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Vai dong v nguyn tc LCVL (trich dn)

1. Nghin cu iu kin lam vic cua chi tit - La bc xut phat cua bt c quy trinh la chon vt liu nao. iu kin lam vic cua VL se quyt inh vic vt liu nao (va x ly theo cng ngh nao) se c la chon. Nu phn tich sai iu kin lam vic se dn n la chon sai VL va CN, dn n sai hong chi tit khi lam vic, gy thit hai v mt kinh t. Phn tich v DKLV cn y u, chinh xac, khng thiu, khng tha. Thiu se dn n chi tit khng ap ng YCLV nh trn, tha se gy lang phi . Mt vi du cu th ban oc hinh dung la qua trinh phn tich DKLV cua Bu lng:

2. Chon vt liu Trn c s hiu bit cua minh v cac VL Ky thut, nha thit k tin hanh khoanh vung cac vt liu co th ap ng cac yu cu lam vic trn. Trong trng hp Bu lng chng han, cac thep kt cu Cacbon va thep kt cu HK se c nghi n u tin do kha nng ap ng cac yu cu c tinh cua san phm. Hay xem vi du la chon s b:

T la chon s b nay, nha thit k tin hanh phn tich u, nhc im cua cac VL trong cac phng an a ra. T phn tich nay, nha thit k se chon c VL hp ly v mt kinh t ky thut. Mt vi du phn tich:

So sanh u va nhc im cua hai phng an trn, d thy tinh kinh t ky thut cua PA chon u vit hn. Chu y: i vi cac thng s thuc loai Yu cu c tinh, co th tra trong cac Tiu chun v chi tit may tng ng, cac sach thit k chi tit may (VD cun Chi tit may cua Nguyn Trong Hip). Cac thng s c tinh ma VL co th at c co th tim trong sach tra cu v Gang thep cua Nghim Hung. Cac nhit nhit luyn tra trong tai liu Cng ngh Nhit luyn cua Pham Thi Minh Phng va Ta Vn Tht. 3. Vai net v thanh phn hoa hoc a ra cac thng tin c ban v thanh phn HH cua VL chon. Co th k thm cac VL tng t trong cac tiu chun My, Nga, c,.Vic tim thng tin v TPHH cung nh tim Vt liu tng t co th da trn cac sach tra cu Thep, gang cua Nghim Hung hoc Trn Vn ich. Vi HK mau co th tham khao cun Vt liu Kim loai mau cua Nguyn Khc Xng. Cac Vl theo cac tiu chun khac nhau co th co sai khac i chut v thanh phn.

iu nay co th do cng ngh ch tao VL, ngun nguyn liu hay do truyn thng s dung VL. Mt vi du v bang thng tin v VL chon (trong o co TPHH):

4. Vai tro cua cac nguyn t trong thep: Phn tich nhm lam ro anh hng cua cac nguyn t ti t chc t vi, c tinh va ch x ly nhit. Vi du:

5. Cac nhit c trng cua VL (ND chay, ti, u,(thep)), s bin i t chc khi nhit luyn Phn nay co th tham khao cun Cng ngh Nhit luyn cua Pham Thi Minh Phng, hoc cac loai s tay Nhit luyn. 6. Cng ngh nao co th ap dung va phng an thay th? - PP ch tao chi tit: Tuy thuc vt liu va hinh dang cua chi tit ma co cng ngh ch tao khac nhau. VD chi tit lam bng gang thi co th uc, chi tit lam bng thep cacbon thp va hinh dang n gian co th dung GCAL tng nng sut, - Thng thng trc khi gia cng c khi, chi tit thng qua NL s b (u, thng hoa) giam cng, tng kha nng gia cng. Sau khi gia cng, co th NL kt thuc (ti va ram) at c tinh yu cu. Mt s trng hp co th cn gia cng tinh at chinh xac kich thc. - Phng an thay th la rt cn thit, co th tham khao cach xut trn. Phng an nay se dung khi co s khan him v VL hay khi cac u im cua no cn c khai thac. Trn y la vai dong s b ban oc hinh dung v cac bc LCVL. Thi gian va trinh con han ch nn khng tranh khoi thiu sot. Mong cac ban

