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Our project is on the topic INNOVATIVE METHODS OF TRAINING IN TELECOM SECTOR and for the same its important to understand the telecom sector first. Telecom is one of the fastest growing sectors in India with a growth of 21% and revenue of Rs 86,720 crore in the year 2006. The sector is expected to grow over 150% by 2012. With increase in competition between the major players like BSNL, MTNL, Hutchison Essar, BPL, Idea, Bharti Tele services, Tata, etc, the requirement for mobile analysts, software engineers, and hardware engineers for mobile handsets has increased. However, holding an engineering degree is not enough to survive in the Telecom Sector. There is constant need of updating of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. With this rapid growth in Telecom Sector, the need for trained professionals in bound to rise and so is the training need. The total training market in Telecom Sector is estimated to be Rs 400 crore. Many top players are spending a huge amount on training and development, for example BSNL alone spends more than 100 crore on training and development of its employees through the Advanced Level Telecommunications Training Centre (ALTTC) and 43 other regional training institutes. Reliance has also established Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology. In addition to that, Bharti has also tied-up with IIT Delhi for the Bharti School of Telecommunication Technology and Management. With the increase in competition, availability of huge amount of information through internet, magazines, newspapers, TV, etc, and increased awareness among customers, the demand to impart proper training in non-technological areas like customer care and marketing has increased too. Rapid technological changes, network security threat, mobile application development, growing IP deployment in the sector have brought back the training and development in the priority catalog.


The Indian Telecommunications network with 621 million connections (as on March 2010) is the third largest in the world. The sector is growing at a speed of 45% during the recent years. This rapid growth is possible due to various proactive and positive decisions of the Government and contribution of both by the public and the private sectors. The rapid strides in the telecom sector have been facilitated by liberal policies of the Government that provides easy market access for telecom equipment and a fair regulatory framework for offering telecom services to the Indian consumers at affordable prices. Presently, all the telecom services have been opened for private participation. The Government has taken following main initiatives for the growth of the Telecom Sector.

We have selected two telecom companies:y y PUBLIC (BSNL) PRIVATE (VODAFONE)

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL; ) is a state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi, India. BSNL is one of the largest Indian cellular service providers, with over 83.6 million subscribers as of January 2011, and the largest land line telephone provider in India. However, in recent years the company's revenue and profit plunged into heavy losses due to intense competition in the Indian telecommunications sector. BSNL is India's oldest and largest communication service provider (CSP). It had a customer base of 90 million as of June 2008.[5] It has footprints throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi, which are managed by Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL). As of June 30, 2010, BSNL had a customer base of 27.45 million wireline and 72.69 million wireless subscribers.

Vodafone Essar, usually referred to simply as VODAFONE, is a cellular operator in India that covers 23 telecom circles in India. It was formerly known as Hutchison Essar. It is based in Mumbai. Vodafone Essar is the Indian subsidiary of Vodafone Group 67% and Essar Group33%. It is the second largest mobile phone operator in terms of revenue behind Bharti Airtel, and third in terms of customers. The company now has operations across the country with over 113.77 million customers. Our research is based on the study of the innovative methods of training in these two telecom sector which is BSNL and Vodafone. We have selected these two companies so that we can do the comparative analysis between the training methods of private sector and public sector.

GENERAL METHODS OF TRAINING USED IN TELECOM SECTORS ARE AS FOLLOWS:There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: y y y y y y y y y y y y y LECTURES DEMONSTRATIONS DISCUSSIONS COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT) INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) VIRTUAL REALITY GAMES AND SIMULATIONS BEHAVIOR-MODELING BUSINESS GAMES CASE STUDIES EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS IN-BASKET TECHNIQUES


The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes. Management development method is further divided into two parts:

ON THE JOB TRAINING The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on the job development are:
y y y y


OFF THE JOB TRAINING There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are: y y y y SENSITIVITY TRAINING TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES SIMULATION EXERCISES

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal. Individual Objectives help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization. Organizational Objectives assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. Functional Objectives maintain the departments contribution at a level suitable to the organizations needs. Societal Objectives ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society


Following are the objectives of the research done by us on the topic INNOVATIVE METHODS OF TRAINING INTELECOM SECTOR PRIMARY OBJECTVES The purpose of research is to discover answers to the questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not being discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose of the research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: y y y To gain familiarity with phenomenon or to achieve new insights to it (studies with this objectives in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies). To portray accurately characteristics of particular individual for situation or a group (studies with this objectives are known as descriptive research studies). To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies). To test hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research)

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES y y y y y To study the current method of training given for employees in telecom sector. To study the trainees self assessment about the training programme. To study the level of understanding and impact of the training. To study the effectiveness of innovative techniques. To find out the barriers involved in training and to suggest and recommend few measures to make the training function more effective.


