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# Laboratorium Telekomunikasi Radio dan Gelombang Mikro Departemen Teknik Elektro Institut Teknologi Bandung

## SISTEM KOMUNIKASI SELULAR (ET-5005)

Minggu_3_dan_4: Propagasi Selular

## Pendekatan Analitik dan Empirik

Mobile Radio Channel Characterisation Theoretical approach Free space loss Plane earth path loss Diffraction loss Empirical/prediction approach Okumura Hatta Okumura-Hatta - Blomquist Ladel Blomquist-Ladel Lee - Alsebrook Egli - Ibrahim Parson Measurement of large scale and application in coverage prediction Some examples

MODEL PROPAGASI SISTEM SELULAR Model untuk memperkirakan redaman: Model teoretis Model empiris Model Lee Persamaan Umum Redaman Propagasi P ki Perkiraan Titik demi Titik Ti ik d i Ti ik Model Okumura-Hatta Faktor Koreksi Undulasi Faktor Koreksi Kemiringan Model Teoretis Sederhana

d = d1 - d0
h1 h2

Karakterisasi Propagasi

Mobile Radio Propagasi Large-scale propagation Signal Variation Time spreading of sg a signal Time variation of channel Small-scale propagation S ll l

Mean signal

Theoretical approach Empirical/prediction approach Statistical modelling (lognormal for large scale path (l lf l l th loss)

## Model Teoretis Sederhana

Daya yang dit i D diterima melalui gelombang l l l i l b langsung:

Por
Pt Gt Gt d = = = = =

1 = Pt G t G r 4d /

Daya pancar Gain antena pemacar (BS) G i t Gain antena penerima (MS) Jarak pemancar - penerima p p Panjang gelombang yang dipakai melalui
2

## Daya yang diterima gelombang pantul:

gelombang

langsung

dan

Pr

1 2 = Pt G t G r i 4 d / 1 cos jsin

## Model Teoretis Sederhana

Dengan menurunkan persamaan d l D k dalam t d mutlak, maka tanda tl k k diperoleh persamaan sederhana sebagai berikut:
2

h1 h 2 Pr = Pt G t G r 2 d

Persamaan tersebut menghasilkan dua kondisi yang sesuai dg percobaan, yaitu: Path loss sebesar 40 dB/ dekade (sebanding dengan d-4) atau 12 dB/ oktaf. Penambahan path l P b h h loss d i j k d1 k d2 = 40 l d2/d1 dari jarak ke log Pertambahan gain sebesar 12 dB/dekade atau 6 dB/oktaf untuk setiap penambahan ketinggian antena BS BS. Penambahan gain antena dari h1 ke h2 = 20 log h2/h1

Sedangkan hasil yang tidak sesuai dg percobaan dan perlu faktor koreksi yaitu: koreksi, Tidak terdapat faktor interferensi (pjg gel.) Rumus empiris: Pr = f-n dengan 2 < n < 3 Teoretis: penambahan tinggi antena pada MS: 6 dB/ oktaf. empiris: pengurangan ti ii tinggi antena 1/2 i t 1/2-nya: gain b k i berkurang 3 dB.

Theoretical approach
Free space formula Received power density at distance d when Tx antena gain Gt is Received power p antenna gain Gt is Ratio of Rx/Tx power is when Rx

Wt G t Pr = 2 4 4 d
2

Wt G t G r Wr = 2 4d 4
2 2

Wr c = G tG r = G tGr Wt 4d 4df

Tx Rx R

d ht hr

## Wr Wr hthr j 2 = GtGr = GtGr 2 [1 - e ] = Wt Wt 4d d

Path loss model plane earth is Lp(PE) = 120 + 40 log d 20 log ht 20 log hr

Diffraction Loss
h (positif)

Tx Tx

d1 d1

d2

Rx Rx

d2
h (negatif)

## The difference of path length between direct and diffracted ray is

h d1 + d 2 d 2 d1d 2
2

## Fresnel zone (path clearance)

The phase difference when h << d1 and h << d2 is

2d 2 h 2 d1 + d 2 2 = = = v 2 d 1d 2 2
with v is diffraction parameter which can be expressed as

2 d1 + d 2 v=h d 1d 2
The n-th Fresnel zone is area between Tx and Rx inside the ellipsoide with radius of its cross section of rn where

nd1d 2 rn = h = d1 + d 2

Diffraction Loss
Diffraction loss can be computed from When v=0 (h=0) diffraction loss is 6 dB above free space loss When v=-0.8 diffraction loss is negligible (56 % of The 1st Fresnel zone is clear)
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

