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# 2.2 What are you going to learn?

To estimate fractions To add fractions To subtract fractions . To multiply fractions To divide fractions.

## Estimating with Fractions

Suppose you need to go somewhere or to buy something. Do you need a tool to calculate the time needed to go there? Do you need to know the exact time? If not, what will you do?

Key Terms:
Add, subtract, multiply, divide, estimate, product, quotient, like fraction, unlike fraction, proper, improper fraction

As in integers, the computational results of fractions can be estimated by rounding off or using

compatible numbers.

a. Rounding to 0, We can

1 , or 1 2

estimate

the

result

of

and

## subtraction by rounding each fraction to 0,

1 , or 1. 2

EXAMPLE 1 If I have

## bar, estimate how long I have altogether. Solution: Since

7 4 1 7 4 is close to 1 and is close to , then + 8 9 2 8 9 1 1 = 1 . So, I have approximately 2 2

approximates 1 + 1
1 bars. 2

Problem 1 Find two fractions which their sum is close but not
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equal to 1.

1 4 1 2 3 8 7 12

2 3 1 10 1 8 3 10

7 8 3 4 5 12 1 3

5 8 5 10 9 10 7 10

## b. Rounding to the nearest integer

If

an

subtraction,

multiplication,

or

division involves a mixed number, we can estimate a logical result by rounding each operand to the nearest integer.

EXAMPLE 2

1 1 -4 6 2

## 1 1 can be rounded to 8 and 4 can be rounded to 5. 6 2 1 1 -4 6 2

Therefore, 8 5 = 3 approximates 8

## Write a story problem based on the expression of

Problem 2 Example 2.
c. Using compatible numbers To estimate the quotient of mixed numbers,

EXAMPLE 3

7 1 :5 4 8

43

## 1 7 : 5 can be estimated by using compatible 4 8 7 1 to 42 and 5 to 6. 4 8 1 7 :5 . 4 8

numbers. Round 43

Then 42 : 6 = 7 approximates 43

Erna and Wati bought sliced bread, which consists of 8 equal pieces. While they sat down in the backyard, Erna ate Wati ate they eat?
1 part of the bread, and 8

## 3 of it. How many parts of the bread did 8

To answer this question, let us carry out the Mini Lab on the next page.

## In this Mini Lab, we know that

1 + 3 = 4 or 1 . 8 8 8 2

Therefore, Wati and Erna have eaten 1 of the 2 bread. Do the activities in the Mini Lab to find
1 + 3 and 1 + 3 , and so on. 6 6 5 5

## 66/Students Book Fractionss

Mini-Lab
Work in Pairs Materials and Tools: millimeter blocks, ruler, drawing pencils (at least two colors) Add 1 to 3 .

Draw bar on the millimeter blocks as shown in the following figure. Each part of this bar illustrates the one-eight.

Color one part of the bar to represent 1 . Using di fferent color, shade three

## parts of the bar to illustrate 3 . Discuss the following questions. a. b. c.

How many parts of the bar that are colored? What fraction represents the number of uncolored parts? If you color the two other parts of the bar, what fraction illustrates the number of uncolored parts?

Based on the examples, we have the procedure to add like fractions. Adding Like Fractions To add like fractions, add the numerators, while the denominators remain unchanged Apply the procedure to solve the following

example. Add 3 to 4 . 5 5

3 + 4 = 3+ 4 5 5 5
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3 5

4 5

64748

= 7 5 = 12 5

12 5

## Subtracting Like Fractions

Tini found 5 parts of a cake on the table. Then she 8 ate 1 part of the cake. What part of the cake 8 remained?

5 1 = 5 1 = 4 or 1 8 8 8 8 2
Therefore, the cake that was left was 1 . 2 Based on the example, write the procedure to subtract like fractions, then use the procedure to solve the problem below. Subtracting Like Fractions .. ...

## Problem 3 There were three-fourths of a watermelon on the

table. Then you ate one-fourth. How many parts of the watermelon remained?

## (Relation with the Real World) Mr. Salmeto had

5 6

drum

of

kerosene.

His

neighbour bought this kerosene so that the amount of kerosene in the drum was now 3 drum. How 6
What number should be added to 3 to get 5 ?

many

drums

of

kerosene

did

Mr.

Salmetos

## You could do the problem in the following way.

5 - ..... = 3 6 6

Solution:
5 6

2 6

## Adding and Subtracting Unlike Fractions

Ani read a novel. Two days ago, she finished of the book. Today she continued reading
1 4

2 of 3

## the book. What parts of the novel has Ani read?

To answer this question, you need to add unlike fractions and may use fraction bars.

