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Fiber Optic Trainer ST2501

Learning Material Ver 1.2

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ST2501 Fiber Optic Trainer ST2501 Table of Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Safety Instructions Introduction Features Technical Specifications Theory Optical Fiber Communication System Advantages of Fiber Optic System Recommended Testing Instruments for Experiments Experiments Experiment 1 Setting up Fiber Optic Analog Link Experiment 2 Setting up Fiber Optic Digital Link Experiment 3 Study of Intensity Modulation Technique using Analog Input Signal Experiment 4 Study of Intensity Modulation Technique using Digital Input Signal Experiment 5 Frequency Modulation System Experiment 6 Pulse Width Modulation System Experiment 7 Study of Propagation Loss in Optical Fibre Experiment 8 Study of Bending Loss Experiment 9 Measurement of Optical Power using Optical Power Meter at 660 nm & 950 nm 44 46 48 50 53 56 59 61 63 6 7 8 9 10 11 17 43

Experiment 10 65 Measurement of Propagation Loss in Optical Fibre using Power Meter Experiment 11 Measurement of Numerical Aperture 67

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ST2501 Experiment 12 Characteristic of Electrical to Optical (E-O) Converter using OPM Experiment 13 Characteristics of Fibre Optic Communication Link Experiment 14 ` Setting up of Fibre Optic Voice Link using Amplitude Modulation Experiment 15 Setting up of Fibre Optic Voice Link using FM Experiment 16 Setting up of Fibre Optic Voice Link using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Experiment 17 Study of Switched Fault in Amplitude Modulation Experiment 18 Study of Switched Fault in FM System Experiment 19 Study of Switched Fault in PWM System Experiment 20 Bit Rate measurement Experiment 21 Sensitivity of Fibre Optic Link Experiment 22 Power Budget 69 71 73 75 78

10. 11. 12. 13.

81 83 85 87 88 89 90 98 102 102

Frequently Asked Questions Glossary of Fiber Optic terms Warranty List of Accessories

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ST2501 Safety Instructions Read the following safety instructions carefully before operating the instrument. To avoid any personal injury or damage to the instrument or any product connected to it. Do not operate the instrument if suspect any damage to it. The instrument should be serviced by qualified personnel only. For your safety: Use proper Mains cord Ground the Instrument : Use only the mains cord designed for this instrument. Ensure that the mains cord is suitable for your country. : This instrument is grounded through the protective earth conductor of the mains cord. To avoid electric shock the grounding conductor must be connected to the earth ground. Before making connections to the input terminals, ensure that the instrument is properly grounded.

Observe Terminal Ratings : To avoid fire or shock hazards, observe all ratings and marks on the instrument. Use only the proper Fuse : Use the fuse type and rating specified for this instrument.

Use in proper Atmosphere : Please refer to operating conditions given in the manual. 1. Do not operate in wet / damp conditions. 2. Do not operate in an explosive atmosphere. 3. Keep the product dust free, clean and dry.

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ST2501 Introduction Communication may be broadly defined as the transfer of information from one point to another. Before Fiber Optics came along, the primary means of real time data communication was electrical in nature. It was accomplished by using copper wire or by modulating information on to an electromagnetic wave that acts as a carrier for the information signal. All these methods have one problem in common the communication had to be over a straight-line path. While, in Fiber Optic Communication, the optical wave propagates inside the fiber and acquires the shape of the fiber. Fiber Optics provides an alternative means of sending information over significant distances using light energy. Light as utilized for communication has major advantages because it can be modulated at significant higher frequencies than electrical signals. That is till 1870, when an Irish physicist John Tyndall carried out a simple experiment. He filled a container with water and shone light into it. In the dark room he pulled the bung from the opposite end of the container. The light shone out in the direction of the curved path of the water. The light was guided and a new science was born called Fiber Optics. This was achieved due to the refraction property of the light, which made it possible to get the light reflected inside the optical fiber with certain approaching angles within desired threshold and continuing the process within the cable till the optical wave reached the other end and thus the light propagated inside the optical fiber.

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ST2501 Features Single Module covers maximum Fiber Optic experiments. One channel with Transmitter & Receiver. Crystal Controlled Clock. Demonstrates basic Electrical to Optical (E-O) & Optical to Electrical (O-E) Systems. On board Voice Link. Built in DC Power Supply. Numerical Aperture (N.A.) measurement jig & mandrel for Bending Loss measurement included. Eight switched faults on Transmitter & Receiver. Learning Material gives the details about experiments, circuit description and glossary of Fiber Optic Terms.

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ST2501 Technical Specifications Clock Transmitter Receiver Modulation Techniques : : : : Crystal Controlled - 4.096 MHz. One Fiber Optic LED having peak wave length of emission 660 nm. One Fiber Optic Photo Detector. 1. Direct Amplitude Modulation & Demodulation. 2. Frequency Modulation /Demodulation. 3. Pulse Width Modulation /Demodulation. Drivers A.C. Amplifiers Comparator PLL Detector Analog Bandwidth Digital Bandwidth Function Generator Voice Link Switched Faults Fiber Optic Cable : : : : : : : : : : Analog & Digital 1 Number 1 Number 1 Number 350 KHz 2.5 MHz 1. 1 KHz Sine Wave (Amplitude adjustable) 2. 1 KHz Square Wave (TTL) Fiber Optic Voice Link using built-in microphone & speaker Four in Transmitter & Four in Receiver Connector Type- Standard SMA (Sub Miniature Assembly) duly polished fiber at both the ends for maximum transmission & perfect round spot for Numerical Aperture measurement. Step Indexed Multimode PMMA plastic cable. 0.5 60 degree 1000 microns (0.001 millimetres) 2.2 mm 0.5 m & 1.0 m 29 in numbers 4 mm Sockets 230 V 10%; 50 Hz 3 VA (approximately) W 420 H 100 D 255 (mm) 3 Kg. (approximately)
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Cable type Numerical Aperture Acceptance angle Fiber diameter Outer Diameter Fiber Length Test Points Interconnections Power Supply Power Consumption Dimensions Weight
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Theory Introduction to optical fibre: Understanding how fibre optics are made and function for uses in everyday life is an intriguing work of art combined with science. Fibre optics has been fabricated from materials that transmit light and are made from a bundle of very thin glass or plastic fibres enclosed in a tube. One end is at a source of light and the other end is a camera lens, used to channel light and images around the bends and corners. Fibre optics has a highly transparent core of glass, or plastic encircled by a covering called "cladding". Light is stimulated through a source on one end of the fibre optic and as the light travels through the tube, the cladding is there to keep it all inside. A bundle of fibre optics may be bent or twisted without distorting the image, as the cladding is designed to reflect these lighting images from inside the surface. This fibre optic light source can carry light over mass distances, ranging from a few inches to over 100 miles. There are two kinds of fibre optics. The single-mode fibre optic is used for high speed and long distance transmissions because they have extremely tiny cores and they accept light only along the axis of the fibres. Tiny lasers send light directly into the fibre optic where there are low-loss connectors used to join the fibres within the system without substantially degrading the light signal. Then there are multi-mode which have much larger cores and accept light from a variety of angles and can use more types of light sources. Multi-mode fibre optics also uses less expensive connectors, but they cannot be used over long distances as with the single-mode fibre optics. Fibre optics has a large variety of uses. Most common and widely used in communication systems, fibre optic communication systems have a variety of features that make it superior to the systems that use the traditional copper cables. The uses of fiber optics with these systems use a larger information-carrying capacity where they are not hassled with electrical interference and require fewer amplifiers then the copper cable systems. Fibre optic communication systems are installed in large networks of fibre optic bundles all around the world and even under the oceans. Many fibre optic testers are available to provide you with the best fibre optic equipment. In fibre optic communication systems, lasers are used to transmit messages in numeric code by flashing on and off at high speeds. This code can constitute a voice or an electronic file containing, text, numbers, or illustrations, all by using fibre optics. The light from many lasers are added together onto a single fibre optic enabling thousands of currents of data to pass through a single fibre optic cable at one time. This data will travel through the fibre optics and into interpreting devices to convert the messages back into the form of its original signals. Industries also use fibre optics to measure temperatures, pressure, acceleration and voltage, among an assortment of other uses.

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Optical Fibre Communication System

Optical Fiber Communication System Figure 1 Here, the information source provides an amplified electrical signal to a transmitter comprising an electrical stage, which drives an optical source to give conversion, may be either a semiconductor, LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) or LED. The transmission medium consists of optical source, which provides an electrical to optical conversion, an optical fibre cable used for transmission of signal and the receiver, consists of an optical detector, which drives a further electrical stage and hence provides demodulation of optical carrier. This electrical signal is amplified and applied to the destination. e.g. Speaker. Photo diodes (P-I-N or Avalanche) and in some instances photo transistors and photo conductors are utilized for detection of optical signal and optical to electrical conversion. The optical carrier may be modulated using an analog or digital
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information signal. Analog modulation involves the variation of light emitted from the optical source in continuous manner. In digital modulation however, discrete changes in the light intensity are obtained (i.e. On-Off pulses) although often simpler to implement, analog modulation with an optical fibre communication system is less efficient, requiring a far higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver than digital modulation. Also, linearity needed for analog modulation is not provided by semiconductor optical sources especially at high modulation frequencies. Principle of operation of Optical Fibre: The principle of operation of optical fibre lies in the behaviour of light. It is a widely held view that light always travels in straight line and at constant speed. Of course, the light propagates in straight lines, but when it is reflected inside the optical fibre million and trillion times by the clad, each movement comprising of a straight line and consequently because of such reflections, it acquires the shape of the optical fibre. So effectively, it is said to have been travelling along the fibre. It changes its direction only if there is a change in the dielectric medium as also illustrated by the Tyndalls experiment. To understand the propagation of light within an optical fibre it is necessary to take into account refractive index of the dielectric medium. Refractive index of a medium is defined as the ratio of velocity of light in vacuum to velocity of light in medium. Refractive index = Velocity of light in vaccum Velocity of light in medium

Since, the velocity of light in any solid, transparent material is less than in vacuum the refractive index of such material is always greater than 1.0. A ray of light travels slowly in an optically dense medium than one that is less dense. Now, the direction that the light approaches the boundary between the two materials is very important. When a ray is incident on the interface between two dielectrics of differing refractive indices, refraction occurs. The light is refracted and also partly reflected internally in the same medium; which is referred as Partial Internal Reflection. It may be observed that the ray approaching the interface is propagating in a dielectric of refractive index n1 and is at an angle 1 to the normal at the surface of the interface. If the dielectric on the other side of interface has a refractive index n2 which is less than n1 , then the refraction is such that the ray path in this lower index medium is at angle 2 to the normal where 2 is greater than 1 .

