Anda di halaman 1dari 183

2010 Edition

Power Cables & Wires


Technical Manual

Through the initiative of: International Copper Association South East Asia

Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc.

ISBN 978-971-93962-8-4

PREFACE
This book, Power Cables and Wires Technical Manual, was written to address the need by consumers, specifiers, and purchasers to have a ready reference guide in correctly specifying or ordering the appropriate cables and/or wires that will satisfy their particular requirements. Towards this purpose, a Cable/Wire Ordering Form, which appears in Annex D, was developed so that the User will be able to indicate and itemize his needs and give all data and information necessary for the Wires and Cable Manufacturer or Supplier to be able to supply the wire or cable that the User requires. All components necessary for the construction of a cable or wire, from the conductor to the insulator, are each discussed in this manual so as to educate or inform the reader of its fundamental use or purpose to the final product. Moreover, all the different types of material and their characteristics have been identified and explained in this manual to further elucidate the reader. This publication was made possible through the initiative and support of the International Copper Association South East Asia and the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, who developed, published and will propagate its use as reference. Though conscientious efforts have been exerted to ensure the accuracy of the information in this manual, comments regarding errors and omissions are most welcome and highly appreciated. All suggestions will be studied and considered for inclusion in this manuals next edition.

iii

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This Power Cables and Wires Technical Manual was developed into a printed publication through the collaborative efforts among professional, business and international organizations. In the course of the manuals conceptualization, development and production, which spanned for more than a year, several distinguished entities and individuals, have generously lent their utmost participation, assistance, knowledge, expertise and support towards the completion and publication of this manual. Special thanks are given to the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers (IIEE) of the Philippines 2009 and 2010 Board of Governors, headed by their Presidents, Engrs. Arthur N. Escalante and Gregorio Y. Guevarra, respectively, for their insightful approval to engage the Institute in this worthwhile project and sustaining the support until its completion. Of course, all of this would not have been possible without the initiative and patronage of the International Copper Association South East Asia, whose representative in the Philippines is Mr. Jessie Todoc. Further, we want to recognize the critical support, knowledge and relevant materials contributed by the following Wires and Cables Companies; Columbia, Phelps Dodge, Sycwin and Philflex. Moreover, we would like to acknowledge the Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) for the list of the existing Philippine National Standards (PNS) on wires and cables. Finally, eternal gratitude is given to the IIEE Adhoc Committee on Wires and Cables, whose members are; Engr. Willington K. K. C. Tan, Engr. Cesar Gatpo, Ms. Maritess Templonuevo and Engr. Ricardo Lopez Jr., who participated in the conceptualization and outline of the manual and were instrumental in coming up with the Cable/Wire Ordering Form, and whose indefatigable Chairman, Engr. Arthur A. Lopez, gave flesh to the manual. Special mention is given to Engr. Feldimir Siao of MERALCO, who conducted the review of the original manuscript and to Engr. Wilson Yu for his valuable contributions. Again, thank you very much.
v

vi

Table of Contents
Preface Acknowledgement Table of Contents Introduction 1 Material Consideration 1.1 Resistance and Conductivity 1.2 Weight 1.3 Amapacity 1.4 Voltage Regulation 1.5 Short Circuit 1.6 Other Factors 2 Wire/Cable Manufacturing Process 2.1 Drawing 2.2 Annealing 2.3 Stranding 2.4 Bunching 2.5 Extrusion 3 Conductor Size 4 Stranding 4.1 Concentric Stranding 4.2 Compressed Stranding 4.3 Compact Stranding 4.4 Bunch Stranding 4.5 Rope Stranding 4.6 Sector Conductors 4.7 Segmental Conductors 4.8 Annular Conductors 5 Physical and Mechanical Properties 5.1 Conductor Properties 5.2 Tempers of Conductors 5.3 Conductor Direct Current (DC) Resistance 5.4 Conductor AC Resistance 5.5 Cables in Magnetic Metal Conduit 5.6 Resistance at Higher Frequency iii v vii 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 10 10 11 11 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 19 21 22

vii

Insulation 6.1 Elastomers 6.2 Plastics 6.3 Insulation Resistance 7 Cable Design and Construction 8 Low Voltage Wires and Cables 8.1 Building Wires 8.2 Secondary and Service Cables 9 Medium and High Voltage Wires and Cables 9.1 Bare Conductors 9.2 Covered Conductors 9.3 Insulated Cables 10 Installation of Wires and Cables 10.1 Maximum Allowable Tensions on Conductors 10.2 Sidewall Pressure 10.3 Bending Radius 11 Packaging 12 Cable/Wire Application 13 Cable Installation Method 14 Color Coding 15 Reference Standards 16 Storage 17 Available Cable Handling Equipment at Site 18 Safeguards for Installing Wires and Cables in Conduit 18.1 Before Pulling Wire/Cable 18.2 While Pulling Wire/Cable 18.3 After Pulling Wire/Cable 19 Safeguard for Switchboard and Similar Open Wiring 20 Wire/Cable Ordering Form Annexes Annex A Annex B Annex C Annex D Bibliography

22 23 27 33 35 36 39 44 49 49 53 57 62 62 68 69 72 72 72 72 73 73 75 75 76 76 76 76 77 79 81 157 165 171 173

viii

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

INTRODUCTION One of the fundamental concerns of electrical engineering is the transmission and distribution of electricity to its final utilization in a manner that is safe, efficient and economical. The choice of conductor material including size and design takes into consideration the operating voltage, ampacity, mechanical properties, type of installation and overall cost. Electric wires and cables come in a wide variety of types and construction. It usually consists of a low resistance conductor to properly transmit electric current. They can be classified in various ways depending on the factors being considered such as the material, degree of insulation, service, or voltage application. The aim of this manual is to provide sufficient information on the types of wires and cables available in the market including its intended application in order for the reader to make an intelligent selection. At the end section of this manual, more detailed information are included on the types and applications of wires and cables that an electrical practitioner would generally need. 1. MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS There are several high conductivity metals that may be used as conductor. A conductor is a metallic material which allows electric current to flow through it with less resistance. Table 1 ranked these metals according to resistivity at 20C. The best conductor material is silver but due to its high cost per unit weight and being one of the precious metals, it is not economical to use in the transmission and distribution of electricity. Comparatively, gold with its excellent corrosion resistance and lower resistivity than aluminum is also a good conductor but, same as silver, is very costly. Thus, these metals i.e., silver and gold are only used in electrical applications where low resistivity and corrosion resistance is of utmost importance such as electrical contacts. 1

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Copper with its inherent lower resistivity than aluminum is the preferred conductor on certain applications. It is malleable and ductile. Also, it has a relatively higher tensile strength and easily soldered. However, it is more expensive and heavier than aluminum.

Table 1. Resistivity of Metals at 20C Metal Ohm-mm2/m Silver 1.59108 Copper 1.68108 Gold 2.44108 Aluminium 2.82108 Tungsten 5.60108 Zinc 5.90108 Nickel 6.99108 Iron 1.0107 Platinum 1.06107 Tin 1.09107

1.1 Resistance and Conductivity Resistance is the opposition of an object to the passage of electric current. For direct current, resistance is dependent on the material length, cross-sectional area and resistivity. The electrical resistance of a conductor is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area or diameter of a conductor i.e., the larger the conductor the less resistance it has to the flow of current. Conductivity, on the other hand, is the complete opposite of resistance. Compared with copper, aluminum has a number of technical disadvantages, all of which can be satisfactorily overcome to benefit from its economic attraction. The advantage of its lower density (about one-third that of copper) is partly offset by its low conductivity of just 61% that of copper. Thus, an aluminum conductor must have a cross-sectional area about 1.6 times that of copper conductor to have the equivalent dc resistance. Such difference is approximately equal to two sizes higher (i.e., in AWG). 2

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

The grade and quality of copper is very important and the high conductivity copper used for electrical purposes comfortably exceeds the 100% IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard) value. Conductivity is greatly influenced by impurities and by mechanical working. Consequently, the purity is of the order of 99.99%, which nowadays is obtained by final electrolytic refining. Fortunately, the mechanical strength of annealed copper wire is adequate for nearly all types of insulated cable. If any minor working of the material occurs during conductor manufacture, e.g. in compacting to reduce the overall dimensions, allowance has to be made for work hardening by increasing the copper volume to compensate for the reduction in conductance. In an extreme case, such as the use of hard drawn copper for self-supporting overhead lines, this may amount to as much as 3%. Copper is invariably used in the annealed condition except for the conductors of selfsupporting overhead cables. Solid aluminum conductors are also mainly in a soft condition but stranded aluminum conductors are H (hard) to H. 1.2 Weight Although aluminum has only about sixty-one percent (61%) of the conductivity of copper, its lightness makes long spans possible. Aluminums low density is one of its important advantages. Also, its relatively large diameter for a given conductivity reduces corona (the discharge of electricity from the wire when it has a high potential), which contributes to the losses of the wire. This makes aluminum ideal for the transmission of high voltage power over long distances. However, due to aluminums relatively low tensile strength, the aluminum conductors are usually cabled around a steel support wire to improve the total tensile strength of the cable. This enables the relatively expensive transmission towers to be spaced further apart without the wire sagging too much. Electrical transmission lines are the largest users of aluminum wire products. In fact, this is the one market in which aluminum has virtually no competition from other metals. However, the relatively large size of aluminum for a given conductance does not permit the economical use of an insulation 3

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual covering. Hence, low voltage household, office, and factory electric wires and cables are usually copper, which also does not have the corrosion problems common to aluminum wires. In fact, copper has been unchallenged as a conductor for all types of insulated cables for well over seventy (70) years. 1.3 Ampacity In general, current ratings of aluminum cables are about 78%-80% of those of copper cables of the same conductor size. An aluminum cable needs to be thicker than a copper cable in order to have the same current carrying capacity. 1.4 Voltage Regulation Reactance is negligible in all DC circuits and, in AC circuits with small conductors of sizes equal to or less than 60 mm2. Voltage drops for a copper conductor and an aluminum conductor with 1.6 times the cross-sectional area would be the same. However, in AC circuits with large conductors, the resistance value is influenced by skin and proximity effect, and the reactance becomes important. 1.5 Short Circuit Copper conductors have higher capabilities in short circuit operations than aluminum conductors. However, for covered and insulated conductors the thermal limitations of the materials which form part of conductor should be considered before making such comparison. 1.6 Other Factors Aluminum oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air, a thin corrosion resistance film having a high dielectric strength forms quickly. Thus, additional care must be taken when making connections. Material of terminal connections should be taken into consideration since this could corrode the aluminum conductor. Also, when a combination of copper and aluminum conductors are to be connected together, special technique or connectors are required to have a reliable connection. 4

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Small strands of aluminum conductor have lower bending tolerance that these are not used in generating stations, substations or portable cables. When there are space limitations, copper cables are the suitable choice since aluminum cables are larger in size for the same current carrying capacity. Economics does play a vital consideration in the choice of conductor but should include the other overlying cost involved to complete an installation. 2. WIRE/CABLE MANUFACTURING PROCESS Copper and aluminum rods undergo several stages of processing before they become wires or cables. Below is a flowchart of the wire/cable manufacturing process.
Bare solid hard drawn wire (1)

Extrusion (4)

Insulated solid hard drawn wire (1 & 4) Insulated stranded hard drawn wire (1, 3, 4)

Drawing (1)

Stranding/ Bunching (3)

Bare stranded hard drawn wire (1 & 3)

Annealing (2)

Stranding/ Bunching (3)

Bare stranded soft drawn wire (1, 2 & 3)

Bare solid soft drawn wire (1 & 2)

Extrusion (4)

Insulated stranded soft drawn wire (1, 2, 3 & 4)

Figure 1: Wire Manufacturing Process 5

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

2.1 Drawing Drawing is the process of pulling the copper or aluminum rods or wires at normal temperature through a die to reduce the crosssectional area in order to get the desired dimension. The wire is deformed due to the tapering of the die and the force exerted during pulling. 2.2 Annealing Annealing is the process of softening the temper of the wire and improving its cold working properties and machinability through sustained heating at a pre-determined temperature followed by cooling at a defined rate. There are many ways of annealing a wire; the most common practices in annealing copper is the continuous strand or resistance annealing wherein annealing is done by means of a machine placed between the final capstan of a drawing machine and the spooler so that the wire is drawn, annealed and spooled in one operation. 2.3 Stranding Stranding is the process where a number of hard or soft wires are laid together geometrically in such a way that each wire holds its place in the strand all throughout the entire length. Generally, the number of wires in a strand is 7, 19, 37, 61, and could reach up to 91, 127 or 168 depending on the desired size or cross-sectional area of the stranded wire. The lay of multi-layered stranded wires are laid in opposite direction alternately in its succeeding lay with the outermost generally being left-handed. 2.4 Bunching Bunching is similar to the stranding process except that all individual wires are twisted uniformly in the same direction without regard for geometrical arrangement. It provides a more flexible conductor than a single strand. A number of bunches twisted together in the same direction and in uniform manner is called a compound 6

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual bunch. A number of bunches twisted together so that each bunch, except the central one, has a helical form of pre-determined lay ratio is a stranded bunch. A number of stranded bunches twisted together so that each stranded bunch, except the central one, has a helical form of pre-determined ratio is called a compound strand bunch. 2.5 Extrusion Extrusion is the process where an insulation material is continuously coated or applied around the conductor as it passes through a die in the head of an extruding machine. The insulation material in form of pellets, dice and the likes (can be plastic, nylon, rubber, etc.) are placed in a hopper that is situated over a barrel in which a screw revolves. The insulation material softens as it feeds inside the heated extruder barrel then melted out over the core material through the screw which forces the material along the barrel and compresses it at the same time to convert the material into fluid mass. The conductor emerges from the tip of the core with the material stream inside the extruder head and the insulation is formed to the required size and shape as the insulated conductor passes through the die. 3. CONDUCTOR SIZES Similar to most industries, standards for measuring conductor sizes had been developed. A conductors size is usually specified based on the conductors cross-sectional area or its diameter. Conductor sizes are usually identified in accordance with either of the two predominant wire sizes, the American Wire Gauge (AWG) which is originally known as Brown and Sharpe gauge (B&S) or the Metric Wire Gauge (MWG), which is the international standard (SI or IEC). The American Wire Gauge (AWG) is used predominantly in the United States of America (USA). The diameter of AWG No. 4/0 is 0.46 inch and the diameter of the AWG No. 36 is 0.005 inch. The other 38 intermediate sizes are governed by a geometric progression with the following formula:

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Thus, the ratio of any diameter to the next size is 1.122932. The conductor diameter will approximately double after the next 6 AWG sizes or it will be half after the next 6 lower sizes. For conductor sizes larger than AWG No. 4/0, the size is expressed in circular mils which is an arbitrary cross-sectional area of the conductor. It is computed by multiplying the individual wire diameter in inches by 1,000, squaring the result, and multiplying by the number of wires. Usually expressed in kcmil (new term) or MCM (old term) which denotes thousand circular mils. The metric wire gauge is used by most countries in the world. It uses the SI unit of square millimeters (mm2) to designate conductor size (i.e., cross-sectional area). However, the designated metric wire sizes are not the precise sizes. IEC standard allows a variation of up to 20% in the conductor area from the designated size. In the Philippines, the wire sizes used are in metric but are, technically, based on AWG sizes. That is, the nearest metric equivalents to the crosssectional area of the standard AWG sizes were adopted. Solid conductor sizes are specified according to its diameter (mm), while stranded conductor sizes are specified according to its cross-sectional area (mm2). Table 2 shows the conversion table of the standard AWG sizes to their metric equivalences. A conductors size is directly proportional to its current carrying capacity. Hence, the bigger the size of the conductor, the higher the current it can carry or will be able to transmit for a given temperature. Annex A shows the current carrying capacity of the various sizes of bare and insulated, as well as, solid and stranded conductors according to their application and method of installation. For stranded conductors, the area is based on the sum of the crosssectional area of the individual strands. Stranding of conductors provide the desired properties of flexibility, however, it also increases slightly the overall diameter because of the small gaps between the strands. Hence, a stranded conductor will always have a slightly larger overall diameter than a solid conductor with the same size or gauge. 8

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Table 2 - Conversion Table (Nearest AWG/kcmil to mm2)


PEC (PNS) mm2 (mm. dia.) SOLID (1.6 mm) (2.0 mm) (2.6 mm) (3.2 mm) STRANDED 2.0 (7 x 0.6 mm) 3.5 (7 x 0.8 mm) 5.5 (7 x 1.0 mm) 8.0 (7 x 1.2 mm) 14 (7 x 1.6 mm) 22 (7 x 2.0 mm) 30 (7 x 2.3 mm) 38 (19 x 2.3 mm) 50 (19 x 1.8 mm) 60 (19 x 2.0 mm) 80 (19 x 2.3 mm) 100 (19 x 2.6 mm) 125 (37 x 2.1 mm) 150 (37 x 2.3 mm) 200 250 325 400 500 (37 x 2.6 mm) (61 x 2.3 mm) (61 x 2.6 mm) (61 x 2.9 mm) (61 x 3.2 mm) ASTM AWG/kcmil (mm. dia.) 14 12 10 8 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 750 1000 (1.63mm) (2.05 mm) (2.59 mm) (3.26 mm) (7 x 0.615 mm) (7 x 0.775 mm) (7 x 0.978 mm) (7 x 1.23 mm) (7 x 1.56 mm) (7 x 1.96 mm) (7 x 2.47 mm) (19 x 1.69 mm) (19 x 1.89 mm) (19 x 2.13 mm) (19 x 2.39 mm) (19 x 2.68 mm) (37 x 2.09 mm) (37 x 2.29 mm) (37 x 2.47 mm) (37 x 2.64 mm) (37 x 2.8 mm) (37 x 2.95 mm) (61 x 2.52 mm) (61 x 2.82 mm) (61 x 3.25 mm) 2.5 4.0 6.0 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 (7 x 0.67 mm) (7 x 0.85 mm) (7 x 1.04 mm) (7 x 1.35 mm) (7 x 1.71 mm) (7 x 2.13 mm) (7 x 2.52 mm) (19 x 1.8 mm) (19 x 2.17 mm) (19 x 2.52 mm) (37 x 2.03 mm) (37 x 2.3 mm) (37 x 2.52 mm) (61 x 2.44 mm) (61 x 2.5 mm) (61 x 2.9 mm) (61 x 3.2 mm) Metric (IEC) mm2 (mm. dia.)

