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ANSWERS JAWAPAN oleh banyak orang. Ia diliputi sebagai sebahagian kandungan dalam kursus biologi. – TOPICAL
ANSWERS
JAWAPAN
oleh banyak orang. Ia diliputi sebagai
sebahagian kandungan dalam kursus
biologi.
TOPICAL TEST 1
UJIAN TOPIKAL 1
Paper 1
As a standard method used
within the scientifi c community,
it facilitates communication
among scientists.
Kertas 1
Scientifi c skills include the mental
skills and action of any scientifi c
activity.
1
C
2 B
3 D
4 B
5 D
6
A
7 B
8 D
9 D
10 A
Sebagai satu kaedah standard yang
digunakan dalam komuniti saintifik,
ia memudahkan komunikasi antara
saintis.
11
D
12 C
13 A
14 B
15 C
Kemahiran saintifi k meliputi kemahiran
mental dan tindakan dalam sebarang
aktiviti sains.
(d)
– Being confi dent and independent.
16
A
17 B
18 C
19 D
20 A
Berkeyakinan dan berdikari.
– Appreciating the balance of nature.
Paper 2
Scientifi c methods help to fi nd
possible answer by following a
series of steps.
Kaedah saintifi k membantu untuk mencari
jawapan yang mungkin dengan mengikut
satu siri langkah-langkah.
Menghargai keseimbangan alam semula
jadi.
Kertas 2
– Being respectful and well mannered.
Hormat dan berkelakuan baik.
Section A
Bahagian A
1
(a)
(i)
X : Collecting data
Scientifi c attitudes and noble values
are the way we think about biology
and it guides students in a correct
way.
TOPICAL TEST 2
UJIAN TOPIKAL 2
Mengumpul data
Paper 1
Y : Analysing data
Analisis data
Z : Interpreting data
Sikap saintifi k dan nilai-nilai murni
adalah cara pemikiran kita mengenai
biologi dan membimbing pelajar dalam
haluan yang betul.
Kertas 1
1
D
2 D
3 B
4 D
5 C
Interpretasi data
(b)
(i)
Scientifi c process skills
6
B
7 C
8 A
9 C
10 C
(ii) The recorded data are organised and
represented in a more meaningful
form, such as a pie chart so that it
can be interpreted easily.
Kemahiran proses sainti fi k
11
D
12 B
13 A
14 D
15 C
Scientifi c manipulative skills
16
B
17 A
18 C
19 C
20 A
Kemahiran manipulatif saintifi k
(ii)
Process skill:
Paper 2
Data yang dicatatkan akan disusun dan
disembahkan dalam bentuk yang lebih
bermakna, seperti carta pai supaya boleh
ditafsirkan dengan lebih senang.
Kemahiran proses
Kertas 2
– Necessary for fi nding solutions
for problems
Section A
Diperlukan untuk mencari
penyelesaian bagi masalah
Bahagian A
(b)
A general statement which identifi es the
variables involved and then suggests a
possible explanation.
– Help scientists make decisions in
a systematic manner
1
(a)
(i)
S : Chloroplast
Kloroplas
Satu pernyataan umum yang mengenal pasti
pemboleh ubah terlibat dan mencadangkan
satu penerangan yang mungkin.
Membantu saintis membuat keputusan
secara sistematik
T : Vacuole
Vakuol
Manipulative skill:
(c)
Manipulated variables and responding
variables.
U : Golgi apparatus
Kemahiran manipulatif
Jasad Golgi
– helps in the acquiring of science
process skills
V : Mitochondrion
Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasikan dan pemboleh
ubah bergerak balas.
Mitokondrion
(d)
State the problem in a
concise manner.
clear and
membantu dalam memperoleh
kemahiran proses sains
W : Nucleus
Nukleus
– connect knowledge with learning
(ii)
S : Carry out photosynthesis.
Nyatakan masalah dalam bentuk yang
jelas dan padat.
menghubungkan
ilmu
dengan
Menjalankan fotosintesis
pembelajaran
Limit the problem to a single major
idea.
U
(c)
(i)
Hadkan
masalah
kepada
satu
idea
Identifying problem
utama.
Mengenal pasti masalah
: Receives protein and lipids
from endoplasmic reticulum and
modifi es them to form specifi c
secretions.
(e)
Accept the hypothesis if the results
support it.
Form hypothesis
Menerima
hipotesis
jika
keputusan
Menerima protein dan lipid dari
jalinan endoplasma dan mengubah
menjadi rembesan yang spesifik.
Membentuk hipotesis
menyokongnya.
W
Reject the hypothesis if the results
do not support it.
: Controls and regulates all the
activities of the cell.
Experiment
Menolak hipotesis jika keputusan tidak
menyokongnya.
Mengawal dan mengawalatur semua
aktiviti sel.
Eksperimen
(b)
(i)
The fl ight muscle cells of birds and
sperm cells.
Section B
Conclusion
Otot terbang bagi burung dan sel sperma.
Kesimpulan
Bahagian B
(ii)
Outer membrane
Membran luar
2
(a)
Scientifi c knowledge is the fi rst and
foremost component of Biology
that most people think about. It
is included as part of this biology
course.
Reject hypothesis
Inner
Menolak hipotesis
membrane
Membran
dalam
(ii)
It provides experimental evidence
for conclusions made.
Cristae
Krista
Ilmu saintifi k ialah komponen pertama
dan terpenting dalam biologi yang difi kir
Ia membekalkan bukti eksperimen
bagi kesimpulan yang dibuat.
Matrix
Matriks
 

(iii)

Structure V is a mitochondrion, which is a site of generating energy. Energy is required for cell activities such as cell division, excretion and respiration. If there is no organelle P, cell activities would be terminated.

 

Struktur V ialah mitokondrion, iaitu tapak penjanaan tenaga. Tenaga diperlukan untuk aktiviti sel seperti pembahagian sel, perkumuhan dan respirasi. Jika tanpa organel P, aktiviti sel akan berhenti.

 

(c)

(i)

A plant cell has cell wall.

 

Sel tumbuhan mempunyai dinding sel.

 
 

(ii)

A plant cell has a large vacuole.

 

Sel tumbuhan mempunyai satu vakuol yang besar.

 

(iii)

A plant cell has chloroplasts.

 
 

Sel tumbuhan mempunyai kloroplas.

2

(a)

X : Cilia

 
 

Silia

 

Y : Anal pore

 
 

Liang anal

 

Z : Contractile vacuole

 
 

Vakuol pengecut

 

(b)

To remove excess water which enters the Paramecium by osmosis.

 

Untuk menyingkirkan air berlebihan yang masuk Paramecium melalui osmosis.

 

(c)

– The beating of the cilia forms a water current which carries the food through the cell mouth into the gullet.

 

Pukulan silia membentuk satu arus air yang membawa makanan melalui sel mulut ke dalam alur mulut.

 

– The rhythmic and coordinated beating of the cilia from the anterior to posterior propels the protozoan to move forward.

 

Pukulan silia secara beritma dan berkoordinasi dari hadapan ke belakang menggerakkan protozoa itu ke hadapan.