Telecommunications have been a driving force in economic development for the last hundred years. In the recent decade, advance in computing power and information technology, the proliferation of mobile networks, as well as development of telecommunications technology as a whole has increased the interest of economists in telecommunications. As a result, economists have started studying the effect that development of telecommunications has on the global economy, as well as on individual countries or group of countries.

A number of studies have identified a strong relationship between investment in telecommunications stock and economics growth. This link has been identified for developed economics, and, more recently, for a group of transitional countries. However, a number of questions as to the effect of telecommunications on other economic variables remained unanswered. Among such variables, employment is of prime focus. Specifially,it is of significant interest for researchers as well as for the policymakers to determine what effect investment in telecommunications has on the economy-wide employment. The main motivation for producing this paper is to identify this poorly studied link in the case of both developed countries in the form of OCED members, transitional project, in the form of Central and Eastern European countries including Ukarine and the Russian Federations, and some developing countries. Specifically, a positive effect of telecommunication development involves the creation of new jobs needed to service the telecoms infrastructure, as well as employment spillover effect from

increased economics growth due to investment in telecoms. Therefore, investment in telecommunications infrastructure can be expected to increase employment growth. At the same time, as investment in telecommunications continues to increase, it can be expected that this investment will be exhibit declining positive effect on output growth ( one explanation offered in the literature is declining network externalities,eg Krugman (1999)),and therefore employment .At a certain point this investment may start to have a negative impact on employment growth. This negative effect can result if investments in telecoms is performed as the expense of other more economically productive investment (i.e marginal product from other telecom investment is lower than marginal product from other capital investments, which results in misallocation; following an argument put forth by arrow and Kurz (1970)for public capital),thus reducing economic growth and as a result employment growth. In other words there exists a nonlinear relationship between employment and investment in telecom capital, and, specifically, there exists employment- maximizing level of investments in telecommunication capital, the knowledge of which would be of great use to policy makers. To study this effects and estimate the optimal level of telecom capital, we have adopted a model developed by Aschauer (2001),which analysis output and employment effect of investment in public capital. Just as in our case, Aschauer postulates that there is a nine linear relationship between investment in public capital and output and employment growth , and there are output-growth and employment-growth maximizing levels of public capital

There is an additional bonus of using Ashauers modeling that it allows to specifically model output effects, and thus avoid misattributing changes in employment to changes in output. By using this model ,we estimate the effects the effects of telecommunications investment ,which maximize output growth and employment growth respectively.

In this respect, our paper is one of the first steps in assessing the effect of telecommunications on economy-wide employment in transitional, as well as developed countries .A better understanding of this relationship would be beneficial in a no of ways.


It is one of the oldest method of training. this method is used to create understandings of a topic or to influence behavior ,attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture .When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in

training that means the trainer is using the lecture method .The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In the method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainers and trainees. A lectures may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material in the trainers intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered.

Main Features of Lecture Method

Some of the main features of lecture method are: y y y y y Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because requires long periods of trainee inactivity

2. VIRTUAL REALITY Virtual reality is a training method that puts the participant in 3-D environment. The three dimensional environment stimulates situations and events that are experienced in the job. The participants interact with 3-D images to accomplish the training objectives. This type of environment is created to give trainee the impression of physical environment. To experience virtual reality, the trainee wears devices, like headset, gloves, treadmills, etc. Virtual Reality provides trainees with an understanding of the consequences of the action in the work environment by interpreting and responding to the trainees action through its accessories: y y y y Headset provides audio and visual information Gloves provides tactile information Treadmills is used for creating the sense of movement Sensory devices transmits how the trainees are responding in the virtual workplace to the computer. This allows the virtual reality (VR) system to respond by changing the environment appropriately.

Features of the Virtual Reality (VR) system

Some of the features of Virtual Reality System are: y y y y y y It is poorly understood requires technical understanding It is expensive It is time consuming It is flexible in nature It does not incur traveling, lodging, or food cost It requires excellent infrastructure

3. DISCUSSION: This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lectures method. If the Discussion method is used with propersequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving and principal learning. The discussion method consists a two-way flow of communication i.e. knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to trainees, and then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to trainer. Understanding is converted in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enable the trraineer to determine whether the material is understood. If yes, then definitely it would help out the trainees to implemwnt it at their workplaces and if not, the trainer may need to spend more time on the particular area by presenting the information again in a different manner. Questioningncan be done by two ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer. When the trainees ask questions, they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture. A trainer who asks questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking and responding questions and beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding and keep the trainees focused on the content, Besides that, discussions, and interactions allow the trainee to be actively engaged in the material of the trainer. This activity helps in improving recall. DEMONSTRATION This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. In order to