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 4. STRANDING The conductor material may be either solid or stranded. A solid conductor is a single, solid strand of conductor for the whole length of the wire, while a stranded conductor is composed of several strands of conductor concentrically wounded together over the whole length of the wire/cable. For the same cross-sectional area of a conductor, there are diameter differences between solid and various types of stranded conductors. This is an important consideration in the selection of connectors and in the methods of splicing and terminating. Large sizes of solid conductors are too rigid for many applications that the solution would be to have smaller wires and strand them together to form the conductor. There are several ways of stranding the wires together which is dependent of the type and temper of the metal used. The following subsections will discuss the most commonly used stranding for copper conductors. 4.1 Concentric Stranding This consists of a central wire or core surrounded by one or more layer of hellically applied wires. Each layer is applied in a direction opposite to the layer underneath, except for unilay construction wherein the layers are applied in the same lay direction. Lay length is the distance required to make one complete revolution of a strand around the central conductor. Lay length Concentric Stranding requirement based on the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standard is for neither it to be not less than 8 times nor more than 16 times the overall diameter of that layer. For power cables, the standard stranding is Class B. The outermost layer should be of a left hand lay Left hand lay direction which means that when you go along the axis of the conductor the outermost layer of strands should roll towards the left as they recede from the observer. More 10

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual flexibility is obtained by using small strands and increasing the number of wires in the conductor. Class C has one more layer than Class B, Class D has one more layer than Class C and so on. The class designation goes up to M (those normally used for welding cables). 4.2 Compressed Stranding This construction slightly deforms the layers to allow the layer being applied to close tightly. The diameter of the conductor can be reduced by up to 3% of the equivalent concentric strand. There is no, however, Compressed Stranding reduction in the conductor area. 4.3 Compact Stranding This is similar to compressed stranding except that additional forming is done to reduce the conductor diameter typically by 9% less than its equivalent concentric stranded conductor. The resulting diameter is a near solid conductor.

Compact Stranding

11

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Table 3 - Diameter for Stranded Copper and Aluminum Conductors


Conductor Size Nominal Diameters (mm) Concentric Stranded Compressed Class B Class C Compact

AWG 8 3.708 3.759 3.581 3.404 6 4.674 4.742 4.521 4.293 4 5.893 5.944 5.715 5.410 3 6.604 6.680 6.401 6.045 2 7.417 7.518 7.188 6.807 1 8.433 8.458 8.179 7.595 1/0 9.474 9.500 9.169 8.534 2/0 10.643 10.668 10.312 9.550 3/0 11.938 11.963 11.582 10.744 4/0 13.411 13.437 13.005 12.065 kcmil 250 14.605 14.630 14.173 13.208 300 16.002 16.027 15.519 14.478 350 17.297 17.297 16.789 15.646 400 18.491 18.517 17.932 16.739 450 19.609 19.634 19.025 17.780 500 20.650 20.701 20.041 18.694 550 21.717 21.717 21.057 19.685 600 22.682 22.682 21.996 20.650 650 23.597 23.622 22.885 21.463 700 24.486 24.511 23.749 22.276 750 25.349 25.375 24.587 23.063 800 26.187 26.213 25.400 23.825 900 27.762 27.762 26.949 25.375 1000 29.261 29.286 28.372 26.924 Notes: 1. Compressed and compact nominal diameters are based on concentric lay stranded Class B construction. 2. The above diameters are based on ASTM specifications (converted into SI or metric units).

12

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

4.4 Bunch Stranding In this construction the conductor strands are twisted together in the same direction without any regard to the geometric arrangement. Commonly used when very flexible wire is required for small conductor sizes, such as portable cables. 4.5 Rope Stranding This is a combination of the concentric conductor and a bunch stranded conductor. The complete conductor is composed of a number of groups of bunched or concentric stranded conductors assembled concentrically together. 4.6 Sector Conductors The cross-section of these conductors is approximately the shape of a circles sector. A multi-conductor insulated cable with three sector conductor cables have three 120 segments that combine to form a circle as a finished cable. This cable have smaller Sector Conductor diameter than the cable with round conductors. Also, these cables have lower ac resistance due to a reduction of the proximity effect. 4.7 Segmental Conductors A segmental conductor is a round, stranded conductor composed of three or four sectors slightly insulated from one another. This construction has the advantage of lower a-c resistance due to less skin effect. Segmental Conductor 13

Bunch Stranding

Rope Stranding

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

4.8 Annular Conductors The round stranded conductors are laid around a suitable core. The core is usually made wholly or mostly of non-conducting material. This construction has the advantage of lower total a-c resistance for a given cross-sectional area of conducting material by eliminating the Annular Conductor greater skin effect at the center. 5. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Although high conductivity is an important feature of a good conductor, there are other factors that must be considered. Silver maybe the most conductive material but high cost and lack of physical strength makes it inappropriate for commercial usage as wire and cable. Thus, the dominant metals used for wires and cables are copper and aluminum. 5.1 Conductor Properties Copper and aluminum has its own advantageous and disadvantageous characteristics that affect its use under varying circumstances. A comparison o f s o m e o f the characteristics of copper and aluminum is given in Table 4.

14

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 4: Comparative Characteristics of Copper and Aluminum
o CHARACTERISTICS (20 C) Ultimate Tensile Strength (MN/m2 ) soft temper H to H Hardness (DPHN) soft H to H Weight for the same conductivity (kg.) Cross section for the same conductivity (mm2) Weight Resistivity(Ohms-g/m2) Volume Resistivity (Ohms- mm2/m) Temperature Coefficient of Resistance ( C) Thermal Conductivity (W/cm C) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion per C Density (kg/m3) o Melting Point ( C) Modulus of Elasticity (MN/m2) Stress Fatigue Endurance Limit (approximate) (MN/m2) o COPPER 225 385 50 115 45.4 0.05 0.153280 0.017241 0.00393 3.8 17.0 x 10-6 8890 1,083 26 +/- 65 ALUMINUM 70-90 125-205 20-25 30-40 21.8 0.08 0.076149 0.028172 0.00404 2.4 23.0 x 10-6 2703 659 14 +/- 40

5.2 Tempers of Conductors Drawing copper or aluminum rods into a wire results in the hardening of the finished wire. This causes a soft temper rod to become a hard temper wire. It may be desirable to utilize a conductor of softer temper in cable construction. This can be achieved through an annealing process during or after wire drawing or stranding. Annealing consists of heating the conductor to elevated temperatures for specific time periods. This is usually done in an oven or by continuous resistance annealing at the drawing machine. Copper can be provided in three (3) tempers based on ASTM standards. These tempers are soft or annealed, medium-hard and hard-drawn. Soft or annealed is the most often used temper for 15

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual insulated conductors due to its flexibility. Medium hard-drawn and hard-drawn tempers are most often used in overhead applications due to their higher breaking strengths. On the other hand, aluminum can be provided in five (5) tempers based on ASTM standards as shown in the Table 5, below. Note that the overlapping values showing the same conductor may meet the temper requirements of two classifications. Table 5 Tensile Strength of the Different Temper Classifications of Aluminum Classifications of 1350 Aluminum Full Soft Hard Hard Hard Full Hard (H-0) (H-12 or H-22) (H-14 or H-24) (H-16 or H-26) (H-19) Tensile Strength (in kg/cm2) 597.6 to 984.3 843.7 to 1195.3 1054.7 to 1406.2 1195.3 to 1546.8 1582 to 2039

Three quarters and full hard are the most common tempers used with 1350 aluminum for insulated conductors. Full hard drawn temper is most often used in overhead applications due its higher breaking strengths. 5.3 Conductor Direct Current (DC) Resistance The DC resistance (Rdc) of a conductor of uniform cross section can be computed as:

where, l = A= =

length of the conductor, meters (m) cross-sectional area of the conductor, square meters (m2) (Greek: rho) electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance) of the material, ohm-meters (-m) for copper is 1.678 x 10-8 -m at 20C for aluminum is 2.65 x 10-8 -m at 20C 16

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Since resistance is temperature dependent, conversion of a given resistance at a specified temperature to another is given by these formulas: Copper: where, R2 = R1 = Aluminum: conductor resistance at temperature T2 in C conductor resistance at temperature T1 in C

These formulas are based on the resistance coefficient of copper having 100% conductivity and aluminum having 61.2% conductivity based on International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS).

17

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 6 - DC Resistance in Ohms Per Kilometer at 25oC Size AWG or kcmil 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 Solid Copper *Uncoated 2.099 1.322 0.830 0.659 0.552 0.413 0.328 0.260 0.207 0.164 Concentric Lay Stranded Copper Aluminum *Uncoated Class B, C Class B, C 2.139 3.510 1.348 2.214 0.846 1.391 0.672 1.102 0.531 0.872 0.423 0.692 0.335 0.551 0.266 0.436 0.211 0.344 0.167 0.274 0.141 0.232 0.118 0.194 0.101 0.166 0.088 0.145 0.079 0.129 0.071 0.116 0.064 0.105 0.059 0.097 0.054 0.089 0.051 0.083 0.047 0.077 0.044 0.072 0.039 0.064 0.035 0.058

Aluminum

3.444 2.168 1.361 1.079 0.856 0.679 0.538 0.426 0.338 0.269 0.228 0.190 0.162 0.142 0.126 0.114

*Uncoated without tin or lead covering

The resistance values of the different conductor sizes in Table 6 are applicable only when Direct Current (DC) is flowing through the conductors.

18

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 5.4 Conductor AC Resistance When Alternating Current (AC), at sixty Hertz (60 Hz), is flowing through said conductors, the DC resistance values have to be multiplied with the corresponding correction factor (Table 7) to obtain the AC resistance values of the different conductor sizes. Table 7 - Multiplying Factors for Converting D.C. to A.C. Resistance Multiplying Factor For Non-metallic Sheathed For Metallic Sheathed Cables in Air or Non- Cables or all Cables in metallic Conduit Metallic Raceways Copper Aluminum Copper Aluminum 1.000 1.000 1.00 1.00 1.000 1.000 1.01 1.00 1.000 1.000 1.01 1.00 1.001 1.000 1.02 1.00 1.001 1.001 1.03 1.00 1.002 1.001 1.04 1.01 1.004 1.002 1.05 1.01 1.005 1.002 1.06 1.02 1.006 1.003 1.07 1.02 1.009 1.004 1.08 1.03 1.011 1.005 1.10 1.04 1.018 1.007 1.13 1.06 1.025 1.010 1.16 1.08 1.034 1.013 1.19 1.11 1.039 1.015 1.21 1.12 1.044 1.017 1.22 1.14 1.067 1.026 1.30 1.19 1.102 1.040 1.41 1.27 1.142 1.058 1.53 1.36 1.185 1.079 1.67 1.46 1.233 1.100 1.82 1.56

Size

Up to 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

19

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual If a conductor is carrying high alternating current, the distribution of the current is not evenly distributed throughout the cross-section of the conductor. This is due to two independent effects known as Skin Effect and Proximity Effect. 5.4.1 Skin effect Skin Effect is a natural phenomena in wires wherein alternating electric current (AC) tends to distribute itself within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater than at its core. That is, the electric current tends to flow at the skin of the conductor, at an average depth called the skin depth. The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase with the frequency of the current. The higher the frequency the smaller is the skin depth. The skin effect is due to eddy currents set up by the AC current. The magnitude of the skin effect is influenced by the frequency, the size of the conductor, the amount of current flowing, and the diameter of the conductor. Skin depth varies as the inverse square root of the conductivity of the conductor material. This means that better conductors have a reduced skin depth. The overall resistance of the better conductor material is lower even though the skin depth is less. This tends to reduce the difference in high frequency resistance between metals of different conductivity. At 60 Hertz (Hz) in copper, skin depth is about a centimeter. At higher frequencies, skin depth is much smaller. Likewise, skin depth also varies as the inverse square root of the permeability (which is a macroscopic material property that relates or is the ratio of the magnetic flux density to the strength of the magnetic field that induces it) of the conductor material. In the case of iron, its conductivity is about 1/7 that of copper. Its permeability, however, is about 10,000 times greater. The skin depth of iron is about 1/38 that of copper or about 220 micrometers at 60 Hz. Iron wire, therefore, is worthless as a conductor at power line frequencies. Methods to minimize skin effect include using specially woven (braided) cable/wire and using hollow pipe-shaped conductors. 20

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

5.4.2 Proximity Effect The Proximity Effect is associated with the magnetic fields of two conductors, which are close together. If each carries a current in the same direction, the halves of the conductor in close proximity are cut by more magnetic flux than the remote halves. Consequently, the current distribution is not even throughout the cross-section, a greater proportion being carried by the remote halves. If the currents are in opposite direction, the halves in closer proximity carry the greater density of current. In both cases, the overall effect results in an increase in the effective resistance of the conductor. The proximity effect decreases with the increase in the spacing between cables. Skin and Proximity Effects can be ignored with small conductors carrying low currents. They become increasingly significant with larger conductors and it is often desirable for technical and economic reasons to design the conductors/cables to minimize them. Values of skin and proximity effects can be computed based on the formulas provided by IEC 60287-1-1. 5.5 Cables in Magnetic Metal Conduit Due to excessive hysteresis and eddy currents, all phases of an AC circuit should be installed in the same magnetic metal conduits. Never install individual phases in separate metal conduits under any circumstances due to the high inductance of such installation. Also, separate phases should not pass through magnetic structures since overheating would occur in such situation. All phases should pass through a magnetic enclosure together in order that there will be a cancellation of the resultant magnetic field. However, the proximity of the magnetic material will increase the skin and proximity effect. Thus, there can be significant losses when large conductors are near magnetic materials. Large cable sizes from 100 mm2 or larger should not be installed in separate non-magnetic metal conduit due to the high circulating currents in the conduit. The ampacity of the cables should be derated in such condition. 21

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

5.6 Resistance at Higher Frequency Ampacity and resistance of cables to be operated at frequencies higher than 60 hertz should be corrected. The inductive reactance increases at high frequencies which may affect the voltage drop. Insulated conductors should not be installed in metallic conduits or run close to magnetic materials. The correction factor for the resistance at frequencies other than 60 hertz is provided as follows:

where, f = Rdc =

frequency in hertz conductor DC resistance at operating temperature in Ohm/1000 ft

6. INSULATION Insulation is that part of the cable or wire which is relied upon to insulate the conductor from other conductors or conducting parts or from ground. Insulating materials are usually classified according to the temperature they are able to withstand. The applied insulation must perform adequately in the specified temperature range and its dielectric strength should be sufficient to sustain the electrical stresses. There are many insulating materials used in producing the various cables to deliver electric power depending on their temperature limits, such as cotton, silk, paper, mica, glass fiber, asbestos, rubber, silicone elastomer, etc. Sometimes insulating materials, such as cotton, silk and paper are impregnated or coated with a dielectric liquid, such as oil, to enhance their insulating capabilities.