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Figure 2 The angle of incidence 1 and refraction 2 are related to each other and to refractive indices of dielectrics by Snell's law of refraction which states that: n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2 sin 1 n 2 = sin 2 n1 It is this change in refractive indices which causes the change in the path of the incident ray as evident from the Snells law. Larger the change in the refractive indices larger change in the direction of the incident ray. The sine of the angles will be in the ratio of their refractive indices. As the angle of incident ray increases, the angle of refraction also increases even faster and when the angle of refraction becomes 90 thereafter, if the angle of incidence is increased a condition is arrived where the incident ray is totally reflected in the same medium from where it has emerged; this is referred as the total internal reflection. Total Internal Reflection: Since, the angle of refraction is always greater than the angle of incidence, when the incident medium is denser than the refraction medium. Thus, the angle of refraction is 90 and the refracted ray emerges parallel to the interface between the dielectrics. This is the limiting case of refraction and this angle of incidence is known as critical angle c . The value of critical angle is given by: 2 = 90 1 = c

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Substituting this in the equation for Snells law gives n1 sin c = n2 sin 90 sin c = n2 n1

At angles of incidence greater than the critical angle the light is reflected back into the originating dielectric medium. This behaviour of light is termed as Total Internal Reflection. Here, Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection

Figure 3 This is the mechanism by which light may be considered to propagate down an optical fiber with low loss. Figure 4 below illustrates the transmission of a light ray in an optical fiber via a series of total internal reflection at the interface of the silica core and slightly lower refractive index silica cladding.

Figure 4 The light ray shown in figure 4 is known as meridian ray as it passes through the axis of the fiber core. It is generally used when illustrating the fundamental transmission properties of optical fiber.

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Acceptance Angle: Since, only rays with an angle greater than critical angle at the core cladding interface are transmitted by total internal reflection, it is clear that not all rays entering the fiber core will continue to propagate down the length.

Figure 5 Figure 5 illustrates two incident rays I and B. It may be observed that ray I enters the fiber core at an angle i less than a (conical half angle for the fiber explained herein under) to the fiber axis and is refracted at the air- core interface before transmission to the core- cladding interface at an angle more than the critical angle c . This ray is totally internally reflected and propagated along the fiber. While incident ray B is incident into the fiber core at an angle b greater than a and will be transmitted to the core- cladding interface at an angle less than c and will not be totally internally reflected instead will be refracted into cladding and eventually lost by the radiation. Thus, for rays to be transmitted by total internal reflection within the fiber core they must be incident on the fiber core within an acceptance cone defined by conical half angle a . Hence, a is the maximum angle to the axis at which light may enter the fiber in order to be propagated and is referred to as the acceptance angle for the fiber? Here i < a < b

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Numerical Aperture: It gives the relationship between the acceptance angle and the refractive indices of the three media involved viz. the core, the cladding and air. In the figure 5 above i corresponds to i ; when i approaches c ; i approaches a By Snell's law of refraction:n0 sin a = n1 sin(90 c ) = n1 cos c = n1(1 sin c 2 )1/ 2 = n1 (1 n 2 2 1/ 2 ) n 21 {as sin c = n2 } n1 {where c is the critical angle}

= n12 n2 2 This term is referred as numerical aperture of the Wave Guide Optical Fiber.

Numerical Aperture = n0 sin a = (n12 n22 )1/ 2 = (n12 n22 ) = (n1 n2 )(n1 + n2 )
Where, n0 = Refractive index of air n1 = Refractive index of core n2 = Refractive index of cladding The Numerical Aperture is a very useful measure of light collecting ability of a fiber. It directly relates to the refractive indices of the core and cladding. As we observe from the above equation, greater the absolute value of the indices of core and cladding, greater the numerical aperture; similarly, greater the difference between the refractive indices greater the numerical aperture. In accordance to the requirement of the numerical aperture, the material for the core and cladding is chosen, keeping in view the other parameters and requirements for transmission.

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Advantages of Fibre Optic System 1. Enormous Potential Band Width (BW) : The information carrying capacity of a transmission system is directly proportional to the carrier frequency of the transmitted signals.The optical carrier frequency in the range 1013 to 10 16 Hz. (generally near infrared around 1014 or 10 15 Hz) yields a far greater potential transmission B.W. than metallic cable system. (i.e. coaxial cable Bandwidth up to 500 MHz) or even milli meter wave radio system, (i.e. system currently operating with modulation Bandwidth of 700 MHz) . Thus the optical fibres have enormous transmission bandwidths and high data rate. Using wavelength division multiplexing operation, the data rate or information carrying capacity of optical fibers is enhanced to many orders of magnitude.At present the Bandwidth available to fiber system is not fully utilized by modulation at several GHz over hundred km. and hundreds of MHz over 300 Km with intervening electronics (repeaters) is possible. Therefore, the information carrying capacity of optical fiber system has proved far superior to best copper cable available, by comparison losses in coaxial cable systems restrict. A much-enhanced Bandwidth utilization for an optical fiber can be achieved by transmitting several optical signals each at different centre wavelengths in parallel on the same fiber. This wavelength division multiplexed operation particularly with dense packing of the optical wavelength (or fine frequency spacing) offers potential information carrying capacity. 2. Small size and weight : Optical fibres have very small diameter in the ranges from 10 micrometers to 50 micrometers. The space occupied by the fiber cable is negligibly small compared to conventional electrical cables.Hence, when they are covered with protective coatings they are far smaller & lighter. This is a tremendous boon towards the alleviation of duct congestion in cities and allowing expansion of signal transmission in mobiles e.g. aircrafts, ships etc. 3. Electrical Isolation : Optical fibres are fabricated from glass or plastic polymers, they are electrical insulators therefore they do not exhibit earth loop, interference problems, electromagnetic wave or any high current lightening. This property makes them suitable for communication in electrically hazardous environment as fiber create no arcing or spark hazard at abrasions or short circuit & usually fiber do not contain sufficient energy to ignite vapours or gases.It is also suitable in explosive environment.

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4.

Immunity to Interference and Cross talk : Optical fibers form a dielectric wave-guide and therefore are free from Electro Magnetic Interference (E.M.I), Radio Frequency Interference (R.F.I) or switching transients. It is not susceptible to lightening striker if used overhead rather than underground. Moreover it is easy to ensure that there is no optical interference between fibers. Since optical interference among different fibres is not possible, cross talk is negligible even many fibres are cabled together.

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Signal Security : The light from optical fibers does not radiate significantly and therefore they provide a high degree of signal security. Unlike in copper cables, a transmitted signal cannot be drawn from a fiber without tampering it. Thus, the optical fiber communication provides 100% signal security. A transmitted optical signal cannot be obtained from a fiber in a non-invasive manner (i.e. without drawing optical power form the fiber). In theory, any attempt to acquire a message signal transmitted optically may be detected. This feature is obviously attractive for military & banking.

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Low transmission loss: Due to the usage of ultra low loss fibres and the erbium doped silica fibres as optical amplifiers ,Optical fibers results in low attenuation or transmission loss in comparison with the best copper conductor. It facilitates the implementation of communication links with extremely wide repeater spacing thus reducing both system cost and complexity. This quality along with already proven modulation B W capability of fiber cable, it is used in long haul telecommunication applications.Hence for long distance communication fibres of 0.002 dB/km are used. Thus the repeater spacing is more than 100 km.

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Potential Low Cost : The glass that generally provides optical fiber transmission medium is made from sand not a scarce resource. In comparison with copper conductors, optical fiber offers low cost line communication. This is because many miles of optical cable are easier and less expensive to install than the same amount of copper wire or cable.

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Thinner: Fiber optics is thinner than copper wire cables, so they will fit in smaller, more crowded places. This is important for underground cable systems, like in cities, where space needs to be shared with sewer pipes, power wires, and subway systems.

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Non-flammable Since fiber optics send light instead of electricity, fiber optics are nonflammable. This means there is not a fire hazard. Fiber optics also do not cause electric shocks, because they do not carry electricity.

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Ruggedness and flexibility The fibre cable can be easily bend or twisted without damaging it. Further the fiber cables are superior than the copper cables in terms of handling, installation, storage, transportation, maintenance, strength and durability.

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Low cost and availability Since the fibres are made of silica which is available in abundance. Hence, there is no shortage of material and optical fibers offer the potential for low cost communication.

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Reliability The optical fibres are made from silicon glass which does not undergo any chemical reaction or corrosion. Its quality is not affected by external radiation. Further due to its negligible attenuation and dispersion, optical fiber communication has high reliability. All the above factors also tend to reduce the expenditure on its maintenance.

The disadvantages of optical fibres are: 1. Price - Even though the raw material for making optical fibres, sand, is abundant and cheap, optical fibres are still more expensive per metre than copper. Although, one fibre can carry many more signals than a single copper cable and the large transmission distances mean that fewer expensive repeaters are required. Fragility - Optical fibres are more fragile than electrical wires. Affected by chemicals - The glass can be affected by various chemicals including hydrogen gas (a problem in underwater cables.) Opaqueness - Despite extensive military use it is known that most fibres become opaque when exposed to radiation. Requires special skills - Optical fibres cannot be joined together as a easily as copper cable and requires additional training of personnel and expensive precision splicing and measurement equipment.

2. 3. 4. 5.

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The Optic Fibre: The simplest fibre optic cable consists of two concentric layers of transparent materials. The inner portion the core transports the light, the outer covering (the cladding) must have a lower refractive index than the core so the two of them are made up of different materials. To provide mechanical protection for the cladding an additional plastic layer; called Primary Buffer is added. Some constructions of optic fibre have additional layers of buffers that are then referred to as Secondary Buffers. It is very important to note that the whole fibre-Core, Cladding & Primary Buffer is solid and the light is confined to the core by the Total Internal Reflection due to the difference in the refractive index of the core as compared to that of cladding.

Figure 6

Figure 7

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Single Mode versus Multi Mode: As we have already seen that there are particular angles of propagation defined by cone of acceptance, which can be transmitted down the optic fiber. At these angles, the electromagnetic wave that the light can set up a number of completes patterns across the fiber. The number of complete patterns called Modes depends on the dimensions of the optic fiber core. There are essentially two different types of fiber optic transmission schemes in use viz. 1. 2. Single Mode Multi Mode

Single Mode: As the name suggests the single mode cable is able to propagate only one mode (Electromagnetic wave). This is used in long distance and/or, high-speed communication. It is beneficial over long distances since it completely eliminates a problem known as Intermodal Dispersion associated with Multimode cables. All our long distance telephone conversations are now carried by single mode optic fiber system over at least some part of the route.

Figure 8

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Multi Mode: The term multimode means that the diameter of the fiber optic core is large enough to propagate more than one mode (Electro Magnetic Wave). Because of the multiple modes the pulse that is transmitted down the fiber tends to become stretched over distance this is referred to as dispersion & has the effect of reducing the available bandwidth. These are typically used in applications such as LAN (Local Area Networks) & FDDI (Fiber Distributed Area Interface)

Figure 9 Optical Fiber Index Profile Index profile is the refractive index distribution across the core and the cladding of a fiber. Some optical fiber has a step index profile, in which the core has one uniformly distributed index and the cladding has a lower uniformly distributed index. Other optical fiber has a graded index profile, in which refractive index varies gradually as a function of radial distance from the fiber center. Graded-index profiles include powerlaw index profiles and parabolic index profiles. Step Index And Graded Index Fibers: The first type of fiber optic cable put to use was called step index. In this design, the cladding has a different index of refraction than the core. The light bounces off the side and is reflected back into the fiber core. The problem with this design is that the reflected light must travel a slightly longer distance, than that which travels down the centre of the fiber, thus limiting the maximum transmission rate. This design was improved with the use of Graded index fiber. In this design, the index of refraction decreases in proportion to the distance away from the centre of the fiber core. The light moves more quickly in the outer portion thus compensating for the additional distance. The change in index has the effect of bending. The light reflects back towards the core. This change increases the transmission capacity by a reasonable factor. In the newest single mode design, the diameter of the fiber core is so small that all the light travels in a straight line. Even the latest fiber optic facility in use today uses less than 5% of the maximum theoretical capacity of a single mode fiber.
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Some of the optical fibers in use are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Multimode step index fibers. Multimode graded index fibers. Single mode step index fibers. Plastic - clad fibers. All plastic fibers.