 

(d)

(i)

The

macronucleus

carries

genetic

 

information.

Makronukleus

membawa

informasi

genetik.

 

(ii)

Macronucleus

 
 

Makronukleus

 
 

Macronucleus

The two nuclei divide

 

Makronukleus

Dua nukleus membahagi

 
Cytoplasm divide
Cytoplasm divide
Cytoplasm divide

Cytoplasm divide

Two daughters cell are produced

Sitoplasma membahagi

Dua sel anak dihasilkan

 

3

(a)

Heart. To pump blood to all parts of the body.

 

Jantung.

Mengepam

darah

ke

seluruh

bahagian badan.

 

(b)

Muscle

tissues,

nervous

tissues

and

 

connective tissues.

 

Tisu otot, tisu saraf dan tisu penghubung.

 
 

(c)

Tissues which are found in the skin are epithelial tissues, muscle tissue, nerve tissues and connective tissues.

 

Tisu yang dijumpai dalam kulit adalah tisu epitelium, tisu otot, tisu saraf dan tisu penghubung.

Epithelial tissues function as a protection to the underlying cells from injury.

Tisu epitelium berfungsi sebagai satu perlindungan kepada sel daripada kecederaan.

Muscle

tissue

are

used

for

the

movement

of

hair

in

the

hair

follicles.

Tisu otot digunakan untuk pergerakan rambut dalam folikel rambut.

Nerve tissues send and receive impulses from the skin to the central nervous system.

Tisu saraf menghantar dan menerima impuls dari kulit ke sistem saraf pusat.

Connective tissues such as blood, provides oxygen and nutrients to the skin.

Tisu

penghubung

seperti

darah,

membekalkan oksigen dan nutrien kepada kulit.

Section B

Bahagian B 4 (a) Mitochondria Mitokondrion Centriole Sentriol Lysosome Lisosome Nucleus Nukleus
Bahagian B
4
(a)
Mitochondria
Mitokondrion
Centriole
Sentriol
Lysosome
Lisosome
Nucleus
Nukleus

Golgi apparatus

Jasad Golgi

(b)

Organelle

Function

Organel

Fungsi

Mitochondria

Site for generating energy through aerobic respiration.

Mitokondrion

Tapak penjanaan tenaga melalui respirasi aerob.

Nucleus

Acts as a control centre for the activities of a cell and contains genetic material.

Sebagai satu pusat kawalan bagi aktiviti satu sel dan mengandungi bahan genetik.

Nukleus

Golgi

Produces glycoproteins, polysaccharides and secretory enzymes.

apparatus

Jasad Golgi

Menghasilkan glikoprotein, polisakarida dan enzim rembesan.

Lysosome

Contain enzymes that digest aged or defective cell components and materials taken in by the cell.

Mengandungi enzim yang mencernakan komponen sel yang rosak atau cacat dan bahan yang dibawa masuk ke dalam sel.

Lisosom

(c)

Animal cell

Plant cell

Sel haiwan

Sel tumbuhan

Cell wall absent

Cellulose cell wall present

Dinding sel tidak hadir

Dinding sel berselulosa hadir

Animal cell

Plant cell

Sel haiwan

Sel tumbuhan

No regular shape

Has regular shape

Tiada bentuk yang tetap

Ada bentuk yang tetap

Has none or small

Has big vacuoles

vacuole

Mempunyai vakuol yang besar

Tiada vakuol atau vakuol yang kecil

Do not have chloroplasts

Has chloroplasts

Ada kloroplas

Tiada kloroplas

Contains glycogen

Contain starch

granules

granules

Mengandungi granul

Mengandungi granul

glikogen

kanji

Paper 3

Kertas 3

1 Aim: To compare the structure of an animal cell and a plant cell.

Tujuan: Untuk membanding struktur sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan.

Problem statement: Are plant cells different from animal cells?

Pernyataan masalah: Adakah sel tumbuhan berbeza dengan sel haiwan?

Hypothesis: The structure of plant cells have certain similarities and some differences to animal cells.

Hipotesis: Struktur sel tumbuhan mempunyai persamaan dan perbezaan tertentu dengan sel haiwan.

Variables: Manipulated : cell types (epidermal cells of onion and human cheek cells)

Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasikan : Jenis sel (sel epidermis bawang dan sel pipi manusia)

Responding: cell structure

Bergerak balas : struktur sel

Constant: power of microscope

Dimalarkan : kuasa mikroskop

Apparatus: Toothpicks, a scalpel, a pair of forceps, microscope slides, cover slips, needles, a dropper, lter paper and a light microscope.

Radas: Pencungkil gigi, satu skalpel, sepasang forseps, slaid kaca, kaca penutup, jarum, satu penitis, kertas turas, dan mikroskop cahaya.

Materials: An onion bulb, Cheek cells (scraping from the inner lining of the mouth), distilled water.

Bahan: Sebiji bawang, sel pipi (mengikis bahagian dalam pipi mulut), air suling.

Cell stains: iodine solution for plant cells and methylene blue solution for animal cells.

Pewarna sel : Larutan iodin bagi sel tumbuhan dan larutan metilena biru bagi sel haiwan.

Technique: Observing and comparing the epidermal cell of onion and the cheek cells.

Teknik: Memerhati dan membanding sel epidermis bawang dan sel pipi.

Procedures: A: Observing epidermal cells of onion

Prosedur: A: Memerhati sel epidermis bawang

1 A succulent leaf of an onion bulb is cut by using a scalpel.

Sehelai daun sukulen dari satu bawang dipotong dengan menggunakan satu skalpel.

2 A piece of thin epidermis from the inside of the leaf is peeled off by using a pair of forceps.

Sekeping epidermis yang nipis dari dalaman daun dikupus dengan menggunakan sepasang forsep.

3 The piece of the epidermis in a drop of

water is placed on a microscope slide.

This is a wet mount. (Precaution: Try to avoid folding the epidermal tissue.)

Kepingan epidermis di dalam satu titisan air ditempatkan pada slaid kaca. Ini adalah bing- kai basah. (Langkah pencegahan: Cuba untuk mengelakkan tisu epidermis daripada dilipat- kan).

4 The cover slip is put carefully onto the epidermis layer using a needle to prevent the formation of air bubbles.

Kaca penutup diletakkan berhati-hati ke atas lapisan epidermis dengan menggunakan satu jarum untuk mengelakkan pembentukan gelembung udara.

5 A drop of iodine solution is added onto one side of the glass slip and the solution is allowed to spread under the glass slip by holding a piece of lter paper at the opposite end. This is known as the irrigation technique.

Setitis larutan iodin ditambahkan pada sisi kaca penutup dan membiarkan larutan merebak di bawah kaca penutup dengan memegang sekeping kertas turas pada hujung berlawanan. Ini dikenal sebagai teknik pengairan.

6 The slide is examined under a light microscope using low magni cation (x4) and then followed by higher magni cation. (x10).