be more effective, demonstration method should be accomplished by the discussion or lecture method. To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesion plan by breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the trainer sequently organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. While performing the demonstration, trainer: The differences between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved, the more learning will occur. The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows: Cost of training facility for the program. Cost of materials that facilitate training Food,travel,lodging for the trainees and the trainees. Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees. Cost related to creating content, materials. Cost related to the organization of the training. After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and or negative, give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and why.
Business Games are the type of simulators that try to present the way an industry, company, organization, consultancy, or subunit of a company functions. Basically, they are based on the set of rules, procedures, plans, relationships, principles derived from the research. In the business games, trainees are given some information that describes a particular situation and are then asked to make decisions that will best suit in the favor of the company. And then the system provides the feedback about the impact of their decisions. Again, on the basis of the feedback they are asked to make the decisions again. This process continues until some meaningful results do not came out or some predefined state of the organizations exits or a specified number of trails are completed. As an example, if the focus is on organizations financial state, the game may end when the organization reach at desirable or defined profitability level. Some of the benefits of the business games are: y y y y It develop leadership skills It improves application of total quality principles It develops skills in using quality tools It strengthen management skills 10

y y

It demonstrates principles and concepts It explores and solves complex problem

Many games and stimulations examine the total organization but only some focus on the functional responsibilities of specific positions in an organization. Business games stimulate whole organization and provide much better perspective than any other training methods. They allow trainees to see how their decisions and actions impact on the related areas. In basket technique- It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manager, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator. Procedure of the In basket Technique y y y y y In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role. The trainee is being given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes places. In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions The Trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably.

A variation on the technique is to run multiple, simultaneous in baskets in which each trainee receives a different but organized set of information required to make a suitable decision. This technique focuses on: Building decision making skills Assess and develops knowledge, Skill and Attitudes (KSAs) Develops of communication and interpersonal skills Develops procedural knowledge Develops strategic knowledge

y y y y y

Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. Trainees are given with some information related to description of the role, concerns, objective, responsibilities, and emotions, etc. T hen a general description of the situation, and the problem that each one of them faces, is given. Foe instance, situation could be strike in factory, managing conflict, two parties in conflict, scheduling vacation days, etc. Once the participants read their role description, they act out their roles by interacting with one another. 11

Role Plays helps in y Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills y Conflict resolution y Group decision making y Developing insight into ones own behavior and its impact on others There are various types of role plays, such as: y Multiple Role Play In this types of role play, all trainees are in groups, with each group acting out the role play simultaneously. After the role play, each group analyzes the interaction and identifies the learning points. Single Role Play One group of participants plays the role for the rest, providing demonstrations of situation. Other participants observe the role play, analyze their interaction with one another and learn from the play. Role Rotation It start as a single role play. After the interaction of participants, the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. Then the participant is asked to exchange characters. This method allows a Variety of ways to approach the roles. Spontaneous Role Play In this kind of role play, one of the trainees plays herself while the other trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before.


With the worldwide expansion of companies and the changing technologies, the demands for knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than the ever, which in turn, is putting pressure on HR Department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals.






Provides the instructional consistency





Reduces the cost of training

Reduces trainee learning time

Allows the trainee to master learning

Benefits of CBT

Increase access to training

Allows learning at an individual pace

Affords privacy of learning

According to a recent survey, about 75% of the organizations are providing training to employees through Intranet or Internet. Internet is not the method of training ,but has become the technique of delivering training. The growth of electronic technology has created alternative training delivery systems. CBT does not require face to face interaction with a human trainer. This method is so varied in its applications that it is difficult to describe in concise terms.


This Intelligent Tutorial System uses artificial intelligence to assist in training or tutoring the participants. This system learns through trainee responses. Features of Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) y y y y y y y It selects the appropriate level of instructions for the participants. It guides the trainee. It is a text based system. It also evaluates the training program. It also improves the methodology for teaching the trainee based on the information. It is an interactive system. It determines the trainees level of understanding.

Intelligent tutorial System (ITS) comprises of 5 components:


1. A domain expert also called the expert knowledge base. 2. A trainee model-stores the information on how the trainee is performing during the training program. 3. A scenario generator. 4. A training session manager interprets trainees responses and responds either with tutoring, more content or information. 5. A user interface allows the trainee to communicate with the intelligent tutorial system.

Is a computer based training that comprises of graphics, multimedia text that is connected to one another and is stored in memory. Programmed instruction is the procedure of guiding the participants strategically through the information in a way that facilitates the most effective and efficient learning. It provides the participant with content, information, asks questions and based on the answer goes to the next level of information, i.e., if trainee gives the correct answer one branch moves the trainee forward to the new information. And if the trainee answer the wrong answer then different branch is activated, taking the trainee back to the review relevant information in more elaborate manner. This method allows the trainee to go through the content according to the individual speed: incapability. Those trainees ,who respond better, move through the content rapidly . Programmed Instructions also comes in: y y y y Printed form i.e., books Tape Interactive Video Other formats In programmed instruction, trainees receive information in substantial amount and then tested on their retention of information. If the trainees are not able to retain the information, they are referred back to the original information. If the trainees retain the information, they are referred to the next log of information. Features of Programmed Instruction: y y y y y It provides immediate feedback to trainee response. It frequently reviews the content. It programs small learning steps that results in fewer response errors. It allows trainees to move through the content at their own speed, or capability. It requires frequent active response by the trainees.