## How many parts of the novel has Ani read?

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EXAMPLE 6

Add 1 to 2 . 4 3

bar for

1 4

bar for 2 . 3

## Find the bar for the sum.

1 + 2 = 11 or 1 + 2 = 3 + 8 = 3 + 8 = 11 12 4 4 3 12 3 12 12 12
Thus, Ani has read 11 parts of the book. 12

EXAMPLE 7

## Solve 1 1 using fraction bars. 2 3

3 bar for 6 or 1 2 2 bar for 6 or 1 . 3

3 Subtract: 6

2 6.

1 1 = 3 2 = 3 2 = 1 2 3 6 6 6 6

Based on Example 6 and Example 7, it is clear that to add or subtract unlike fractions, you have to convert the fractions to like fractions first by using the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of the denominators.

EXAMPLE 8

## Since the LCM of 4 and 7 is 28, then

1 = 1x 7 = 7 4 4 x 7 28

2 = 2x4 = 8 7 7 x 4 28

and

8 15 1 2 7 + = = + 4 7 28 28 28

Before you proceed to adding mixed numbers, do the following activities.
Take some pieces of rope 2 1 cm, 1 1 cm, 4 1 cm, 3 1 cm, and 8 4 2 10 3 cm in length. 5 4 Put two ropes in such a way that the end of the first rope touches the end of the second rope. Take a pair of ropes. Estimate the sum of the length of the two ropes, and then add them. Write down an expression for this addition. Repeat step 1 for some other pairs of ropes. Check each of the expression by measuring the whole lengths for each pair of ropes.

One of the methods to add mixed numbers is to calculate the whole parts and the fraction parts separately. Sometimes the sum of the fraction

parts is an improper fraction. If so, first convert the improper fraction to a mixed number.
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EXAMPLE 9

## Find the result of 15 3 + 3 1 . 4 2

15 3 = 15 3 4 4
1 2 31 = 3 = 32 2 2 2 4

## The LCM is 4. Express it as like fractions.

= 18 5 4 = 18 + 1 1 4 = 19 1 4

Add the whole parts and the fraction parts. Convert the fraction.

5 = 4 + 1 =1 1 4 4 4 4

## Subtracting Mixed Numbers

Sometimes, you need to change the form of fractions before you subtract them.

EXAMPLE 10

Calculate 6 1 - 4 1 3 2
Express it as like fractions Convert the fraction part.

61 - 41 = 62 - 43 3 2 6 6

= 58 - 43 6 6 = 15 6 Thus, 6 1 - 4 1 = 1 5 . 3 2 6

6 2 = 5 + 12 = 5 8 . 6 6 6
Subtract the whole parts th en the fraction parts

## Multiplying and Dividing Fractions

Before operating fractions, do the following activity.

Activities
1. Take a piece of paper and cut the paper into two equal parts. What fraction represents each part? 2. Take one of the parts. Then, cut it into two equal parts. What fraction represents each part? 3. Take one of the parts. What fraction represents each part?

a. Multiplying a Fraction by a Fraction You can use a model (fraction bars) to multiply a fraction by a fraction.
EXAMPLE 11

Mr. Arif has a large garden. He wants to plant one-half of his garden with medicinal herbs. Wild gingers will be planted on one-third of it. What part of the garden will be planted wild gingers?

Solution:
The garden planted medicinal herbs is 1 of the whole garden; Colour one-half of the bar. Divide the garden for medicinal herbs into three equal parts. Shade 1 of the coloured part.

6

2

## with wild ginger is represented by

1 x 1 = 1 . 3 2 6

Based on Example 1, the following rule applies. Multiplying Fractions To multiply a fraction with a fraction, multiply the numerators, and then multiply the denominators.

EXAMPLE 12

Calculate 2 of . 1
3 2

2 of 1 means 2 x 1 = 2 1 3 2 3 2 32
= 2 = 1 6 3 When the numerator of the first fraction and the denominator of the other fraction have a common factor, you can simplify them before multiplying them.

EXAMPLE 13

## Evaluate 3 x 4 . 8 5 Simplify the fractions before you multiply them.

3 x 4 = 8 5
=

3 . 41 28 . 5
31 = 3 25 10

Divide the numerator and th e denominator by 4. Wh y? Multiply the numerators and the denominators.