Slaid diperhatikan di bawah satu mikroskop cahaya dengan menggunakan kuasa pembesaran rendah (x4) dan kemudian diikuti dengan kuasa pembesaran yang lebih tinggi

(x10).

7 The structure of an onion epidermal cell is drawn and labelled.

Struktur sel epidermis bawang dilukis dan dilabel.

B: Observing human cheek cells

B: Memerhati sel pipi manusia

1 Some tissues are scraped off gently from the inside of your cheek with a clean and at toothpick.

Sedikit tisu dilukis dengan perlahan dari bahagian dalam sel pipi dengan satu pencungkil gigi yang bersih dan rata.

2 The tissues in a drop of water is placed on a microscope slide.

Tisu dalam satu titisan air ditempatkan pada slaid mikroskop.

3 A drop of methylene blue solution is added.

Setitis larutan metilena biru ditambahkan.

4 Mount is mixed with a toothpick.

Lekapan dicampurkan dengan pencungkil gigi anda.

5 The mount is covered with a glass slip by using a needle.

Lekap ditutup dengan satu kaca penutup dengan menggunakan jarum.

6 The lter paper is placed at the edges of the cover to absorb the excess solution.

Kertas turas diletakkan pada sisi penutup untuk menyerap larutan yang berlebihan.

7 The slide is examined under a light microscope using low magni cation followed by higher magni cation.

Slaid itu diperhatikan di bawah satu mikroskop cahaya dengan kuasa pembesaran yang rendah diikuti kuasa pembesaran yang lebih tinggi.

Observation:

 

Permerhatian:

 
  Cell wall

Cell wall

Dinding sel

Nucleus

Nukleus

Cytoplasm

Sitoplasma

 

Vacuole

   

Vakuol

Cell membrane

 

Membran sel

Nucleus (stained blue by methylene blue) Nukleus (diwarnakan oleh metilena biru)

Nucleus (stained blue by methylene blue)

Nukleus (diwarnakan oleh metilena biru)

Cytoplasma

Sitoplasma

 

Discussion:

 

Perbincangan:

• Under the light microscope, both plant cell and animal cells have these cellular component: nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane.

 

Di

bawah mikroskop cahaya, kedua-dua

sel

tumbuhan dan sel haiwan mempunyai

komponen sel yang berikut: nukleus,

sitoplasma dan membran sel.

 

Plant cells have regular shape (due to the presence of cellulose wall), whereas animal cells have irregular shape.

 

Sel tumbuhan mempunyai bentuk tetap (disebabkan oleh kehadiran dinding selulosa), manakala sel haiwan tidak mempunyai bentuk tetap.

The onion epidermal cell have no chloroplast because it is a vegetative reproductive organ, found growing underground. Therefore no photosynthesis occur.

 

Sel epidermis bawang tidak mempunyai kloroplas kerana ia adalah organ pembiakan vegetatif yang dijumpai di bawah tanah. Oleh itu tiada fotosintesis berlaku.

Conclusion : The results of the experiment show that both plant cells and animal cells have certain similarities and some differences. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted.

Kesimpulan : Keputusan eksperimen menunjukkan kedua-dua sel tumbuhan dan sel haiwan mempunyai persamaan dan perbezaan tertentu. Oleh itu, hipotesis diterima.

TOPICAL TEST 3 UJIAN TOPIKAL 3

 

Paper 1

Kertas 1

1 C

2 C

3 A

4 B

5 B

6

C

7 A

8 C

9 A

10 B

11

D

12 D

13 D

14 C

15 B

16

D

17 D

18 C

19 B

20 B

21

D

22 C

23 D

24 A

25 A

Paper 2

Kertas 2

Section A

Bahagian A

1 (a)

(i)

Fluid mosaic model

 
 

Model bendalir mozek

 

(ii)

Fluid refers to the free movement of

 

proteins

and phospholipids within

the membrane.

 

Bendalir merujuk kepada pergerakan bebas protein dan fosfolipid di dalam membran.

Mosaic

refers

to

the

array

of

different protein embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.

Mozek merujuk kepada susunan protein

yang

berlainan terbenam dalam

dwilapisan fosfolipid.

 

(b)

(i)

A : Carrier protein

 

Protein pembawa

 

B

: Phospholipid

 

Fosfolipid

 

C

: Cholesterol

 

Kolesterol

 

D

: Channel protein

 

Protein liang

 

(ii)

A

  (ii) A involved in active transport and

involved in active transport and

 

facilitated diffusion.

 

A

A terlibat dalam pengangkutan aktif

terlibat dalam pengangkutan aktif

dan resapan berbantu.

 

D

allows small

allows

small

uncharged

molecules

pass

through

the

phospholipid bilayer.

 

D

D membenarkan molekul kecil

membenarkan molekul kecil

tidak bercas merentasi dwilapisan fosfolipid.

(c)

(i)

This is because it is composed of two layers of lipids with phosphate heads.

 

Ini kerana ia terdiri daripada dua lapisan lipid dengan kepala fosfat.

 

(ii)

– Acts as a barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell.

 

Bertindak

sebagai

satu

halangan

antara

persekitaran

dalaman

dan

luaran sel.

 
 

– It is selectively permeable and does not allow most molecules to pass through freely.

 

Ia adalah membran separa telap dan tidak membenarkan kebanyakan molekul melaluinya dengan bebas.

(d)

(i)

by facilitated diffusion

 
 

dengan resapan berbantu

 

(ii)

by active transport

 

dengan pengangkutan aktif

 

(iii)

by simple diffusion

 

dengan resapan ringkas

2 Water enter the cell vacuole when placed in a hypotonic solution (lower solute concentration)

(a)

 

Air masuk vakuol sel apabila diletakkan dalam larutan hipotonik (kepekatan zat

terlarut

lebih rendah)

 

The vacuole gains water, expands and the protoplast pushes up against

the cell wall.

 

Vakuol mendapat air, mengembang dan protoplas menolak ke atas dinding sel.

 

Cellulose cell walls become turgid, resist further expansion and prevents it from bursting.

 

Dinding sel berselulosa menjadi segah, menahan pengembangan seterusnya dan mengelakkannya daripada pecah.

 

(b)

Osmosis

 
 

Osmosis

 

(c)

(i)

 
   
 
 

(c)

 

(ii)

Smaller vacuole, shrinks and its size become smaller.

 

Vakuol lebih kecil, mengecut dan saiz menjadi lebih kecil.

 

(d)

Solution X : Lower solute concentration

 

hypotonic solution

 

Larutan X : Kepekatan zat terlarut lebih rendah

larutan hipotonik

 

Solution Y : Higher solute concentration

hypertonic solution

 

Larutan Y : Kepekatan zat terlarut lebih tinggi

larutan hipertonik

 

Section B

 

Bahagian B

3

(a)

(i)

The process shown is osmosis.

 

Proses

yang

ditunjukkan

ialah

osmosis.

 
 

The membrane is partially permeable, so there is a movement of water molecules, from high water concentration towards the lower water concentration.

 

Membran adalah separa telap,

terdapat pergerakan molekul air

dari

kepekatan air lebih tinggi ke

kepekatan air lebih rendah.