22

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Cable insulation should have the following properties: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. High Dielectric strength Low Dielectric Constant Good mechanical capability Resistance to ageing High temperature withstandability

In recent times, synthetic polymers have replaced natural materials such as paper, mineral oil and natural rubber for the insulation of wires/cables and for the over-sheathing of cables. The range of polymers available is extensive and variations in chemical composition enable specific mechanical, electrical and thermal properties to be obtained. Where appropriate, these properties may be further modified by the addition of specific fillers, plasticizers, softness extenders, colorants, antioxidants and many other ingredients. In the cable industry, the term polymeric material is taken to signify polymers which are rubbers or plastics. Rubbers are considered to be solid materials, with elastic properties, which are made from latex derived from living plants or synthetically and used in the manufacture of rubber products. Plastics, on the other hand, are materials based on synthetic or modified natural polymers which at some stage of manufacture can be formed to shape by flow, aided in many cases by heat and pressure. These two material groups are the dominant means of insulating wires and cables. 6.1 Elastomers An elastomer is a material which returns rapidly to approximately its initial shape after substantial deformation at room temperature by a weak stress and release of that stress. In cable technology, the terms rubber and elastomer are used synonymously and interchangeably, although rubber to some implies natural rubber. Elastomeric materials are used for insulation and sheaths. They are applied mainly where the product has to be particularly flexible. A wide range of elastomers are nowadays available to the cable industry. This makes possible the manufacture of compounds with specific properties, such as abrasion and oil resistance, 23

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual weather and heat resistance, and flame resistance, combined with good electrical and mechanical characteristics. The classical elastomeric material, natural rubber (NR), was the first insulation to be used in the manufacture of electric cable. Its use as an insulation has been declining in recent years. Rubber gave way to other insulating materials like impregnated paper, PVC, XLPE, etc. Rubber, though, is still considered the preferred insulation for flexible cables and cables where very small bending diameter is desired. Rubbers for cable insulation and sheath, whether natural or synthetic, are normally crosslinked. In place of rubber, synthetic elastomers produced by the copolymerization of ethylene and propylene, are constantly finding new areas of application in cable engineering. These copolymers are generally known as Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). Because of its superior performance, with suitability for continuous operation at 90C, EPR has gradually displaced butyl rubber for insulation and is now being considered as over sheath material for cable. Polychloroprene (PCP), otherwise known as neoprene, was the first commercial synthetic rubber. It has rarely been used by itself for insulation but is often used blended with natural rubber. Its major use is as a very tough flexible sheathing material. Polychloroprene compounds have good abrasion and tear resistance together with good resistance to swelling and to chemical attack by a wide range of natural oils and aliphatic hydrocarbons. They do not normally support combustion Chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSP, CSM) have superior electrical properties to compounds based on PCP and are particularly advantageous for insulation and sheathing which is required to be oil resistant. CSP also has good resistance to ozone and weathering. When blended with EVA or EPR and filled with a suitable carbon black, CSP compounds provide a strippable dielectric screening material for XLPE and EPR cables in the 1030kV range. 24

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR/PVC blends) is the product of the co-polymerization of acrylonitrile with butadiene. This range of polymers is characterized by good oil resistance. The addition of PVC improves resistance to ozone, weathering and abrasion. By suitable choice of plasticizers, improved processability and flame retardance are also obtained. These materials are used solely for sheathing. Fluorocarbon rubbers find application for sheathing where very good resistance to oils is required at high temperatures. The best known material is a copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene (Viton). Ethylene-acrylic elastomers (EMA) are heat- and oil-resistant non-halogen synthetic rubbers which can be compounded to resist ignition in the presence of flame and have low smoke generation when burned. They are suitable for service temperatures of 40-170C. Silicone rubber is a material made from silicon and oxygen noted for high heat resistance. This is very soft thermoset insulation extremely flexible and fire resistant. It has excellent electrical properties plus ozone and resistance, low moisture absorption, weather resistance, and radiation resistance. It typically has low mechanical strength and poor scratch resistance. Table 8 shows the properties of thermoset insulation and jacket materials

25

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 8: Properties of Thermoset Insulation and Jacket Materials

NITRILE OR RUBBER BUTADIENE NITRILE (NBR)

NITRILE//POLYCHLORIDE (NBR/PVC)

CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE (XLPE)

ETHYLENE PROPYLENE RUBBER (EPR)

HYPALON CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE (CSPE)

Oxidation Resistance Heat Resistance Oil Resistance Low Temp. Flexibility Weather, Resistance Ozone Resistance Abrasion Resistance Electrical Properties Flame Resistance Nuclear Resistance Radiation Sun

F F-G P F-G F P G-E E P F-G G-E F-G F-G

F F P G F P E E P F-G G-E F-G F-G

G F P E F P E E P F-G E F-G F-G

G F P E F P E E P P E F-G F-G

G G G F-G G G G-E P G F-G E G G

E E G F E E G G G E E E E

F G G-E F F-G P G-E P P F-G G-E G F-G

E G G F G G E F G P E G G

E E P G-E E E G E P G G-E G-E G-E

E G G O G G F-G E P E G-E G-E G-E

E E G-E F E G-E G-E F-G G G G-E E E

O F-G O O O P O O E G-E F-G F-G

Water Resistance Acid Resistance Alkali Resistance Gasoline, Kerosene, Etc. (Aliphatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Benzol, Toluol, Etc. (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Degreaser Solvents (Halogenated Hydrocarbons) Resistance Alcohol Resistance

G-E

P-F

P-F

P-F

P-G

F-G

G-E

P = Poor

F = Fair

G = Good

E = Excellent

O = Outstanding

26

SILICONE RUBBER

POLY BUTADIENE

INSULATION JACKET MATERIAL

OR

CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE (CPE)

STYRENE BUTADIENE RUBBER (SBR)

SYNTHETIC RUBBER

NATURAL RUBBER

NEOPRENE

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 6.2 Plastics Plastics may be further divided into thermoplastics and thermosets. A thermoplastic is a material in which the molecules are held together by physical rather than chemical bonds. This means that once the material is above its melting point it can flow. The process is reversible and upon cooling the material hardens. The molecules in a thermoset are held together by chemical bonds which are not easily broken. This means that on heating the polymer does not soften sufficiently to be reshaped. Typical examples are crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) and elastomers. Unlike thermoplastics, thermosets are insoluble and infusible, i.e. it will not fuse together. Many thermoplastics may be converted to thermosets by appropriate treatment to induce crosslinking, e.g. by the addition of a suitable chemical crosslinking agent or by irradiation. 6.2.1 Thermoplastics Thermoplastics are the most popular insulating materials for low voltage wires and cables due to lower in cost and lighter weight. Some of the most popularly used are discuss below. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl Chloride, also called vinyl, is a thermoplastic material introduced in 1932. Since then, PVC has become the standard insulation used on wires and cables rated at 1000 volts or less. Vinyl compounds are mechanical mixtures of PVC resin, plasticizers, fillers, stabilizers, and modifiers. The quantity and type of each ingredient determines the final properties of the compound. PVC compounds can be formatted to provide a broad range of properties from the standpoint of electrical, physical and chemical characteristics. However, in achieving superiority in one property, the other properties are usually compromised. The goal, therefore, is to optimize the critical property or properties without allowing secondary properties to fall below acceptable levels. 27

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

PVC has a high dielectric strength and good insulation resistance. It is inherently tough and resistant to flame, moisture and abrasion. Resistance to ozone, acids, alkalis, alcohols, and most solvents are also adequate. PVC compounds can be made resistant to oils and gasoline. Its temperature ratings range from 60C to 105C based on basic formulation. Disadvantage of PVC include a relatively high dielectric constant and dissipation factor. Plasticizer loss through evaporation or leeching eventually may cause embrittlement and cracking. PVC compounds significantly stiffen as temperatures decline, and are not generally recommended for uses which require flexing below -10C. However, special formulations have been developed which will allow flexing to up to -40C. Polyethylene Polyethylene is a long chain hydrocarbon thermoplastic material which is produced by the polymerization of ethylene gas under high or low pressure. PE is popular because of its relatively low price, processability, resistance to chemicals and moisture, electrical properties, and low temperature flexibility. PE is produced in low, linear low, medium, and high densities. As the density increases, so does the hardness, yield strength, stiffness, heat, and chemical resistance. PEs electrical properties are excellent. Typical values for a natural, unfilled insulation compound include a volume resistivity of greater than 1016 ohm-cm, a dielectric constant of 2.3, a dissipation factor of 0.0002, and a water absorption of less than 0.1%. However, if PE cables are exposed to sunlight, carbon black or a suitable inhibitor is added to screen out ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV radiation can degrade both the physical and electrical properties of the insulation. A disadvantage of PE is that, like most plastics, it is susceptible to degradation from treeing when it is subjected, to high electrical stress. Treeing is a phenomenon occurring within the cable, when subjected to medium to high voltages, wherein the 28

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual breakdown of the insulation due to ionization occurs through the formation of carbonaceous fronds on the insulation due to the presence of water or voids during the extrusion of the insulation material at cable construction. The carbonaceous paths start at an almost imperceptible carbon core, generally at the conductor surface, and gradually spread outwards through the insulation, increasing in width and complexity as progression takes place. Corona discharges and treeing may lead to premature cable failure. Polypropylene Polypropylene is a thermoplastic insulating compound with characteristics similar to high density polyethylene with improved heat resistance, tensile strength, and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene also has a lower specific gravity and lower dielectric constant than polyethylene. Polypropylene has good impact strength, low moisture absorption, excellent chemical resistance, high creepage resistance, and is useful in high frequency applications. It retains these excellent properties in cellular constructions. Typically, it is harder than polyethylene. This makes it suitable for thin wall insulations. Polyurethane Polyurethane is a broad class of polymers noted for good abrasion and solvent resistance which can be in solid or cellular form. This thermoplastic material is used primarily as a cable jacket material. It has excellent oxidation, oil, and ozone resistance. Some formulations also have good flame resistance. It is a hard material with excellent abrasion resistance. It has outstanding "memory" properties, making it an ideal jacket material for retractile cords. Teflon Teflon is an extremely reliable high temperature, low voltage insulation often chosen for its non-aging characteristics, thin wall insulating capability, resistance to chemicals and abrasion resistance. Also, important is its low dielectric constant and low 29

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual power factor. There are two (2) types-Tetrafluorethylene TFE, and Fluorinatedethylenepropylene FEP. Teflon is not damaged by normal soldering operations. It is not suitable when subjected to nuclear radiation and does not have good high voltage characteristics.TFE insulation in tape form (often fused) is widely used and can be provided in very long lengths. Type FEP can be extruded in long, continuous lengths and is readily color coded for use in control and instrumentation cables. Tefzel Tefzel ETFE is a melt processible fluorocarbon thermoplastic combining many of the desirable properties of Teflon and Kynar rated at 150C. Mechanically it is tough with excellent flex life, impact, cut-through, abrasion and weather resistant. Electrically it is an excellent low loss dielectric and has outstanding electrical properties. It is inert to most solvents and chemicals and is hydrolytically stable. Like irradiated polyethylene, it has excellent resistance to high-energy radiation. Table 9 shows the properties of thermoplastic insulation and jacket materials.

30

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 9: Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials

POLYPROPYLENE

CELLULAR POLYPROPYLENE

POLYUTETHANE

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)

LOW-DENSITY POLYTHYLENE

CELLULAR POLYTHYLENE

HIGH-DENSITY POLYTHYLENE

Oxidation Resistance Heat Resistance Oil Resistance Low Flexibility Weather, Resistance Ozone Resistance Abrasion Resistance Electrical Properties Flame Resistance Nuclear Radiation Resistance Water Resistance Acid Resistance Alkali Resistance Gasoline, Kerosene, Etc. (Aliphatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Benzol, Toluol, Etc. (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Degreaser Solvents (Halogenated Hydrocarbons) Resistance Alcohol Resistance Temp. Sun

E G-E F P-G G-E E F-G F-G E F F-G G-E G-E

E G G-E E E E G E P G-E E G-E G-E

E G G E E E F E P G E G-E G-E

E E G-E E E E E E P G-E E E E

E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E

E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E

E G E G G E O P P G P-G F F

E E E G E E E P P F-G P-F P-E E

E E E E E E E-O E E O O E E

O O O O O E E E O P-G E E E

TEFLON (FEP)

NYLON

INSULATION JACKET MATERIAL

OR

O O E-O O O O O E E P E E E

G E E E E

G-E

G-E

P-F

P-G

P-F

P-F

P-G

G-E

P-F

P-G

G-E

P-G

P = Poor

F = Fair

G = Good

E = Excellent

O = Outstanding

31

TEFZEL (ETFE)

TEFLON (TPE)

CPE

E E E E E E E E

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 6.2.2 Thermosetting Most plastic insulations are thermoplastics, except for crosslinked polyethylene which is the predominant insulation for medium and high voltage cables. Other thermosetting insulation materials are elastomers. Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE) Crosslinked polyethylene is a thermoset material produced by compounding polyethylene or a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) with a crosslinking agent, usually an organic peroxide. The individual molecules of polyethylene join together during a curing process to form an interconnected network. The terms cure and vulcanize are often similarly used to designate crosslinking. While the use of peroxide as the crosslinking agent means that only low density polyethylene can operate at higher temperatures than cables produced with thermoplastic or non-crosslinked polyethylene. Crosslinking also significantly improves the physical properties of the polyethylene. Additives tend to reduce the electrical properties of the insulation. This is the reason that EVA copolymer is used only for low voltage applications. For medium voltage applications, crosslinked polyethylene fares well because the dielectric strength of the unfilled crosslinked polyethylene is about the same as that of thermoplastic polyethylene. Impulse strengths of 2700 V/mil are common. For low voltage applications, the addition of fillers, in particular, medium thermal carbon black, provides increases in tensile strength and hardness. It also provides the necessary ultraviolet protection for outdoor applications without the use of a jacket. The EVA copolymer is well suited to accepting up to a 30% loading of medium thermal carbon black. Between 2 and 3 percent of very small particle size furnace carbon black is incorporated into the polyethylene if sunlight resistance is required without significantly reducing the electrical properties. 32

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

XLPE insulated cables may be operated continuously at a conductor temperature of 90C and intermittently at 130C during emergency conditions. XLPE has good low temperature properties, shows increased resistance to corona when compared with thermoplastic polyethylene, and has good impact, abrasion, and environmental stress crack resistance. Recent technology has resulted in XLPE insulation compounds that are resistant to degradation from treeing. Two processes are available for imparting tree resistance to the compound. One involves additives and the other involves copolymer technology. Additives tend to reduce the electrical properties of the polyethylene insulation and one finds slightly lower values for dielectric strength and slightly higher dissipation factor when comparing the tree retardant insulations to the standard material. For general purpose low voltage cables, it is possible to incorporate up to 30% calcium carbonate into XLPE to reduce the cost. However, to maintain the best electrical properties, especially when immersed in water, the filled compound should not be used. In the Philippines, compounds incorporating approximately 30% thermal carbon black are used. These have the advantage of improved resistance to hot deformation and cut-through resistance. 6.3 Insulation Resistance In order that a reasonable factor of safety may be provided, the following insulation resistance is suggested as a guide, where the insulation is subjected to test: a) For circuits of 2.0 mm2 or 3.5 mm2 conductors 500,000 ohms; b) For circuits of 5.5 mm2 or larger conductors, a resistance based upon the allowable ampacity of conductors as follows: 33

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

25 to 50 amperes, inclusive 51 to 100 amperes, inclusive 101 to 200 amperes, inclusive 201 to 400 amperes, inclusive 401 to 800 amperes, inclusive Over 800 amperes

250,000 ohms 100,000 ohms 50,000 ohms 25,000 ohms 12,000 ohms 5,000 ohms

The above listed values shall apply to installations with voltage of 600 V or less. For voltages above 600 V, the minimum insulation resistance shall be 1,000,000 ohms per thousand volts or a fraction thereof. The foregoing is to be determined with all fixtures, switches, receptacles, and wiring devices in place and connected. c) Where climatic conditions are such that the wiring or equipment is exposed to excessive humidity, it may be necessary to modify the foregoing provisions.

6.4 Thermal Characteristics Selection of the right insulation materials depends on the expected operating temperature which the wire or cable will be subjected. The nominal operating temperature in C of some the insulation materials are shown in Figure 2, below.
-20 -55 -60 -40 -40 -60 -40 -40 -40 -65 -70 -100 0 100 80 105 80 105 130 150 105 105 105 200 260 200 300 PVC (Standard) PVC (Premium) Polythylene Polypropylene XLPE EPR Hypalon (CSPE) EVA CPE Silicone Rubber Teflon

Figure 2: Nominal Temperature Range of Wire Insulations in C 34

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

7. CABLE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION An insulated cable appears to be a relatively simple electrical device but, in fact, it can be considered an electrical system with many components. To understand it, let us examine its components and basics of operation. For simplicity, the following discussion shall be confined to a single conductor cable. However, these fundamentals also apply to multipleconductor cables. The basic components of an insulated cable are the following: a) Conductor materials that transmits electrical energy b) Shielding also referred to as screening, are used for medium to high voltage cables. Basically, the use of this stress control layers is to achieve a symmetrical dielectric fields within the cable structure. For some voltage levels, shielding may be applied over the conductor. At higher voltage levels, it is applied over the conductor and the insulation. This results in the confining of all the voltage gradients to within the cable structure if the shield over the insulation is essentially at ground potential. c) Primary Insulation or Dielectric prevents leakage of current from the conductor to the surroundings. It protects life and prevents damage resulting from electrical discharge. It also physically protects the conductor. d) Jacket also called sheaths, serve several purposes such as they provide mechanical, thermal, chemical, and environmental protection to the insulated conductors they enclosed, act as electrical insulation when used over shields or armor, ease installation and routing concerns by enclosing multiple insulated conductors. They may also protect the characteristics of the underlying insulation. For example, a thin nylon jacket over PVC enhances the abrasion and fluid resistance of a 600V cable. Sheathing may also include various forms of metallic armoring, tapes, or wires to enhance the physical properties of the cable and to provide a built-in protective electrically grounded conduit for the insulated conductors. Commonly used jacketing materials include extrusions of PE, PVC and Nylon. PVC, Nylon and PE 35

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual are applied using thermoplastic extrusion lines which heat the material to the melting point and form it over the core. The material is then cooled, usually in a water trough, and wound onto a reel. Some heat is used to soften the material so that it can be formed around the core. It is then necessary to crosslink the material to obtain its full properties. Depending on the customer requirement and/or the application, a cable may be composed of a couple of the above-stated components or all of it. For special cases, additional sheathing or armoring may be required. An illustration of the construction and components of a medium voltage power cable is shown below.