## b. Multipliying a Whole Number and a Fraction

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Do you still remember the meaning of 4 x 2? This meaning also applies in multiplying whole

## Consider the following illustration:

4 2 2 2 2 2 = + + + 3 3 3 3 3 8 = 3 2 = 2 3

When

multiplying

whole

number

with

fraction, you may convert the whole number to a fraction having 1 as the denominator, then

multiply the fractions. Relation with Real World Suppose you have 16 marbles. Three-eighths of the whole marbles are green. How many marbles are green? To answer this question, you have to calculate 3
8

EXAMPLE 14

x 16.

3 x 16 = 3 x 16 8 8 1
=

Express 16 as 16 .

3 x 16 2 18x1

Divide the numerator and th e denominator by 8. M ultiply the numerator and the denominator. Simplify.

= 3 2 = 6 = 6 1 1 1

## c. Multiplying Mixed Numbers

Rini has a big photo album. Eight and one third pages of the album are still empty. Rini wants to fill one-half of the empty pages with her favorite artists photographs. How many pages of the album will be filled with artists photographs?

2

## of 8 1 or 1 x 8 1 . 3 3 2 Before multiplying a mixed number, you have to express fraction.

81 = 3

the

mixed

number

as

an

improper

(8 3) + 1 25 = . 3 3

## Then multiply the fractions.

1 x 25 = 25 = 4 1 2 3 6 6

6

## album will be filled with the artists photographs.

You may also illustrate the above case by using the following model.

8 1 pages 3

## 76/Students Book Fractionss

1 of 8 1 pages 2 3

1 of 8 is 4, and 1 of 1 is 1 . 2 2 3 6

Hence, 1 8 1 is 4 + 1 or 4 1 .
2 3 6 6

You may also use the model of an area to multiply mixed numbers. Draw a quadrilateral with a length of 1 1 cm and a
2

## width of 2 1 cm as shown in the following figure.

4

11 21 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 33. 2 4 4 2 2 8 8

8

EXAMPLE 15

3 4

## Mathematics for Junior High School - Year 7/77

Solution:
Direction You could determine the result of

2 2 3 1 = 8 13 3 4 3 4
2 = 8 13

Write do wn each mixed number as a frac tion. Simplify th em by using the GCF of 8 and 4 Multiply. Simplify.

8 21 2

41

2 13 31 3 3

8 21 2

= 20

= 26 = 8 2

EXAMPLE 16

1 4

## hours. At least, how many hours do you need to read 4

1 pages? 2

1 1 9 1 pages of the text needs 4 hours = 2 2 4 8
1 8

hours. So, you need at least 1 pages of the text. d. Dividing Fractions To understand the

1 2

meaning

of

division

of

## 78/Students Book Fractionss

1. You have 6 candies that will be given to your friends. Each of your friends will get 2 candies. How many people will get candies? Answer: 3 Written as 6 : 2 = 3.

2. Suppose the 6 candies are given to your friends. Each of them will get 1 candy. many people will get the candies? Answer: 6 Written as 6 : 1 = 6. How

3. Suppose the 6 candies are divided so that each of your friends gets 1 candy. How many people will 2 get the candies? Answer: 12 Written as 6 : 1 = 12. 2

Notice that: 6 : 1 = 12 relates to 6 2 = 12. 2 1 The numbers 1 and 2 have a specific relation, that
2

2

## One half or 1 is called the multiplicative inverse of

2

2.
Mathematics for Junior High School - Year 7/79

Notice that any two numbers whose product is 1 are called the multiplicative inverse to each other. Find other numbers that are the multiplicative inverses to each other. e. Dividing Mixed Numbers To divide mixed numbers, firstly, express every mixed number as a fraction and then multiply them.

EXAMPLE 17

Calculate 2 1 : 3 3 . 4 5 Solution:
2 1 : 3 3 = 9 : 18 4 5 4 5 1 = 9 5 4 182
= 1 5 = 5 4 2 8
Change the mixed numbers.
Divide the numerator and the denominator by the GCF of 9 and 18, that is 9.

## Find the product.

EXAMPLE 18

Evaluate 10 2 : 3 . 3 Solution:
10 2 : 3 = 32 : 3 3 3 1 = 32 1 3 3 = 32 1 3 3 = 32 9 = 35 9
Convert the mixed number.
Multiply by the multiplicative inverse of 3.

Multiply the numerators and the denominators. Write down t he product. Express as a mixed number.