Behavior Modeling uses the innate inclination for people to observe others to discover how to do something new. It is more often used in combination with some other techniques. Procedure of behavior modeling technique In this method, some kind of process or behavior is videotaped and then is watched by the trainees. Games and simulation section is also included because once the trainees see the videotape, they practice the behavior through role plays or other kind of simulation techniques. The trainee first observes the behavior modeled in the video and then reproduces the behavior on the job. y y y y y y y The skills that are required to build up are defined AA brief overview of the theory is then provided to the trainers Then, trainees are given instructions that what specific learning points or critical behavior they have to watch Then the expert is used to model the suitable behaviors Then, the trainees are encouraged to practice the suitable behavior in a role play or through any other method of stimulation Trainees are then provided with some opportunities to give reinforcement for appropriate imitation of the models behavior In the end, trainer ensures that trainees appropriately reinforces the behavior on the work place Behavior modeling focuses on developing behavioral and interpersonal skills. This type of method can be used for training in y y y y y Sales Training Interviewee Training Interviewer Training Safety Training Interpersonal skills training


Are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and stimulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees job. A training Game is as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules.


Simulation is creating computer versions of real life games. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation. It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations. Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key components are: y y y Challenge Rules Interactivity

These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning. Some of the examples of this technique are:

Equipment simutatus

Business Games

Games and Simulation

In-basket Technique

Role plays



The system of collecting data for research projects is known as research methodology. The data may be collected for either theoretical or practical research for example management research may be strategically conceptualized along with operational planning methods and change management. Some important factors in research methodology include validity of research data, Ethics and the reliability of measures most of your work is finished by the time you finish the analysis of your data. Formulating of research questions along with sampling weather probable or non probable is followed by measurement that includes surveys and scaling. This is followed by research design, which may be either experimental or quasiexperimental. The last two stages are data analysis and finally writing the research paper, which is organized carefully into graphs and tables so that only important relevant data is shown. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. If we categorize it by purpose, it would fall into two major categories: Basic Research and Applied Research, while in case of method, it would be deductive research and inductive research. BASIC RESEARCH Also called Pure or fundamental Research, it is undertaken for increase in knowledge. There is no direct benefit as it is a research for the sake of research. It is conducted to satisfy any curiosity such as: (a) what makes things happen, (b) why society changes and (c) why social relations are in a certain way. In fact, it is the source of most new theories, principles and ideas. Basic research rarely helps anyone directly. It only stimulates new ways of thinking. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge. There is absolutely no commercial value to the discoveries resulting from such research.


APPLIED RESEARCH It is use of basic research or past theories, knowledge and methods for solving an existing problem. It deals with practical problems. It is opposed to pure research which is not problem-oriented but for the increase in knowledge which may or may not be used in future. In the present world situation, more emphasis is being given to applied research to solve problems arising out of overpopulation and scarcity of natural resources. Applied research should not be treated the same as Research & Development (R&D) which is involved in developing products demanded by the existing clients. Applied Research, on the other hand, focuses on uncovering what needs are not being met and use that information in designing products or services that would create their own demand. The Technical Insights research methodology:






Step 1: Perform a review of patents to become familiar with the major developers and commercial players and their processes. Step 2: Building on the patent search, review abstracts and identify scientific papers that help analyze the key players and become more familiar with technical processes. Step 3: Interview university and national laboratory researchers not involved with the major commercial players to find out about the advantages and disadvantages of processes, and identify the drivers and challenges behind technologies; round out the list of key players. Step 4: Armed with knowledge from patents, papers, and academic interviews, call the principal companies, developers, researchers, engineers, and marketing experts; ask them the appropriate intelligence questions to satisfy the research requirements.


The basic types of research are as follows: i. DESCRIPTIVE vs ANALYTICAL: Descriptive research includes surveys and factfinding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables. In Analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analysis these to make a critical evaluation of the materials. APPLIED vs FUNDAMENTAL: Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization, whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. Applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem. Whereas fundamental research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of applications. QUANTITATIVE vs QUALITATIVE: Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research is concerned with quantitative phenomena. It is specially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior. CONCEPTUAL vs EMPERICAL: Conceptual research is tat related to some abstract ideas or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.