Figure 3: Construction of a Medium Voltage Power Cable

8. LOW VOLTAGE WIRES AND CABLES Classification of voltage level seems to be arbitrary in most cases since many standard governing bodies in the world do not agree as to the divisions in the voltage level. IEC define low voltage as those 1000 volts and below while ICEA define low voltage to be 2000 volts and below. NEC and IEEE define low voltage as 600 volts and below. Primarily all low voltage wires and cables are insulated except those used as neutral or grounding wire. With reference to their cable construction, they are non-shielded cable. 36

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual There are two basic components in a non-shielded cable. They are the conductor and the electrical insulation, sometimes referred to as the dielectric. A third component used in some cable designs is an outer jacket. The figure below shows the construction of a low-voltage nonshielded cable.

Figure 4: Low-Voltage Non-Shielded Cable Construction

Conductor The conductor material can be copper or aluminum with either a solid or stranded. The primary reason for the use of stranded conductors is improved flexibility. The stranded conductors can be compressed or compacted to achieve desired flexibility, diameter, and load current density. For the conductor size, there are diameter differences between solid and the various types of stranded conductors. This is an important consideration in the selection of connectors and in the methods of splicing and terminating. Electrical Insulation or Dielectric The electrical insulation must provide adequate physical and electrical protection between the energized conductor and the nearest electrical ground to prevent electrical breakdowns. For low voltage cables, 600 volts and below, the insulation thickness required to provide the necessary physical protection against damage is more than adequate to provide the necessary dielectric strength. 37

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Another consideration in the design and application of cables is the dielectric field. In all electrical cables, irrespective of their voltage ratings, there is a dielectric field present when the conductor is energized. This dielectric field is typically represented by electrostatic flux lines and equipotential lines between the conductor and electrical ground. When a conductor is energized there are electrostatic lines of flux created within the dielectric. The density of these flux lines is dependent upon the magnitude of the potential difference between the conductor and electrical ground. The distance between the equipotential lines represents a voltage differential in the insulation. For a given voltage differential, these lines are closer together nearer the conductor.

Electrostatic Flux Lines

Equipotential Lines

Figure 5: Electrical Field of a Non-Shielded Cable Above figure represents the electrical field of a non-shielded cables contact with a ground plane. It does not take into account the difference in the dielectric constants of the insulation and the surrounding air. Observe that the electrostatic flux lines are crowded in the insulation closest to the ground. Also, the equipotential lines are eccentric in their relationship to the conductor and the cable dielectric surface. This distortion of the fields is acceptable if the dielectric strength of the cable insulation is adequate to resist the concentration of the dielectric stresses. Low voltage non-shielded cables are usually designed to meet this requirement. Jacket/Sheaths For special applications, a jacket is applied over the insulation. There are several materials available for use as jackets to provide the necessary chemical, physical, or thermal protection required by the application. 38

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Low voltage wires and cables are primarily divided into two major groups, the building wires and secondary and service drop wires. 8.1 Building Wires Building wires comprises the largest group of low voltage wires and cables which is primarily used in all residential, commercial and industrial buildings. In the Philippines, the most common types of these building wires are the following: 8.1.1 Building Wires Types and Application TW (Thermoplastic Moisture-Resistant) The TW conductors are solid or stranded annealed (soft) copper, insulated with a moisture resistant and flame retardant polyvinyl compound (PVC). TW wire is used in interior wiring at circuit voltages up to 600 volts. Maximum operating temperature is 60C in dry or wet application. Type TW building wire is used in residential, commercial and industrial buildings for generalpurpose lighting, appliance, power, control and relay panel applications. It is used for low ampacity rated circuits. This type of wire may be installed in conduits, ducts or raceways. Type TW wire is also suitable for installations in ambient temperatures down to -10C. THW (Thermoplastic Heat and Moisture Resistant) The THW conductors are solid or stranded annealed (soft) copper, insulated with a tough heat and moisture resistant, and flame retardant polyvinyl compound (PVC). It is used in interior wiring at circuit voltages up to 600 volts. Maximum operating temperature is 75C in dry or wet application. It can be used for general-purpose lighting, appliance, power, control and relay panel applications. It is also applicable as machine tool wire and appliance wiring material. It is used for medium ampacity rated circuits. This type of wire may be installed in conduits, ducts or raceways. 39

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual THHN/THWN (Thermoplastic Heat and Moisture Resistant Wire with Nylon Jacket) The THHN/THWN conductors are solid or stranded annealed (soft) copper, insulated with a tough heat and moisture resistant, and flame retardant polyvinyl compound (PVC) with oil, chemical, and abrasion resistant nylon (polyamide) jacket. It is used in interior wiring at circuit voltages up to 600 volts. Maximum operating temperature is 90C for dry applications (THHN) and 75C for wet applications (THWN). It can be used for general-purpose lighting, power, control and relay panel applications. It is also applicable for machine tool wire and appliance wiring material. It is used for high ampacity rated circuits. This type of wire may be installed in conduits, ducts or raceways. The other types of conductor applications and insulations are shown in Annex B. 8.1.2 Building Wires Sizes and Ampacity Size and ampacity of building wires are given in Tables 10 and 11, with reference to the Philippines Electrical Code based on an ambient temperature of 30C. Use appropriate correction factor specified in the Philippine Electrical Code for ambient temperature other than 30C.

40

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 10: Allowable Ampacities of Single-Insulated Conductors Rated 0 Through 2 000 Volts in Free Air, Based on Ambient Air Temperature of 30C Temperature Rating of Conductor 75C 90C 60C 75C 90C Types Types TBS, SA, TBS, SA, SIS, FEP, SIS, RHH, Types FEPB, RHW-2, RHW, MI, Types THHN, THHW, RHH, RHW, THHW, THW, RHW-2, THHW, THW-2, Conductor Types THWN, THHN, Types THW, THWN-2, TW, XHHW, THHW, TW, THWN, USE-2, Size UF ZW mm2 THW-2, UF XHHW XHH, (mm dia.) COPPER ALUMINUM 2 (1.6) 25 30 35 3.5 (2) 30 35 40 25 30 35 5.5 (2.6) 40 50 55 35 40 40 8 (3.2) 55 65 75 45 50 55 14 80 95 105 65 80 85 22 105 130 140 85 105 115 30 130 160 170 95 115 130 38 155 185 195 115 135 155 50 180 220 235 135 165 185 60 205 250 260 155 185 210 80 250 300 320 185 225 255 100 290 355 370 220 265 295 125 335 400 420 260 310 350 150 375 440 475 295 355 400 175 410 495 560 325 390 440 200 440 540 570 345 410 465 250 505 620 655 405 485 545 325 600 720 770 475 560 640 375 645 775 875 510 615 690 400 675 810 875 530 640 725 500 770 930 995 620 745 835 60C 41

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 11: Allowable Ampacities of Insulated Conductors Rated 0 Through 2 000 Volts, 60C Through 90C. Not More Than Three Current-Carrying Conductors in Raceway, Cable, or Earth (Directly Buried), Based on Ambient Temperature of 30C
Temperature Rating of Conductor 60C 75C 90C 60C 75C 90C

Conductor Size mm2 (mm dia.) 2 (1.6) 3.5 (2) 5.5 (2.6) 8 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

Types TBS, SA, SIS, FEP, Types TBS, FEPB, MI, SA, SIS, RHH, RHWRHH, RHW2, THHN, 2, THHN, THHW, THHW, THW-2, THW-2, Types RHW, THWN-2, Types RHW, THWN-2, THHW, USE-2, XHH, THHW, USE-2, XHH, THW, XHHW, THW, XHHW, Types THWN, XHHW-2, Types THWN, XHHW-2, TW, UF XHHW, ZW ZW-2 TW, UF XHHW ZW-2 COPPER 20 25 30 40 55 70 90 100 120 135 160 180 210 240 260 280 315 370 395 405 445 20 25 35 50 65 85 110 125 145 160 195 220 255 280 305 330 375 435 470 485 540 25 30 40 55 70 90 115 130 150 170 205 225 265 295 345 355 400 470 530 515 580 20 25 30 40 55 65 75 95 100 120 140 165 185 205 220 255 305 315 335 370 ALUMINUM 20 30 40 50 65 80 90 110 120 145 170 200 225 245 265 305 365 380 405 440 25 35 45 65 80 90 105 125 135 165 190 225 250 275 .300 345 410 430 460 495

Apply appropriate adjustment factors if more than three (3) current carrying conductors in a raceway or cable with reference to the Philippine Electrical Code.

42

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

8.1.3 Resistances and Reactances Resistances and reactances of copper wires in magnetic and nonmagnetic conduits are given by Table 12, below: Table 12: Copper Conductor Resistance and Reactance Data Line-toneutral, m/100 meter Three-Single Conductor Cables In Magnetic Duct Not In Magnetic Duct Conductor Size mm2 Resistance Reactance Resistance Reactance (mm dia.) "R" "X" "R" "X" Solid 2 (1.6) 846.24 24.63 846.24 19.48 3.5 (2) 528.08 22.83 528.08 18.07 5.5 (2.6) 331.28 22.11 331.28 17.52 8 (3.2) 216.15 19.88 216.15 15.91 Stranded 8 222.71 19.45 222.71 15.55 14 140.06 18.60 140.06 14.89 22 88.23 17.38 88.23 13.91 30 55.76 16.33 55.43 13.05 38 44.28 16.53 43.95 13.22 50 35.42 16.24 35.10 12.99 60 28.21 15.84 27.88 12.66 80 22.63 15.32 21.98 12.23 100 17.81 14.86 17.48 11.87 125 15.48 15.25 15.06 12.20 150 12.96 14.83 12.46 11.84 200 10.00 14.46 9.54 11.58 250 8.20 14.17 7.71 11.35 325 7.08 14.14 6.53 11.28 400 5.94 13.94 5.35 11.15 500 5.02 13.74 4.43 10.99 Note: Typical values, use exact values if available.

43

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

8.2 Secondary and Service Cables These cables are used by Distribution Utilities in low voltage power distribution. Both cables have the same construction; the difference is in the application. Secondary cables are those that are connected to the distribution transformer and traverses from pole to pole while service drop cables are those that connect the customers service entrance wires to the secondary cable or distribution transformer. 8.2.1 Overhead secondary and service cables In the Philippines, majority of the distribution system are overhead construction. Most overhead secondary and service cables are multiplex cables with sizes that are typically based in AWG. Cables are insulated by either polyethylene (PE) or crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) material. Basically, these cables are classified based on the number of conductors twisted together (e.g. duplex, triplex, and quadruplex cables). 8.2.2 Underground secondary and service cables Underground secondary and service cables are conductors installed in conduit or directly buried in the earth and enter the building metering facilities, switch, or service equipment. Type USE service cables are similar in construction to the general power cables for direct burial in earth. Tables 13 & 14 show the characteristics of the different types of Multiplex Secondary and Services Copper and Aluminum Cables, respectively. While, Tables 15 & 16 show the characteristics of the types of Single Conductors for Underground Service for Copper and Aluminum, respectively.

44

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Table 13. Copper Multiplex Secondary and Services Cables


Phase Conductor Code Word Sizes (# of wires) Insulation Thickness (mils) Sizes (# of wires) DUPLEX Theta Kappa Sigma 8 (7) 8 (7) 6 (7) 45 45 45 10 (1) 8 (7) 6 (7) TRIPLEX Pica Garamond Gothic Casion Primer Century Corinthian Doric 8 (7) 8 (7) 6 (7) 4 (7) 2 (7) 2 (7) 1/0 (19) 2/0 (19) 45 45 45 45 45 45 60 60 10 (1) 8 (7) 6 (7) 4 (7) 4 (7) 2 (7) 1/0 (7) 2/0 (7) QUADRUPLEX Tallahassee Richmond Seattle Nashville Lincoln Raleigh Denver 6 (7) 4 (7) 2 (7) 1/0 (19) 2/0 (19) 3/0 (19) 4/0 (19) 45 45 45 60 60 60 60 6 (7) 4 (7) 2 (7) 1/0 (7) 2/0 (7) 3/0 (7) 4/0 (7) 1228 1938 3050 4752 5926 7366 9154 369 573 893 1420 1773 2220 2781 75 100 135 180 205 235 270 95 125 170 230 265 305 350 529 777 1228 1938 1938 3050 4752 5926 158 177 273 425 588 664 1055 1319 70 70 90 115 155 155 205 235 85 85 110 145 195 195 265 300 529 777 1228 95 114 177 70 70 90 85 85 110 Neutral Rated Strength (lbs.) Cable Weight per 1000 ft (lbs) Ampacity PE XLPE

Ampacity figures for black insulation only. Based on conductor temperature of 75C for polyethylene insulated conductors, 90C for XLPE insulated conductors, ambient temperature of 40C; 2 ft./sec. wind in sun. Source: Southwire

45

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Table 14: Aluminum Multiplex Cables with ACSR Neutral Messenger


Phase Conductor Code Word Sizes (# of wires) Insulation Thickness (mils) Neutral Sizes (Stranding) DUPLEX Shepherd Terrier Chow Bull Voluta Periwinkle Conch Neritina Cenia Runcina Triton Mursia Zuzara Limpet 6 (7) 4 (7) 2 (7) 1/0 (9) 6 (7) 4 (7) 2 (7) 1/0 (7) 1/0 (9) 2/0 (7) 2/0 (11) 3/0 (17) 4/0 (18) 336.4 (19) 45 45 45 60 45 45 45 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 6 (6/1) 4 (6/1) 2 (6/1) 1/0 (6/1) TRIPLEX 6 (6/1) 4 (6/1) 2 (6/1) 1/0 (6/1) 1/0 (6/1) 2/0 (6/1) 2/0 (6/1) 3/0 (6/1) 4/0 (6/1) 336.4 (18/1) QUADRUPLEX 4 (6/1) 2 (6/1) 1/0 (6/1) 2/0 (6/1) 3/0 (6/1) 4/0 (6/1) 336.4 (18/1) 1190 1860 2850 4380 4380 5310 5310 6620 8350 8680 114 172 262 420 414 520 512 635 789 1167 70 90 120 160 160 185 185 215 245 325 85 115 150 205 205 235 235 275 315 420 1190 1860 2850 4380 75 115 176 280 70 90 120 160 85 115 150 205 Rated Strength (lbs.) Cable Weight per 1000 ft (lbs) Ampacity PE XLPE

Hackney Palomino Costena Grullo Suffolk Appaloosa Bronco

4 (7) 2 (7) 1/0 (9) 2/0 (11) 3/0 (17) 4/0 (18) 336.4 (19)

45 45 60 60 60 60 60

1860 2850 4380 5310 6620 8350 8680

229 347 549 677 837 1038 1568

80 105 140 160 185 210 280

100 135 180 205 235 275 370

Conductor temperature of 90C for XLPE, 75C for PE; ambient temperature of 40C; emissivity 0.9; 2 ft./sec. wind in sun. Source: Southwire

46

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Table 15: Single Copper Conductors for Underground Service


Approx. Net Weight per 1000 ft. (lbs) 23 25 32 34 46 48 77 123 176 257 349 413 509 622 766 944 1273 1764 2625 3443 Ampacity

Size (AWG or kcmil)

Number of Strands

Composite InsulationThickness (mils)

Composite InsulationThickness (mm)

Approx. O.D. (Inches)

Approx. O.D. (mm)

90C

75C

14 14 12 12 10 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 350 500 750 1000

1 7 1 7 1 7 7 7 7 7 19 19 19 19 19 37 37 37 61 61

45 45 45 45 45 45 60 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 130 130 130 145 145

1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.52 1.91 1.91 1.91 2.54 2.54 2.54 2.54 2.54 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.68 3.68