Dimensions of fiber optic cables are written as a ratio e.g. a cable with cladding diameter of 125 microns and fiber core diameter of 62.5 or 50 microns will be referred to as 62.5 /125 or 50 / 125 fibers. That is if the diameter of the core is Dcr and the diameter of the clad is Dcd both in microns (1 micron = 10- 6 meters), then the dimensions of the fibre optic cable will be denoted as Dcr/ Dcd.

Figure 10 Choice of Operating Frequency: Once we had the Laser and the new optic fiber available, every thing was in place for a significant upsurge in communications. This resulted in two driving forces: one towards the ability to send more data faster and secondly to send the data to greater distances without being re-amplified.

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More Data Faster: As the transmission rate of data is increased, the required bandwidth increases and this can be best accommodated by increasing the carrier frequency. This premise has stood us in good stead over many years. The speech and poor quality music transmissions on the medium frequency, AM radio, gives way to the higher frequency of FM radios which accommodate the increased bandwidth necessary for improved music quality. When television required even higher data rates, we responded by moving to even higher frequencies. These previous experience rather suggested that the light used for fiber optic communications should be of the highest frequency possible. But there was a surprise in store! Lower Frequencies Mean Lower Losses: The first experiments used visible light of different colours (frequencies). As the losses were measured, we found that the higher frequencies caused more losses. The losses actually increased by the 4th power of the frequency. This means that a tripling of the frequency would result in the losses increasing by 34 or 81 times. We therefore have two conflicting influences: High frequency = High Data Rates Low frequency = Long Ranges At the moment, long distance communication is more important than achieving the ultimate in data transmission rates. Therefore in most real installations, we tend to go for the relatively low frequencies of infrared light that is just below the visible spectrum. Fiber Windows: We now have an infrared range between 800 nm 1700 nm (1 nano meter = 10-9 meter) with one part of it around 1380 nm that is to be avoided due to high losses because of Hydroxyl Ion Absorption as is clear from the graph optical wavelength versus losses per kilometre (dB) . It seemed sensible to agree on standard wavelengths so that equipment from different manufacturers can be made compatible.

Figure 11
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This has resulted in three standard wavelength slabs called windows. The windows were really the result of looking at the available light sources. Some wavelengths of LED and LASER light are easier and less expensive than others to produce. The design and manufacture of the optic fiber is then optimized for these frequencies. Note: The infrared light is very dangerous to eyes which can cause irreversible damages and since it is invisible, care should be taken to ensure that the optic fiber is not live. Losses in Optic Fiber: 1. 2. 3. Attenuation Material Absorption Losses Linear Scattering Losses a. b. 4. 5. 6. Ray Leigh Scatter Mie Scattering

Non Linear Scattering Micro Bending and Macro Bending Dispersion a. b. Inter modal Dispersion Intra modal Dispersion

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Attenuation : Transmission of light is not 100 % efficient. Some photons of light are lost, causing attenuation of signal. Several mechanisms are involved, including absorption by materials within the fiber, scattering of light out of the core caused by environmental factors. The degree of attenuation depends on the wavelength of light transmitted. Attenuation measures the reduction in signal strength by comparing output power with input power. Measurements are made in decibels (dB). It is defined as: Pi dB loss = 10 log 10 P o

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Figure 12 2. Material Absorption Losses : It is a loss mechanism related to the material composition and fabrication process of the fiber that result in the dissipation of some of the transmitted optical power as heat in wave-guide. The absorption of light may be intrinsic (caused by one or more major components of glass) or extrinsic (caused by impurities within the glass). Linear Scattering Losses : Linear scattering mechanisms cause the transfer of some or all of the optical power contained within one propagating mode to be transferred linearly (proportionally) into a different mode. This process tends to result in attenuation of the transmitted light as the transfer may be to a leaky or radiation mode that doesn't continue to propagate within the fiber core, but is radiated from the fiber. It is mainly of two types. a. b. Ray Leigh Scattering Mie Scattering
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3.

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Ray Leigh Scattering: When the infrared light strikes a very-very small place where the materials in the glass are imperfectly mixed, this gives rise to localized changes in the refractive index resulting in the light being scattered in all directions. Some of the light escapes the optic fiber, some continues in the correct direction and some is returned towards the light source. This is called backscatter.

Figure 13 Mie Scattering: These result from the non - perfect cylindrical structure of the wave-guide. It may be the caused by the imperfections such as irregularities in the core cladding interface core, cladding refractive index difference along the fiber length, diameter fluctuations, strains and bubbles. The scattering created by such in homogeneities is mainly in the forward direction. 4. Non Linear Scattering : Optical wave-guide does not behave linearly, several non-linear effects occur, which in the case of scattering cause disproportionate attenuation usually at high optical power level. This non-linear scattering causes the optical power from one mode to be transferred in either the forward or backward direction to the same, or other modes at different frequency. It depends critically upon the optical power density within the fiber and hence only becomes significant above threshold power levels. 5. Micro Bending and Macro Bending : A problem that often occurs in cabling of the optical fiber is the twisting of the fiber core axis on a microscopic scale within the cable form. This phenomenon, known as micro bending result from small lateral forces exerted on the fiber during the cabling process and it causes losses due to radiation in both multimode and single mode fiber.

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Figure 14 6. Macro bends : The light propagates down the optic fiber solely because the incident angle exceeds the critical angle. If a sharp bend occurs, the normal and the critical angle move round with the fiber. The incident ray continues in a straight line and it finds itself approaching the core - cladding boundary at an angle less than the critical angle and much of light is able to escape.

Figure 15 7. Dispersion : When an electrical pulse energizes a LASER, it launches a short flash or light along the optic fiber. It is an unfortunate fact that the light burst becomes longer as it moves along the fiber optic cable. The light spreads out. This effect is called 'Dispersion', in figure 16 the light pulse shown before and after it has travelled through the cable.

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Figure 16 It is going to limit how fast we can send data - how many bits per second we can transmit through a fiber optic link. In fact it is the main limit to the data transmission rate for long distance communication system. If we send flashes of LASER light down a long link in which dispersion is a problem, the flashes will merge at the far end and the ON/OFF states will not be distinguished by the receiver. Over a given transmission path, there are only two remedies. Firstly, we could reduce the transmission rate so that even allowing for the spreading effect of the dispersion; the ON-OFF states are still clearly separated. This is not a very exciting solution and would clash with one of the main reasons for using optic fiber. There are two types of Dispersion: a. Inter modal Dispersion b. Intra modal Dispersion Inter modal Dispersion: You will recall that, to be propagated down the core of the optic fiber, the light must enter at an angle greater than the critical angle. Let us consider just two such rays of light as they travel along a section of optic fiber.

Figure 17 Ray A will reach the far end before Ray B since it is travelling a shorter distance. Assuming that rays A and B are part of the same pulse of light and start at the same time, we can now see how the spreading of the pulses can occur. Each and every ray being propagated at its own angle will arrive at slightly different times at the far end. This spreading effect will occur all along the fiber so it is also important to appreciate that the longer the optic fiber, the greater the dispersion. Transmission rates that are actually possible on an optic fiber therefore depend in its length. In practice, there are only particular angles of propagation that can be transmitted down the optic fiber.
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Intra modal Dispersion: This form of dispersion occurs in both multi mode and single mode optic fibers. It is only really significant in single mode usage since, being very slight; it is completely swamped by the inter modal dispersion in the multimode case. The cause is simple enough - the refractive index of material is determined to some extent by the wavelength of the light source. Can you see how this causes dispersion? A change in refractive index will change the speed of that particular wavelength of light. Now if your light source produces different wavelengths at the same time, we will have components of the transmitted light pulse travelling at the same time, we will have components of the transmitted light pulse travelling at different speeds. The total package of light will spread out - hence the dispersion. 8. Cure for Inter modal Dispersion : A large core diameter means many modes and severe inter modal dispersion. The cure for this type of dispersion is quite simple. Reduce the core size; the number of modes decreases and the inter modal dispersion is reduced. We can do better than just reducing the inter modal dispersion, we can completely eliminate it. Simply make the core so small that only one mode is propagated. A single ray cannot possibly go at two different speeds so inter modal dispersion cannot occur. In practice the core is reduced to about 9 m (micron). The optic fiber that now carries only a single mode is now referred to as a 'single mode fiber'. Single mode fiber is used for all long distance and/or high-speed communications. All long distance telephone conversations are now carried by single mode fiber optic systems over some parts of the route. The larger core optic fibers for short and medium distances carry many modes and are called 'Multimode'. 9. The Cure for Intra modal Dispersion : The cure is apparently so simple; use a light source that emits only one wavelength of light. Unfortunately, it has not yet been invented. Our light sources in current use are the LED and the LASER. Study figure 18 and decide which of the two would cause the lesser amount of Intra modal Dispersion.

Figure 18
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The LASER would cause less intra modal dispersion because its light is more concentrated around the central wavelength. The spread of wavelength measured between the points where the power output falls to half of the peak power is called the spectral width. Some LASERS have spectral widths as low as 0.1 nm (nanometre). The low spectral width together with its high power and fast switching makes the LASER first choice for long distance communications using single mode optic fiber. Also there are some losses due to coupling in between the fibers at LED and photo detector ends. Applications of Macro bends: A Live Fiber Detector: Here is the problem long distance fiber optic systems employ powerful LASER operating in the infrared region of the spectrum. This infrared light has two properties that are very significant to the engineers and technicians working on the system. We have various pieces of test equipment that can be used to check the system. The' live ' fiber detector is able to find which fibers are carrying data in most day to day checks, but read the instruction manual first to ensure that the instrument is suitable for the type of optic fiber you are checking.

Figure 19 This device has a pair of spring-loaded jaws. The fiber under test is slipped in between them and when the jaws close it will cause the fiber to be bent sufficiently to cause a macro bend. The escaping light can be detected by the photocell and used to activate the LED indicator. One flaw in the system is that it relies on the buffer being transparent to the infrared light.

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The Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR): The OTDR is a measuring instrument that uses backscatter. It is the most versatile piece of test equipment that we have for making measurements on fiber optic systems. It provides us with two different measurements: 1. 2. It can measure the magnitude of any losses that occur along optic fiber. It can measure distance along the optic fiber.

Figure 20 Losses: As the light moves along the optic fiber, the light intensity is attenuated by the losses in the optic fiber and so the reflections returned to the OTDR receiver become weaker. Measurement of the amplitude of the returned signals tells us the optic fiber loss in dB/Km. if a macro bend has occurred, it would show up as a drop in the signal level at a particular point. (If the optic fiber has been cut, a connector should be fitted in such a way that end face of the glass causes a reflection of energy. It is also usual for this to occur at the extreme end of the optic fiber. This cause a localized increase in energy returned to the Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR). This reflection called as Fresnel (thes is not pronounced) reflection shown up as a small spike on the display. There is always a Fresnel Reflection at the start of the fiber due to the connector on the front panel of the OTDR.