 
 

X contains a less concentrated solution, less solutes.

 

X

mengandungi

lebih

kurang

kepekatan

larutan,

kurang

zat

terlarut.

 

Y contains more concentrated solution, having higher solutes. Thus, water move from X to

 

Y.

Y

mengandungi

lebih

banyak

kepekatan larutan, lebih zat terlarut.

Oleh

itu , air bergerak dari X ke Y.

 

Themovementofwatermolecules down the concentration gradient is continued until a dynamic equilibrium is achieved.

 

Pergerakan molekul air mengikut kecerunan kepekatan berterusan sehingga keseimbangan dinamik tercapai.

 

(ii)

 

Passive

Active

 

Pasif

Aktif

Concentration

Down

 

Against

gradient

concentration

concentration

Kecerunan

gradient

 

gradient

kepekatan

Mengikut

Melawan

kecerunan

kecerunan

kepekatan

kepekatan

Energy

Does not

 

Need to expend energy

Tenaga

expend energy

Tidak

Memerlukan

menggunakan

penggunaan

tenaga

 

tenaga

Transport

Substances

Substances move across with the help of carrier protein

Pengangkutan

move freely

through

 

phospholipid

bilayer

 

Bahan bergerak

Bahan bergerak

merentasi dengan

secara bebas

bantuan protein

merentasi

 

pembawa

dwilapisan

fosfolipid

Substances

Oxygen, carbon

Dissolved substances in the form of ions and molecules

 

transported

dioxide, water

Bahan diangkut

molecules,

 

glucose, amino

acids

Oksigen, karbon dioksida, molekul air, glukosa, asid amino

Bahan terlarut dalam bentuk ion dan molekul

(b)

(i)

Movement of potassium ions from the villus into the cell membrane:

Pergerakan ion kalium dari vilus ke dalam sel membran:

– The

movement

is

through

 

facilitated diffusion.

 

Pergerakan adalah melalui resapan berbantu.

 

– The

K +

ions

move

down

the

 

concentration

gradient

without

expending energy.

 

Ion K + bergerak mengikut kecerunan kepekatan tanpa menggunakan tenaga.

 

– The K + ion are transported across the cell membrane by transport protein.

 

Ion K + diangkut merentasi membran sel oleh protein pengangkut.

 

– The pore in the protein molecules only allow small dissolved particles to pass through membrane.

 

Liang dalam molekul protein hanya membenarkan zarah-zarah berlarut merentasi membran.

 

– Pore proteins have specic internal characteristics that only allow specic ions such as potassium ions to diffuse across the membrane.

 

Liang protein mempunyai ciri-ciri dalaman spesi k yang hanya ion tertentu seperti ion kalium boleh meresap merentasi membran.

 

(ii) Movement of potassium ions from the cell to the blood.

Pergerakan ion kalium dari sel ke darah.

 

The movement of substances is by active transport.

 

Pergerakan

bahan

adalah

dengan

pengangkutan aktif.

 

The K + ions move against the concentration gradient.

 

Ion K + bergerak melawan kecerunan kepekatan.

 

This transport requires energy, the cell must expend its own energy.

 

Pengangkutan ini memerlukan tenaga, sel mesti menggunakan tenaga sendiri.

 

The transport is performed by a speci c protein, which is the carrier protein.

 

Pengangkutan ini dilakukan oleh protein yang spesi k, iaitu protein pembawa.

 

The energy required is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP splits into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and P (phosphate). With the ATP, the shape of carrier protein will change to help pumping out potassium ions.

 

Tenaga yang diperlukan ialah adenosina trifosfat (ATP). ATP akan dibelahkan kepada ADP (adenosina bifosfat) dan P (fosfat). Dengan ATP, bentuk protein pembawa akan berubah bagi membantu mengepam ion kalium keluar dari sel.

Paper 3

 

Kertas 3

1

(a)

(i)

The change in the length of the potato strips.

 

Perubahan

panjang

kepingan

ubi

kentang.

 

The condition of the potato strip:

 

either soft or turgid.

 

Keadaan kepingan ubi kentang: sama ada lembut atau segah.

 

(ii)

The change in the length and condition of the potato strip shows that osmosis has occurred.

 

Perubahan panjang dan keadaan kepingan ubi kentang menunjukkan osmosis telah berlaku.

 

This is due to the presence of solutions which are hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic to the cell sap of the potato.

 

Ini disebabkan oleh kehadiran larutan yang hipotonik, isotonik dan hipertonik kepada sap sel ubi kentang.

 

(b)

 

Length of strips

Solution

panjang kepingan

Larutan

Strip 1

Strip 2

Kepingan 1

Kepingan 2

Distilled water

   

Air suling

50

54

17% sucrose

   

solution

50

50

Larutan sukrosa 17%

20% sucrose

   

solution

50

48

Larutan sukrosa 20%

25% sucrose

   

solution

50

47

Larutan sukrosa 25%

(c)

Variables

Method of handling the variables

Pemboleh ubah

Cara mengendali

pemboleh ubah

Manipulated variable:

The student prepares sucrose solution of different concentrations

Murid menyediakan larutan sukrosa yang mempunyai kepekatan berbeza

Pemboleh ubah

dimanipulasikan:

Concentration of

sucrose solution

Kepekatan larutan

sukrosa

Responding variable:

The student measures the length of the potato strips

Pemboleh ubah

bergerak balas:

Lengths of potato strips

Murid mengukur panjang kepingan ubi kentang

Panjang kepingan ubi kentang

Constant variable:

The student maintains

Pemboleh ubah

dimalarkan:

Surrounding temperature and time

the surrounding temperature and time

Murid mengekalkan suhu persekitaran dan masa

Suhu persekitaran dan masa

(d)

The cell sap of the potato cells is isotonic with 17% sucrose solution.

Sap sel bagi sel ubi kentang ialah isotonik dengan larutan sukrosa 17%.

(e)

(i)

 

Differences in

 

length of strip after soaking

 

Percentage

Solution

 

change in

Larutan

(mm)

 

length (%)

Perbezaan panjang ubi kentang selepas direndamkan (mm)

Peratus perubahan

 

panjang (%)

Distilled water

   

4

Air suling

+4

50

100 = 8%Air suling +4 5 0

17% sucrose

   

solution

Larutan sukrosa

0

 

0

17%

 

20% sucrose

   

solution

–2

 

2

100 = –4%solution –2   2

Larutan sukrosa

50

20%

 

25% sucrose

   

solution

–3

 

3

100 = –6%solution –3   3

Larutan sukrosa

50

25%

 

(ii)

Larutan sukrosa – 5 0 25%   (ii) Fruit juice Jus buah 1 m l of

Fruit juice

Jus buah

1 m l of 1.0% DCPIP solution

1 m l larutan DCPIP 1.0%

(f) • When soaked in distilled water (hypotonic solution), the length of the potato strips are increased.

Apabila direndamkan dalam air suling (larutan hipotonik), panjang kepingan ubi kentang bertambah.