0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.27 0.34 0.38 0.43 0.52 0.56 0.6 0.64 0.7 0.81 0.91 1.03 1.28 1.44

4.06 4.57 4.57 4.83 5.08 5.33 6.86 8.64 9.75 11 13.16 14.1 15.14 16.33 17.68 20.57 23.04 26.19 32.51 36.58

15 15 20 20 30 30 55 75 95 130 150 170 195 225 260 290 350 430 535 615

15 15 20 20 30 30 50 65 85 115 130 150 175 200 230 255 310 380 475 545

Source: Okonite

47

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Table 16: Single Aluminum Conductor for Underground Service


Impedance (ohm/1000ft) * Size (# of Wires) Conductor Diameter (inch) Insulation Thickness (inch) Insulation Diameter (inch) Total Weight (lb/1000 ft)

Code Word

AC Resistance

Inductive Reactance @60Hz

@ 75C CORNELL/XLP PRINCETON/XLP MERCER/XLP CLEMSON/XLP KENYON/XLP HARVARD/XLP YALE/XLP TUFTS/XLP BELOIT/XLP HOFSTRA/XLP GONZAGA/XLP RUTGERS/XLP DARTMOUTH/XLP BROWN/XLP EMORY/XLP DUKE/XLP FURMAN/XLP SEWANEE/XLP FORDHAM/XLP 8 (7) 6 (7) 4 (7) 2 (7) 1 (19) 1/0 (19) 2/0 (19) 3/0 (19) 4/0 (19) 250 (37) 300 (37) 350 (37) 400 (37) 450 (37) 500 (37) 600 (61) 700 (61) 750 (61) 1000 (61) 0.141 0.178 0.225 0.283 0.322 0.362 0.406 0.456 0.512 0.558 0.611 0.66 0.706 0.749 0.789 0.866 0.935 0.968 1.118 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.095 0.095 0.095 0.095 0.095 0.095 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.26 0.3 0.35 0.41 0.49 0.52 0.57 0.62 0.68 0.75 0.81 0.85 0.9 0.94 0.98 1.09 1.16 1.19 1.34 34 47 67 97 128 154 186 225 274 329 385 439 493 547 601 725 830 883 1144 1.28 0.807 0.508 0.319 0.253 0.201 0.159 0.126 0.1 0.085 0.071 0.0609 0.0534 0.0476 0.0429 0.036 0.0311 0.0291 0.0223

@ 90C 1.35 0.847 0.533 0.335 0.266 0.211 0.167 0.133 0.105 0.0892 0.0744 0.0639 0.056 0.0499 0.045 0.0377 0.0325 0.0305 0.0233 0.047 0.0447 0.0426 0.0409 0.0411 0.0402 0.0394 0.0387 0.038 0.0382 0.0377 0.0373 0.0369 0.0366 0.0364 0.0365 0.0362 0.036 0.0354

* At random (calculated as 1.5 x cable OD) spacing between conductors. Source: Nexans

48

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 9. MEDIUM AND HIGH VOLTAGE WIRES AND CABLES There is no consensus among standard governing bodies like (i.e., IEC, ANSI, IEEE, UL, NEC and others) concerning the classification of voltage level. Thus, for clarity of this manual we will utilize IEEE voltage level classifications wherein 601 V to 69,000 V is medium voltage and 69,001 V to 230,000 V is high voltage. Furthermore, conductors are also classified according to their degree of insulation covering (i.e. bare, covered, and insulated). Basically, construction of the wires and cables is the same or similar for medium and high voltage applications. 9.1 Bare Conductors Bare conductors are those without covering and primarily used for overhead power transmission and distribution application. Insulating medium is air wherein the conductors are spaced from each other and any grounded object based on the system voltage. Insulators (e.g porcelain, glass, and polymers) are used to support the conductors and insulate these from the supporting structure such as tower or pole. Copper and aluminum conductors are commonly used for this application. However, there are instances where economics dictate the use of conductors with low conductivity such as galvanized steel, copper-clad steel (Copperweld) or aluminum-clad steel (Alumoweld) in the distribution system. In such cases, the conductor losses are lower than the cost of recovering the investment in the distribution line if copper or aluminum conductor is used. In this field of application, the most dominant conductor used by the industry is the aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR). The succeeding tables (i.e., 17 to 19) show the physical and electrical data for copper and aluminum conductors.

49

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 17: Bare Stranded Copper Wires Physical and Electrical Data
Hard-Drawn Size Weight Stran- Stranding Dia. (AWG or Per 1000 ding Class (mils) kcmil) ft. (Ibs.) Medium-Hard Drawn Soft-Drawn (Annealed)

Allowable Rated DC Resistance Rated DC Resistance Rated DC Resistance Ampacity Strength Ohms/1000 ft Strength Ohms/1000 ft Strength Ohms/1000 ft (lbs) @ 20C (lbs) @ 20C (lbs) @ 20C

8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 1/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 250 250 300 350 500 600 750 1000

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 19 7 19 7 7 19 19 37 19 19 37 37 61 61

B B A, B A, B A, B A A, AA B A, AA B A, AA A, AA B A B A A A, B A, AA A, B A, B

51 81 128.9 162.5 204.9 258.4 326.1 326.1 410.9 410.9 518.1 653.3 653.3 771.9 771.9 926.2 1080.6 1543.8 1852.5 2315.6 3087.5

146 184 232 260 292 328 368 373 414 418 464 522 528 574 575 628 679 814 891 998 1152

777 1228 1938 2433 3050 3801 4752 4752 5926 6690 7366 9154 9617 11360 11600 13510 15590 22510 27020 34090 45030

0.6663 0.4191 0.2636 0.209 0.166 0.1316 0.1042 0.1042 0.08267 0.08267 0.06556 0.05199 0.05199 0.044 0.044 0.03667 0.03143 0.022 0.01834 0.01467 0.011

610 959 1505 1885 2360 2955 3705 3705 4640 4765 5812 7278 7479 8836 8952 10530 12200 17550 21060 26510 35100

0.6629 0.4169 0.2622 0.2079 0.165 0.1309 0.1037 0.1037 0.08224 0.08224 0.06522 0.05172 0.05172 0.04378 0.04378 0.03648 0.03127 0.02189 0.01825 0.01459 0.01094

499 794 1320 1670 2110 2552 3221 3221 4062 4024 5118 6459 6453 7627 7940 9160 10680 15240 18300 22890 30500

0.6408 0.403 0.2534 0.201 0.1578 0.1252 0.1002 0.1002 0.07949 0.07949 0.06304 0.04999 0.04999 0.04231 0.04231 0.03526 0.03022 0.02116 0.01763 0.0141 0.01058

95 130 170 200 230 265 310 310 355 355 410 480 480 530 530 590 650 810 910 1040 1240

Ampacity based on 75C conductor temperature; 25C ambient temperature; 2 ft/sec wind in sun. Source: Southwire

50

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 18: Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Physical Data
Code word Turkey Swan Swanate Sparrow Sparate Robin Raven Quail Pigeon Penguin Waxwing Partridge Merlin Linnet Oriole Chickadee Ibis Pelican Flicker Hawk Hen Osprey Parakeet Dove Rook Grosbeak Drake Tern Rail Cardinal Curlew Bluejay Bittern Lapwing Bluebird Size (AWG or kcmil) 6 4 4 2 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 266.8 266.8 336.4 336.4 336.4 397.5 397.5 477 477 477 477 556.5 556.5 556.5 636 636 795 795 954 954 1033.5 1113 1272 1590 2156 No. of Wires 6/1 6/1 7/1 6/1 7/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 18/1 26/7 18/1 26/7 30/7 18/1 26/7 18/1 24/7 26/7 30/7 18/1 24/7 26/7 24/7 26/7 26/7 45/7 45/7 54/7 54/7 45/7 45/7 45/7 84/19 Diameter (inch) Steel Wire 0.0661 0.0834 0.1029 0.1052 0.1299 0.1181 0.1327 0.1489 0.1672 0.1878 0.1217 0.0788 0.1367 0.0884 0.1059 0.1486 0.0961 0.1628 0.094 0.1053 0.1261 0.1758 0.1015 0.1138 0.1085 0.1216 0.136 0.0886 0.0971 0.1329 0.1383 0.1049 0.1121 0.1253 0.0961 Al Wire 0.0661 0.0834 0.0772 0.1052 0.0974 0.1181 0.1327 0.1489 0.1672 0.1878 0.1217 0.1013 0.1367 0.1137 0.1059 0.1486 0.1236 0.1628 0.141 0.1354 0.1261 0.1758 0.1523 0.1463 0.1628 0.1564 0.1749 0.1329 0.1456 0.1329 0.1383 0.1573 0.168 0.188 0.1602 Steel Core 0.066 0.083 0.103 0.105 0.13 0.118 0.133 0.149 0.167 0.188 0.122 0.236 0.137 0.265 0.318 0.149 0.288 0.163 0.282 0.316 0.378 0.176 0.305 0.341 0.326 0.365 0.408 0.266 0.291 0.399 0.415 0.315 0.336 0.376 0.481 Complete Conductor 0.198 0.25 0.257 0.316 0.325 0.355 0.398 0.447 0.502 0.563 0.609 0.642 0.684 0.72 0.741 0.743 0.783 0.814 0.846 0.858 0.883 0.879 0.914 0.927 0.977 0.99 1.108 1.063 1.165 1.96 1.245 1.259 1.345 1.504 1.762 Al 24.4 39 39 61.9 62.3 78.1 98.4 124.2 155.9 197.6 249.8 250.4 315.5 316.5 317 372.5 374.1 446.8 449.5 448.6 449.7 521.1 524.2 523.9 598.8 598.7 749 748.9 899 899 973 1049 1198 1498 2040 Weight (lb/1000ft) Steel 11.6 18.4 28 29.3 44.7 36.9 46.6 58.8 74.1 93.4 39.2 115.6 49.5 145.5 209 58.5 171.9 70.2 164.5 206.4 296.3 81.9 191.8 241.1 219.2 275.3 344 146.1 176 329 356 205 234 292 468 Total 36 57.4 67 91.2 102 115 145 183 230 291 289 366 365 462 526 431 546 517 614 655 746 603 716 765 818 873 1093 895 1075 1228 1329 1254 1432 1790 2508 Rated Strength (lbs) 1190 1860 2360 2850 3640 3550 4380 5310 6620 8350 6880 11300 8680 14100 17300 9940 16300 11800 17200 19500 23800 13700 19800 22600 22000 25200 31500 22100 25900 33800 36600 29800 34100 42200 60300

Source: Nexans

51

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table 19: Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Electrical Data
Size (AWG or kcmil) 6 4 4 2 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 266.8 266.8 336.4 336.4 336.4 397.5 397.5 477 477 477 477 556.5 556.5 556.5 636 636 795 795 954 954 1033.5 1113 1272 1590 2156 Resistance (ohm/kft) DC at 20C 0.642 0.403 0.399 0.253 0.251 0.201 0.159 0.126 0.1 0.0795 0.0644 0.0637 0.051 0.0506 0.0502 0.0432 0.0428 0.036 0.0358 0.0357 0.0354 0.0309 0.0307 0.0305 0.0268 0.0267 0.0214 0.0216 0.018 0.0179 0.0165 0.0155 0.0135 0.0108 AC at 25C 0.655 0.412 0.407 0.259 0.256 0.206 0.163 0.13 0.103 0.0822 AC at 50C 0.75 0.479 0.463 0.308 0.297 0.247 0.197 0.162 0.121 0.107 AC at 75C 0.816 0.522 0.516 0.336 0.33 0.27 0.216 0.176 0.145 0.116 Capacitive (megohm-kft) 0.751 0.715 0.71 0.678 0.674 0.66 0.642 0.624 0.606 0.597 0.576 0.565 0.56 0.549 0.544 0.544 0.539 0.528 0.524 0.522 0.517 0.518 0.512 0.51 0.502 0.499 0.482 0.488 0.474 0.47 0.464 0.461 0.451 0.434 0.409 Reactance at 60 Hz** Inductive at 25C (ohm/kft) 0.12 0.115 0.113 0.11 0.109 0.107 0.104 0.102 0.0992 0.0964 0.0903 0.0881 0.0826 0.0854 0.0843 0.0856 0.0835 0.0835 0.0818 0.0814 0.0803 0.0818 0.0801 0.0795 0.0786 0.078 0.0756 0.0769 0.0748 0.0737 0.0729 0.0731 0.0716 0.0689 0.0652 Inductive at 50C (ohm/kft) 0.139 0.131 0.124 0.123 0.118 0.119 0.114 0.112 0.108 0.105 0.0903 0.0881 0.0826 0.0854 0.0843 0.0856 0.0835 0.0835 0.0818 0.0814 0.0803 0.0818 0.0801 0.0795 0.0786 0.078 0.0756 0.0769 0.0748 0.0737 0.0729 0.0731 0.0716 0.0689 0.0652 Inductive at 75C (ohm/kft) 0.144 0.137 0.13 0.128 0.121 0.122 0.116 0.113 0.109 0.105 0.0903 0.0881 0.0826 0.0854 0.0843 0.0856 0.0835 0.0835 0.0818 0.0814 0.0803 0.0818 0.0801 0.0795 0.0786 0.078 0.0756 0.0769 0.0748 0.0737 0.0729 0.0731 0.0716 0.0689 0.0652 Ampacity* (A) 105 140 140 185 185 210 240 275 315 365 445 455 515 530 530 575 590 640 670 660 660 710 720 730 780 790 910 890 970 990 1040 1070 1160 1340 1610

Code word

Turkey Swan Swanate Sparrow Sparate Robin Raven Quail Pigeon Penguin Waxwing Partridge Merlin Linnet Oriole Chickadee Ibis Pelican Flicker Hawk Hen Osprey Parakeet Dove Rook Grosbeak Drake Tern Rail Cardinal Curlew Bluejay Bittern Lapwing Bluebird

0.0657 0.0723 0.0788 0.0652 0.0714 0.0778 0.0523 0.0574 0.0625 0.0517 0.0568 0.0619 0.0513 0.0563 0.0614 0.0443 0.0487 0.0528 0.0438 0.0481 0.0525 0.0369 0.0405 0.0441 0.0367 0.0403 0.0439 0.0366 0.0402 0.0438 0.0362 0.0398 0.0434 0.0318 0.0348 0.0379 0.0314 0.0347 0.0377 0.0314 0.0345 0.0375 0.0277 0.0303 0.033 0.0275 0.0301 0.0328 0.0222 0.0242 0.0263 0.0225 0.0246 0.0267 0.0188 0.0206 0.0223 0.0186 0.0205 0.0222 0.0172 0.0189 0.0205 0.0163 0.0178 0.0193 0.0144 0.0157 0.017 0.0117 0.0128 0.0138

0.00801 0.00903 0.00977 0.0105

* Ampacity is with sun and wind at 2 ft/s Source: Nexans

** Reactance at 1 foot equivalent spacing

52

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 9.2 Covered Conductors Covered conductors are bare conductors with thin insulation covering used for overhead power distribution system. These are used for power distribution circuits that transverse along routes with heavy tree growth. The covering does not fully insulate the conductor but it is thick enough to reduce the chances of flashover whenever a tree branch falls between the conductors. Covered conductor is also commonly known as tree wire. Also, it helps minimize faults caused by animals and enable distribution utilities to utilize conductor configurations with tight spacing. Covered conductors are commonly used as a cost-effective method for increasing overhead line reliability. The conductor materials are typically copper or aluminum or other conductors designed to give a balance between strength and conductivity such as ACSR. Tree wire is commonly covered by insulating materials such as polyethylene, XLPE, or EPR. Insulation thickness typically ranges from 30 to 150 mils. Tree wires must always be treated as bare conductors. However, closer spacings are allowed for this type of conductor. While covered conductors help against trees, it has several setbacks compared to bare conductors. The covering may be susceptible to degradation due to ultraviolet radiation, tracking, and mechanical effects that cause cracking. Also, covered conductors are susceptible to burn-downs. Burn-down is when a conductor burns through or melts and falls to the ground. A covered conductor line can suffer burn-down due to lightning strikes, excessive tracking over time, vibration fatigue or tree branches falling on the line. The risk of burndown can be reduced by suitable lightning protection systems, reduction of electrical stresses, improved tree trimming, reduced carbon black content in the sheath material, and proper installation and tensioning. The additional covering adds cost to the conductor such that a covered conductor line would cost about at least 20% more than a bare conductor line. Covered conductors are heavier and have larger diameters so wind loading is higher than bare conductors. Also, a damage cover makes it susceptible to corrosion, primarily from water. 53

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual If water penetrates the covering, it settles at the low points and causes corrosion since the covering prevents the trapped water from evaporating. Water enters the conductor at pinholes caused by lightning strikes, cover damage caused by abrasion, and at holes pierced by connectors. In contrast, rain simply washes over bare conductors and evaporation takes care of moisture. There will be a low charging current flowing along the covered conductor sheath since its surface is insulating but not fully insulated. This arises because the sheath forms an insulating layer between the high voltage conductor (metal) and the pin or post insulator to earth. This current will normally be less than 0.3mA which flows phasephase or phase-ground. This current is held low to reduce tracking and erosion, especially under polluted conditions. Metal helical ties form an intermediate electrode and can cause discharge problems at the ends if bare. Connecting helical ties with any insulating piercing connectors (IPCs) or use of semi-conducting plastic ties eliminates this problem. For a covered conductor line, insulation piercing connectors (IPC) are used. IPC contains teeth that penetrate through the insulation to have contact with the conductor and complete a connection. Tables 20 and 21 show the relevant data of Copper and ACSR Covered Conductors, respectively. Spacer cables are also alternatives to Covered Cables and perform well in areas with dense trees. Spacer cables are of bundled configuration using a messenger wire with a polymetric support cradle holding up the three phases. The spacer cables reactive impedance is smaller because it significantly reduces spacing than typical overhead constructions.