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Distance: We obtain timing information by starting the display and the pulse generator at the same instant. This is achieved by the synchronizing pulse that switches on both the LASER and the receiver at the same instant. If we know how long it takes for the backscatter light to return to the OTDR then we only have to know how fast the infrared light is travelling along the optic fiber to be able to calculate how far the light has travelled some light returns after say, 500 ns, it follows that it has travelled to a total of 100 meters. This represents 50 meters out along the optic fiber and 50 meters back. You will remember that the actual speed of propagation is determined by the refractive index of the core of the optic fiber. Speed of propagation = speed of light in free space / refractive index of the core (The refractive index of the optic fiber being tested must be punched in to the OTDR otherwise all the distance will miscalculated. The value of the refractive index is coated by the manufacturer). The synchronizing pulse simply provides a start to the generator and to the display circuits to allow them to determine the travel-time of the laser light and the backscatter.

Figure 21 Figure 21 shows Fibre Optic System together with its appearance on OTDR screen. Notice that both the macro bends and fusion splices are shown as a sudden loss of power at a particular point. Indeed, it is not possible to distinguish between macro bed and a fusion splice just by observing the OTDR display. It just shows a localized loss. The loss may appear as a vertical drop or a sloping line depending upon the speed at which the screen being scanned on the OTDR. The connector has a similar loss but it also has a Fresnel reflection. Typical value of losses: Fusion splice - 0.05 dB Connector - 0.2 dB Macro bend: 0 dB to more than 8 dB depending on the severity of the macro bend. Two Other Applications of Back scatter.

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Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS): The amount of backscatter occurring in an optic fiber is dependent upon the manufacture of the optic fiber, the optic window used, and also upon the temperature of the optic fiber. Now, when we find a characteristic of the optic fiber that depends on the temperature, it is but a small step away from using the effect to measure temperatures. This new technique is called Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS). Basically it is an optic fiber connected to equipment operating just like an OTDR that is then passed through the areas to be measured. If it passes through a refrigerator (minimum temperature of 190C or 310F). See figure 22 e.g. the trace on the OTDR will show the backscatter level falling to a level dependent upon the temperature in the refrigerator. Similarly, a heated area (maximum temperature 460C or 860F) would return a higher level of backscatter. Security: You will recall that one of the advantages of the fiber optic system is the high level of security offered. We know however, that a macro bend would allow the light to escape and hence the data to be copied. An OTDR monitoring the line would immediately detect the power loss of the macro bend and be able to measure its distance along the optic fiber to an accuracy of approximately 0.1 meters (4 inches) the same immediate detection would occur as with the security matting shown in figure 23.

Figure 22

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Figure 23 Fibre optic links: Fiber optic links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog signals. Basically a fiber optic link contains three main elements, a transmitter, an optical fiber and a receiver. The transmitter module takes the input signal in electrical form and then transforms it into optical (light) energy containing the same information. The optical fiber is the medium, which takes the energy to the receiver. At the receiver light is converted back into electrical form with the same pattern as originally fed to the transmitter. Transmitter: Fiber optic transmitters are typically composed of a buffer, driver and optical source. The buffer provides both an electrical connection and isolation between the transmitter & the electrical system supplying the data. The driver provides electrical power to the optical source. Finally, the optical source converts the electrical current to the light energy with the same pattern. Commonly used optical sources are light emitting diodes (LED) and LASER beams. Simple LED circuits, for digital and analog transmissions are shown below.

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Figure 24 Figure 24 shows Tran conductance drive circuits for analog transmission-common emitter configuration. The transmitter section comprises of: 1. 2. 3. Function Generator Frequency Modulator & Pulse Width Modulator Block.

The function generator generates the input signals that are going to be used as information to transmit through the fiber optic link. The output voltage available is 1 KHz sinusoidal signal of adjustable amplitude, and fixed amplitude 1 KHz square wave signal. The modulator section accepts the information signal and converts it into suitable form for transmission through the fiber optic link. The Fiber Optic Link: Emitter and Detector circuit on board form the fiber optic link. This section provides the light source for the optic fiber and the light detector at the far end of the fiber optic links. The optic fiber plugs into the connectors provided in this part of the board. Two separate links are provided. The Receiver: The Comparator circuit, Low Pass Filter, Phase Locked Loop, AC Amplifier Circuits form receiver on the board. It is able to undo the modulation process in order to recover the original information signal. In this experiment the trainer board is used to illustrate One-Way communication between digital transmitter and receiver circuits.

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Figure 25 Figure 25 shows a simple drive circuit for binary digital transmission consisting of a common emitter-saturating switch. Modulation: In order to transmit information via an optical fiber communication system it is necessary to modulate a property of the light with the information signal. This property may be intensity, frequency, and phase with either digital or analog signals. The choices are indicated by the characteristics of optical fiber, the available optical sources and detectors, and considerations of the over all system. Intensity Modulation: In this system the information signal is used to control the Intensity of the source. At the far end, the variation in the amplitude of the received signal is used to recover the original information signal.

Figure 26 The audio input signal is used to control the current through an LED which in turn controls the light output. The light is conveyed to the detector 1 circuit by optic fiber. The detector is a phototransistor that converts the incoming light to a small current which flows through a series resistor. This gives rise to a voltage whose amplitude is controlled by the received light intensity. The voltage is now amplified within the detector circuit and if necessary, amplified further by amplifier circuit.

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The Analog Bias Voltage: There are two problems using amplitude modulation with an analog signal. The first is to do with the signal itself.

Figure 27 If you glance at the figure 27 you will see that analog wave form moves positive & negative of the zero line. The second problem is that it is the shape of the waveform that carries the information. Ideally the emitter characteristic would be a straight line. Even so we would loose the negative going half cycles as shown in figure 28 below:-

Figure 28 The answer is to superimpose the sinusoidal signal on positive voltage called the bias voltage so that both halves of the incoming signal have an effect on the light intensity. The combination of linear characteristic would be ideal but the real characteristic is not completely straight. However it does have a straight section that we can use if we employ a suitable value of bias voltage. Figure 28 shows ideal and practical situations.

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Figure 29 Digital Modulation: With digital modulation, discrete changes in light intensity are obtained (i.e. On-Off pulses) figure 30 shows a block schematic of a typical digital optical fiber link.

Figure 30 Initially, input digital signal from the information source is suitably encoded for optical transmission. The LED drive circuit directly modulates the intensity of the light with encoded digital signal. Hence, a digital optical signal is launched into the optical fiber cable. An amplifier to provide gain follows the phototransistor used as detector. Finally, the signal obtained is decoded to give the original digital information.

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Digital Bias Voltage: In case of a digital signal the only information which needs to be conveyed is the On state and Off state. The digital Input signal is entirely positive going as shown in figure 31.

Figure 31 So, there is no negative part of the signal to be lost and further more any distortion due to non-linearity of the characteristic is of no importance; all we need to know is whether the signal is On or Off. There is no need therefore to generate a bias voltage. When amplitude modulation is used with a digital input we employ a comparator at the receiving end of the fiber to make the waveform square again called 'cleaning it up'.

Figure 32

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Frequency Modulation: In the traditional form of FM the carrier frequency is changed or modulated by the amplitude of the analog signal. In a fiber optic system this is not feasible since both our light sources; the LED and the LASER are fixed frequency devices. In fiber optic systems FM is achieved by using the original analog input signal to vary the frequency of a train of digital pulses.

Frequency Modulation Figure 33 A circuit called Voltage Controlled Oscillator usually abbreviated as VCO achieves this. The digital pulses are communicated through the optic fiber and squared up at the receiver by a comparator in the same way as it was in amplitude modulation system. At this point, we convert the digital train back to the original analog signal by means of the Phase Locked Loop Detector (PLL). The PLL circuit performs a very simple function. It monitors an incoming signal and produces a DC Voltage output. If the input frequency increases, the DC voltage increases. If the frequency decreases, the DC voltage decreases in this way the original analog signal is recovered. The output of the PLL contains many unwanted frequency components. A Low Pass Filter removes these and then finally the signal is amplified to the desired level.

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Pulse width modulation: Pulse width modulation (PWM) is an alternative to frequency modulation. They are both digital transmission. In FM, you will remember, the incoming analog signal is used to change the frequency of the digital stream. In pulse width modulation the amplitude of the analog signal to be transmitted as the changes in the width of the pulse. It is an extremely simple system of modulation. Assume an input signal at zero volts.

Figure 34 The digital stream and the average voltage level would be as shown in figure 35.

Pulse Width Modulation Figure 35

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If the input voltage moves to a positive value, the pulse width will increase and since the waveform is On longer than it is Off the average value increases. Similarly, if the input signal goes negative the width of the pulse will decrease. The average value of the digital voltage now decreases. You will now appreciate that the average voltage level is increasing and decreasing in accordance with the input voltage. At the far end of the transmission system the digital pulses are cleaned up by the comparator and then simply passed through a low pass filter. The filter removes the square waves but the average level remains to form the output signal. At this stage, the output signal is increasing and decreasing in step with the input, but you will remember that the OV input signal produced a DC level at the output. This DC level must now be removed. We do this by means of blocking capacitors at the input to the final amplifier. Recommended Testing Instruments for Experiments: Oscilloscope 20 MHz Dual Trace ST201

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Experiment 1 Objective: Study of 650 nm Fiber Optic Analog link. In this experiment you will study the relationship between the input signal and received signal. Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 1.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. Connect the power supply cord to the main power plug & to trainer ST2501. Ensure that all switched faults are OFF. Make the connections as shown in figure 1.1. a. b. c. 4. 5. 6. Connect the function generator 1 KHz sine wave output to emitter input. Connect the fiber optic cable between emitter output and detector input. Connect the detector output to AC amplifier input.

On the board, put switch SW1 emitter driver to Analog mode. Switch On the power supply of the trainer and oscilloscope. Observe the input to emitter (TP5) with the output from AC amplifier (TP19) on CRO.

Observation: Both the input and output waveforms are same. Questions: 1. 2. 3. What is meant by index profile? What is the drawback of multimode fibres? What is fibre optics?

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Experiment 2 Objective: Study of 650 nm Fiber Optic Digital Link. In this experiment you will study the relationship between the input signal and received signal. Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 2.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. Connect the power supply cord to the main power plug & to trainer ST2501. Ensure that all switched faults are OFF. Make the connections as shown in figure 2.1. a. b. c. d. 4. 5. 6. Connect the function generator 1 KHz square wave output to emitter input Connect the fiber optic cable between emitter output and detector input. Connect the detector output to comparator input. Connect the comparator output to AC amplifier input

On the board, put switch SW1 in emitter circuit to digital mode. Switch On the power supply of trainer and oscilloscope. Monitor both the inputs to comparator (TP9 & 10). Slowly adjust the comparator bias preset, until DC level on the input (TP9) lies mid-way between the high and low level of the signal on the positive input (TP11)

Observations: Observe the input to emitter (TP5) with the output from AC amplifier (TP19) and note that the two signals are the same. Questions: 1. 2. 3. Why single mode fibres are used for long distance transmission? What is optical fibre? What is step index profile?

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Experiment 3 Objective: To obtain Intensity Modulation of the Analog Signal, transmit it over a fiber optic cable and demodulate the same at the receiver end to retrieve the original signal. Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 3.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. Connect the power supply cord to the main power plug & to trainer ST2501. Make the connections as shown in figure 3.1. a. b. c. 3. 4. 5. 6. Connect the Function Generator output marked 1 KHz sine wave to input of emitter. Plug in a fiber optic link from output of emitter LED to the photo transistor of the detector. Connect the detector output (TP 8) to input of the amplifier TP18.