 

• When soaked in 20% and 25% sucrose solutions (hypertonic solutions), the length of the potato strip decreased.

 

Apabila direndamkan dalam larutan sukrosa 20% dan 25% (larutan hipertonik), panjang kepingan ubi kentang berkurang.

2

• When soaked in 17% sucrose solution, the length of the potato strip did not change.

Apabila direndamkan dalam larutan sukrosa 17%, panjang kepingan ubi kentang tidak berubah.

• Therefore, the cell sap of the

potato

is isotonic to

the 17%

sucrose solution.

 

Maka, sap sel ubi kentang ialah isotonik kepada larutan sukrosa

17%.

(g)

The length of the potato strip will decrease by more than 4 mm. This is because the 30% sucrose solution is hypertonic to the cell sap of the potato. Water diffused out from the cell sap of the potato and caused the length of the potato strip to decrease.

Panjang kepingan ubi kentang akan berkurang lebih daripada 4 mm. Ini kerana larutan sukrosa 30% ialah hipertonik kepada sap sel ubi kentang. Air meresap keluar daripada sap sel ubi kentang dan menyebabkan panjang kepingan ubi kentang berkurang.

(h)

The condition of the potato strips depends on the soaking duration.

 

Keadaan

kepingan

ubi

kentang

bergantung

kepada

tempoh

masa

perendaman.

 

• The shorter the duration, the smaller the change in the condition of the potato and the more dif cult it is to note the

changes.

 

Semakin pendek tempoh masa, semakin kecil perubahan keadaan ubi kentang dan lebih sukar memerhatikan perubahan.

• The longer the soaking duration, the easier it is to note the change in the potato strips as osmosis

requires time to occur.

 

Semakin panjang tempoh masa

perendaman, semakin mudah memerhatikan perubahan kepingan ubi kentang kerana osmosis

memerlukan masa untuk berlaku.

(i)

Osmosis is the process of diffusion of water molecules from a solution of a lower concentration of dissolved substances, to a solution with a higher concentration of dissolved substances across the plasma membrane of the potato cell. This causes a change in the length of the potato strip.

Osmosis ialah proses peresapan molekul air dari larutan yang kepekatan bahan terlarut yang rendah kepada larutan yang kepekatan bahan terlarut yang tinggi melalui membran plasma sel ubi kentang. Ini menyebabkan perubahan panjang kepingan ubi kentang.

(j)

Distilled water, 0.4 M salt solution and 0.6 M salt solution are hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic to the cell sap of potato respectively.

 

Air suling, larutan garam 0.4 M dan larutan garam 0.6 M masing-masing adalah hipotonik, isotonik, dan hipertonik

kepada sap sel ubi kentang.

 

• A weighing scale is used to weigh the potato strips before and after they are soaked in the above solutions.

Satu penimbang digunakan untuk menimbang kepingan ubi kentang sebelum dan selepas direndamkan dalam larutan di atas.

Problem statement:

How is the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of plant tissues determined?

Pernyataan masalah:

Bagaimanakah kepekatan larutan luaran yang isotonik kepada sap sel tisu tumbuhan ditentukan?

Aim : To determine the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of plants.

Tujuan :Untuk menentukan kepekatan larutan luaran yang isotonik kepada sap sel tumbuhan.

Hypothesis: When plant cells are immersed in isotonic, there is no net gain in mass and size.

Hipotesis: Apabila sel tumbuhan direndamkan dalam larutan isotonik, tiada penambahan bersih dalam jisim dan saiz.

Variables:

Pemboleh ubah:

Manipulated:

solution.

Dimanipulasikan: Kepekatan larutan sukrosa.

Responding: Mass of strips of cucumber.

Bergerak balas: Jisim kepingan timun.

Concentration

of

sucrose

Constant:

time.

Dimalarkan: Suhu persekitaran dan masa.

Materials: Cucumber slices, distilled water, 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.4M, 0.5M and 0.6M

sucrose solution.

Bahan : Kepingan timun, air suling, larutan sukrosa 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.4M, 0.5M, dan 0.6M larutan sukrosa.

Apparatus : Razor blade, petri-dishes, forceps, ruler, 50 ml beaker, electronic scale, tissue paper.

Radas : Pisau, piring petri, forseps, pembaris, bikar 50 ml, penimbang elektronik, kertas tisu.

Technique: Immersed the cucumber slices in solutions of different concentration.

Teknik : Merendamkan potongan timun dalam larutan yang kepekatan berbeza.

Procedure:

Prosedur:

1 Seven petri dishes are prepared and labelled A, B, C, D, E, F and G.

Tujuh piring petri disediakan dan dilabel dengan A, B, C, D, E, F dan G.

2 Each beaker is lled with the solutions according to table below.

Setiap bikar diisikan dengan larutan mengikuti jadual di bawah.

3 Each cucumber slice is wiped dry with some tissue papers. The mass of each slice is measured and recorded.

Setiap potongan timun dilapkan kering dengan kertas tisu. Jisim setiap potongan diukur dan direkodkan.

4 The cucumber slices must be covered in the solution.

and

Surrounding

temperature

Potongan timun mesti ditutupi dalam larutan.

5 After soaking for an hour, each slice is removed from it petri dish and wiped dry. The mass of each slice is measured again and recorded.

Selepas merendam selama satu jam, setiap potongan dikeluarkan dari piring petrinya dan dilapkan kering. Jisim setiap potongan diukur

dan direkod semula lagi.