## Empirical Prediction Approach Based on signal measurement

Okumura Lee E li Egli - Blomquist Ladel Blomquist-Ladel - Alsebrook - Ib hi P t Ibrahim-Peterson

## Mathematical Formulation based on signal measurement

Hatta (Japan) COST-231 (Europe)

Okumura Model
Okumura develop propagation model based on extensive signal measurements in Kanto (near Tokyo) areas. areas Propagation environments are classified into: Urban areas (highly dense populated areas) ( g y p p ) Suburban areas (moderate population) Open/rural areas (few population, rare building/ structure) Okumura develop propagation loss (mean and variance) in the form of curves of propagation loss vs distance for different parameters, such as f diff t t h frequencies, antenna i t heights, ground curvature/undulation, etc). Okumura curves often used by others to construct mathematical models.

## Hatta and COST-231 Models

Masaharu Hatta makes use of Okumura model and transform Okumura curves into Hatta mathematical formulas, therefore the name of Okumura-Hatta model. Project COST - 231 in Europe further develop mathematical formula of Hatta model for use in DCS/ PCS frequencies (1800 MHz). Hatta model is valid for urban area, and corrections factors are provided for suburban and open areas. Hatta dan COST-231 models are the most common models used in cellular system due to their simple use with reasonable accuracy accuracy.

## Okumura Hatta Model

For urban area:
Lpu [dB] = 69.55 + 26.16 log f 13.82 log hb a(hm) + (44.9 6.55 log hb) log d

## Model Okumura - Hatta

Ok Okumura melakukan percobaan di d l k k b daerah T k h Tokyo d dg menggunakan: Tinggi antena BS : 200 m Tinggi antena Ms : 3 m Hatta menyatakan hasil percobaan Okumura dalam y p bentuk persamaan:

## Lu = 69 ,55 + 26 ,16 log f c 13,82 log hb a ( hm ) + ( 44 ,9 6,55 log hb ) log R....[ dB ]

Faktor koreksi untuk tinggi antenna stasiun mobile yang bergantung kepada tipe daerah urban yang dibagi sebagai berikut: Medium Small City:

Urban Area

Large City:

## a(hm ) = 8,29(log f c .1,54hm ) 2 1,1

a(hm ) = 3,2(log f c .11,75hm ) 2 4,97
Sub Urban Area

f c < 200MHz
f c < 400MHz

## Lsu =Lu(urban area) 2 [log(fc/28)]2 5 4 ....[dB] 5,4 [dB]

Lo =Lu(urban area)4,78(logfc)2+18,33logfc 40,94....[dB]

Open Area

Keterangan g fc = frekuensi kerja yg berharga: 150 MHz 1500MHz. hb = tinggi antena stasiun tetap (RBS): 30m 200m. hm = tinggi antena stasiun mobile (MS): 1m 3m. R = jarak pemacar penerima: 1km 20km.

Model Lee...
Dua pendekatan umum untuk menentukan 2 parameter tsb. : Jika tipe daerah atau struktur bangunan tidak sama dengan hasil pengukuran yang telah ditabelkan di atas, maka harus dilakukan pengukuran.
n

r Pr = Pro r o

## f o (linier) f o r f = Pro log n log r f + o (dB) o o

r = ro = = o=

jarak dari j k d i BS k MS dl k ke dlm km jarak dari BS ke MS 1,6 km. konstanta propagasi dalam dB/dekade faktor koreksi parameter terhadap keadaan sebenarnya, antara lain parameter: tinggi antena BS (1), tinggi antena MS (2), daya pancar BS ( 3) gain antena BS ( 4) gain ( ), i t ( ), i antena MS (5).

Model Lee...
Kondisi standar yang digunakan Lee, dalam mencari konstanta propagasi: Frekuensi fo: 900 MHz

Tinggi BS: 30,48 m (100 ft) Daya pada antena BS 10 W tt (40 dB ) D d t BS: Watt dBm) Gain antena BS: 6 dB terhadap dipole Tinggi antena MS: 3 m (6 ft) Gain antena MS: 0 dB terhapadap dipole

Dengan D menggunakan k data d tersebut, b Lee L melakukan percobaan di berbagai daerah dengan hasil seperti digambarkan pada gambar di halaman berikut.