gop y thm. Cac ban co th ap dung cho chi tit cu th cua minh. Cac thng s co th tim thy trong cac tai liu a dn. Cac vi du trich trong cun an thit k xng nhit luyn cac loai chi tit lp xit cng cao. Cac ban co th truy cp: http://www.esnips.com/doc/30308986-1509-4cbd-9c2aaedaefa9f95a/Ban_in.mdi tai v ban Fulltext cua an nay. Chu y la ban cn co Font ting Vit vi an c vit bng VNTimes va ban cn google .mdi reader tai v chng trinh oc file .mdi. Chung ti hin ang nng cp http://vatlieubk.com nhm phuc vu ban oc ngay cang hiu qua hn na. Hy vong trang web nay se ra mt vao thang 12/2006. Chuc cac ban may mn. Blog nay se nhn yu cu cua ban thay cho http://vatlieubk.com. MES Lab. Mt gin rt quan trng i vi sv ngnh c kh , phi thuc gin ny . GIN PHA SAT CARBON (Fe - Fe3C) Hiu theo ngha n gin, thp l hp kim ca st (Fe) v Cacbon . Gin d pha Fe-C l mt loi gin phc hp m trong thp l mt thnh phn trong gin ny, nhng y ta ch quan tm ti hm lng Fe3C khng qa 7%, vi hm lng Fe3C ln hn gi tr ny s khng c ngha s dng.

Gin pha st cacbon Cc pha trong gin pha Fe-Fe3C a-Ferrit - dung dch rn ca C trong Fe mng BCC l trng thi n nh nhit phng hm lng C ho tan ti a khong 0,022% nhit chuyn bin thnh (Fe mng lp phng tm mt-FCC) ti nhit 912C. Austenit dung dch rn ca C trong Fe mng lp phng din tm (BCC) hm lng C ha tan ti a trong Fe l 2,14% nhit chuyn bin sang Ferrit mng lp phng th tm l 1395C. l t chc khng n nh khi lm ngui nhanh xung di ng chuyn bin cng tch A1 - 727C d-Ferrit dung dch rn ca C trong Fe mng lp phng th tm (BCC) c cu trc tng t v a-Ferrit l t chc n nh trn nhit 1394C nng chy nhit 1538C. Fe3C (Cacbit hay Xmentt(X))

y l hp cht lin kim gi n, n tn ti dng hp cht nhit phng, nhng chng b phn hu thnh alpha-Fe v C-graphit (rt chm, trong vng mt vi nm) khi gi chng nhit 650-700C Dung dch Fe - C trng thi lng Mt dng y khc ca gin pha Fe-Fe3C Mt vi nhn xt v h Fe-Fe3C C chim mt lng nh nh tp cht xen k trong st dng cc pha a, b, g trong st. Lng ho tan cacbon ti a trong pha a-BCC l 0,022% 727C, do mng lp phng tm khi c kch thc l hng (v tr xen k) nh hn so vi mng lp phng tm mt. Lng C ho tan trong Austenite (mng lp phng tm mt) l 2,14% 1147C do mng ny c kch thc l hng (v tr xen k) ln hn so vi mng lp phng tm khi. *C tnh: Xmentt c tnh cng dn, khi c mt trong thp s lm tng bn cho thp. C tnh cn ph thuc ht hay cu trc vi m cng nh tng quan gia F v X. *T tnh: Ferrit c t tnh nhit di 768C (cn gi l nhit Curie), Austenite hon ton khng c t tnh. Phn loi: da vo cc c im trn ta phn ra lm ba loi hp kim nh sau: St non: cha hm lng C di 0,008% trong pha a-Ferrite nhit phng. Thp: cha hm lng C t 0,008% - 2,14% (thng <1%) t chc gm aferrite v X nhit thng. Gang: cha hm lng C t 2,14 - 6,17% (thng < 4, 5% C)