Criteria Of Good Research

y y The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used. The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained. The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings. The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully. Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provides an adequate basis. Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity.

y y y

y y

y y y Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly increased in modern times. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. Through research we can devise alternative policies and can as well examine the consequences of each of these alternatives. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems. To those students who are to write a masters or PH.D thesis, research may mean careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social structure. To professional in research methodology, research may mean a source of livelihood. To philosophers and thinkers, research may mean the outlet for new ideas and insights. To literary men and women, research may mean the development of new styles and creative work. To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean the generalizations of new theories.

y y y y y y y



A. GOOD RESEEARCH IS SYSTEMATIC: It means that research is structured with specified steps to be taken in a specified sequence in accordance with the well defined set of rules. Systematic characteristic of the research does not rule out creative thinking but it certainly does reject the use of guessing and intuition in arriving at conclusions. B. GOOD RESEARCH IS LOGICAL: This implies that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning and the logical process of induction and deduction are of great value in carrying out research. Induction is the process of reasoning from a part to the whole whereas deduction is the process of reasoning from some premise to a conclusion which follows from that very premise. In fact, logical reasoning makes research more meaningful in the context of decision making. C. GOOD RESEARCH IS EMPIRICAL: It implies that research that research is related basically to one or more aspects of a real situation and deals with concrete data that provides a basis for external validity to research results. D. GOOD RESEARCH IS REPLICABLE: This characteristic allows research results to be verified by replicating the study and thereby building a sound basis for decisions.




Data collection

Primary Data

Secondary Data






Indepth Published Unpublished

Personal meeting

Focus group Template Panel Published



Facts, information systematically collected and formally presented for the purpose of drawing inferences may be called data. Statistical information collected, compiled and preserved for the purpose of establishing appropriate relationship between variables may also be included in the data, whether statistically processed or not, play a vital role in the research and analysis of various problems in all types of area of investigations. This is the rational of data collection in research.



Primary source means first hand sources or original source at the hand of the researcher that is not collected previously. For example, the various replies by the teacher from the students as regards their assessment of teaching method constitute primary source of data. Primary data is collected through principles sources of observation, surveys. Using primary sources, researcher can collect precisely the information he wants. Primary data consist of Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data.

Qualitative Data
This is classified further into Nominal and Ranked. Nominal data is a result of classification into two or more categories of the items comprising a sample or a population according to some quality characteristics. Classification of labor according to their skills, voters etc. are few examples. It is customary to assign every item to any one of these categories and make a total of the items in each category. This count gives data in the form of Nominal data. On the other hand, ranked data is the result of assigning ranks to specify order. The ranks are assigned according to the level of performance, accomplishments in tests, contests, interviews, competitions. The assigned ranks are continuous values of a variable.


Quantitative Data
This also is classified into two, namely Continuous and Discrete. Continuous data means the numerical values of a continuous variable. That means, a variable can take any value between any other two values, however small. e.g. The measure of height, weight, density, temperature, etc, are the examples of a continuous data on continuous variable. Similarly, discrete data are values assumed by a discrete variable. A discrete variable assumes fixed values; generally integers. It is also known as counts. The no. Of telephone calls received in a given period, the number of items rejected in a batch, etc, is typical illustrations of discrete data from discrete variables. Methods of Collecting Primary Data Primary data are the information generated to meet the specific requirements of the investigation to be had. Hence, the investigator is required to collect data separately for the study taken by him. A method refers to the way of gathering data. Some of the methods are as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Observation involves gathering of data pertaining to a given research either by viewing or listening or both. Interviewing means conversation between the researcher and the respondent directly. Mailing involves collecting data by getting questionnaires completed by respondents. Experimentation involves study of independent variables under controlled conditions for evaluating their effect on a dependent variable. Simulation means creation of an artificial condition similar to the real life situation Projective methods aim at drawing inferences on the characteristics of respondents by presenting to them stimuli.

OBSERVATION We go on observing something or other when we are awaken. Most significance or purpose. But when we observe with some purpose in view, it signifies differently. Therefore, observation finds an important place in a research study. Young said, observation is a systematic viewing coupled with consideration of the seen phenomenon. It can also be defined as the process of recognizing and noting people, objects and occurrences rather than asking for information.

EXPERIMENTATION It is a research process involving study of the casual relationship between variables. It studies effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable by keeping rest of the independent variables constant under given conditions. A non experimental study may show correlation

but that alone does not prove causation. Experimentation alone removes this. In experimental study a researcher can manipulate the independent variable and measure its effect on the dependent variable. It creates opportunity to vary the experimental variable in a systematic manner. Therefore, though experimentation requires systematic efforts, though it is rather somewhat difficult to design and also time consuming, it has a large recognition for use in research studies.

INTERVIEW T his forms one of the important methods of data collection. It involves systematic conversation between an interviewer /investigator and the respondent for getting relevant information for a specified research problem. It is said that the respondents facial expressions, bodily gesture etc. also held to learn important things governing his answers to the problem under study. Observational methods are less effective in giving information about a persons perception, attitudes , beliefs , feeling, motivation, etc . To obtain such information, the interview method is very effective. Interview, through can be a main method of collecting data, can also become a supplementary one to observation method. It is also capable of collecting a wide range of data from demographic to social characteristic, to future intentions of a person. It also seem to be superior as people prefer to talk them right. Infact, the most confidential of the information can be obtained by this method. It helps in solving the problem deeply and to get the answer to the same. It also helps to get clarification for many replies containing information.