Model Lee
( (Persamaan Umum) ) Perkiraan area ke area menurut Model Lee membutuhkan 2 parameter: Daya pada jarak tertentu biasanya 1 6 km / mil (Pro) 1,6 Kemiringan redaman atau path loss slope ( ). Dua pendekatan umum untuk menentukan 2 parameter tsb.: M b di k ti d Membandingkan tipe daerah / struktur b h t kt bangunan

Lee Model
Lee formulated the path loss of being Lp[dB] = Lo + log d ; with Lo is path loss at d = 1 km and is the path loss slope.
Area Free space Open/rural area O / l Suburban area New Ark Philadelphia New York City Tokyo L0 [dB] 91.2 90.4 90 4 104.3 105.5 105 5 112.8 117.5 117 5 128.1 (dB/decade] 20 43.5 43 5 38.4 43.1 43 1 36.8 48 30.5

Egli Model
Based on Plane Earth Theoretical model with correction factors

## Lp [dB] = 120 + 40 log d 20 log ht 20 log hr +

Where ht and hr is Tx and Rx antenna height respectively, d is path length and = 20 log (f/40) in dB for correction of carrier frequency frequency. Egli model is derived from propagation measurement using the carrier frequencies of between 90 and 1000 MHz MHz. Egli model is therefore has a limited application for such an area which can be considered as a plane earth situation situation.

Blomquist-Laded Model This model considers the combination of free space, plane earth, and diffraction loss models together. The model is expressed as Lp [dB] = Lf space +{(Liiplane earth Lf space)2 + free l th free (Ldiffraction)2}1/2 For more than one diffraction mechanisms mechanisms, diffraction loss is computed using multiple diffraction loss from Bullington, Epstein Peterson, and Deygout models. For situation with no diffraction, this model become the plane earth model

Alsebrook Model
Based on measurement in British cities areas (Birmingham and Bath at frequencies of between 75 and 450 MHz. For flat areas Lp [dB] = Lplane earth +LB + , where LB is correction for building and is correction for UHF frequencies. For hilly areas Lp [dB] = Lfree space +{(Liplane earth Lfree space)2 + (Ldiffraction)2}1/2 + LB + ff Correction for building is

## h0 hm L B [dB] = 20 log + 16 3 548 Wfx10

Where ho is average height of building, hm is mobile antenna height, effective width of street, and f is carrier frequency. Correction of carrier frequency is increasing linearly from 0 to 15 dB as frequency increases from 200 to 500 MZ

Ibrahim-Peterson Model
Based on measurement in London areas at freq 168 900 MHz with Base antenna height 46 m. Semi empirical formula based on regression analysis from signal measurement, which is then correlated with plane earth model for corrections. Path loss model is Lp [dB] = 40 log d 20 log(hbhm) + = 20 + f/40 +0.18 L 0.34 H +K Where Wh L = land use factor (percentage of area covered by building) H = terrain factor (different of average ground height between Tx and Rx) K = urbanisation factor (K = 0.094 U 5.9 [dB]), U is the percentage of building having 4 or more floors)

## Path Loss Measurement

The received signal looks like this
2 wavelength l th

Th proper measurement di t The t distance i L = 2 is because if measurement distance is too short h t may not give th mean value t i the l (signal still varying) and if too long may average out l t large scale (l l (large scale l variation is smoothed out). The number of measurement samples n >36 for 90 % confidence interval.

## Regression from Measurement Data

Select several locations at d1 And perform measurement For the mean path loss
d1 d2 d3

## Repeat for d2 and d3 etc d3,

Cell site (Tx)

Plot the mean value of Path loss as a function of Distance See next page

## Obtain the Mean and Std Deviation

Measurement for urban urban, suburban, and open areas. At a constant radius, path loss can be difference. From regression we can obtain the best fit for the mean as well as the std deviation around the mean. Example for urban: path loss Slope = 33.2 dB/decade and Std d dB/d d d dev. = 7 dB.
85
x x x x x x x x x o o x x x x o o o o o o o o o o o

urban
x o

79 75

x x

b ob o suburban
o # # # #

open#

Distance d [km]

## Application in Coverage prediction

Example at distance d2 = 4 km (see previous page for urban area) ) Path loss at 4 km is 79 dB. This path loss is designed for the mean value at 50 % confidence level Since std. Dev for urban in this example is 7 dB, therefore to obtain confidence level of 84% (1) need margin of 7 dB and for confidence of 97.7% (2) 97 7% (2 ) need margin of d i f 14 dB
d1 d2

d3

## Cell site (Tx)

JARAK JANGKAU BTS Contoh data: Frekuensi kerja BS : 800 MHz Sistem modulasi FM dengan DF : 12 KHz Daya pancar BS D : 10 W tt Watt faktor derau : 7 dB Tinggi antena BS : 40 m Tinggi antena MS : 1,5 m Gain antena BS : 8,5 dB Gain antena MS : 2 dB Redaman feeder di BS : 3,2 dB per 40 a. Menghitung nilai ambang penerimaan dg keandalan thd. Fading cepat kTB = 10 log (1 38 x 10-23 . 300 . 2 (12+3 4) ) (1,38 (12+3,4) = - 128,9 dBm Faktor derau = 7 dB FM threshold = 10 dB