6 The results are recorded in a table. Keputusan direkodkan dalam jadual. Presentation of data:
6
The results are recorded in a table.
Keputusan direkodkan dalam jadual.
Presentation of data:
Persembahan data:
Mass
of
cucumber
slice (g)
Texture and
Solution
Petri dish
Percentage
different in mass
Jisimpotongan timun (g)
appearance
Larutan
Piring petri
Peratus perbezaan
Tekstur dan kelihatan
Initial mass
Final mass
jisim
Jisimawal
Jisimakhir
Distilled water
A
Firm
Air suling
Padat
0.1
msucrose solution
B
Firm
Larutan sukrosa 0.1 m
Padat
0.2
msucrose solution
C
Firm
Larutan sukrosa 0.2 m
Padat
0.3
msucrose solution
D
Firm
Larutan sukrosa 0.3 m
Padat
0.4
msucrose solution
E
Firm
Larutan sukrosa 0.4 m
Padat
0.5
msucrose solution
F
Soft
Larutan sukrosa 0.5 m
Lembut
0.6
msucrose solution
G
Soft
Larutan sukrosa 0.6 m
Lembut
Percentage difference in mass (%)
Peratus perbezaan jisim (%)
(c)
Lock : Enzyme
Key: Substrate
Mangga : Enzim
Kunci : Substrat
(d) Temperature
/
pH
/
Substrate
Concentration of
concentration / Enzyme concentration
sucrose solution
Kepekatan larutan
sukrosa
y M
Suhu / pH / Kepekatan substrat / Kepekatan
enzim
2
(a)
(i)
X : Monosaccharides
Monosakarida
Conclusion:
Y : Disaccharides
Based on the graph above, the concentration of
the cell sap of cucumber slice is y M.
Disakarida
Z : Polysaccharides
Kesimpulan:
Polisakarida
Berdasarkan graf di atas, kepekatan sap sel bagi
potongan timun ialah y M.
(ii)
Disaccharide
Subunits
TOPICAL TEST 4
UJIAN TOPIKAL 4
Disakarida
Subunit
Maltose
Glucose + Glucose
Maltosa
Glukosa + Glukosa
Paper 1
Kertas 1
Lactose
Glucose + Galactose
1
C
2 D
3 B
4 C
5 A
Laktosa
Glukosa + Galaktosa
6
C
7 A
8 D
9 B
10 C
11
A
12 D
13 A
14 B
15 D
Sucrose
Glucose + Fructose
16
A
17 D
18 D
19 D
20 D
Sukrosa
Glukosa + Frukrosa
21
A
22 C
23 A
24 B
25 C
26
A
27 C
28 C
29 B
30 C
(b) Similarity
:
Both
are
major
storage
31
A
products of carbohydrates.
Paper 2
Kertas 2
Persamaan : Kedua-dua ialah hasil simpanan
major karbohidrat.
Section A
Bahagian A
1
(a)
U : Enzyme
Enzim
Difference : Glycogen is the major
storage product of carbohydrates in
animals while starch is the major storage
product of carbohydrates in plants.
V : Substrate
Substrat
W : Enzyme-substrate complex
Kompleks enzim-substrat
Perbezaan : Glikogen ialah hasil simpanan
major karbohidrat dalam haiwan manakala
kanji ialah hasil simpanan major karbohidrat
dalam tumbuhan.
X : Product
Section B
Hasil
Bahagian B
(b)
U : Maltase
Maltase
V
: Maltose
Maltosa
X
: Glucose
3 (a) (i) Protease enzyme. Shirt A has a
considerable amount of stains as
enzyme is less active at 15°C. Shirt
C has the largest amount of blood
stains remaining. The enzyme must
Glukosa
 

have been denatured at the high temperature of the wash at 65°C. Shirt B does not have blood stain remaining. The temperature of the wash at 35°C must be at the optimum temperature of the enzyme to digest most of the blood stains ef ciently.

Enzim protease. Baju A mempunyai sedikit kotoran kerana enzim kurang aktif pada 15°C. Baju C mempunyai paling banyak kotoran darah tertinggal. Enzim telah dinyahasli pada suhu yang tinggi 65°C. Baju B tidak mempunyai kotoran darah tertinggal. Suhu cucian mesti berada pada suhu optimum 35°C supaya enzim mencernakan kebanyakan kotoran darah dengan berkesan.

(ii)

The protease enzyme in the washing powder will act on the blood stains which contain protein and removes blood stains from the shirt.

Enzim protease dalam serbuk pencuci akan bertindak ke atas kotoran darah yang mengandungi protein dan menyingkirkan kotoran darah dari baju.

(iii)

Lipase

Lipase

(b)

Enzymes

are

highly

speci c

in

action.

Enzim

adalah

sangat

spesi k

dalam

tindakan.

Enzymes are made up of protein.

 

Enzim diperbuat daripada protein.

Enzymes speed up the rate of biochemical reactions but remain unchanged at the end of reaction.

Enzim mempercepatkan kadar tindak balas biokimia tetapi tidak berubah pada akhir tindak balas.

(c)

+  

+

+
+
+
 
 

(d)

In the lock and key hypothesis, the enzyme molecule represents the ‘lock’ while the substrate molecule represents the ‘key’.

Dalam hipotesis mangga dan kunci, molekul enzim mewakili mangga manakala molekul substrat mewakili ‘kunci’.

An enzyme-substrate complex formed when the substrate molecule binds to the active site of the enzyme molecule.

Kompleks enzim-substrat terbentuk apabila molekul substrat mengikat pada tapak aktif molekul enzim.

Products formed after the enzyme catalyses the substrate, then leave the active site.

Hasil terbentuk selepas enzim memangkinkan substrat, kemudian meninggalkan tapak aktif.

The enzyme molecule is free to bind other substrate molecules.

Molekul enzim adalah bebas untuk

mengikat molekul substrat lain.

 

Paper 3

Kertas 3

1 (a) (i) Observation 1 : At pH 2, the colour of the iodine remains dark blue after

 

10 minute.

 

Pemerhatian 1 : Pada pH 2, iodin kekal berwarna biru tua selepas 10 minit.

Observation 2 : At pH 7, the colour of iodine remains dark blue until the second minute.

Pemerhatian 2 : Pada pH 7, iodin kekal berwarna biru tua sehingga minit kedua.

 

(ii)

– Inference 1 : pH 2 is not suitable for amylase actions. Therefore starch is not hydrolysed and dark blue remains.

 

Inferens 1 : pH 2 tidak sesuai untuk tindakan amilase. Oleh itu, kanji tidak dihidrolisiskan dan warna biru tua dikekalkan.

 

– Inference 2 : pH 7 is suitable for amylase action. Therefore starch is hydrolysed and the colour of iodine change from dark blue to brown.

 

Inferens

2

:

pH

7

sesuai

untuk

tindakan

amilase.

Oleh

itu,

kanji

dihidrolisiskan

dan

warna

iodin

bertukar

dari

biru

tua

kepada

perang.

(b)

(i)

Variable

Method to handle the variable

Pemboleh ubah

 

Cara mengendali

pemboleh ubah

Manipulated variable

Acid or base is used

Pemboleh ubah

to

change the pH of

dimanipulasikan

reaction medium.

pH of the medium

Asid atau bes digunakan untuk mengubah pH medium tindak balas.

pH medium

Responding variable

A

stopwatch is used

Pemboleh ubah

to

measure the time

bergerak balas

when all the starch is hydrolysed

Satu jam randik diguna untuk mengukur masa apabila semua kanji dihidrolisiskan

Time taken to hydrolyse the starch

Masa yang diambil untuk menghidrolisiskan kanji

Constant variable

The same volume of amylase solution is poured into all test tube.

Isi padu larutan amilase yang sama dituangkan ke dalam semua tabung uji.

Pemboleh ubah

dimalarkan

Volume of amylase solution

Isi padu larutan amilase

(c)

Enzyme act optimally at its pH.

Enzim bertindak secara optimum pada pH asalnya.

(d)

Content of pH of the medium Time needed to hydrolyse the starch Test tube test
Content of
pH of the
medium
Time needed to
hydrolyse the
starch
Test tube
test tube
Masa yang
Tabung uji
Kandungan
pH medium
diperlukan untuk
tabung uji
menghidrolisiskan
kanji

A 2

B 9

C 7

D 7

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

pH of the medium pH medium 1. The rate of amylase reaction is very low
pH of the medium
pH medium
1. The rate of amylase reaction is very
low in an acidic medium.
Rate of aktiviti
amylase
activity/
%
Kadar
amilase/
%

Kadar tindak balas amilase adalah sangat rendah dalam medium berasid.