On the board, put switch SW1 in emitter circuit to analog mode. Turn the 1 KHz preset in function generator block to fully clockwise (maximum amplitude) position. Switch On the power supply of trainer and oscilloscope. With the help of dual trace oscilloscope observe the input signal at emitter (TP 5). Also, observe the output from the detector. It should carry a smaller version of the original 1 KHz sine wave, illustrating that the modulated light beam has been reconverted back into an electrical signal. The output from detector is further amplified by AC amplifier this amplifier increases the amplitude of the received signal and also removes the DC component, which is present at detector output. Monitor the output of Amplifier (TP19) and adjust the gain adjust preset until the monitored signal has the same amplitude as that applied to emitter input (TP 5) While monitoring the output of Amplifier TP19 change the amplitude of modulating sine wave by varying the 1 KHz preset in the function generator block. Note that as expected, the amplitude of the receiver output signal varies. What is the function of transmitter, optical fibre and receiver? Where fibre optics links can be used? What is spectral width?

7.

8.

Questions: 1. 2. 3.

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Experiment 4 Objective: To obtain Intensity Modulation of the Digital Signal, transmit it over a fiber optic cable and demodulate the same at the receiver end to retrieve the original signal. Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 4.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. Connect the power supply cord to the main power plug & to trainer ST2501. Make the connections as shown in figure 4.1. a. b. c. 3. Connect the 1 KHz square wave socket in function generator block to emitter input. Connect an optic fiber link between emitter output & detector input with the help of the connector provided. Connect the detector output to comparator non - inverting (+ve) input.

Put the mode switch in emitter block to digital mode. This ensures that signal applied to the driver input cause the emitter LED to switch quickly between On & Off states. Switch On the power supply of trainer and oscilloscope. Examine the Input to emitter (TP5) on an oscilloscope this 1 KHz square wave is now being used to amplitude modulates emitter LED. Examine the output of detector TP8. This should carry a smaller version of original 1 KHz square wave illustrating that the modulated light beam has been reconverted into an electrical signal. Monitor both Input to comparator at (TP9 & 10) and slowly adjust the comparator bias preset until the DC level on the negative input (TP 9) lies midway between the high & low level of the signal on the positive input (TP10). This DC level is comparator's threshold level. Examine the output of comparator at (TP11). Note that the original digital modulating signal has been reconstructed at the receiver. Once again carefully flex the fiber optic cable; we can see that there is no change in output on bending the fiber. The output amplitude is now independent of the bend radius of the cable and that of length of cable, provided that detector output signal is large enough to cross the comparator threshold level. This illustrates one of the advantages of amplitude modulation of a light beam by digital rather than analog means. Also non-linear ties within the emitter LED & phototransistor causing distortion of the signal at the receiver output are the disadvantages associated with amplitude modulating a light source by analog means. Linearity is not a problem if the light beam is switched On & Off with a digital signal, since the detector output is simply squared up by a comparator circuit. To overcome problems associated with amplitude modulation of a light beam by analog means, analog signals are often used to vary or modulate some characteristic of a digital signal (e.g. frequency or pulse width.). The digital signal being used to switch the light beam On & Off The next two experiments illustrate how an analog signal can be used to modulate two specific characteristics of a digital signal.

4. 5. 6.

7.

8. 9.

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Questions: 1. 2. 3. What is intensity modulation? What is the function of LASER? How the modulated signal is detected?

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Experiment 5 Objective: Study of Frequency Modulation (FM) Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 5.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. Connect the power supply cord to the main power plug & to trainer ST2501. Ensure that all switched faults are Off. Make the connections as shown in figure 5.1. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 4. Connect the Function generator 1 KHz sine wave signal to frequency modulator input. Connect the frequency modulator output TP2 to the emitter input at TP5. Connect the optic fiber between the emitter circuit and the detector circuit. Detector output TP 8 to comparator input at TP10. Comparator output TP11 to the PLL detector input at TP14. PLL detector output at TP17 to the low pass filter input at TP12. Low Pass Filter output TP13 to A C Amplifier input.

Switch emitter driver to digital mode. This ensures that fast changing digital signal applied to the drivers input causes the emitter LED to switch quickly between On & Off states. Turn the 1 KHz preset in the function generator block to fully anti-clockwise (zero amplitude) position. Switch On the power supply of trainer and oscilloscope. Monitor the output of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) in the frequency modulator block (TP2). Note that the frequency of this digital signal is at present constant, since the modulating 1 KHz Sine wave has zero amplitude. Examine the output of the detector (TP8) and check that the transmitted digital pulses are successfully detected at the receiver. With the help of dual trace oscilloscope monitor both inputs to comparator. Now adjust the bias preset until the bias input at (TP9) is halfway between the top and bottom of the square wave on TP10. You will remember that the function of the comparator is to clean up the square wave after its transmission through the fiber optic link. The output of comparator drives the input of the PLL detector, which produces a signal whose average level is proportional to the frequency of the digital stream. This average level is then extracted by low pass filter and amplified by AC amplifier to produce the original analog signal at the amplifiers output TP19. Examine TP19 and note that the output voltage is zero. This is expected since there is currently no modulating voltage at the transmitter.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10.

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11.

While monitoring the input to the frequency modulator block TP1 and the output from AC amplifier TP19 turn the 1 KHz preset to its fully clockwise maximum amplitude) position. Note that the modulating 1 KHz signal now appears at the amplifiers output. If necessary, adjust the amplifiers gain adjust preset until the two monitored signal are equal in amplitude. In order to fully understand how this frequency modulation transmitter/ receiver system works, examine the inputs and outputs of all functional blocks within the system, using an oscilloscope. How the FM signal is generated? What are the various detection techniques of FM signals? Why FM is used for short distance communication?

12.

Questions: 1. 2. 3.

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Experiment 6 Objective: Study of Pulse Width Modulation Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 6.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. Connect the power supply cord to the main power plug & to trainer ST2501. Ensure that all switched faults are set to off. Make the connections as shown in figure 6.1. a. b. c. d. e. f. 4. Function Generator 1 KHz sine wave signal to the pulse width modulator input (TP3). Pulse width modulator output (TP 4) to emitter input (TP5). Connect the optic fiber between the emitter circuit and detector circuit. Detector output (TP8) to comparator & input at (TP10). Comparator output (TP11) to the LPF detector input at (TP12.) LPF output (TP13) to A C amplifier input at (TP18).

Put the mode switch in emitter block to digital mode. This ensures that fast changing digital signals applied to the driver input cause the emitter LED to switch quickly between On & Off states. Turn the 1 KHz preset in function generator block to fully anticlockwise (zero amplitude) position. Switch On the power supply of trainer and oscilloscope. Monitor the output of the pulse width modulator block TP4. Note that the pulse width of this digital signal is at present constant, since the modulating 1 KHz sine wave has zero amplitude. Examine the output of the detector (TP8) and check that the transmitted digital pulses are successfully detected at the receiver. Monitor both input comparator (TP9 & TP10) and if necessary, slowly adjust the comparator bias preset, until the DC level on the negative input (TP9) lies mid-way between the high and low level of the signal on the positive input TP10. The average level of comparators output is extracted by LPF and then amplified by AC amplifier, which also removes the DC off set. Since the average level of the comparator output is proportional to the pulse width, the original analog signal appears at the amplifiers output TP19. Examine TP19 and note that the output voltage is zero. This is expected since there is currently no modulating voltage at the transmitter.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10.

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11.

While monitoring the input to the pulse width modulator block TP3 and the output from AC amplifier TP19 turn the 1 KHz preset to its fully clockwise (maximum amplitude position.). Note that the modulating 1 KHz signal now appears at the amplifier output. If necessary, adjust the amplifier gain adjust preset until the two monitored signals are equal in amplitude. In order to fully understand how this pulse width modulation transmitter/ receiver system works, examine the inputs and outputs of all functional blocks within the system using an oscilloscope.

12.

Questions: 1. 2. 3. What is PWM? What is the advantage of using PWM in communication systems? What is the function of comparator circuit?

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Experiment 7 Objective: Measurement of Propagation or Attenuation Loss in the optical fiber Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with Power Supply Cord Optical Fibre Cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 7.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. Connect power supply cord to the main power plug & to trainer ST2501. Make the connections as shown in figure 7.1. a. b. c. 3. 4. Function Generator 1 KHz sine wave output to input socket of emitter Circuit via 4 mm lead. Connect 0.5 m optic fiber between emitter output and detector input. Connect Detector output to amplifier input socket via 4mm lead.

Switch On the power supply of trainer and oscilloscope. Set the Oscilloscope channel 1 to 0.5 V/ Div and adjust 4-6 div amplitude by using X 1 probe with the help of variable potentiometer in function generator block at input of emitter. Observe the output signal from detector (TP8) on CRO. Adjust the amplitude of the received signal as that of transmitted one with the help of gain adjusts pot in AC amplifier block. Note this amplitude and name it V1. Now replace the previous fiber optic cable with 1 m cable without disturbing any previous setting. Measure the amplitude at the receiver side again at output of amplifier socket (TP19). Note this value end name it V 2 . Calculate the propagation (attenuation) loss with the help of following formula.

5. 6.

7. 8.

V V
Where

1 2

- (L

1+

= loss in nepers / meter = length of shorter cable (0.5 m) = Length of longer cable (1 m)

1 nepers = 8.686 dB L1 L2 Questions: 1. 2. 3. How to measure propagation losses? By what optical cable is made up of? What is step index fibre?

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Experiment 8 Objective: Study of Bending Loss Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. 4. ST2501 trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe Mandrel

Connection Diagram:

Figure 8.1

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Figure 8.2 Procedure: 1. 2. Connect power supply cord to the main power plug & to trainer ST2501. Make the connections as shown in figure 8.1. a. b. c. 3. 4. Function Generator 1 KHz sine wave output to input socket of emitter Circuit via 4 mm lead. Connect 0.5 m optic fiber between emitter output and detectors input. Connect Detector output to amplifier input socket via 4mm lead.

Switch On the power supply of the trainer and oscilloscope. Set the Oscilloscope channel 1 to 0.5 V/ Div and adjust 4-6 div amplitude by using X 1 probe with the help of variable pot in function generator Block at input of Emitter. Observe the output signal from detector (TP8) on CRO. Adjust the amplitude of the received signal as that of transmitted one with the help of gain adjusts potentiometer in AC amplifier block. Note this amplitude and name it V 1 . Wind the fiber optic cable on the mandrel and observe the corresponding AC amplifier output on CRO, it will be gradually reducing, showing loss due to bends. What is the reason of bending losses? What is core and cladding? What is the function of cladding?

5. 6.

7.

Questions: 1. 2. 3.

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Experiment 9 Objective: Measurement of Optical Power using optical power meter Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. 4. ST2501 trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe Power Meter ST2551 with power supply cord

Connection Diagram:

Figure 9.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 2. 3. Connect the Power supply cord to mains supply and to the trainer ST2501. Ensure that all switched faults are Off. Connect the fiber optic cable between emitter output & power meter. Put the mode switch in emitter block to analog mode. Keep the power meter wavelength selector switch in 660 nm. Switch On the power supply of the trainer and oscilloscope. Note the reading displayed in power meter. Switch the wavelength selector switch to 950 nm positions. Again note the reading displayed on power meter. How the power is measured using power meter? What is wavelength of light? What do you understand by fiber bending?