SIMULATION Abelson defines simulation as the exercise of a flexible imitation of processes and outcomes for the purpose of clearing or explaining the underlying mechanisms involved. Simulation is the theoretical model of the element, relations and processes which symbolise some reference system. It is simply a technique of performing sampling experiments on the model of the system. Experiments are carried out on the model rather than on the real system, because the latter is either inconvenient or expanses. Simulation is one of the forms of observational method. A real life experiment may be costly or may not be possible to be conducted due to practical difficulties or the complexities of the phenomenon. One great advantage of simulation is that it can handle many variables including intrapersonal or the interpersonal process simultaneously unlike experimentation. Also, unlike experimentation, it is best suited to the study of a system with a set of interrelated and interdependent sub components.

Simulation is extensively used in war strategies and tact, in business problem such as order qualities, production scheduling, waiting line problems in transport services, consumer behavior etc, in economical problems, in political problems and so also in behavioral and social problems such as population, group behavior or social conflicts. MAIL SURVEY This another method of collecting primary data. A questionnaire is mailed to respondents for proper completion of the same. But it not very useful if the respondents are uneducated. It is advisable that the method in corporate close end questions or multi choice questions. The interviewer does not have much to say in it and complete administration is that of the respondent. In this case, motivation, incentives, follow up, simple question etc do help to make these interviews techniques more effective.

Secondary data refers to information generally collected by persons other than researcher for other purpose and not for the purpose involved in the given research project at work. As an example, the annual accounts of a company forms a primary data for that company for purpose of presenting the companys financial status and performance. But to a researcher, it may form a secondary data as it is used, perhaps in part, for some other purpose and is independent of research investigation. The sources of secondary data consists of reports such as census reports, annual reports and accounts of company reports of various government departments. Reserve bank of Indias various reports, national sample survey report, UNO, UNICEF, WHOM, ILO, or world bank various reports compiled. Infact, books, journals, diaries, manuscripts, letter, etc. also form secondary source of data. The main characteristics associated with such a data are that the data is readily available. Also, the researcher does not have any control over this collection. The forms and contents are shaped by those other than a particular researcher. SECONDARY DATA, CLASSIFICATION OF SOURCES It is broadly classified into two main factors: 1) Internal 2) External INTERNAL This represents data already available with a research institute or a company. The data collected by a company may consist of sales, costs, assets, liabilities, profits, production etc. Such a data is routinely collected by a company for its own use, guidance, etc. In case of a research organization, such as Central Statistical Organization of the Indian Statistical institute, the data collected is always in tune with the purpose or objective in mind then.

EXTERNAL This usually consists of data/information collected by individuals. The individual collect it for his own self, about society. Many people indulge in such activities. A researcher may, therefore, find such data very useful. A researcher collecting information as regards Indias ancient heritage may find such data material collected by late Shri Kelkar of PUNE and displayed in the famous Raja Kelkar Muesum in PUNE. They are further classified as (i) Personal sources and (ii) Public sources (i) Personal Sources These include several ways of collection of data, prominent among them is through: a. b. c. d. Autobiographies Diaries Letters Memoirs

Such data proves very useful to get a better account of things such as preindependence life in India, history of a person or a particular society, social life problems such as love, death , marriage, divorce-revealing important information. It also throws light on different social phenomenon . (ii) Public Sources They are classified further as a. Unpublished Many a times, for various reasons, though matter is of public interest, the data is not at all published. Reports of inquiry commissions, report of special inquiry, declare requirement reports, etc. Probably as access can be had at the source of preparation of such reports and can be made there-may be with permission. b. Published There are varieties of sources and are easily available to a researcher. They include: 1. Books, 2. Journals or periodicals, 3. Newspapers, 4. Reports of Government Departments,

5. Reports of autonomous Institutes such as University Grants Commission (UGC) or Bureau of Public Undertakings, Reserve Bank of India, Industrial Credit and Investment corporation of India (ICICI) 6. Publications from Research Institutes, Centers or Organizations such as National Institute of bank Management (NIBM), Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade(IIFT), Indian Statistical Institute(ISI) etc. A close look at India will reveal that apart from a few above, there are many other institutes existing other than more than hundred universities and many institutes dealing with management training. Research papers, research bulletins, in-house journals, monographs etc. published by them are wealthy sources of information for any researcher. This chapter shows the method of data collection used the entire process in which the data was collected and presents the data that collected. Data collection is the most important part of any research report. This is where the research truly starts in its practical form. After all objectives of the research are set clear and methodologies are laid out, it creates the ground for the most important activity of the research to find out the information from which the results or the research will be derived. This data collection forms the most important part of the research and research originates from the data collection.



6% 24%

1.Are training needs regularly assessed at your company?


Yes,by human resource Yes,by outside consultant Yes,by department heads No

This figure shows that 38% employee says that training should be assessed by human resource,32% says that it should be done by outside consultant,24% says that it should be by departmental heads, and 6% says that training needs should not be regularly assessed.


Yes,by human resource Yes,by department heads

2% 6%

Yes,by outside consultant No


This figure shows that 92% says that training should be regularly assessed by human resource, 6% employees says that it should be done by outside consultant and 2% says that it should take place by department heads.