2. The rate of amylase reaction is very high or at the maximum rate in a neutral medium.

Kadar

tindak

balas

amilase

adalah

sangat

tinggi

atau

maksimum

dalam

medium neutral.

3. The rate of amylase reaction is very low in an alkaline medium.

Kadar tindak balas amilase adalah sangat rendah dalam medium beralkali.

The colour of the blue-dark iodine solution does not change to brown. This is because at 60°C, the amylase denature. Therefore the substrate which is starch could not be change to its simple product.

Larutan iodin yang berwarna biru tua tidak berubah menjadi perang. Ini kerana pada suhu 60°C, amilase telah ternyahasli. Oleh

itu, substrat iaitu kanji tidak boleh berubah kepada hasil ringkas.

The rate of enzyme reaction is highest at the optimum pH.

Kadar tindak balas adalah paling tinggi pada pH optimumnya.

(i) Optimum pH is pH neutral whereby

amylase reaction is very high or at the maximum rate.

pH optimum ialah pH neutral di mana tindakan amilase ialah sangat tinggi atau pada kadar maksimum.

(j)

 

Materials

Apparatus

Bahan

Radas

Amylase solution

– Test tube

Larutan amilase

Tabung uji

Starch solution

– Thermometer

Larutan kanji

Termometer

Iodine solution

– Bunsen burner

Larutan iodin

Penunu Bunsen

Ice cubes

– Glass rod

Ketulan ais

Rod kaca

Distilled water

– Stop watch

Air suling

Jam randik

2.

Aim: To study the effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme amylase.

Tujuan: Mengkaji kesan suhu ke atas aktiviti enzim amilase.

Problem Statement : At what temperature does enzyme amylase function most efciently? Pernyataan masalah : Pada suhu apakah fungsi enzim amilase paling berkesan? Hypothesis : Enzyme amylase achieves its optimum rate of reaction at 37°C. (40°C

experimentally)

Hipotesis : Enzim amilase mencapai tindak balas maksimum pada suhu 37°C (40°C secara eksperimen)

Variables :

Pemboleh ubah :

Manipulated : Temperature

Dimanipulasikan : Suhu

Responding : Rate of reaction

Bergerak balas : Kadar tindak balas

Constant : Amylase, pH, starch

Dimalarkan : Amilase, pH, kanji

Materials : 2% starch solution, salivary solution, ice cubes, distilled water and iodine solution.

Bahan : Larutan kanji 2%, larutan air liur, ketulan ais, air suling dan larutan iodin.

Apparatus : Dropper, stopwatch, large beaker, small beaker, test tubes, thermometer, white tile, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, test- tube rack and wire gauze.

Radas : Penitis, jam randik, bikar besar, bikar kecil, tabung uji, termometer, jubin putih, penunu Bunsen, tungku kaki tiga, rak tabung uji dan kasa dawai.

Technique : Testing for the presence of starch and recording the time taken for the hydrolysis of starch by salivary amylase to complete.

Teknik : Menguji kehadiran kanji dan merekodkan masa yang diambil untuk menghidrolisis kanji dengan sepenuhnya oleh amilase air liur.

Procedure :

Prosedur :

1 3 ml of saliva is collected in a small beaker.

3 ml air liur dikumpulkan dalam bikar kecil.

2 The same amount of distilled water is added into the small beaker to produce a salivary solution.

Jumlah air suling yang sama ditambahkan ke dalam bikar kecil untuk menghasilkan larutan air liur.

3 Three test tubes is labelled as A, B and C.

Tiga tabung uji dilabelkan sebagai A, B dan C.

4 A drop of iodine solution is put into all the cavities of a white tile.

Setitis larutan iodin ditambah ke dalam semua lubang jubin putih secara berasingan.

5 1 ml of salivary solution and 10 ml of 2%

starch solution is poured into test tube A

and B respectively.

1 ml larutan air liur dan 10 ml larutan kanji 2% masing-masing dituangkan ke dalam

tabung uji A dan B.

6 Test tubes A, B and C is immersed in a

water bath at 20°C for 5 minutes.

Tabung uji A, B dan C direndamkan dalam

kukus air pada suhu 20°C selama 5 minit.

7

The contents

poured into test tube C, and the stopwatch is started.

Kandungan tabung uji A dan B dituangkan ke dalam tabung uji C dan jam randik dimulakan.

is

of

test

tube A and

B

8 Dropper is used to transfer a drop of mixture from test tube C into a cavity of the white tile.

Penitis diguna untuk memindah setitis campuran dari tabung uji C ke dalam lubang jubin putih.

9 Steps 8 is repeated at one-minute intervals until the blue-black colour of the iodine solution disappears.

Langkah 8 diulang pada sela masa 1 minit sehingga warna biru tua bagi larutan iodin hilang.

10 The time taken for the blue-black colour

to disappear is recorded in Table 1.

Masa yang diambil untuk kehilangan warna biru tua direkodkan dalam Jadual 1.

11 A new set of three test tubes is used to repeat steps 3 – 10 for temperatures of 30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C.

Satu set tiga tabung uji baru digunakan untuk mengulangi langkah 3 – 10 bagi suhu 30°C, 40°C, 50°C dan 60°C.

12 The

rate

taken

of

by

for

reaction

using

of

1 t ,

amylase

is

where t =

calculated

time

disappears.

Kadar tindak balas amilase dihitungkan

the blue-black colour

 

1

dengan mengguna

t , di mana t = masa yang

diambil bagi kehilangan warna biru tua.

Water bath Stopwatch Thermometer Kukus air Jam randik Termometer A B C Dropper Penitis A
Water bath
Stopwatch
Thermometer
Kukus air
Jam randik
Termometer
A
B
C
Dropper
Penitis
A drop of iodin solution
Setitis larutan iodin
Starch
Amylase
Empty test
White tile
solution
solution
tube
Jubin putih
Larutan kanji
Larutan amilase
Tabung uji kosong

Presentation of data :

Persembahan data :

Rate of reaction, 1 Temperature Time of dark blue iodine colour to disappear, t (min)
Rate of
reaction, 1
Temperature
Time of dark
blue iodine
colour to
disappear, t
(min)
t
(min -1 )
(°C)
Suhu (°C)
Masa untuk
warna biru tua
iodin dihilangkan
(min)
Kadar tindak
balas, 1 t (min -1 )

20

30

40

50

60

Conclusion: The results shows that rate of reaction of amylase achieve maximum rate at optimum temperature (40°C). The hypothesis is accepted.

Kesimpulan: Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa kadar tindak balas amilase mencapai maksimum pada suhu optimum mencapai maksimum pada suhu optimum (40°C). Hipotesis diterima.

TOPICAL TEST 5 UJIAN TOPIKAL 5

Paper 1

Kertas 1

1

D

2 B

3 C

4 C

5 D

6

B

7 D

8 C

9 B

10 D

11

B

12 C

13 B

14 B

15 D

16

A

17 B

18 C

19 C

20 D

21

B

22 A

23 A

24 A

25 A

Paper 2

Kertas 2

Section A

Bahagian A

1

(a)

X : Centromere

Sentromer

 

Y : Spindle bre

 
 

Gentian gelendong

 
 

(b)

Metaphase

 
 

Metafasa

 

(c)

Prophase

 

Profasa

 

(d)

  (d)  
 

2

(a)

Chiasma

 
 

Kiasma

 

(b)

Crossing over. There is exchange of segments of genetic material.