Questions:

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Experiment 10 Objective: Measurement of Propagation Loss in optical fiber using optical power meter Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. 4. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe Power Meter ST2551 with power supply cord

Connection Diagram:

Figure 10.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Connect the Power supply cord to mains supply and to the trainer ST2501. Keep the mode switch in emitter circuit in analog mode. Connect the 0.5m fiber cable in between the emitter LED & input of power meter. Switch On the power supply of trainer ST2501& ST2551 (Keep the wavelength switch in 660 nm, position) and oscilloscope. Note the reading in power meter. Replace the 0.5m fiber cable with the 5 m cable without disturbing any setting. Again note the reading in power. This reading will be lesser then the previous one, indicating that the propagation loss increases with increase in length. How Propagation Loss in optical fiber is measured? What are the various types of losses in fiber? What is the formula used for measurement of losses?

Questions: 1. 2. 3.

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Experiment 11 Objective: Measurement of Numerical Aperture (NA) of optical fiber Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Numerical Aperture measurement Jig

Connection Diagram:

Figure 11.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. Connect the Power supply cord to mains supply and to the trainer ST2501. Connect the Frequency Generator 1 KHz sine wave output to input of emitter circuit. Adjust its amplitude at 5Vp-p. Connect one end of fiber cable to the output socket of emitter circuit and the other end to the numerical aperture measurement jig. Hold the white screen facing the fiber such that its cut face is perpendicular to the axis of the fiber. Hold the white screen with 4 concentric circles (10, 15, 20 & 25 mm diameter) vertically at a suitable distance to make the red spot from the fiber coincide with 10 mm circle.

4.

Figure 11.2 5. 6. Record the distances of screen from the fiber end L and note the diameter W of the spot. Compute the numerical aperture from the formula given below. W N.A. = 4L2 + W 2 = Sin max (acceptance angle) 7. 8. Vary the distance between in screen and fiber optic cable and make it coincide with one of the concentric circles. Note its distance. Tabulate the various distances and diameter of the circles made on the white screen and computer the numerical aperture from the formula given above. What is numerical aperture? Write the formula for numerical aperture? What is the significance of numerical aperture?

Questions: 1. 2. 3.

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Experiment 12 Objective: Study of Characteristics of E-O converter using optical power meter Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. 4. ST2501 trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe Power Meter ST2551 with power supply cord

Connection Diagram:

Figure 12.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 1. 2. 3. Connect the Power supply cord to mains supply and to the trainer ST2501. Ensure that all switched faults are Off. Put the mode switch in emitter block to digital mode. Connect the bias preset TP9 to the emitter input at TP5. Adjust the bias preset to its minimum setting fully counter clockwise. Connect the fiber optic cable between the emitter LED & power meter. Switch On the power supply of trainer and power meter. Note the reading in power meter. Vary the bias preset so as to vary the voltage applied to emitter LED. Record the change in power meter reading corresponding to change in forward voltage. Plot the graph between forward voltage and power meter reading. What is the function of optical power meter? What is the full form of LED? Why LED is not used for long distance transmission?

Questions:

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Experiment 13 Objective: Study of Characteristics of Fiber Optic Communication Link Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 13.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. Connect the Power supply cord to mains supply and to the trainer ST2501. Make the following connections as shown in figure 13.1. a. b. c. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. Function Generator 1KHz sine wave output to input socket of emitter circuit via 4 mm lead. Connect optic fiber between emitter output and detector input. Connect detector output to amplifier input socket via 4mm lead.

Switch On the power supply of the trainer and oscilloscope. Set the amplitude of the function generator to 2 Vp-p. Observe the transmitted and received signal on CRO. Vo (output voltage) should be in the same order as Vin (input voltage). Next set Vin to suitable values and note the values of Vo. Tabulate and plot a graph Vo versus Vin & compute Vo/ Vin. What are the characteristics of fiber optics link? What is the function of transmitter? How light signals are converted back to the electrical signals?

Questions:

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Experiment 14 Objective: Study of Voice Communication through fiber Optic cable using Amplitude Modulation. Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 14.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. Connect the Power supply cord to mains supply and to the trainer ST2501. Make the following connections as shown in figure 14.1. a. b. c. d. e. 3. 4. 5. 6. Connect the audio input block input to microphone. Plug in a fiber optic link from output of emitter LED to the photo transistor of the detector. Connect the detector output (TP8) to input of amplifier TP18. Connect the output of audio input block to emitter input. Connect the AC amplifier output to input of audio output block.

On the trainer, put switch SW1 in the emitter circuit the analog mode. Turn the 1 KHz preset in function generator block to fully clockwise (maximum amplitude) position. Switch On the power supply of the trainer. With the help of dual trace oscilloscope observe the input signal at emitter (TP5). Also, observe the output from the detector. It should carry a smaller version of the original 1 KHz sine wave, illustrating that the modulated light beam has been reconverted into an electrical signal. The output from detector is further amplified by AC amplifier this amplifier increases the amplitude of the received signal, and also removes the DC component, which is present at detector output. Monitor the output of Amplifier (TP19) and adjust the gain adjust preset until the monitored signal has same amplitude as that applied to emitter input (TP5). While monitoring the output of Amplifier TP19 change the amplitude of modulating sine wave by varying the 1 KHz preset in the function generator block. Note that as expected, the amplitude of the receiver output signal changes. Observe that same audio output is available on the speaker as fed to the microphone. What is the advantage of amplitude modulation in terms of bandwidth requirement? How amplitude modulation signal is generated? What is the detection process amplitude modulated signals?

7.

8.

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Questions: 1. 2. 3.

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Experiment 15 Objective: Demonstration of Voice Transmission through optical fiber using FM Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 15.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. Connect the Power supply cord to mains supply and to the trainer ST2501. Ensure that all switched faults are Off. Make the following connections as shown in figure 15.1. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. 4. Connect the frequency modulator output TP2 to the emitter input at TP5. Connect the optic fiber between the emitter circuit and the detector circuit. Detector output TP8 to comparator input at TP10. Comparator output TP11 to the PLL detector input at TP14. PLL detector output at TP17 to the low pass filter input at TP12. Low Pass Filter output TP13 to AC amplifier input. Plug the microphone in the input of audio input block. Output of audio input block to input of FM block. Output of AC amplifier block to input of audio output block.

Put the mode switch in emitter block to digital mode. This ensures that fast changing digital signal applied to the driver input causes the emitter LED to switch quickly between On & Off states. Turn the 1 KHz preset in the function generator block to fully anti-clockwise (zero amplitude) position. Switch On the power supply of the trainer. Monitor the output of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) in the frequency modulator block (TP2). Note that the frequency of this digital signal is at present constant, since the modulating 1 KHz Sine wave has zero amplitude. Examine the output of the detector (TP8) and check that the transmitted digital pulses are successfully detected at the receiver. With the help of dual trace oscilloscope monitor both the inputs to the comparator. Now adjust the bias preset until the bias input at (TP9) is halfway between the top and bottom of the square wave on TP10. You will remember that the function of the comparator is to clean up the square wave after its transmission through the fiber optic link The output of comparator drives the input of the PLL detector, which produces a signal whose average level is proportional to the frequency of the digital stream. This average level is then extracted by low pass filter and amplified by AC amplifier to produce the original analog signal at the amplifiers output TP19. Examine TP19 and note that the output voltage is zero. This is expected since there is currently no modulating voltage at the transmitter.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

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While monitoring the input to the frequency modulator block TP1 and the output from AC Amplifier TP19 turn the 1 KHz preset to its fully clockwise maximum amplitude) position. Note that the modulating 1 KHz signal now appears at the amplifiers output. If necessary, adjust the amplifiers gain adjust preset until the two monitored signal are equal in amplitude. In order to fully understand how this frequency modulation transmitter/ receiver system works, examine the inputs and outputs of all functional blocks within the system, using an oscilloscope. Speak in the Microphone and listen the same in the speaker / headphone What is the drawback of FM modulation in terms of bandwidth requirement? How the FM signals are generated? What is the function of AC amplifier?

12.

13. 1. 2. 3.

Questions:

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Experiment 16 Objective: Study of Voice Transmission through optical fiber using PWM Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with Power Supply Cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 16.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. Connect the Power supply cord to mains supply and to the trainer ST2501. Ensure that all switched faults are Off. Make the following connections as shown in figure 16.1. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 4. Pulse width modulator output (TP4) to emitters input (TP5). Connect the optic fiber between the emitter circuit and detector circuit. Detector output (TP8) to comparator & input at (TP10). Comparator output (TP11) to the LPF detector input at (TP12.) LPF output (TP13) to AC amplifier input at (TP18). Plug the microphone into input of audio input block. Output of audio input block to input of PWM block. Output of AC amplifier block to input of audio output block.

Put the mode switch in emitter block to digital mode. This ensures that fast changing digital signals applied to the driver input cause the emitter LED to switch quickly between On & Off states. Turn the 1 KHz preset in function generator block to fully anticlockwise (zero amplitude) position. Switch On the power supply of the trainer and oscilloscope. Monitor the output of the pulse width modulator block TP4. Note that the pulse width of this digital signal is at present constant, since the modulating 1 KHz sine wave has zero amplitude. Examine the output of the detector (TP8) and check that the transmitted digital pulses are successfully detected at the receiver. Monitor both input comparator (TP9 & TP10) and if necessary, slowly adjust the comparator bias preset, until the DC level on the negative input (TP9) lies midway between the high and low level of the signal on the positive input TP10. The average level of comparator output is extracted by LPF and then amplified by AC amplifier, which also removes the DC off set. Since the average level of the comparator output is proportional to the pulse width, the original analog signal appears at the amplifiers output TP19. Examine TP19 and note that the output voltage is zero. This is expected since there is currently no modulating voltage at the transmitter. While monitoring the input to the pulse width modulator block TP3 and the output from AC amplifier TP19 turn the 1 KHz preset to its fully clockwise (maximum amplitude position.). Note that the modulating 1 KHz signal now appears at the amplifiers output. If necessary, adjust the amplifiers gain adjust preset until the two monitored signals are equal in amplitude.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

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In order to fully understand how this pulse width modulation transmitter/ receiver system works, examine the inputs and outputs of all functional blocks within the system using an oscilloscope. Observe that the same audio sound is available in the speaker as fed to microphone. What is frequency band for voice signals? By what means the voice signals are converted into electrical signals? Why PWM method is generally preferred for communication system?

13.

Questions: 1. 2. 3.

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Experiment 17 Objective: Study of the effects of Switched Fault Number 1 & 8 on Amplitude Modulation System Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection diagram:

Figure 17.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Connect power supply cord to the mains and to the trainer. Set the A.M. system in analog mode as explained in experiment number 3. Use amplifier. Switch On the power supply of the trainer and oscilloscope. Ensure that A.M. system is operating correctly. Adjust the gain adjust potentiometer in the AC amplifier circuit to provide a sinusoidal signal of same amplitude as that of the input. Switch On fault number 1. All other faults are set to Off. This fault disconnects the input to emitter LED in analog mode so that distortion occurs when analog amplitude modulation takes place. Observe the output of AC amplifier block and also of each stage. Switch Off fault number 1 and check that A.M. system is operating correctly. Adjust the preset to provide a sinusoidal signal of 4 V peak to peak at the output. Switch On fault number 8. This shorts the output and negative input of AC amplifier; so that amplifier gain is always +1 irrespective of the position of the two gains adjust presets. Observe the output, and vary the gain adjust preset. No change will be observed in the output. Switch Off fault number 8. Switch Off the power supply of the trainer. What is amplitude modulation? What is the advantage of using Amplitude modulation? What is depth of modulation?

10.

11. 12. 13. 1. 2. 3.