54

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 20: Copper Single Layer Covered Conductors Data
Weight Per Copper Size 1000 ft. (lbs.) Cover O.D. Content (AWG StranThick. Covered Per or ding (mils) (mils) 1000 ft. XLPE PE kcmil) (lbs.) 6 4 2 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 500 750 1000 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 19 19 19 37 61 61 30 30 45 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 80 80 95 238 285 373 477 522 570 626 677 729 779 950 1128 1307 81 128.9 204.9 326.1 410.9 518.1 653.3 771.9 926.2 1080.6 1543.8 2315.6 3087.5 90.3 140.8 227.1 363.3 453.3 565.6 707.6 825.4 984.6 1144.5 1637.2 2422.8 3234 90.3 140.8 227.1 363.3 453.3 565.6 707.6 825.4 984.6 1144.5 1637.2 2422.8 3234 DC Allowable Resistance Ampacity /1000 + ft.@20C 0.503 0.316 0.199 0.125 0.0992 0.0788 0.0625 0.0530 0.0442 0.0380 0.0278 0.0182 0.0140 130 175 230 305 350 405 465 520 580 640 785 995 1180

Source: Southwire

55

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 21: 2-Layer 15kV ACSR Tree Wire
Size (AWG or kcmil) 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 266.8 266.8 336.4 336.4 336.4 397.5 397.5 477 477 477 556.5 556.5 556.5 636 636 636 795 Covering Thickness (mils) Inner Layer 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 Outer Layer 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 Weight per 1000 ft. (lbs) 255 303 362 432 441 452 536 555 621 611 609 719 762 854 813 828 878 912 936 993 1234 1031

Stranding

Conductor Diameter (mils) 398 447 502 563 609 642 684 720 741 743 772 846 858 883 879 914 927 940 977 990 1108 1063

Cable O.D. (mils) 698 747 802 863 909 942 984 1020 1041 1043 1072 1146 1158 1183 1179 1214 1227 1240 1277 1290 1428 1383

Rated Strength (lbs) 4161 5045 6289 7933 6536 10735 8246 13395 16435 9443 13870 16340 18525 22610 13015 18810 21470 14915 20900 23940 29925 20995

6/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 18/1 26/7 18/1 26/7 30/7 18/1 24/7 24/7 26/7 30/7 18/1 24/7 26/7 18/1 24/7 26/7 26/7

795 45/7 Source: Southwire

56

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 9.3 Insulated Cables Majority of insulated cables are utilized for underground transmission and distribution systems. Being insulated for voltages higher than 2 kV, that these cables are typically shielded. 9.3.1 Construction The fundamental difference between non-shielded and shielded cables is the inclusion of outer conducting components in the cable system. The basic components of a shielded cable are shown below.

Figure 6: Construction of Shielded Power Cable Conductor The conductors used in shielded cables are basically the same as those used in non-shielded cables, with copper and aluminum as the conductor. Conductor Shield or Screen The conductor shield is usually a semi-conducting material applied over the conductor circumference to shield out the surface irregularities of the conductor. With this shield, the resulting dielectric field lines will not be distorted by the shape of the outer strands or other conductor contours. It prevents the formation of destructive discharges at the interface between the conductor and insulation. Otherwise, the electrical stress around the conductors would produce partial discharges on the surface of the insulation which deteriorates it and eventually results to cable failure. Also, it is essential that this stress control layer be compatible with the conductor and the cable insulation. 57

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual This layer also provides a smooth and compatible surface for the application of the insulation. The conductor shield is extruded simultaneously with the insulation for a void-free bond between conductor shield and insulation. The shield may also be used to facilitate splicing and termination of the cable. Insulation This is the part of the cable that is relied upon to insulate the conductor from other conductor or conductive object or from ground. The differences between the insulation for shielded cables as compared to non-shielded cables include material, process technology, and testing. The insulation thickness is primarily influenced by the operating voltage. Therefore, the higher the voltage, the thicker the insulation. Insulation Shield or Screen This absorbs the symmetrical radial stresses and discharges on the surfaces of the insulation. It protects the cables from induced potentials. Shields help attenuate, make uniform and reduce the surge potential stresses on the insulation. It increases safety to humans and removes the risk of fire due to electrical discharges on the cable surface. The insulation shield or screen is a two-part system composed of an auxiliary and a primary shield. An auxiliary shield is usually a semi-conducting, non-metallic material over the insulation circumference. It must be smooth, compatible with the insulation, and exhibit an acceptably low voltage drop throughout its thickness. A commonly used auxiliary shield consists of an extruded semi-conducting polymer to permit easy removal during field termination, but yet to remain uniformly bonded to the insulation throughout the cable length. A primary shield is a metallic shield over the circumference of the auxiliary shield. It may consist of copper tape or Concentric Neutral (CN) wires. These concentric neutral wires are usually annealed. 58

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

CN wires serve two purposes, namely; they function as the metallic component of the insulation shield and as a conductor for the neutral return current. Their crosssectional area must be properly sized in order to function as the neutral conductor. The primary shield must be capable of conducting the summation of the leakage currents to the nearest ground with an acceptable voltage drop. In some cases, it must also be capable of conducting fault currents. The primary shield, by itself, without an intervening auxiliary shield, cannot achieve acceptable physical contact with the insulation surface. A relatively resilient auxiliary shield is necessary to eliminate arcing between the insulation surface and the primary shield. If the insulation shield is effectively at ground potential, no resulting distortion of the electrostatic flux or equipotential lines will occur. The grounding of the insulation shield is the electrical connection between the metallic component of the insulation shield and the system ground. This grounding of the insulation shield results in symmetrical dielectric fields. Electrostatic flux lines are spaced symmetrically and perpendicular to equipotential lines. The equipotential lines are concentric and parallel with respect to each other, the conductor shield and the insulation shield. The presence of the shielding results in field lines as depicted in Figure 7. In addition, grounding promotes personnel safety by minimizing potentials on the outer surface of the cable and its accessories. The shielding of the cable system can either be singlepointed or multiple-pointed grounding. A single-point grounded system is frequently referred to as an open circuit shield. Since the shield is grounded at a single point, there is no closed loop for the flow of induced shield currents. A multiple-point grounded system, on the other hand, is one that has grounds at more than one point. It is frequently called a closed or shortcircuit shield system. 59

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Each of the arrangements has its particular advantages and disadvantages for selection. Knowledge of the total system should be taken into account when making these decisions. In a shielded cable, the voltage difference between conductor and electrical ground is contained within the cable. For a non-shielded cable, the voltage difference between conductor and electrical ground is divided between the cable insulation and any intervening air or other materials.
Insulation Conductor Shield Conductor

Insulation Shield

Electrostatic Flux Lines

Equipotential Lines

Figure 7: Electrical Field of a Shielded Cable

60

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual In Figure 7, observe that the field lines are closer to each other near the conductor shield as compared to the insulation shield. The radial stresses or voltage gradients increase near the conductor. Jackets/Sheaths These cable components provide environmental protection over the insulation shielding system. The material used can be an extruded jacket of synthetic material, metal sheaths/wires, armoring, or a combination of these types of materials. 9.3.2 Electrical Losses in Cables When the cable is energized and carrying load, heat, which must be dissipated to the surrounding medium, is generated by the conductor, dielectric and sheath losses. The heat generated by these losses in the conductor, the dielectric, the sheath and armor has to pass to the surrounding medium, which may be the ground, air, water or some other material. The current carrying capacity of an electric cable is normally dictated by the maximum temperature of the conductor. The components of the cable, in addition to meeting the electrical requirements, must also have as low a thermal resistivity, as possible, to ensure that the heat can be dissipated efficiently. If the rate of rise of heat generation is greater than the rate of rise of heat dissipation, the cable temperature will continue to increase which will result in the overheating of the cable and eventual breakdown. 9.3.3 Advantages of Shielded Cables Electrical insulation surrounding a conductor creates a capacitor when the conductor is electrically energized. Thus, all insulated conductors are capacitors. In the majority of non-shielded cable systems, the cable surface makes intermittent contact with an electrical ground. Where intimate contact with this ground is not made, the intervening air 61

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual spaces also act primarily as capacitors in ac circuits and as resistors in dc circuits. This forms a series of cable dielectric and air dielectric. Voltage across this circuit varies along the length of the cable depending on the voltage across the air gap. The cable surface becomes a floating voltage point in a voltage divider. This floating point voltage can vary considerably, depending on the cable design and the characteristics of the air gap. If the voltage is high enough, the cable surface can experience detrimental surface tracking of arcing discharges to electrical ground. The cable surface can also become potentially hazardous causing an electrical shock if contacted by field personnel. Shielding the cable insulation surface and grounding of this shielding eliminates tracking and arcing discharges. The grounding of this shield prevents the accumulation of an electrical potential on the surface of the cable that could be hazardous to any individual that comes into contact with the cable surface. 10. INSTALLATION OF WIRES AND CABLES 10.1 Maximum Allowable Tensions on Conductors Care should be taken during installation of cables to prevent damage that can result to future service failures. In preparing for a conductor pull, it is just as important to cover the other details as it is to assure that the conductor does not exceed maximum sidewall pressure, minimum bending radii or maximum pulling tensions. These and other considerations can make the difference between a good installation and one with damaged conductors. Mechanical stresses during installation are generally more severe than those encountered while in service. The following information provides guidance in recognizing these conditions and provides a methodology to aid in keeping them within acceptable limits.

62

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 10.1.1 Maximum Allowable Tension Calculations should be made whether the pull looks easy or impossible, making the decision as where to pull an obvious choice. When an obscure situation is encountered, the entire pull should be reviewed. This review may include more rigorous calculations or trial pulls. A final decision should be made based on installation factors known to the end user and installer. The sizes of the conduit are determined based on the calculations of clearances, jamming, and fill. Pulling tensions may be evaluated by determining the maximum tension based on the pulling device used, and the maximum tension that can be applied to the conductors. The lesser of these two values is the maximum allowable tension. After calculating the pulling tensions, sidewall pressures may be calculated. Do not exceed the allowable tension stated by the manufacturer of the pulling device or 10,000 pounds, whichever is less. Do not use metallic shielding wires, tapes or braids, or armor not designed for the purpose, in pulling tension calculations. The maximum tension allowed for the conductors are computed as follows: Single Conductor: T=S*A Multiple Conductors: T = N * S * A for 3 or less conductors T = (0.8) * N * S * A for more than 3 conductors where: T = conductor tension, lbs S = conductor stress, lbs/cmil (Table 22) A = conductor area, cmil (Table 23) N = number of conductors 63

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Pulling different conductor sizes at the same time is not recommended if the conductor size or other cable characteristics are significantly different. If different size conductors must be pulled, it must be done with care.

Table 22: Maximum Allowable Conductor Stress Cable Type All Power Power Power URD Solid Material Copper Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Temper soft Hard 3/4 hard AA-8000 1/2 hard Soft lbs/cmil 0.008 0.008 0.006 0.006 0.003 0.002

Table 23: Concentric Stranded Copper & Aluminum Conductor Area AWG 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 cmil 4,110 6,530 10,380 16,510 26,240 41,740 52,620 66,360 83,690 105,600 133,100 167,800 211,600 AWG 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 750 800 900 1000 1200 cmil 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 450,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 750,000 800,000 900,000 1,000,000 1,200,000

64

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 10.1.2 Pulling Tension Calculation The following equations allow the user to calculate the expected pulling tension of a conductor in a conduit pull. Tin=WL where; Tin = W= L= = tension, lbs. weight of one foot of cable, lbs. length of pull, ft. coefficient of friction for the particular duct material and outer layer of the cable.

The weight of the cable and the length of the pull can be determined with great accuracy. The one variable that varies tremendously is the value of the coefficient of frictionit can vary from 0.05 to 1.0. Even when the materials used in the duct and jacket are known, the type and amount of lubricant can be an important factor in this variation. 10.1.3 Coefficient of Friction The coefficient of dynamic friction () is a measure of the friction between a moving conductor and the conduit. The coefficient of friction can have a large impact on the tension calculation. Table 24: Typical Coefficients of Dynamic Friction () for Cables with an Adequate Cable Lubrication During a Pull
Cable Outer Jacket or Insulation Type THHN/THWN (Nylon) Type XHHW, USE, RHH/RHW (XLPE) Conduit Type EMT PVC 0.28 0.24 0.25 0.14

65

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 10.1.4 Conductor Configuration The configuration of three single-conductors in a conduit is determined by the ratio of the conduit inner diameter (D) to the outer diameter (d) of one of the single conductors (D/d ratio).
D d 2.5 D

D d < 2.5 Triangular

Cradled

Figure 8: Configuration of Three Single Conductors

A cradled configuration develops when three single-conductors are pulled into a conduit where the D/d ratio is 2.5 or greater. A triangular configuration develops when three single-conductors are pulled into a conduit where the D/d ratio is less than 2.5. 10.1.5 Weight Correction Factor This configuration of conductors can affect the tension. A weight correction factor () is used in the tension equations to account for this effect. This is given by the following equations: Single Conductor: =1

Three Conductor (Triangular):

Three Conductor (Cradled):

66

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Four Conductors or More

To be conservative, it is recommended that the three-conductor (triangular) factor be used when pulling two conductors. 10.1.6 Tension Formulas Horizontal Straight Section: Tout = WL+Tin Inclined and Vertical Section: Pulling up: Tout = WL(sin + cos) + Tin (lbs) Pulling Down: Tout = WL(sin + cos) + Tin (lbs) Elbows and Bends (approximation): Tout = Tin e where; Tout = Tin = W= L= = = = = e= tension out of a section, lbs tension into a section, lbs total cable weight, lbs/ft straight section length, ft coefficient of dynamic friction weight correction factor straight section angle from horizontal, radians bend section angle, radians 2.71 natural logarithm base

67

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 10.1.7 Conductor Jamming There is a tendency where cables may jam against the inside of the conduit when the diameter of each cable is about one-third the inner diameter of the duct. This commonly occurs when the cables go around a bend or a series of bends. Jamming increases the pulling tension to a point that it can damage the cable. Thus, the jam ratio of the cables needs to be evaluated. The equation for the jam ratio of three cables in a duct is as follows: Jam ratio = 1.05 D d where; 1.05 factor to account the possible ovality of the conduit in a bend and for the cable of having a slightly different diameter at any point inside diameter of the duct or conduit outer diameter of each of the three cables

D= d=

When the jam ratio falls between 2.6 and 3.2, jamming is probable if there are bends in the run. Thus, to avoid possible problem with conductor jamming, it is advisable to avoid pulls where the jam ratio is between 2.6 and 3.2. 10.2 Sidewall Pressure Sidewall pressure is the vector force that exists on the cable as it is pulled through a bend. Because the surface area of the bend is smaller in small radius bends, that force is concentrated over a much smaller area. Most of the time sidewall pressure is the limiting factor in a cable pull. It is calculated by the following equations: Single-conductor cable or multiple-conductor cable under common jacket:

68

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Three Conductor (Triangular):

Three Conductor (Cradled):

where;

Sp = T= = R=

sidewall pressure, lbs/ft tension coming out of the bend, lbs weight correction factor bend radius, ft

Table 25: Sidewall Bearing Pressure Limits Cable Type Instrumentation 600 V non-shielded control 600 V power 5 to 15 kV shielded power 25 to 46 kV power SWBP, lbs/ft 100 300 500 500 300

10.3 Bending Radius The following are the minimum values for the radii to which insulated cables may be bent during installation. These limits do not apply to conduit bends, sheaves or other curved surfaces around which the cable may be pulled under tension while being installed. Larger radii bends may be required for such conditions to limit 69

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual sidewall pressure. In all cases the minimum radii specified refers to the inner surface of the cable and not to the axis of the cable. The minimum bending radii for both single and multiple-conductor cable with or without lead sheath and without metallic shielding or armor are as follows:

Table 26: Minimum Bending Radii for Power and Control Cables without Metallic Shielding or Armor Overall Diameter of cables, inches 2.001and 1.000 and less 1.001 to 2.000 larger Minimum Bending Radius as Multiple of Cable Diameter 4 5 5 6 7 6 7 8

Thickness of Conductor Insulation, inches 0.156 and less 0.157 to 0.315 0.316 and over
Source: Okonite

70

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Table 27: Minimum Bending Radii for Power and Control Cables with Metallic Shielding or Armor, as Multiple of Cable Diameter Type of Cable Power Armored, flat tape or wire type 12... Armored, smooth aluminum sheath, up to; . ...0.75 inches cable diameter 10*. ...0.76 to 1.5 inches cable diameter 12... ...over 1.5 inches cable diameter 15... Armored, corrugated sheath or . ...interlocked type 7... ...with shielded single conductor 12... ...with shielded multi-conductor **... Non-armored, flat or corrugated . ...tape shielded single conductor 12... ...tape shielded multi-conductor **... ...multi-conductor overall tape shield 12... ...LCS with PVC jacket 15... Non-armored, concentric neutral 8... Non-armored, flat strap shielded 8... Non-armored, wire shielded ***.. * with shielded conductors 12 ** 12 times single conductor diameter or 7 times overall cable diameter whichever is greater *** See Power and control cables without metallic shielding LCS = longitudinally applied corrugated shield Source: Okonite Control 12... . 10*. 12... 15... . 7... 12... **... . 12... **... 12... 15... ... ... ...

