| |||| ||! (viShaadasya phalam aamlameva khalu!)
Fruit of disappointment is sour indeed!
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Sanskrit Pearl to remember:

||

pustakasthaa tu yaa vidyaa parahastagataM dhanam |
kaaryakaale samutpanne na saa vidyaa na taddhanam ||

Meaning of the subhAShita:
Knowledge which is in the book, money which has passed on to another hand - in times of need, they are neither
(your) knowledge nor money.
Commentary:
Book knowledge is no knowledge. One can't claim the knowledge, that is in his book, as his own! In a time critical
situation, one can't refer to his book before acting. One's intellect should be the store house for his knowledge.
Only then can he proclaim mastery over that vidyaa. Similarly, one may be wealthy to the brim. But if he has
given away the possession, he can't claim it back because he needs it again.

Store thy assets where they belong. Or, they may not be thine in times of need!

pada vigrahaH:
|
pustakasthaa tu yaa vidyaa para hasta gataM dhanam |

||
kaaryakaale samutpanne na saa vidyaa na tat dhanam ||
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Sanskrit Pearl to remember:
|
||
- ,

aachaaryaat paadamaadatte paadaM shiShyaH svamedhayaa |
kaalena paadamaadatte paadaM sabrahmachaaribhiH ||
- mahaabhaarata, udyogaparva

Meaning of the subhAShita:
A (student acquires a) quarter from the teacher, a quarter from his own intelligence, a quarter over time, a quarter
from classmates.

Commentary:
For one's learning, sources are many. He cannot rely just upon a teacher to prepare a potion of the lessons and feed
it to him all at once. The teacher's contribution to one's learning is only twenty five percent. The other twenty five
comes from the student's own interest and perceptions. The other quarter comes over time. Although one has
learnt by heart all the chapters and scriptures, new meanings shall dawn to him over a period of time. With age
and maturity come, a deeper understanding of the concepts learnt in grade school sometimes! The last quarter
comes from his fellow mates. Due to differences in perception, they might have a different outlook. That, many a
times gives insight into the topic in a different angle. Hence, even classmates contribute to one's learning.

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Also, learning doesn't stop after graduation. Like the poet says, over time, they gain a quarter of the knowledge.
Learning is a constant process. Someone once said, I am learning all the time; my tombstone will be my diploma!
Anyone who stops learning is old; his chronological age doesn't matter. There is something new to learn every
day, if one pays attention. Learning is a treasure that follows its owner everywhere. Why not earn it with all effort!

pada vigrahaH:
- |
aachaaryaat paadam aadatte paadaM shiShyaH sva-medhayaa |

||
kaalena paadam aadatte paadaM sabrahmachaaribhiH ||
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Ending Prayer:








aum pUrNamadaH pUrNamidaM pUrNaat pUrNamudachyate
pUrNasya pUrNamaadaaya pUrNamevaavashiShyate
oum shaanti shaanti shaantiH
hariH aum
shrI gurubhyo namaH
hariH aum

Meaning
Completeness is that; completeness is this;
From that completeness, this completeness came to being;
From that completeness, when this completeness is removed,
What remains is completeness.
Samskruta Kranti- Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit 2011

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Commencement to Spoken Sanskrit
By
Mrs. Rashmi Kashi

Was brought to you with the assistance of the technology provided by
E-gurukul.net team.

Aano Bhadrah Kratavo Yantu Vishwataha - Rigveda 1-89-i

Meaning -"Let Noble Thoughts come to us from all sides'