Questions:

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Experiment 18 Objective: Study of the effects of Switched Fault Number 4, 5 & 7 in FM System Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 18.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Connect the power supply to the mains plug and to the trainer. Set the emitter block to digital mode. Set the complete FM System as explained in experiment number 5. Switch On the power supply of the trainer and oscilloscope. Check that the FM System is operating correctly. Adjust the preset in AC amplifier block to give a sinusoidal signal of amplitude same as that of input. Switch On fault number 4. All other faults are set to Off. This fault affects the phase locked loop detector between the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and phase comparator (exclusive OR gate). The result is that the PLL no longer follows changes in the frequency of the input signal. 8. 9. 10. Observe the system output (TP19) and the output of PLL block. Switch Off fault number 4. Switch On fault number 7. This changes the DC bias on frequency Modulator VCO input from + 2.5 V to 0V, so that the VCO no longer oscillates irrespective of the signal applied to its input. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Observe the system output and the FM block output. Switch Off fault number 7. Switch On fault number 5. This shorts the pin 11 of IC 8 to junction of R56 & C31. Observe the output of system and also PLL out put. Switch Off fault number 5 and check the operation of PLL System.

Questions: 1. What is the function of VCO? 2. What is FM? 3. What is the function of PLL while detecting the transmitted signals?

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Experiment 19 Objective: Study of the effects of Switched Fault Number 2, 3 & 6 on Pulse Width Modulation System Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. ST2501 Trainer with power supply cord Optical Fibre cable Cathode ray oscilloscope with necessary connecting probe

Connection Diagram:

Figure 19.1

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Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Connect power supply cord to the main plug and to the trainer. Set the complete PWM System as explained in experiment number 6. Switch On the power supply of the trainer and oscilloscope. Check the correct operation of the PWM System. Switch On fault number 2. This open circuits the feed back loop of the first stage of detector voltage amplifier, so that the final amplifier output (TP19) saturates. Observe the output at detector it saturates at +10V, and observe the system output it should be zero. Try to the explain reasons behind it. Switch Off fault number 2. Switch On fault number 3. This disconnects the input of comparator & hence the system output goes to zero. Switch Off fault number 3. Switch On fault number 6. This switches OFF constant current source to PWM so that output level of modulator is permanently high. Observe the output of PWM; it becomes permanently high and output of system becomes zero. Try to explain reasons behind it. Switch Off fault number 6 & check the correct operation of PWM System. What is the significance of Switched Faults? What is full form of PWM? What is the function of PWM?

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 1. 2. 3.

Questions:

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Experiment 20 Objective: Determination of Bit Rate supported by the fiber optic link Equipments Required: 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Trainer ST2501 with power supply cord 3 MHz Square wave Generator Oscilloscope Set up the fiber optic digital link as explained earlier and ensure that the link is working satisfactorily. Remove the on board TTL output from the emitter input and connect the TTL output of square wave generator to emitter input. Keep the frequency at 10 KHz. Observe the received output on the oscilloscope. Vary the frequency of the TTL input observing the output each time. The comparator bias preset can be adjusted, if required. Note the frequency at which the output is distorted or has become zero. The bit rate supported by the link is twice the frequency reading corresponding to zero/ distorted output in bits per second. How to determine the bit rate? What is optical fibre link?

Procedure:

Questions: 1. 2.

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Experiment 21 Objective: Determination of Sensitivity of the fiber optic link Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Set the fiber optic digital link as explained earlier using 0.5 m cable, and ensure that the link is working satisfactorily. Remove the on board TTL output from the emitter input and connect the output of square wave generator to the emitter input. Observe the output of the detector on the oscilloscope. Remove the end of the fiber connected to the detector and connect it to the ST2551 optical power meter. Note the reading on the power meter Po. This reading is the power being transmitted to the receiver from the source. Remove the fiber end which is connected to the power meter and connect it again to the receiver. Slowly reduce the amplitude of the square wave till the output being viewed on the oscilloscope reduces to zero. Remove the fiber end from the receiver and connect it to the power meter. Note the reading on the power meter Ps. This gives the measure of sensitivity of the receiver. Define the sensitivity? What are the elements of fibre optics link?

Questions: 1. 2.

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Experiment 22 Objective: Determination of Power Margin (Power Budget) Procedure: 1. 2. 3. Assuming that the power lost in the 0.5 m fiber Pi is negligible; Po-Ps gives power margin of the link. Repeat the sensitivity experiment with 1.0 m fiber optic cable. In this case calculate the Pi as follows : Connect the 1.0 m fiber to the source and power meter. Note the power meter reading, let it be P1. Assuming that the power lost in the 0.5 m fiber is negligible,
Pi = P1 Po

Po Pi Ps is the power margin for this link. Questions: 1. 2. How to determine power Margin? What do you understand by power budget?

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Frequently Asked Questions 1. How fibre optics is fabricated? Fibre optics has been fabricated from materials that transmit light and are made from a bundle of very thin glass or plastic fibres enclosed in a tube. One end is at a source of light and the other end is a camera lens, used to channel light and images around the bends and corners. What is fibre optics? Fibre optics has a highly transparent core of glass, or plastic encircled by a covering called "cladding". Light is stimulated through a source on one end of the fibre optic and as the light travels through the tube, the cladding is there to keep it all inside. Why single mode fibres are used for long distance transmission? The single-mode fibre optic is used for high speed and long distance transmissions because they have extremely tiny cores and they accept light only along the axis of the fibres. Tiny lasers send light directly into the fibre optic where there are low-loss connectors used to join the fibres within the system without substantially degrading the light signal. What is the drawback of multimode fibres? Multi-mode fibres which have much larger cores and accept light from a variety of angles and can use more types of light sources. Due to this reason they cannot be used over long distances transmissions. What is optical fibre? The fibre optic cable consists of two concentric layers of transparent materials. The inner portion the core transports the light, the outer covering the cladding must have a lower refractive index than the core so the two of them are made up of different materials. List the advantages of optical fibre as waveguide? Advantages of Fibre Optic System are as follows: Enormous Potential Band Width (BW) Small size and weight Electrical Isolation Immunity to Interference and Cross talk Signal Security Low transmission loss Potential Low Cost Thinner Non-flammable Ruggedness and flexibility Low cost and availability
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Reliability 7. List the disadvantages of optical fibres as waveguide? Disadvantages of optical fibers systems are as follows: Price Fragility Affected by chemicals Opaqueness Requires special skills 8. What is meant by index profile? Index profile is the refractive index distribution across the core and the cladding of a fiber. What is step index profile? Step index profile in which core has one uniformly distributed index and the cladding has a lower uniformly distributed index. What is graded index profile? Graded index profile, in which refractive index varies gradually as a function of radial distance from the fiber centre. What is the principle of operation of Optical Fibre? The principle of operation of optical fibre lies in the behaviour of light. It is a widely held view that light always travels in straight line and at constant speed. Of course, the light propagates in straight lines, but when it is reflected inside the optical fibre million and trillion times by the clad, each movement comprising of a straight line and consequently because of such reflections, it acquires the shape of the optical fibre. So effectively, it is said to have been travelling along the fibre. It changes its direction only if there is a change in the dielectric medium. How refractive index is defined? Refractive index of a medium is defined as the ratio of velocity of light in vacuum to velocity of light in medium. Refractive index = 13. Velocity of light in vaccum Velocity of light in medium

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How refraction occurs? When a ray is incident on the interface between two dielectrics of differing refractive indices, refraction occurs. What is partial internal reflection? If the light is refracted and also partly reflected internally in the same medium then it is referred as Partial Internal Reflection.

14.

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What Snell's law of refraction states? The angle of incidence 1 and refraction 2 are related to each other and to refractive indices of dielectrics by Snell's law of refraction which states that: n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2 sin 1 n 2 = sin 2 n1 It is this change in refractive indices which causes the change in the path of the incident ray as evident from the Snells law. Larger the change in the refractive indices larger change in the direction of the incident ray.

16.

What is the relationship between incident ray and angle of refraction? As the angle of incident ray increases, the angle of refraction also increases even faster and when the angle of refraction becomes 90 thereafter, if the angle of incidence is increased a condition is arrived where the incident ray is totally reflected in the same medium from where it has emerged; this is referred as the total internal reflection. How the critical angle is defined? Since, the angle of refraction is always greater than the angle of incidence, when the incident medium is denser than the refraction medium. Thus, the angle of refraction is 90 and the refracted ray emerges parallel to the interface between the dielectrics. This is the limiting case of refraction and this angle of incidence is known as critical angle c . What is total internal reflection? At angles of incidence greater than the critical angle the light is reflected back into the originating dielectric medium. This behaviour of light is termed as Total Internal Reflection. What is the condition of total internal reflection? Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection What is acceptance angle? The maximum angle to the axis at which light may enter the fiber in order to be propagated hence it is referred to as the acceptance angle for the fiber. What is numerical aperture? It gives the relationship between the acceptance angle and the refractive indices of the three media involved viz. the core, the cladding and air.

17.

18.

19. 20.

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Write the formula for numerical aperture?

Numerical Aperture = n0 sin a = (n12 n22 )1/ 2 = (n12 n22 ) = (n1 n2 )(n1 + n2 )
Where, n0 = Refractive index of air n1 = Refractive index of core n2 = Refractive index of cladding 23. What is the significance of Numerical Aperture? The Numerical Aperture is a very useful measure of light collecting ability of a fiber. It directly relates to the refractive indices of the core and cladding. As we observe from the above equation, greater the absolute value of the indices of core and cladding, greater the numerical aperture; similarly, greater the difference between the refractive indices greater the numerical aperture. Give the classification of optical fiber?

24.

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What is single mode fiber? In single mode fiber only one mode (Electromagnetic wave) is able to propagate. Where the single mode fiber is used? This is used in long distance and/or, high-speed communication. Why single mode fiber is used for long distance transmission? It is beneficial over long distances since it completely eliminates a problem known as Intermodal Dispersion associated with Multimode cables. What is the dimension of core and cladding for single mode? Core: 8.3 um Cladding: 125 um

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What is the meaning of multi mode fiber? The term multimode means that the diameter of the fiber optic core is large enough to propagate more than one mode (Electro Magnetic Wave). What is dispersion? Because of the multiple modes the pulse that is transmitted down the fiber tends to become stretched over distance this is referred to as dispersion. What is the effect of dispersion? Available bandwidth is reduced. What is the application of multimode fiber? These are typically used in applications such as LAN (Local Area Networks) & FDDI (Fiber Distributed Area Interface) What is the dimension of core and cladding for multi mode? Core: 50 um Cladding: 125 um

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31. 32.