2.Which of the following training opportunities do you offer?

0% 24%

6% 16%
Leadership Training Executive Training Technical Training Computer Training Literacy/Numeracy Training


This figure shows that BSNL offer 54% technical training, 24% computer training, 6% leadership training, 16% executive training, 0% literacy training. VODAFONE

2% 0% 10%

Leadership Training Executive Training



Technical Training Computer Training Literacy/Numeracy Training

This figure shows that Vodafone offers 58% leadership training, 30%executive training, 10%technical training, 2%computer training, 0%literacy training.



3.Are employees permitted time-off work to attend training? 2%



Yes,with pay Yes,without pay No,only after work hours No,only in special cases


This figure shows that in BSNL 48% employees are provided training with pay, 34% employees are provided with training only after work hours, 16% employees gets training but without pay, 2% employees says that time-off work to attend training is provided only in special cases. VODAFONE

4% 12%


Yes,with pay Yes,without pay No,only after work hours No,only in special cases


This figure shows that in VODAFONE 84% employees are provided training with pay,12% employees gets training but without pay,4% employees are provided with training only after work, 0% employees says that time-off work to attend training is provided only in special cases.



4.What is the minimum hour per year in which employees must participate in training?

10% 6%


42% 28%

No minimum Upto 8 hours 9 to 24 hours 25 to 40 hours Over 40 hours

This figure shows that in BSNL 42% employees are provided with 25 to 40 hours of training in a year, 28% employees are provided with 9 to 24 hours of training in a year, 14% employees get training upto 8 hours per year, 10% employees get training over 40 hours per year, 6% employees do not have specific minimum hours of training. VODAFONE


0% 0%

32% 68%

No minimum Upto 8 hours 9 to 24 hours 25 to 40 hours Over 40 hours

This figure shows that in Vodafone 0% employees are provided with 25 to 40 hours of training in a year, 0% employees are provided with 9 to 24 hours of training in a year, 32% employees get training upto 8 hours per year, 0% employees get training over 40 hours per year, 68% employees do not have specific minimum hours of training.



5.Which one is the basic requirement for giving training to employees?

10% 18% 22%

Leadership Development

Performance Management Dealing with the difficult employees


Reducing stress in the workplace Others,such as increase in the speed of working,increasing efficiency

This figure shows that in BSNL 40% employees believes that they require training to improve performance management, 22% says they require training to overcome the difficulties faced by them, 18% employees believe that training helps to reducing stress in the workplace,10% employees require training for leadership development and 10% employees require training to increase their working speed and efficiency. VODAFONE

0% 10% 20% 34%

Leadership Development Performance Management Dealing with the difficult employees


Reducing stress in the workplace Others,such as increase in the speed of working,increasing efficiency


This figure shows that in Vodafone 36% employees believes that they require training to improve performance management, 20% says they require training to overcome the difficulties faced by them, 10% employees believe that training helps to reducing stress in the workplace,34% employees require training for leadership development and 0% employees require training to increase their working speed and efficiency.




6.What are the latest methods of training which are provided to employees?


24% 30%


Practical Presentation Study materials

This figure shows that in BSNL 38% employee believe that lectures should be given as latest method of training, 30% believes that practical method should be used, 24% suggests that presentations should be used, 8% employee believe that study material should be provided. VODAFONE

4% 16% 36% 44%

Role Playing Video Clipping Step Training Interactive sessions

This figure shows that in Vodafone 44% employee believe that video clipping should be given as latest method of training, 36% believes that step training should be used, 16% suggests that role playing method should be used, 4% employee believe that interactive sessions should be conducted.



7.What kind of training is provided to employees?

22% 78%

On-the job training Off-the job training

This figure shows that in BSNL 78% employees believe that on-the job training should be provided and 22% employees believes that off-the job training should be provided. VODAFONE

On-the job training


Off-the job training


This figure shows that in Vodafone 98% employees believe that on-the job training should be provided and 2% employees believes that off-the job training should be provided.



8.Are employees availing themselves of training opportunities?




This figure shows that in BSNL 88% employees are availing themselves of the training opportunities and 12% employees are not availing themselves of the training opportunities. VODAFONE




This figure shows that in Vodafone all employees are availing themselves of the training opportunities.



9.Is cost considered in the selection of training resources?

44% 56%



This figure shows that in BSNL 56% employees believes that cost is considered in the selection of training resources and 44% employees believes that cost is not considered in the selection of training resources. VODAFONE

2% Yes 98% No

This figure shows that in Vodafone 2% employees believes that cost is considered in the selection of training resources and 98% employees believes that cost is not considered in the selection of training resources.



10.Is there a method to track training costs in terms of cost work time?

42% 58%



This figure shows that in BSNL 58% employees says that there is a method to track training costs in terms of cost work time and 42% employees do not agree. VODAFONE




This figure shows that in Vodafone 8% employees says that there is a method to track training costs in terms of cost work time and 92% employees do not agree.



