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INTRODUCTION

Decades of Illegal Logging, some countries and even provinces, have the same problems related to the prevention of Illegal Logging, the same problem that has never been resolved over the decades. Different countries have different laws regarding to the Illegal Logging. It is considered as a serious crime for the natural resources. Apart from the environment destruction, Illegal Logging displaces wildlife and also people. We have to admit, that in this modern days, Illegal Logging has afflicted many parts of the country. Destroying wildlife, and livelihood of many people. Threatening biodiversity and causing environmental hazards.

ILLEGAL LOGGING:
The DEFINITION

-Illegal logging is not a clearly defined term, but can be described as forestry practices or activities connected with wood harvesting, processing and trade that do not conform to law. Illegalities occur right through the chain from source to consumer, the harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including corrupt means to gain access to forests, extraction without permission or from a protected area, cutting of protected species or extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits. Illegalities may also occur during transport, including illegal processing and export as well as misdeclaration to customs, before the timber enters the legal market. -Illegal Logging is the practice of harvesting trees and transporting logs from forestlands to wood-manufacturing facilities with out permission.

Other examples of illegal logging are:


y y y y y

Underreporting harvest volumes and tax payable Ignoring selective cutting guidelines Harvesting outside concession boundaries Falsifying log transport documents Accepting falsified log transport documents

Timber can also be considered illegal if the plantations are not properly managed. This includes:
y y y y

Clear-cutting natural forest, then failing to replant Not planting at rates required to maintain long-term production Replanting with low-quality species Replanting at low density

Thus the definition covers many areas. Furthermore, discrepancies exist between
countries in defining illegality. The Royal Institute for International Affairs states in its report that common definitions of illegality are needed if the timber is to be effectively controlled. Illegal logging is rife in all the major tropical timber producing countries. In Indonesia over 70 per cent of log production is derived from illegal sources, which is equivalent to 50 million cubic metres of timber every year. -Illegal Logging is when a company or person cuts down trees for logs with out permission or in a protected environment or when a logging company uses illegal means to cut. For example clear cutting may be illegal in some areas and a logger would clear cut.

THE EFFECTS
Unlawful cutting of trees has devastating impact on the worlds forests. Its effects includes declination of forest resources which causes loss of biodiversity, instability and massive erosion of upland sail, serious damage to our river and underground fresh water ecosystem, flood and fueling climate change. In the Philippines, decades of Illegal logging contributed to the devastating wrought of storms. With thousands of innocent people lost their lives due to floods and landslides, and the blame has fallen on Illegal Loggers who have stripped hillsides bare and turned green forest into death traps. This is a sign, that Illegal Loggers have already dominion over the Philippine Forests. Illegal Logging is the main cause of landslides, mudslides, flash floods, and Global warming. -There will be no mudslides if the mountains have adequate forest cover. -There will be no Landslides if the forest is abundant of trees to holds the soil to make it stronger. -There will be no flash floods if we dont remove the trees which sip the water to prevent to harm the people. Global Warming in mainly caused by too much carbon dioxide that traps heats and making it more hot to melt the ice in North and South Pole. Trees use carbon dioxide to make their food. If there are many trees, they will prevent carbon carbon dioxide to go up in our atmosphere.

The three main situations of Illegal Logging.


- First in line are activities with pure criminal nature. This includes logging without official permissions, timber theft, falsification of documents, usage of violence against local inhabitants, gross law violation by authorities and corruption. - Next are mass illegal activities in forest by poor people, looking for satisfaction of their basic needs - food and fuel. Some of these practices are forest infringement, forest conversion for agricultural usage and illegal trafficking. -Last are activities due to lack of law enforcement. The consequences can be devastating: illegal and unsustainable legal logging contributes to deforestation (directly and by opening forests up to other destructive activities), destroying the world's greatest reservoirs of biodiversity, and hastening climate change. It is directly implicated in "natural" disasters such as landslides (e.g., the recent devastating landslides in the Philippines) and flooding. Floods and landslides have been widely blamed on illegal logging. Illegal logging is a pervasive problem throughout the world and unlawful cutting of trees has devastating impact on the worlds forest. Its effects includes declination of forest resources which causes loss of biodiversity, instability and massive erosion of upland soil, serious damage to our river and underground freshwater ecosystem, flood and fueling climate change. In the Philippines,

decades of illegal logging contributed to the devastating wrought by storms. With thousands of innocent people lost their lives due to floods and landslides, as well as all other ecological disasters through the years, blame has fallen on illegal loggers who have stripped hillsides bare and turned green forests into death traps. Illegal logging is a major factor in flood devastation of Philippines.