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34. What are the various losses in optical fiber? Losses in Optic Fiber are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Attenuation Material Absorption Losses Linear Scattering Losses Ray Leigh Scatter Mie Scattering 4. 5. 6. Non Linear Scattering Micro Bending and Macro Bending Dispersion Inter modal Dispersion Intra modal Dispersion 35. What are the reasons for attenuation of signals? Several mechanisms are involved, including absorption by materials within the fiber, scattering of light out of the core caused by environmental factors. The degree of attenuation depends on the wavelength of light transmitted. What is the definition of attenuation? Attenuation measures the reduction in signal strength by comparing output power with input power. Measurements are made in decibels (dB). It is defined as: Pi DB loss = 10 log 10 P o

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What material absorption loss indicates? It is a loss mechanism related to the material composition and fabrication process of the fiber that result in the dissipation of some of the transmitted optical power as heat in wave-guide. What is linear scattering means? Linear scattering mechanisms cause the transfer of some or all of the optical power contained within one propagating mode to be transferred linearly (proportionally) into a different mode. Why scattering of light occurs in optical fibers? This process tends to result in attenuation of the transmitted light as the transfer may be to a leaky or radiation mode that doesn't continue to propagate within the fiber core, but is radiated from the fiber. a. Give the types of scattering? Ray Leigh Scattering Mie Scattering What is backscattering? When the infrared light strikes a very-very small place where the materials in the glass are imperfectly mixed, this gives rise to localized changes in the refractive index resulting in the light being scattered in all directions. Some of the light escapes the optic fiber, some continues in the correct direction and some is returned towards the light source. This is called backscatter. What are the causes of Mie Scattering? These result from the non - perfect cylindrical structure of the wave-guide. It may be the caused by the imperfections such as irregularities in the core cladding interface core, cladding refractive index difference along the fiber length, diameter fluctuations, strains and bubbles. The scattering created by such in homogeneities is mainly in the forward direction. What is micro bending? A problem that often occurs in cabling of the optical fiber is the twisting of the fiber core axis on a microscopic scale within the cable form. This phenomenon, known as micro bending result from small lateral forces exerted on the fiber during the cabling process and it causes losses due to radiation in both multimode and single mode fiber. What happens when sharp bend occurs in fiber? The light propagates down the optic fiber solely because the incident angle exceeds the critical angle. If a sharp bend occurs, the normal and the critical angle move round with the fiber. The incident ray continues in a straight line and it finds itself approaching the core - cladding boundary at an angle less than the critical angle and much of light is able to escape.

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What is the effect of dispersion on light in optical fiber? When an electrical pulse energizes a LASER, it launches a short flash or light along the optic fiber. It is an unfortunate fact that the light burst becomes longer as it moves along the fiber optic cable. The light spreads out. List the types of dispersion? There are two types of Dispersion: a. Inter modal Dispersion b. Intra modal Dispersion

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What is the condition for light to be entered into the optical fiber? Light to be propagated down the core of the optic fiber, the light must enter at an angle greater than the critical angle. How the spreading of pulses occurs in Inter model dispersion? When each and every ray is propagated at its own angle will arrive at slightly different times at the far end. This spreading effect will occur all along the fiber so it is also important to appreciate that the longer the optic fiber, the greater the dispersion. Transmission rates that are actually possible on an optic fiber therefore depend in its length. What is the effect of change in refractive index on light? A change in refractive index will change the speed of that particular wavelength of light. What is Intra modal Dispersion? When the light source produces different wavelengths at the same time, the components of the transmitted light pulse travelling at the same time, and then the components of the transmitted light pulse travelling at different speeds. The total package of light will spread out - hence the Intra modal dispersion occurs. How to cure inter modal Dispersion? A large core diameter means many modes and severe inter modal dispersion. The cure for this type of dispersion is quite simple. Reduce the core size; the number of modes decreases and inter modal dispersion is reduced. How inter modal Dispersion is completely eliminated? To eliminate inter modal dispersion completely simply make the core so small that only one mode is propagated. A single ray cannot possibly go at two different speeds so inter modal dispersion cannot occur. Why LASER is used to reduce intra modal dispersion? The LASER would cause less intra modal dispersion because its light is more concentrated around the central wavelength. What is spectral width? The spread of wavelength measured between the points where the power output falls to half of the peak power is called the spectral width.

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Why LASER is used for long distance transmission? Some LASERS have spectral widths as low as 0.1 nm (nanometre). The low spectral width together with its high power and fast switching makes the LASER first choice for long distance communications using single mode optic fiber. What is full form of OTDR? Optical Time Domain Reflectometer What is the function of OTDR? The OTDR is a measuring instrument that uses backscatter. It is the most versatile piece of test equipment that we have for making measurements on fiber optic systems. What can be measured with the help of OTDR? It provides us with two different measurements: 1. 2. It can measure the magnitude of any losses that occur along optic fiber. It can measure distance along the optic fiber.

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Where fiber optics links can be used? Fiber optic links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog signals. Fiber optics links consists of how many elements? Basically a fiber optic link contains three main elements, a transmitter, an optical fiber and a receiver. What is the function of transmitter, optical fiber and receiver? The transmitter module takes the input signal in electrical form and then transforms it into optical (light) energy containing the same information. The optical fiber is the medium, which takes the energy to the receiver. At the receiver light is converted back into electrical form with the same pattern as originally fed to the transmitter. In this system the information signal is used to control the Intensity of the source. At the far end, the variation in the amplitude of the received signal is used to recover the original information signal.

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Glossary of Fibre Optic Terms 1. Acceptance Angle : The angle over which, the core of an optical fiber accepts incoming light, usually measured from the fiber axis. Angle of Incidence : The Angle between incident ray and the normal to a reflecting or refracting surface is called as Angle of Incidence. Attenuation : Reduction of signal magnitude or loss normally measured in decibels. Fiber attenuation is normally measured per unit length in decibels per kilo/meter. Avalanche Photodiode : A semiconductor photo detector with integral detection and amplification stages is called Avalanche Photodiode. Electrons generated at p-n junction are accelerated in a region where they free an avalanche of other electrons. APD can detect faint signals but require higher voltage than other semiconductor electronics. Back Scattering : Scattering of light in the direction opposite to that in which it was originally travelling. Bandwidth : The highest frequency that can be transmitted in analog operation is called as bandwidth. Baud : The number of signal level transitions per second in digital data for common coding schemes, this equals bits per second. Bit Error Rate (BER) : The fraction of bits transmitted incorrectly. Cladding : The layers of glass or other transparent material surrounding the light-carrying core of an optical fiber is called cladding. It has lower refractive index than the core, and thus confines light in the core. Critical Angle : The smallest angle at which a meridian ray may be totally reflected within a fiber at the core - cladding interface is referred as critical angle. Core : The central part of optical fiber that carries light is called core. Dark Current : The noise current generated by a photo diode in dark is called Dark Current.

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Decibel : A logarithmic comparison of power levels, defined as ten times the base ten logarithm of the ratio of two power levels. Detector : Transducer that provide an electrical output signal in response to an incident optical signal. The current is dependent upon the amount of light received and the type of device. Dispersion : Distortion of an electromagnetic signal caused by different propagation characteristics of different wave lengths and the differing path lengths of modes in a fiber. Endoscopes : A fiber - optic bundle used for imaging & viewing inside the human body. Fiber : Any filament made of dielectric; a material that guides light, whether or not it is used to transmit signal. Graded Index : A fiber in which the refractive index changes gradually with distance from the fiber axis, rather than abruptly at the core cladding interface is called Graded Index. Index of refraction : The ratio of velocity of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given medium is called Index of refraction. Index Matching Gel : A gel or fluid whose refractive index is close to the core index that reduces refractive index discontinuities that can cause reflective losses is called as Index Matching Gel. Intensity : Power per unit solid angle is referred as intensity. Infrared : Wavelength longer than 700 nm and shorter than about 1 nm is called Infrared. We cannot see infrared radiation but can feel it as heat. Transmission in optical fiber is best in infrared at wavelengths of 1100 -1600 nm. ISDN : Aacronym of Integrated Services Digital Network is a digital standard calling for 144 K bits/ second Transmission, corresponding to two 64 K bits/ sec. digital voice channels and one 16 K bits / data channel.

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Laser : Acronym of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation- A device that produces monochromatic coherent light through stimulated emission most LASERS used in fiber optic communication is a solid state semiconductor device. LED : Light Emitting Diode which is a semiconductor device that emits light from a pn junction. Light may exit from the junction strip edge or from its surface (depending on device structure). Light : Strictly speaking, electromagnetic radiation with properties similar to visible light includes the invisible near - infrared radiation in most fiber optic communication system. Mode : An electromagnetic field distribution that satisfies theoretical requirement for propagation in wave-guide is called modes. Micro bending : Tiny bends in a fiber that allows light to leak out and increase loss. Macro bending : In an optical fiber all macroscopic deviations of the axis from a straight line; distinguished from micro bending. Meridian Ray : A light ray that passes through the axis of optical fiber is called Meridian Ray. It is generally used when illustrating the fundamental transmission properties of optical fiber. Material Dispersion : Light impulse broadening caused by various wavelengths of light travelling at different velocities through a fiber is called Material dispersion. Material dispersion increases with increasing spectral width of the source. Numerical Aperture (N A) : A characteristic parameter of any given fiber light gathering capability defined by the sine of half angle over which a fiber can accept light. It is multiplied by the refractive index of the medium containing the light. Numerical Aperture = n0 sina = (n12 n22)

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Noise Equivalent Power : The r.m.s.(root mean square) value of optical power, which is required to produce an r.m.s. signal to noise ratio of 1, and indication of noise level, which defines the minimum detectable signal level.

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Optic fiber : This is the length of clear material along which we propagate the light. Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) : A method for measuring transmission characteristics by sending a short pulse of light through fiber and the resulting back scatter and reflection are measured as a function of time. Useful in estimating attenuation coefficient as a function of distance and identifying defects and other localized losses Polarization : Alignment of the electric and magnetic fields that make up an electro magnetic wave normally refers to the electric field. If all light waves have the same alignment; light is said to be polarized. Raleigh Scattering : Scattering by refractive index fluctuations (non-homogeneities in material density or composition) that are small with respect to wavelength Reflectance : The ratio of reflected power to incident power is called reflectance. In optics, frequently expressed as optical density or as a percent in communication applications, generally expressed in dB Radiometer : An instrument distinct from photometer, to measure power (watts) of electromagnetic radiation Responsively : The ratio of detector output to input, usually measured in units of amperes per watt. SMA : Sub-miniature assembly Signal to Noise Ratio : The ratio of signal to noise, measured in decibels, an indication of signal quality in analog system. Skew Ray : A ray that does not intersect the axis of a fiber is known as skew ray. Total Internal Reflection : The total internal reflection occurs when light strikes an interface at angles of incidence (with respect to normal) greater than the critical angle. Wavelength : The distance an electromagnetic wave travels in the time it takes to oscillate through a complete cycle. Wavelength of light is measured in nanometres or micrometers.

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Warranty 1. We guarantee this product against all manufacturing defects for 24 months from the date of sale by us or through our dealers. Consumables like dry cell etc. are not covered under warranty. The guarantee will become void, if a. The product is not operated as per the instruction given in the Learning Material (CD). b. The agreed payment terms and other conditions of sale are not followed. c. The customer resells the instrument to another party. d. Any attempt is made to service and modify the instrument. 3. The non-working of the product is to be communicated to us immediately giving full details of the complaints and defects noticed specifically mentioning the type, serial number of the product and date of purchase etc. The repair work will be carried out, provided the product is dispatched securely packed and insured. The transportation charges shall be borne by the customer.

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List of Accessories 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Patch Cord 16 (2mm)............................................................................. 8 Nos. Patch Cord 20 2 ........................................................................................ Nos. Mains Cord............................................................................................... 1 No. Head Phone ............................................................................................. 1 No. Microphone .............................................................................................. 1 No. Numerical Aperture (N.A.) Plate .............................................................. 1 No. Numerical Aperture Stand ........................................................................ 1 No. Mandrel.................................................................................................... 1 No. Fiber Optic Cable, Length 1 meter............................................................ 1 No. Fiber Optic Cable, Length meters. ........................................................ 1 No. Plastic Box for Cable................................................................................ 1 No. Learning Material (CD) ............................................................................ 1 No.
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