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Drawing

R.Senthil Kumar, Assistant Professor (SRG), Department of Textile Technology, KCT,Coimbatore-49, Tamil Nadu, India sen29iit@yahoo.co.in

Drawing
The filaments wound up from spinning have a certain preorientation that is caused by the spinneret orientation and the spin draw, but they still have a certain degree of permanent elongation that will only be removed by drawing. The level depends on the material, the spinning conditions as e.g., spinning take-up speed, the age of the spun filaments, and other minor influences. Drawing conditions as temperature, humidity respectively swelling, drawing speed or acceleration. Usual draw ratios for PA, PET, and PP and also for PAN are between 1:3.4 and 1:4.5, but for high tenacity yarns they can reach up to 1:7

Drawing
This zone is about 0.3 . . . 2 mm in length for the usual titers and is almost found closely before the leaving point of the supply roll into the drawing zone. The previously randomly arranged, nonoriented chain molecules are drawn here into more or less oriented crystallites that are connected by non-oriented (amorphous) parts.

the breaking elongation decreases with increasing draw ratio, while the breaking tension also increases.

Drawing -Principle

Draft ratio levels are variable and depend on the fibre typology, on the production process and on the end-use characteristics: they can fluctuate between values slightly higher than 1 ( 1,2 for traditional cellulose fibres) and max. 10 (for acrylic fibres). Usual ratios for thermoplastic fibres are situated between 3 and 5; higher values identify fibres for technical applications.

Drawing
From an operational point of view, the draft zone can operate at room temperature (cold drawing) or at heated conditions (warm drawing) and consists of rollers, contact plates, heated air chambers or steam chambers and of immersion baths. In order to provide the drawn fibres with thermal stability, usually these fibres undergo also a treatment at temperature higher than drawing temperature, under controlled tensions or in a free state