Furthermore, illegal logging contributes to deforestation and by extension global warming, causes loss of biodiversity and undermines the rule of law. These illegal activities undermine responsible forest management, encourage corruption and tax evasion and reduce the income of the producer countries, further limiting the resources producer countries can invest in sustainable development. Illegal logging has serious economic and social implications for the poor and disadvantaged. Furthermore, the illegal trade of forest resources undermines international security, and is frequently associated with corruption, money laundering, organized crime, human rights abuses and, in some cases, violent conflict. In the forestry sector, cheap imports of illegal timber and forest products, together with the non-compliance of some economic players with basic social and environmental standards, destabilize international markets.

IN THE PHILIPPINES

Illegal logging a major factor in flood devastation of the Philippines

Decades of illegal logging, unusually high rainfall and geography have all contributed to the devastation wrought by storms that have lashed the Philippines. With hundreds dead or missing in floods and landslides in Quezon, Nueva Ecija and Aurora provinces, blame has fallen on illegal loggers who have stripped hillsides bare and turned lush green forests into death traps. Geography has played its part too. The Philippine archipelago of some 7,000 islands sits astride Southeast Asia's typhoon belt and is usually the first country to be hit by typhoons from the Pacific Ocean. Infanta, one of the hardest-hit areas, is usually the first port of call for an average of 19 typhoons and tropical storms that hit the Philippines every year. With many in the government blaming illegal logging for the current disaster, Former President Gloria Arroyo ordered a nationwide crackdown. "Illegal logging must now be placed in the order of most serious crimes against our people,"

"The series of landslides and flashfloods that hit several parts of the country should serve as a wake up call for us to join hands in preserving our environment and stepping up reforestation." "For years the department of environment and natural resources has failed to go after the illegal loggers operating in many parts of the country," The country had still not learned the lessons from landslides and flooding in 1991 on the island of Leyte which left thousands dead. "Illegal logging was found to be the main contributor to that disaster,"

Since the 1970s, the rapid depletion of timber stocks in the Philippines has led to a shift in emphasis from timber harvesting and utilisation to protection, development and conservation of forest land. The Master Plan for Forestry Development outlines general goals of conserving forest ecosystems and genetic resources, whilst meeting peoples needs for forestry products in a sustainable manner, and promoting social justice.

A Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) programme is in place to provide more equitable distribution of opportunities, income and wealth to local people. The programme allocates tracts of state forest to communities to manage. Community rights and responsibilities are agreed with the government through a CBFM agreement.

Deforestation and land degradation are serious problems, caused by decades of intensive logging, agricultural expansion, inequitable land distribution and failed policies. The government established more than 270 protected areas, encompassing more than 4.2million ha, and forest conservation areas now cover an estimated 2.7million ha. Logging is banned in old growth forests and on steeply sloping areas, but a recent FAO study concluded that the government is struggling to implement this.

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) recognises that combating illegal logging requires strengthening forest protection measures and law enforcement efforts, and monitoring the activities of illegal forest occupants. The CBFM programme tries to engage illegal loggers in forest protection measures.

In May 2008 the government instructed all governors to intensify efforts to combat illegal logging and to arrest and charge illegal loggers in their provinces, and in June 2008 shut down 60 illegal mini sawmills. Representatives from NGOs and churches have called for more action against the loggers. However, there have been suggestions that some regional authorities are complicit in illegal logging operations. Forests in the tropics have a rich biodiversity. More than fifty percent of all the plants and animals in the world are to be found in the rainforests. More than 3500 species of plants and animals! The constantly high temperatures and the continuously high humidity in the tropics make this biodiversity possible. The temperature is in most tropical rainforests between 25 and 35 degrees Celsius. Unfortunately, the forests are threatened. David Orr correctly observed that if

today is a typical day on planet earth, we will lose about 30,000 hectares of rainforests, or 1200 hectares per hour, or 21 hectares per minute. Worldwide only twenty percent of the original tropical forests is left. The deforestation has to be stopped to save the biodiversity and the productivity of the forest as a natural resource. If not, there will be no rainforest left in 2015. Illegalities may also occur during transport, including illegal processing and export as well as misdeclaration to customs, before the timber enters the legal market. We can separate "illegal logging" in three main situations. First in line are activities with pure criminal nature. This includes logging without official permissions, timber theft, falsification of documents, usage of violence against local inhabitants, gross law violation by authorities and corruption. Next are mass illegal activities in forest by poor people, looking for satisfaction of their basic needs - food and fuel. Some of these practices are forest infringement, forest conversion for agricultural usage and illegal trafficking. Last are activities due to lack of law enforcement. Unlawful cutting of trees has devastating impact on the worlds forest. Its effects includes declination of forest resources which causes loss of biodiversity, instability and massive erosion of upland soil, serious damage to our river and underground freshwater ecosystem, flood and fueling climate change. In the Philippines, decades of illegal logging contributed to the devastating wrought by storms. With thousands of innocent people lost their lives due to floods and landslides, the worst among them being the tragedies in Ormoc, Leyte in 1991, Aurora and Quezon Provinces in December 2004, and St. Bernard, Southern Leyte last February 2006, as well as all other ecological disasters through the years, blame has fallen on illegal loggers who have stripped hillsides bare and turned green forests into death traps.