 

Pindah silang. Terdapat pertukaran bahagian bahan genetik.

 

(c)

Both mitosis and meiosis are nuclear division.

 

Kedua-dua mitosis dan meiosis adalah pembahagian nuklear.

 

DNA in the chromosomes replicate only once before the start of mitosis and meiosis.

 

Replikasi DNA dalam kromosom hanya berlaku sekali sebelum permulaan mitosis dan meiosis.

 

(d)

Increase genetic variation in a sexually reproducing population.

 

Meningkatkan variasi genetik dalam satu populasi membiak secara seks.

 

Important in restoring the diploid condition of an organism.

 

Penting dalam memulihkan keadaan diploid sesuatu organisma.

Section B

Bahagian B

3

(a)

(i)

Mitosis is a process of nucleus division to produce two new daughter cells consist of chromosomes identical to the parent cell.

 

Mitosis adalah satu proses pembahagian nukleus untuk menghasilkan dua sel anak terdiri daripada kromosom yang seiras dengan sel induk.

 

Meiosis

is

a

process

of

cell

 

division to produce gametes which are haploid (n) as compared to the parent cell which is diploid (2n).

Meiosis adalah proses pembahagian sel untuk menghasilkan gamet yang haploid (n) berbanding dengan sel induk yang diploid (2n).

 

(ii)

Mitosis allows an organism to maintain its tissues.

 

Mitosis membenarkan satu organisma untuk mengekalkan tisunya.

 

Mitosis allows repair and replacement of damaged tissues.

 

Mitosis membenarkan pembaikan dan penggantian tisu rosak.

 

Through the knowledge of mitosis, cloning and tissue culture technique are applied.

 

Melalui ilmu mitosis, pengklonan dan teknik kultur tisu digunakan.

Mitosis

maintains

the

chromosomal

number

of

the

organism.

Mitosis

kromosom organisma.

mengekalkan

bilangan

(b)

(i)

Tissue culture technique is used to produce large numbers of genetically identical plants that have desirable traits.

 

Teknik kultur tisu diguna untuk menghasilkan bilangan besar tumbuhan yang seiras secara genetik yang mempunyai trait yang diinginkan.

 

(ii)

Thousands of identical young plants are produced.

 

Beribu-ribu

tumbuhan

kecil

yang

seiras dihasilkan.

 

Produce the same characteristics and genetic content as the parent plant in a short period of time.

 

Menghasilkan ciri-ciri dan kandungan genetik yang sama seperti induk dalam satu masa yang singkat.

 

Able to produce large number of identical plants for commercial purpose.

 

Boleh menghasilkan bilangan besar tumbuhan yang seiras untuk tujuan komersil.

 

Produces thousands of new young plants with desirable characteristics such as resistant to herbicides and pesticides.

 

Menghasilkan beribu-ribu tumbuhan kecil yang baru dengan ciri-ciri yang diinginkan seperti tahan kepada herbisid dan pestisid.

 

Plant can be engineered to produce better yield.

 

Tumbuhan boleh diubah untuk mendapat hasil yang lebih baik.

 

Pollinating agents does not need in tissue culture technique.

 

Agen pendebungaan tidak diperlukan dalam teknik kultur tisu.

 

Thus, propagation taken place at any time.

 

Oleh

itu,

penyebaran

berlaku

pada

bila-bila masa.

 
 

Plants able to produce owers and fruits within a shorter time compared to plants that reproduce by seeds.

 

Tumbuhan boleh menghasilkan bunga dan buah dalam masa yang lebih pendek berbanding dengan tumbuhan yang membiak dengan biji benih.

 

Supervision and effort are less needed.

 

Pengawasan

dan

usaha

kurang

diperlukan.

 

Produces fruits simultaneously and identical fertiliser needs can increase efciency and makes agriculture management easier.

Menghasilkan buah serentak dan baja seiras boleh meningkatkan kecekapan dan membuat pengurusan pertanian lebih senang.

MIDTERM EXAMINATION

PEPERIKSAAN PERTENGAHAN

Paper 1

Kertas 1

1 B

2 A

3 A

4 C

5 C

6

D

7 B

8 A

9 A

10 D

11

A

12 C

13 D

14 C

15 D

16

A

17 B

18 C

19 C

20 B

21

B

22 D

23 A

24 B

25 B

26

C

27 C

28 B

29 D

30 A

31

C

32 B

33 A

34 C

35 D

36

A

37 B

38 C

39 C

40 A

41

B

42 A

43 A

44 A

45 A

46

B

47 B

48 A

49 B

50 C

Section A

 

Bahagian A

 

1

(a)

(i)

L – Mitochondria

 
 

Mitokondrion

 

M – Chloroplasts

 
 

Kloroplas

 

N – Nucleus

 
 

Nukleus

 

O – Golgi apparatus

 
 

Jasad Golgi

 

(ii)

L – Site of aerobic cellular respiration

 
 

Tapak respirasi aerob sel

 

M – Site of photosynthesis

 

Tapak fotosintesis

 

N – Control centre of a cell

 

Pusat kawalan sel

 

O – Centre to process, modify and package proteins and lipids

 

Pusat untuk memproses, mengubahsuai dan membungkus protein dan lipid

 

(iii)

– palisade cells

 
 

sel palisad

 

– spongy mesophyll cells

 
 

sel meso l berspan

 
 

– guard cells

 
 

sel pengawal

 

(b)

The cell is unable

to control the

 

activities of the cell, for example protein synthesis.

Sel tidak boleh mengawal aktiviti sel, contohnya sintesis protein.

 

(c)

Organelle L / Mitochondria

 
 

Organel L / Mitokondrion

 
 

(d)

– Cell wall

 
 

Dinding sel

 

– Nucleus

 

Nukleus

 

– Cytoplasm

 

Sitoplasma

2

(a)

S

– Carrier protein

 

Protein pembawa

 

T – glycolipid

 

glikolipid

 

U – Hydrophilic phospholipid head

 

Kepala fosfolipid hidrolik

 
 

V – Hydrophobic phospholipid tail

 

Ekor fosfolipid hidrofobik

 
 

(b)

Fluid – mosaic model

 
 

Model bendalir – mozek

– The phospholipid molecules can

 

move making the plasma membrane

uid

Molekul fosfolipid boleh bergerak menyebabkan membran plasma bersifat bendalir

 

– The

proteins

do

not

form a

 

continuous layer but scattered in

the plasma membrane making it a mosaic appearance

Protein tidak membentuk lapisan bersambungan tetapi berselerak dalam membran plasma menyebabkannya kelihatan mozek

(c)

(i) Sodium ion

 
 

Ion natrium

 

(ii)

Facilitated diffusion

 

Resapan berbantu