## 1. Approximate the results of the following operations. a.

1 3 + 7 8 1 7 -3 11 9 1 1 x 2 3

b. 9

c. 13 d. 7

3 1 :1 5 2

1 and 248. 5 3 5

## b. Explain how to estimate the result of

5 x 55. 8

3. Open-ended .

Write

two

numbers

(either

fractions or mixed numbers) and then estimate the computational result of the two numbers.

## 4. Which one of the following results is between 6 and 7? a.

1 1 x 14 2 2 15 16

b. 2 x 3 c. 5

11 24 + 12 25

## Mathematics for Junior High School - Year 7/81

d. 7

8 1 9 2

5. Reasoning and Communication. A result of estimation might be less or more than the exact answer. Which one is better? Explain. 6.

Express

your

## answers in the simplest form. a. 3 + 7 11 11 f. 7 1 10 4 b. 6 2 7 7 g. 3 + 4 8 5 c. 3 + 5 8 8 h. 5 + 1 6 4 d. 4 4 9 9 i. 5 1 6 2

7. Ali bought two watermelons at the market. The first watermelon weighs 3 kg and the second 4 weighs 2 kg. What is the difference in weight 4 between the first and the second watermelons?

8.
3 . 4

1 to 6

9.

Application

## Tinis Daily schedule

Tini drew a pie diagram to show how she spends her spare time everyday.
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Studying

1 4

7 24

Sleeping Eating

1 8

1 3

Others

a. How many parts of Tinis after-school time are used to sleep, eat, and study at school? b. How many parts of Tinis after-school time are used to do other activities?

## 10. Find the result of the following additions. a. 8 + 1 2 3 d. 11 3 + 2 1 16 8 b. 3 1 + 2 6 c. 8 1 + 3 3 5 4

e. 9 1 + 8 3 12 4

11. Writing. Describe the method you use to find the sum of 5 1 + 3 4 + 2 2 + 6 1 . 5 3 5 3 12.

Open Question.

## numbers so that their sum is a whole number.

13. Explain why the result of addition of two mixed numbers is not always a mixed number.

14.

Cuisine .

## 1 3 cups of sugar, while another kind of cake 4

needs 1 1 cups of sugar. Suppose you have about 2 3 cups of sugar. Is your sugar enough to make the two kinds of cake? Explain.

## Mathematics for Junior High School - Year 7/83

c. 9 4 4 3 5 5

d. 21 1 11 1 8 16

e. 15 11 11 1 12 2

## successive numbers in the following pattern.

9 1 , 8 1 , 7, 5 5 , 4 2 , ....., ...... 3 6 6 3

17. Research . Determine the fraction representing the number of female teachers at your school. What is the ratio of the female teachers to the male teachers that teach at year I? What is the ratio of the female teachers that teach at year I to all teachers at your school?

## 18. Find the product of the following multiplication. a. 1 of 1 5 2 d. 1 of 1 2 3 b. 1 of 1 2 5 e. 3 3 5 4 c. 2 1 5 8

19. Evaluate ab if a = 1 and b = 6 . 7 3 20. Garden . Suppose two-thirds of a garden will be planted grass. The remaining will be planted plants. Three-fourths of the garden that are planted plants, will be planted flowers. What is the part of the garden that will be planted flowers?
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21. Biology . About 7 of a human body consists 10 of liquid. If the weight of a man is 60 kg, how many kilograms would the weight of the liquid be? 22. Find the results of the following multiplication. a. 4 1 7 1 2 2 d. 8 1 8 1 2 2 23. Writing . b. 3 2 6 9 3 10 c. 6 1 7 2 2 3

## List the objects the area of which

you can find their area by the methods of multiplication of mixed numbers.
4 1 cm 2 2 1 cm 3

24.

Geometry

Calculate

the

area

of

the

quadrilateral as shown on the left. 25. Application . Tine needs 3 3 metres of textile 4 to make a pair of dresses. If Tine wants to make 4 pairs of dresses, at least how many metres of textile does Tine have to buy? 26. Geometry. Calculate the area of a rectangular

yard with a length of 5 1 m and a width of 4 2 m. 2 3 27. Critical Thinking . Is 2 2 4 1 more or less
3 2

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28. Measurement . How many parts of a rope of metre are there on a 2-metre rope? 29. Find the result of the following divisions. a. 5 : 3 8
12 : 1 3

1 4

b. 15 : 3 4

c. 4 : 3 9 5

d.

30. Suppose you cut 3 apples. Each is cut into eight equal parts. How many parts of apples will you get?