71

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

11. PACKAGING The usual cut for small diameter building wires is 150 meter and is packaged in boxes. However, for bigger diameter wires and power cables, these usually come in 300 meter rolls. For special and other cutting or packaging requirements, this has to be specified and coordinated with the wires and cables manufacturer. 12. CABLE/WIRE APPLICATION In ordering wires/cables, it is important that the manufacturer knows the intended application of the wires/cables. This in order that they can recommend the type of cable best suited for the application. The usual service conditions for cables are indoor/outdoor application in wet, damp, and/or dry environment. However, for cables that are to be used in special application or condition, this has to be communicated to the manufacturer. 13. CABLE INSTALLATION METHOD Knowledge of the cable installation method to be used is important for the manufacturer since the current carrying capacity of the cable will depend on where the cables are to be laid such as in open air, raceway, cable tray, conduit or directly buried. This is due to the heat generated by the cables due to their close proximity and the capability of the type of cable installation to dissipate this generated heat. Per Philippine Electrical Code (PEC), certain de-rating factor has to be applied depending on the particular installation method. 14. COLOR CODING In accordance with the PEC, certain color coding is required for conductors of a multi-core cable. Ground conductors shall have a continuous white, white stripe or gray outer finish. On the other hand, live wires can have any color, except the foregoing. Equipment grounding conductor, however, shall have a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes. 72

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual For jacketed cords furnished with appliances, one conductor having its insulation colored light blue, with the other conductors having their insulation of a readily distinguishable color other than white or gray. For electric space-heating cables, the lead wire shall have the following color identification to indicate the circuit voltage on which it is to be used: (1) 115 volt, nominal yellow (2) 208 volt, nominal blue (3) 230 volt, nominal red (4) 265 volt, nominal brown (5) 460 volt, nominal - orange 15. REFERENCE STANDARDS Wires and cables are usually made to comply with certain reference standard (e.g. Philippine National Standard (PNS), IEC, ASTM, ICEA, AIEC, NEMA, UL, etc.) Some PNS on wires and cables are listed in Annex C. 16. STORAGE Another important consideration or information needed to be communicated to the wire manufacturer/supplier is the storage of the cable at site, whether it will be stored indoor or outdoor. If the cable will be stored outdoor and subjected to the elements, depending on the cable insulation or construction and the sealing of its terminals, the cable performance may be degraded. Likewise, for power conductors on reels, especially when it is expected to be stored outdoors for extended periods, special attention should also be taken on the material of the cable reel. Should the reels be made of wood, the reel may rot after some time making it difficult to transport the cable to another site.

73

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual Hereunder are some use and storage suggestions: (1) Upon receipt, cable protective covering should be thoroughly scrutinized for possible signs of damage during delivery. If evidence of damage is found, inform the carrier immediately. (2) During unloading, make sure that the equipment used does not have contact with the cable surface and its protective covering. When a crane is being used, a cradle supporting the reel flanges or a shaft through the arbor hole should be used. If unloading is being done with the use of a forklift, the forks must lift the reel at 90 to the flanges and must be long enough to reach both flanges. The fork must not make contact with the cable surface or the cable protective covering. (3) If an inclined ramp is used during unloading, the ramp must be wide enough to have contact with both flanges. When controlling the decent of the reel, it should be done through the use of the reel flanges and not the surface of the cable. (4) The reels should not be dropped from the delivering vehicle to the ground whatever the circumstance. (5) The weight of the reel and cable must be allowed to rest on the flanges, which, in turn, should be resting on a hard surface to prevent the flanges from sinking and shifting part of said weight to the cables. 74

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual (6) Reels should be stored in an area where no falling debris of construction material or other objects that can damage the cable. (7) Cable should not be stored in an area where chemicals or petroleum can be spilled or sprayed on the cable. (8) Reels of cable with unjacketed sheath or armor (aluminum or steel) should be stored indoors. Unjacketed sheath or armor easily corrodes when exposed outside. (9) Care must be taken when a reel of cable is rolled from one point to another, see to it that there are no objects on the surface area which could have contact and damage the cable surface or its protective covering. (10)Keep cable away from open fires or sources of heat. (11)Cable ends must always be sealed to prevent the entrance of moisture. 17. AVAILABLE CABLE HANDLING EQUIPMENT AT SITE It will be important for the cable and wire manufacturer/supplier to know whether there will be any cable handling equipment available at site so that they can prepare the means to unload the cables safely from the transport vehicle. If a cable handling equipment is available at site, its capacity has to be communicated to the manufacturer/supplier so as to ensure that it is capable of handling the weight of the cable. 18. SAFEGUARDS FOR INSTALLING WIRES AND CABLES IN CONDUIT Investigations have shown that cable failures often can be attributed to damage caused during installation due to carelessness, inexperience and inability to observe certain simple precautions. In order to eliminate such preventable causes of electrical shutdowns and loss of production, the following procedures should be followed: 75

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

18.1 Before Pulling Wire/Cable (1) Know and observe all Philippine Electrical Code rules regarding installation. (2) Check the conduit and wire/cable sizes and actual overall diameters in order to be sure that the approved "fill" will not be exceeded. Do not "crowd" the conduit. (3) Check the type of wire/cable to be installed. (4) Consider the use of larger conduits or additional pull boxes. (5) Check any obstruction on the conduit. (6) To loosen any burrs, pull a short mandrel or plug closely approximating the diameter of the conduit and clean out any remaining dirt or foreign matter, follow it up with a swab. 18.2 While Pulling Wire/Cable (1) To prevent short bends, sharp edges and "crossover", always have a man feed wire straight into a conduit by hand or over a large diameter sheave for large conductors/cables. (2) Remove all lashings used for temporary bunching of individual wires/cables before they enter the conduit. (3) Lead-out wires at all pull boxes and conduits. Feed them in again for the next run. (4) Never pull directly around short right angled bends. 18.3 After Pulling Wire/Cable Shut off the exposed ends of the excess wire/cable on the reel with a tape to prevent moisture from entering the wire/cable. 19. SAFEGUARD FOR SWITCHBOARD AND SIMILAR OPEN WIRING To avoid cutting or deforming the insulation at the contact point use wide tape or straps with rounded edges instead of narrow strings when binding groups of wires, especially non-braided wires.

76

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual 20. WIRE/CABLE ORDERING FORM In order to guide the user, electrical designer or the purchaser in correctly ordering or specifying the cable or wire that is needed for his specific use and for the wire and cable manufacturer/supplier to have the necessary information to know the specific needs of his customer so that he can give a correct price quotation, a wire/cable ordering form has been developed in Annex D.

77

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

78

ANNEXES

79

80

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

ANNEX A
Table A1. Conductor Types and Sizes for 115/230-Volt, 3-Wire, Single-Phase Dwelling Services and Feeders. Conductor Types RHH, RHW, RHW-2, THHN, THHW, THW, THW-2, THWN, THWN-2, XHHW, XHHW-2, SE, USE, USE-2 Conductor mm2 Copper 22 30 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 175 200 Aluminum 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 250 325 100 110 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 350 400 Service or Feeder Rating (Amperes)

81

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A2. Ampacities of Not More Than Three Single Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 Through 2 000 Volts, Supported on a Messenger, Based on Ambient Air Temperature of 40C
75C Type RH, RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, ZW
316 363 390 416 496 576 630 659 741

Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.13.) 90C 75C 90C

Conductor Size mm2


125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

Types THHN, THHW, THW-2, THWN-2, RHH, RWH-2, USE-2, XHHW-2, ZW-2 COPPER
369 423 460 486 581 674 740 771 870

Types RH, RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, ZHHW


248 285 310 327 392 458 505 529 606

Type THHN, THHW, RHH, XHHW, RHW-2, XHHW-2, THW-2, THWN-2, USE-2, ZW-2 ALUMINUM
288 331 360 382 458 535 590 617 709

Table A3. Ampacities of Insulated Single Copper Conductor Cables Triplexed in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 105C 105C 90C Type Type 90C Type Type MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 370 410 375 420 460 510 465 520 580 640 580 650 740 825 720 810 770 860 750 845 870 970 840 940

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

82

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A4. Ampacities of Insulated Single Aluminum Conductor Cables Triplexed in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 105C 105C 90C Type Type 90C Type Type MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 290 320 295 330 360 400 365 410 460 510 460 515 595 660 585 655 620 685 605 680 705 790 690 770

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

Table A5. Ampacities of Insulated Single Copper Conductor Isolated in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 5 00115 000 15 00135 000 Volts Volts Volts Ampacity Ampacity Ampacity 90C 105C 90C 105C 90C 105C Type Type Type Type Type Type MVMVMVMVMVMV90 105 90 105 90 105 435 485 435 485 430 480 545 605 545 600 540 595 695 775 685 765 680 755 890 990 875 980 860 960 925 1 030 910 1 020 895 1 000 1 060 1 185 1 050 1 030 1 030 1 145 83

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A6. Ampacities of Insulated Single Aluminum Conductor Isolated in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 5 00115 000 15 00135 000 Volts Volts Volts Ampacity Ampacity Ampacity 90C 105C 90C 105C 90C 105C Type Type Type Type Type Type MVMVMVMVMVMV90 105 90 105 90 105 340 380 340 380 340 375 425 475 425 475 425 470 545 605 535 600 530 590 700 780 690 770 680 755 730 815 720 805 705 790 845 940 830 930 815 910

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

Table A7. Ampacities of an Insulated Three-Conductor Copper Cable Isolated in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 105C 105C 90C Type Type 90C Type Type MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 315 350 355 395 390 435 430 485 485 545 535 600 610 680 665 735 635 705 690 765 695 780 760 850 84

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A8. Ampacities of an Insulated Three-Conductor Aluminum Cable Isolated in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 105C 105C 90C Type Type 90C Type Type MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 250 280 280 315 305 340 340 380 385 430 425 475 490 545 535 595 510 565 555 615 575 640 625 695

Conductor Size mm2 125 75 250 375 400 500

Table A9. Ampacities of an Insulated Triplexed or Three SingleConductor Copper Cables in Isolated Conduit in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 105C 105C 90C Type Type 90C Type Type MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 310 350 325 360 380 425 390 435 475 530 480 535 595 660 580 650 615 685 600 675 680 760 665 745

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

85

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A10. Ampacities of an Insulated Triplexed or Three SingleConductor Aluminum Cables in Isolated Conduit in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 105C 105C 90C Type Type 90C Type Type MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 250 280 255 290 300 335 305 345 380 425 385 430 485 540 480 535 505 560 500 555 570 635 555 630

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

Table A11. Ampacities of an Insulated Three-Conductor Copper Cable in Isolated Conduit in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 105C 105C 90C Type Type 90C Type Type MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 275 310 310 345 345 385 380 425 425 475 470 525 520 580 565 630 540 600 585 655 580 650 640 715

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

86

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A12. Ampacities of an Insulated Three-Conductor Aluminum Cable in Isolated Conduit in Air Based on Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C and Ambient Air Temperature of 40C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 105C 105C 90C Type Type 90C Type Type MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 215 240 245 275 270 300 300 335 340 380 380 425 425 475 465 515 440 495 485 535 500 550 540 605

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 375 400 500

87

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A13. Ampacities of Three Single-Insulated Copper Conductors in Underground Electrical Ducts (Three Conductors per Electrical Duct) Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Electrical Duct Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type mm2 MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 1.) 125 315 340 320 340 175 380 410 385 410 250 470 505 465 500 375 580 625 560 605 400 600 650 580 630 500 660 710 630 680 Three Circuits (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 2.) 125 255 275 255 275 175 310 330 305 325 250 375 405 370 395 375 455 490 435 470 400 475 510 454 490 500 520 555 490 530 Six Circuits (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 3.) 125 205 220 205 220 175 245 265 240 260 250 300 325 290 310 375 360 390 345 370 400 375 405 360 385 500 405 440 385 410

88

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A14. Ampacities of Three Single-Insulated Aluminum Conductors in Underground Electrical Ducts (Three Conductors per Electrical Duct) Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Electrical Duct Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type mm2 MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 1.) 125 245 265 245 265 175 300 320 300 325 250 370 400 370 400 375 465 500 450 485 400 485 520 470 505 500 535 580 520 555 Three Circuits (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 2.) 125 200 215 195 215 175 240 260 240 255 250 295 320 290 315 375 365 390 350 380 400 380 405 365 395 500 420 455 400 435 Six Circuits (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 3.) 125 160 175 160 170 175 190 205 195 205 250 240 255 230 250 375 285 310 275 300 400 295 325 285 315 500 330 355 315 340

89

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A15. Ampacities of Three Insulated Copper Conductors Cabled Within an Overall Covering (Three-Conductor Cable) in Underground Electrical Ducts (One Cable per Electrical Duct) Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Electrical Duct Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type mm2 MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 1.) 125 285 310 305 330 175 350 375 370 395 250 430 460 450 485 375 525 565 540 580 400 545 585 560 600 500 590 635 605 650 Three Circuits (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 2.) 125 240 260 250 265 175 290 310 300 320 250 355 380 360 385 375 425 460 425 460 400 440 480 440 480 500 480 515 480 510 Six Circuits (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 3.) 125 195 215 200 215 175 235 265 240 270 250 290 310 290 305 375 345 370 335 360 400 360 385 350 375 500 385 415 375 400

90

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A16. Ampacities of Three Insulated Aluminum Conductors Cabled Within an Overall Covering (Three-Conductor Cable) in Underground Electrical Ducts (One Cable per Electrical Duct) Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Electrical Duct Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type mm2 MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 1.) 125 225 240 240 260 175 275 305 290 310 250 340 365 355 385 375 420 455 435 470 400 435 475 450 490 500 490 530 505 535 Three Circuits (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 2.) 125 185 200 195 210 175 225 245 235 250 250 280 300 285 305 375 340 370 345 370 400 355 385 360 385 500 395 425 395 425 Six Circuits (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 3.) 125 155 165 155 165 175 185 200 190 200 250 230 245 230 245 375 275 300 270 290 400 285 315 280 300 500 315 340 310 330

91

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A17. Ampacities of Single Insulated Copper Conductors Directly Buried in Earth Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type 2 mm MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit, Three Conductors (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 9.) 125 460 500 430 465 175 560 610 530 570 250 690 745 650 700 375 835 900 795 855 400 870 940 830 890 500 970 1 045 920 995 Two Circuits, Six Conductors (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 10.) 125 425 460 405 430 175 510 550 490 525 250 630 680 600 645 375 765 825 730 785 400 800 860 760 820 500 880 950 845 910

92

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A18. Ampacities of Single Insulated Aluminum Conductors Directly Buried in Earth Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type 2 mm MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit, Three Conductors (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 9.) 125 365 390 340 365 175 440 475 410 445 250 540 580 510 545 375 660 710 630 670 400 685 740 655 700 500 770 830 730 785 Two Circuits, Six Conductors (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 10.) 125 355 360 315 340 175 405 435 380 410 250 495 530 470 505 375 605 650 575 620 400 630 675 595 645 500 700 775 670 720

93

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A19. Ampacities of Three Insulated Copper Conductors Cabled Within an Overall Covering (Three-Conductor Cable), Directly Buried in Earth Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type mm2 MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 5.) 125 360 390 375 405 175 435 470 455 490 250 530 570 550 590 375 640 690 660 710 400 670 720 685 740 500 720 775 740 800 Two Circuits, (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 6.) 125 335 340 325 350 175 405 435 415 445 250 490 525 500 535 375 590 635 600 645 400 610 660 625 670 500 655 705 665 720

94

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A20. Ampacities of Three Insulated Aluminum Conductors Cabled Within an Overall Covering (Three-Conductor Cable), Directly Buried in Earth Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures of 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type mm2 MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 5.) 125 280 305 295 315 175 340 370 355 385 250 420 450 435 470 375 515 555 535 575 400 535 575 555 595 500 590 640 610 655 Two Circuits, (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 6.) 125 260 280 270 290 175 315 340 325 350 250 385 415 395 425 375 475 510 480 520 400 495 530 500 540 500 540 580 550 590

95

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A21. Ampacities of Three Triplexed Single Insulated Copper Conductors Directly Buried in Earth Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures 90C and 105C
Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity Conductor 105C 105C Size 90C Type Type 90C Type Type mm2 MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit, Three Conductors (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 7.) 125 405 435 385 405 175 485 570 465 500 250 590 635 565 605 375 715 770 675 730 400 745 805 705 760 500 815 875 760 820 Two Circuits, Six Conductors (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 8.) 125 365 390 350 375 175 440 475 420 450 250 535 575 510 545 375 640 690 610 655 400 670 720 635 680 500 730 785 680 735

96

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A22. Ampacities of Three Triplexed Single Insulated Aluminum Conductors Directly Buried in Earth Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure 3.10.1.60, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (RHO) of 90, Conductor Temperatures 90C and 105C Temperature Rating of Conductor (See Table 3.10.1.61) 2 0015 000 Volts 5 00135 000 Volts Ampacity Ampacity 90C 105C 90C 105C Conductor Size Type Type Type Type mm2 MV-90 MV-105 MV-90 MV-105 One Circuit, Three Conductors (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 7.)
125 175 250 375 400 500 125 175 250 375 400 500 315 380 465 575 595 660 285 345 420 515 535 590 345 415 500 620 645 715 305 370 455 555 575 635 300 365 445 545 565 625 275 330 405 480 500 555 320 395 480 585 605 670 295 450 435 520 540 595

Two Circuits, Six Conductors (See Figure 3.10.1.60, Detail 8.)