Are we blind or are we acting like a blind? The crime of illegal logging has already destroyed much of the original forests in the Philippines. This rampant illegal logging has afflicted many parts of the country destroying the livelihood of many Filipinos, threatening biodiversity and causing environmental hazards. A decisive action is urgently needed to secure the future of our children. We must oppose all forms of forest destruction and remain vigilant and committed to protect our national patrimony.

Cultural Transformation

Mudslides, especially in a national park, do not happen if the mountains have adequate forest cover. Why were the trees removed? It is because illegal logging is rampant. And why is it rampant? Because the culture of short-term benefit for narrow individual interests is stronger than the culture to preserve the diverse ecological and economic benefits of a primary forest. Because the culture of corruption, benefiting powerful economic and political interests, is more powerful than the culture of a country governed by decent behavior and an adherence to just laws. Those who want to stop the hazards of illegal logging need to go beyond the obvious. They need to go beyond paper calculations and policies and move into the uncharted territory of cultural structures, resistance and transformation. Culture may be hidden and invisible. But its workings nevertheless have an inexorable logic that has large-scale societal impacts. A culture of destruction cannot simply be wished away. One has to introduce a new and more powerful cultural framework, including operational norms, to create the necessary development infrastructure to overcome illegal logging and stop the hemorrhage of nations coffers (Nicanor Perlas).

Education
Environmental education is vital to the survival of the Philippines. The people need to know that their actions are having a detrimental effect on the forests and environmental regulations are necessary. A main problem with environmental regulation is that people only see regulation as a limitation on their livelihood. Environmentalists and government officials must show that regulation is actually an attempt to preserve the forests to ensure that wildlife will continue to supply a sustainable future. Unfortunately, environmental education is not wide spread. Environmental education is needed to make people think about the future and ways to prevent irreversible destruction of our forests.

Legislation
Principle 11 of Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Provides that states shall enact effective environmental legislation. Environmental standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and developmental context to which they apply. Standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing countries. The current forestry policies are best interpreted and analyzed in relation to the Peoples Power Revolution (EDSA) in 1986 combined with the emergence and upsurge of environmental consciousness and influential media (Fairman 1996). Except for the Revised Forestry Code of 1975 (PD 705), most of the policies were enacted after 1986. The 1987 Philippine Constitution, the highest law of the land, lays down the tenet of natural resources management. The Executive Orders (EOs) during the first year of the Aquino administration carried executive and legislative mandates in support of forestry policies. The Republic Acts (RAs) by the Philippine Congress from the Aquino to the Arroyo regimes reflect deeply rooted concerns from the lawmakers and the executive branch on how the Philippines could conserve its forest resources and support sustainable natural resource development and management(www.fao.org).

How do the PNP Officers and Department of Environment and Natural Resources prevent the Illegal Logging in the Municipality of Gasan?

Marinduque is known as the heart of the Philippine, it is a small island in the middle of the ocean, surrounded by the big provinces, including Mindoro, Palawan, Batangas, Quezon province, and Romblon. Marinduque contains six (6) towns, Boac, Mogpog, Sta. Cruz, Torrijos, Beunavista, and GASAN. And a place of beautiful vast of landscapes and heavily forested mountain ranges. Every morning, you awaken by the sound s of breeze, and the flowing river, and the song of the birds above as a soothing lullaby. But unfortunately, the forest is threatened. On all sides of the world, we can see violence, poverty, graft and corruption, pollution, deforestation, and over population. Marinduque is one of those provinces in the country that suffers in this kind of deplorable condition. Forest in the tropics has a rich biodiversity. More than fifty percent of all the plants and animals in the world are to be found in the rainforest. But unfortunately, worldwide, only twenty percent of the original tropical forests is left caused by the unstoppable deforestation.

AN INTERVIEW

According to Dr. E. Arevalo (Biodiversity Observation Center)

Marinduque is prone to be landslide area, and the center for Deforestation activities. One that causes deforestation is Mass Illegal Activities, because this province is one of the poorest provinces in the country. In the town of GASAN, forest infringement is one of the activities of GASEOS. They convert the forest into agricultural usage as their primary source of income. Dr. E Arevalo added: The local government of the town has developed some parks and other projects that may destroyed the ecosystem. Cutting down some trees and stripped the side of some mountains just to develop a national park as a tourist spot. And they called it as Beautification Project.