11.Are the results of training programmes monitored & evaluated?




This figure shows that in BSNL 78% employees that the results of training programmes are monitored and evaluated and 22% employees disagrees with the statement. VODAFONE




This figure shows that in Vodafone 98% employees that the results of training programmes are monitored and evaluated and 2% employees disagrees with the statement.



12.Does your organization measures a return on investment in training?




This figure shows that in BSNL 70% of employees believes that their organization measures a return on investment in training and 30% of the employees do not believes that their organization measures a return on investment in training. VODAFONE

0% Yes No

This figure shows that in Vodafone all employees believes that their organization measures a return on investment in training.



13.Do you know training is used back in the job?




This figure shows that in BSNL 80% employees know that training is used back in the job and 20% employees do not know that training is used back in the job. VODAFONE





This figure shows that in Vodafone all employees know that training is used back in the job.



14.Are all job skills,knowledge & ability considered in assessing training needs?

16% 84%



This figure shows that in BSNL 84% employees believes that all job skills, knowledge and ability are considered in assessing training needs and 16% employees do not agree with the statement.





This figure shows that in Vodafone all employees believes that all job skills, knowledge and ability are considered in assessing training needs.



15.Are all new technologies,product,service changes needs to be considered in assessing training needs?




This figure shows that in BSNL 84% of employees believe that all new technologies, product, services changes needs are considered in assessing training needs and 16% employees believes that new technologies, product, services changes needs are not considered in assessing training needs. VODAFONE

Yes No


This figure shows that in Vodafone all employees believe that all new technologies, product, services changes needs are considered in assessing training needs.


16.Are all org. issues & customer orientation considered in training needs? 8% Yes No


This figure shows that in BSNL 92% employees believes that all organizational issues and customer orientation is considered in training needs and 8% of employees says that organizational issues and customer orientation is not considered in training needs. VODAFONE





This figure shows that in Vodafone all employees believes that all organizational issues and customer orientation is considered in training needs.



17.Is there a process for assessing immediate training needs & indiv. development needs?

Yes No

This figure shows that in BSNL 92% employees believes that there is a process for assessing immediate training needs and individual development needs and 8% employees do not go with the statement. VODAFONE


Yes 100%


This figure shows that in Vodafone all employees believes that there is a process for assessing immediate training needs and individual development needs.




According to the survey done in the Vodafone and BSNL companies, we have come to the following suggestions: y Training should be designed keeping in mind the basic requirements of every employee of the organization. Training method should be revised in order to provide ease to employees Training management should be enhanced using new information technology tools. Its time to introduce more innovative training methods in the telecom sector as the market is already flooded with policies which are the nearly the same. Some awareness programmes should be introduced in between the employees as the employees are not much aware about the training method. One of our recommendation include that telecom sector should be aware of their competitors strategies of increasing the profit, sale etc. through training methods. The BSNL & Vodafone has good innovation ideology inside the management; it will be beneficial for their business expanding in the future.

y y y

y y


Researchers in India, particularly those engaged in empirical research, are facing several problems. Some of the important problems are as follows: 1. The lack of scientific training in the methodology of research is a great impediment for researchers in our country. There is paucity of component researcher. Many researchers take a leap in the dark without knowing research methods. Most of the work, which goes in the name of research, is not methodology sound. 2. There is insufficient interaction between university research departments on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions on the other side. A great deal of primary data of non- confidential nature remains untouched/untreated by the researchers for want of proper contacts. 3. Most of the business units in our country do not have the confidence that the materials supplied by them to researchers will not be misused and as such they are often reluctant in supplying the needed information to researchers. 4. Research study overlapping one another is undertaken quiet often for want of adequate information. This results in duplication and fritters away resources. This problem can be solved by proper complication and revision, where the research is going on. 5. There does not exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter university and inter departmental rivalries are also quiet common. Hence, there is need for developing a code of conduct for researchers which, is adhered sincerely, can win over these problems. 6. Many researchers in our country also face the difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance, including computerial assistance. This causes unnecessary delays in the completion of research study. 7. Library management and functioning is not satisfactory at many places and much of the time and energy of researchers are spent in tracing out the books ,journals, reports, etc, rather than in tracing out relevant material from them. 8. There is also the problem that many of the library are not able to get copies of old and new acts/rules, reports and other government publications in time. This problem is felt more in libraries which are away in places from Delhi and or the state capitals. 9. There is also the difficulty of timely availability of published data from various government and other agencies doing this job in our country. Researchers also faces the problem on account of the fact the published data wary quite significantly because of differences in coverage by the concerning agencies. 10. There may, at times take place the problem of conceptualization and also problems relating to process of data collection an d related things.


The project report is supported by with the reference of following books, magazines etc.

1) Research and Methodology :
Dr. P.C.Pardeshi, Prof. Dr. Mahesh A. Kulkarni, Vision Publication C.S. Kothari

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