## Perhitungan Jarak Jangkau RBS

P (rd ro ) = 1 erf ( x) 0 .9 = 1 erf ( x) x = 1,30 rd md 103,2 md x = 1,30 =

## d daerah urban = 6,8 d ; h b dB

Maka md = - 94,36 dBm

## md = nilai rata-rata sinyal penerimaan pada jarak d dari BS (logaritmik, dBm)

Perhitungan Jarak Jangkau RBS c. Redaman di daerah Urban (contoh di daerah urban): ( )

## Redaman dapat dinyatakan sebagai fungsi radius sel sbb.:

69,55 + 26,16 log (800) - 13,82 log 40 - 0 + g( ) g (44,9 - 6,55 log (40)) log R 123, 35 + 34,4 log R

## d. Jarak jangkau sebuah BS

Atx
Power Po er (P) Loss (T) L

Arx

## Redaman perambatan (L) R d b t

Perhitungan Jarak Jangkau RBS d. Jarak jangkau sebuah BS Jarak jangkau dihitung sbb.:

## Pr = Pt - T + Atx - L + Arx - a -94,36 = 40 - 2,5 8,5 - L + 2 - 3,2 L = 139 16 139,16

Dari persamaan di halaman sebelumnya (49) diperoleh: L = 123,35 + 34,4 log R R = 2,88 km. Jarak jangkauan BS tersebut dengan contoh data sederhana yang disajikan di atas menghasilkan radius sel = 2,88 km. Pada kenyataan tentunya tidak sesederhana seperti contoh perhitungan disini.

## Contoh persoalan: Model Lee

(Perhitungan Titik Demi Titik) Kondisi Dengan Penghalang Contoh: Terdapat kontur sbb : sbb.: hp p 35m 25m 4 km 60m 6 km 3m 5m

Frekuensi kerja sistem tersebut = 900 MHz. Hitung redaman total sistem dengan penghalang tersebut.

Jawaban: Soal Model Lee (Perhitungan Titik Demi Titik) Kondisi Dengan Penghalang Jawab:

hp = dihitung 20,8 m 300 Panjang gelombang = = 1/ 3 m 900 2 1 1 V = 20,8 + = 1,04 1 / 3 4000 6000 Dari D i grafik di fik diperoleh V = 1,04 di l h diperoleh a z = 14 dB l h ao = 28,1 + 20 log 10 + 20 log 900 = 107,18 dB Maka redaman rambat = 107,18 dB + 14 dB = 121,18 dB

Example
A mobile terminal located at the cells edge is receiving signal from a cell s BTS in urban area. The minimum signal level (receiver sensitivity) of the MS is 100 dBm. BTS Tx power is 10 W at 40 m high, feeder loss at BTS is 7 dB, BTS Tx antenna gain is 13 dB, mobile Rx antenna gain is 3 dB, handset body loss i 3 dB O dB h d t b d l is dB. Operating carrier f ti i freq i 1 8 GH is 1.8 GHz. Compute cell radius using Okumura-Hatta Model. If it were in free space condition, compute the received signal level at the MS MS. Answer

Rx_min = Tx Lf + Gt Lu +Gr LB Lu=40 -7+13 +100+3-3 = 146 dB Hatta Lpu=69.55+26.16 log(1.8x103)-13.82 log(40) + [44.96.55 log(40)] log R g( )] g 146 = 154.7 22.14 + 34.4 log R R = 2.5 km (cell radius). Lfreespace = 32.45 + 20 log (1.8x103) + 20 log (2.5) = 105.5 dB Rx R = 40 7 + 13 105 5 + 3 3 = - 59 5 dB (R 105.5 59.5 dBm (Received i d signal level if freespace)

Ringkasan
Propagation path loss (Large scale path loss) is a measure of path loss expressed in terms of the mean value and its variation around the mean mean. Large scale path loss is well known to be lognormally g p g y distributed (Normal distribution in dB scale). Large scale path loss is useful for prediction of the received signal, coverage prediction, and hand-off control. Reliability (confidence level) of the received signal can be computed when path loss slope and the std. dev. of the path loss are known