According to the P.N.P. officer: They are aware of Illegal Logging activities in some areas in the town of GASAN. Moving the logs across the sea, and bring out to the wood-manufacturing facilities. But the question is how they would stop these activities if the people behind the Illegal Logging are connected to the influential and political personnel?

They Added: Farmers and other native people in Gasan have lack of education and information about Logging activity. They are committed in all forms of forest destruction. KAINGIN is the number one activity of the native settlers. They cut trees and burn the top of the mountains, just to plants vegetables, and all kinds of plants that support their daily needs. They also added: One of the main sources of income of the GASEOS is fishing, and they use small boats or canoes. Boats are usually made of large, heavy, thick woods. And the tendency of making boats is cutting old and thick trees at the forest. This will be a cumbersome in the prevention of Illegal Logging. According to Wikipedia: If Illegal Logging activities and deforestation continues, around the world, we will lose about 30,000 hectares of rainforest, or 1200 hectares per hour, or 21 hectares per minute. The deforestation has to be stopped to save biodiversity and the productivity of the forest as natural resources. It not, there will be no rainforest left in 2015.

The DUTIES OF THE P.N.P.


(Philippine National Police)

The Philippine National Police or P.N.P. also has duties and important roles to define in terms of protecting the environment. As crime busters, P.N.P. has also the power to control the Illegal Logging. They have the rights to blockade the ports and even highways to holds tractors, trucks, and barges and ships that carried logs. But unfortunately, due to lack of law enforcement, and in political issues, P.N.P. has always failed to go after the illegal loggers operating in the province. The crime of illegal logging has already destroyed much of the forest in the little province, especially in some area in the small town of Gasan. It is already afflicted the town, specially the forest. P.N.P. must oppose all forms of forest destruction, and remain vigilant and committed to protect the national matrimony. The P.N.P. officials also have duties to educate people about the effects of Illegal Logging in the environment. People needs to know how to preserve the forest to ensure that wildlife will continue to supply a sustainable future. They must show the people that their actions are having detrimental effects on the forest, and P.N.P. should issue an environmental regulation.

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES


(DENR)
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources or DENR, is must on the top who oppose the illegal activities in terms of destructions of the Environment. In the case of Illegal Logging. They have the rights to

IN THE PHILIPPINES

Illegal logging

is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in

violation of national laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits. Illegalities occur right through the chain from source to consumer, the harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including corrupt means to gain access to forests, extraction without permission or from a protected area, cutting of protected species or extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits. Illegalities may also occur during transport, including illegal processing and export as well as nondeclaration to customs, before the timber enters the legal market. Love of Nature In the Orthodox temples people sing, trying to convince God that He is forbearing and merciful But would it not be better if they give up this useless occupation and start living in accordance with Gods Principle of Love themselves? But this is impossible without Compassion for all people and every living creature, including ants, worms, plants, and many others (Vladimir Antonov) Among all creatures, humans are the only ones made in Gods image and have been given the right to have dominion over all His creations (Book of Genesis). Being the most intelligent and gifted with reason, humans are capable of manipulating creation to their own advantage. Yet, creation exists not to be ravages or abused but to be taken care of. Humans cannot exist without nature. They are co-natural with the environment they live in. If the environment they live in is destroyed, with it will go Homo Sapiens.

Earth is a very small part of the universe, but it is our home. It provides the resources that support our modern society and the ingredients necessary to maintain life such as trees. We must learn to love, conserve and protect it. Vowing to put a stop to deforestation, President Arroyo ordered yesterday the combined forces of the police and the military to put illegal loggers and their alleged financiers out of business. "Illegal logging must now be placed in the order of most serious crimes against our people," the President said in a statement. "The series of landslides and flashfloods that hit several parts of the country should serve as a wake-up call for us to join hands in preserving our environment and stepping up reforestation." Lawmakers, on the other hand, took it further by saying illegal logging masterminds should pay with their own lives for the massive death brought about by "their nefarious activities." "The tragedies caused by illegal logging should serve as a basis for the meting of death penalty on those responsible for abusing our environment," said Davao Oriental Rep. Mayo Almario. Pampanga Rep. Juan Miguel Arroyo noted existing laws have not stopped illegal logging, adding that a "reward system" should be put in place to help authorities curb illegal logging. "We have to protect not only our environment but also the lives of our people," he said. Illegal logging has caused deforestation in the past decades and has been exacerbated by a rapidly growing population and urbanization.