97

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A23. Minimum Wire-Bending Space at Terminals
Wires per Terminal 2 3 mm mm
(50) (75) (75) (75) (75) (75) (75) (75) 215d 250d 305e 330e 350e 400e 460e 480e (50) (50) (50) (75) (75) (75) (75) (75) 230b 280b 330e 350e 380e 455e 510e 560e (25) (25) (25) (75) (75) (75) (75) (75)

Wire Size mm2


125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400

1 mm
215d 250e 305e 330e 350e 380e 405e 430e

4 or more mm
250 300 350d 380e 400e 480e 560e 610e

(75) (75) (75) (75) (75)

1. Bending space at terminals shall be measured in a straight line from the end of the lug or wire connector in a direction perpendicular to the enclosure wall. 2. For removable and lay-in wire terminals intended for only one wire, bending space shall be permitted to be reduced by the following number of millimeters: a 13 mm b 25 mm c 40 mm d 50 mm e 75 mm 3. This column shall be permitted to determine the required wire-bending space for compact stranded aluminum conductors in sizes up to 500 mm2 and manufactured using AA-8000 series electrical grade aluminum alloy conductor material in accordance with 3.10.1.14.

98

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A24. Full-Load Current, Three-Phase Alternating-Current Motors
The following values of full-load currents are typical for motors running at speeds usual for belted motors and motors with normal torque characteristics. The voltages listed are rated motor voltages. The currents listed shall be permitted for system

voltage ranges of 220 to 240, 380 to 415, and 440 to 480 volts.

Horsepower 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Induction-Type Squirrel Cage and Wound Rotor (Amperes) 230 400 460 Volts Volts Volts 2.2 1.3 1.1 3.2 1.8 1.6 4.2 2.3 2.1 6.0 3.3 3.0 6.8 4.3 3.4 9.6 6.1 4.8 15.2 9.7 7.6 22 14 11 28 18 14 42 27 21 54 34 27 68 44 34 80 51 40 104 66 52 130 83 65 154 103 77 192 128 96 248 165 124 312 208 156 360 240 180 480 320 240 403 302 482 361 560 414 636 477 711 515 786 590

Synchronous-Type Unity Power Factor* (Amperes) 230 400 460 Volts Volts Volts 53 33.6 26 63 40.8 32 83 52 41 104 66.4 52 123 81.6 61 155 104 78 202 134.4 101 253 168 126 302 201.3 151 400 268 201

*For 90 and 80 percent power factor, the figures shall be multiplied by 1.1 and 1.25, respectively.

99

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A25. Conversion Table of Polyphase Design B, C, and D Maximum Locked-Rotor Currents for Selection of Disconnecting Means and Controllers as Determined from Horsepower and Voltage Rating and Design Letter For use only with 4.30.9.10, 4.40.2.2, 4.40.5.1 and 4.55.1.8(c).
Maximum Motor Locked-Rotor Current in Amperes, Two- and Three-Phase, Design B, C, and D* 230 Volts 400 volts 460 Volts Rated Horsepower B, C, D E B, C, D E B, C, D E 20 20 12. 12 10 10 25 25 14.5 14.5 12.5 12.5 1 30 30 16.5 16.5 15 15 1 40 40 22 22 20 20 2 50 50 32 32 25 25 3 64 73 41 46.5 32 36.5 5 92 122 59 78 46 61 7 127 183 81 116.5 63.5 91.5 10 162 225 104.5 145.5 81 113 15 232 337 149.5 217.5 116 169 20 290 449 183 283.5 145 225 25 365 562 237 364 183 281 30 435 674 278 430 218 337 40 580 824 368.5 523 290 412 50 725 1030 463.5 658 363 515 60 870 1236 582 827 435 618 75 1085 1545 724 1031 543 773 100 1450 1873 965 1247 725 937 125 1815 2341 1211 1561.5 908 1171 150 2170 2809 1447 1873.5 1085 1405 200 2900 3745 1933.5 2497.5 1450 1873 250 2435.5 3128 1825 2344 300 2937.5 3750.5 2200 2809 350 3449.5 4433 2550 3277 400 3867 4993.5 2900 3745 450 4487 5818 3250 4214 500 4829.5 6237.5 3625 4682 *Design A motors are not limited to a maximum starting current or locked rotor current.

100

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A26 Ampacities of Two or Three Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 through 2000 Volts, Within an Overall Covering (Multiconductor Cable), in Raceway in Free Air Based on Ambient Air Temperature of 30C
Temperature Rating of Conductor. See Table 3.10.1.13 750C 900C 600C 750C 900C Types Types THHN, THHN, Types THHW, Types THHW, RH, THW-2, RH, THW-2, RHW, Types THWN-2, RHW, THWN-2, THHW, Types TW, RHH, THHW, RHH, THW, TW UF RHW-2, THW, RHW-2, THWN, USE-2, THWN, USE-2, XHHW, XHHW, XHHW XHHW, ZW XHHW-2, XHHW-2, ZW-2 ZW-2 COPPER ALUMINUM 600C
205 234 250 274 315 245 281 300 328 378 276 317 340 371 427 160 185 199 218 254 192 221 238 261 303 217 250 270 295 342

Conductor Size mm2

125 150 175 200 250

*Unless otherwise specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code, the overcurrent protection for these conductor types shall not exceed 15 amperes for 2.0 mm2 (1.6 mm dia.), 20 amperes for 3.5 mm2 (2.0 mm dia.), and 30 amperes for 5.5 mm2 (2.6 mm dia.) copper; or 15 amperes for 3.5 mm2 (2.0 mm dia.) and 25 amperes for 5.5 mm2 (2.6 mm dia.) aluminum and copper-clad aluminum.

101

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A27. Ampacities of Multiconductor Cables with Not More than Three Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 Through 2000 Volts, in Free Air Based on Ambient Air Temperature of 40C (For Types TC, MC, MI, UF, and USE Cables)
Temperature Rating of Conductor. See Table 3.10.1.13. 750C 850C 900C 600C 750C 850C 900C COPPER ALUMINUM 125 212 274 305 320 166 214 239 250 150 237 306 341 357 186 240 268 280 175 257 332 371 388 202 261 292 304 200 281 363 406 425 222 287 317 334 250 321 416 465 487 255 330 368 385 *Unless otherwise specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code, the overcurrent protection for these conductor types shall not exceed 15 amperes for 2.0 mm2 (1.6 mm dia.), 20 amperes for 3.5 mm2 (2.0 mm dia.), and 30 amperes for 5.5 mm2 (2.6 mm dia.) copper; or 15 amperes for 3.5 mm2 (2.0 mm dia.), and 25 amperes for 5.5 mm2 (2.6 mm dia.) aluminum and copper-clad aluminum. Conductor Size mm2 600C

102

Table A28. Ampacities of Single Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 through 2000 Volts, in Nonmagnetic Underground Electrical Ducts (One Conductor per Electrical Duct), Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Electrical Duct Arrangement per Figure B-310-2, Conductor Temperature 75C
3 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 2) Conductor Size (mm2) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE RHO 60 LF 50 410 503 624 794 RHO 90 LF 100 344 418 511 640 RHO 120 LF 100 327 396 484 603 6 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 3) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE COPPER RHO RHO RHO 60 90 120 LF LF LF 50 100 100 386 295 275 472 355 330 583 431 400 736 534 494 9 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 4) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE RHO 60 LF 50 369 446 545 674 RHO 90 LF 100 270 322 387 469 RHO 120 LF 100 252 299 360 434 3 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 2) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE RHO 60 LF 50 320 393 489 626 RHO 90 LF 100 269 327 401 505 RHO 120 LF 100 256 310 379 475 6 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 3) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE ALUMINUM RHO RHO RHO 60 90 120 LF LF LF 50 100 100 302 230 214 369 277 258 457 337 313 581 421 389 9 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 4) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE RHO 60 LF 50 288 350 430 538 RHO 90 LF 100 211 252 305 375 RHO 120 LF 100 197 235 284 347

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

103
125 175 250 400

Table A29. Ampacities of Three Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 through 2000 Volts, Within an Overall Covering (Three-Conductor Cable) in Underground Electrical Ducts (One Cable per Electrical Duct) Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Electrical Duct Arrangement per Figure B-310-2, Conductor Temperature 75C
1 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 1) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE 3 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 2) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE COPPER RHO 60 LF 50 297 363 444 552 628 RHO 90 LF 100 265 321 389 478 539 RHO 120 LF 100 256 310 375 459 518 RHO 60 LF 50 280 340 414 511 579 RHO 90 LF 100 222 267 320 388 435 RHO 120 LF 100 209 250 299 362 405 RHO 60 LF 50 258 312 377 462 522 RHO 90 LF 100 184 219 261 314 351 RHO 120 LF 100 169 202 240 288 321 RHO 60 LF 50 233 285 352 446 521 RHO 90 LF 100 207 252 308 386 447 RHO 120 LF 100 201 244 297 372 430 6 Electrical Duct 1 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 3) (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 1) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE 3 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 2) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE ALUMINUM RHO 60 LF 50 219 267 328 413 480 RHO 90 LF 100 174 209 254 314 361 RHO 120 LF 100 163 196 237 293 336 RHO 60 LF 50 505 245 299 374 433 RHO 90 LF 100 144 172 207 254 291 RHO 120 LF 100 132 158 190 233 266 6 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 3) Types RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Conductor Size (mm2)

104
125 175 250 400 500

Table A30. Ampacities of Three Single Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 Through 2000 Volts, in Underground Electrical Ducts (Three Conductors per Electrical Duct) Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Electrical Duct Arrangement per Figure B-310-2, Conductor Temperature 75C
1 Electrical Duct 3 Electrical Duct 6 Electrical Duct 1 Electrical Duct 3 Electrical Duct 6 Electrical Duct (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 1) (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 2) (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 3) (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 1) (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 2) (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 3) Types Types Types Conductor RHW, THHW, THW, RHW, THHW, THW, RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE THWN, XHHW, USE THWN, XHHW, USE Size mm2 COPPER
RHO 60 LF 50 RHO 90 LF 100 RHO 120 LF 100 RHO 60 LF 50 RHO 90 LF 100 RHO 120 LF 100 RHO 60 LF 50 RHO 90 LF 100 RHO 120 LF 100

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Types Types Types RHW, THHW, THW, RHW, THHW, THW, RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW, USE THWN, XHHW, USE THWN, XHHW, USE ALUMINUM
RHO 60 LF 50 RHO 90 LF 100 RHO 120 LF 100 RHO 60 LF 50 RHO 90 LF 100 RHO 120 LF 100 RHO 60 LF 50 RHO 90 LF 100 RHO 120 LF 100

125 150 175 200

334 373 409 442

290 321 351 376

279 308 337 361

310 344 377 394

236 260 283 302

220 242 264 280

281 310 340 368

192 210 228 243

176 192 209 223

261 293 321 349

227 252 276 297

218 242 265 284

242 272 296 321

185 204 222 238

172 190 207 220

220 245 266 288

150 165 179 191

137 151 164 174

105

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A31. Ampacities of Two or Three Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 Through 2000 Volts, Cabled Within an Overall (Two- or Three-Conductor) Covering, Directly Buried in Earth, Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure B-310-2, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (Rho) of 90
1 Cable 2 Cable (Fig. B-310-2, (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 5) Detail 6) 600C 750C 600C 750C Types Types RHW, RHW, THHW, THHW, Types Types THW, THW, UF UF THWN, THWN, XHHW, XHHW, USE USE COPPER 333 308 401 370 481 442 585 535 657 600 1 Cable 2 Cable (Fig. B-310-2, (Fig. B-310-2, Detail 5) Detail 6) 600C 750C 600C 750C Types Types RHW, RHW, THHW, THHW, Types Types THW, THW, UF UF THWN, THWN, XHHW, XHHW, USE USE ALUMINUM 261 241 315 290 381 350 473 433 545 497

Conductor Size mm2

125 175 250 400 500

Note: For ampacities of Type UF cable in underground electrical ducts, multiply the ampacities shown in the table by 0.74.

106

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A32. Ampacities of Three Triplexed Single Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 Through 2000 Volts, Directly Buried in Earth Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure B-310-2, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (Rho) of 90
See Fig. B-310-2, Details 7

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 400 500

600C UF

See Fig. B-310-2, Details 8 750C 600C 750C TYPES USE UF USE COPPER 370 336 445 403 436 483 654 587 744 665

See Fig. B-310-2, See Fig. B-310-2, Details 7 Details 8 600C 750C 600C 750C TYPES UF USE UF USE ALUMINUM 289 263 349 316 424 382 525 471 608 544

Table A33. Ampacities of Three Single Insulated Conductors, Rated 0 Through 2000 Volts, Directly Buried in Earth Based on Ambient Earth Temperature of 20C, Arrangement per Figure B-310-2, 100 Percent Load Factor, Thermal Resistance (Rho) of 90
See Fig. B-310-2, Detail 9

Conductor Size mm2 125 175 250 400

600C UF

See Fig. B-310-2, Detail 10 750C 600C 750C TYPES USE UF USE COPPER 429 516 626 767 394 474 572 700

See Fig. B-310-2, See Fig. B-310-2, Detail 9 Detail 10 600C 750C 600C 750C TYPES UF USE UF USE ALUMINUM 335 403 490 605 308 370 448 552

107

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A34. Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Electrical Metallic Tubing (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6) CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 6 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 5 2 6 20 10 8 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 11 8 5 10 25 16 13 11 9 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 19 14 8 16 32 28 23 20 17 13 7 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 43 33 24 13 28 40 39 31 27 23 18 9 8 6 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 58 45 33 18 39 50 64 51 46 38 30 16 13 10 7 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 96 74 55 30 64 65 112 90 80 66 53 28 22 17 13 9 7 6 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 168 129 96 53 112 80 169 136 120 100 81 42 34 26 20 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 254 195 145 81 169 90 221 177 157 131 105 55 44 34 26 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 332 255 190 105 221 100 282 227 201 167 135 70 56 44 33 22 19 17 14 12 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 3 424 326 243 135 282

Type RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, THW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

4 3 1

8 6 4

13 10 6

23 18 10

31 24 14

51 40 24

90 70 42

136 106 63

177 138 83

227 177 106

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

18 13 10 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1

32 24 17 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 3

48 36 26 18 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4

63 47 34 24 20 17 15 12 10 8 7 7 6

81 60 44 31 26 22 19 16 13 11 10 9 7

*Types RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

108

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A34. Continued
Conductor Type Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] RHH*, RHW*, 325 RHW-2*, TW, 375 THW, THHW, 400 THW-2 500 THHN, THWN, 2.0 (1.6) THWN-2 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 FEP, FEPB, PFA, 2.0 (1.6) PFAH, TFE 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 PFA, PFAH, TFE 38 PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 0 0 0 0 12 9 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 14 10 6 4 3 1 1 1 8 6 5 2 20 0 0 0 0 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 15 11 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 18 11 7 5 3 1 1 15 11 8 5 25 0 0 0 0 35 26 16 9 7 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 25 18 10 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 41 29 18 11 8 5 3 2 25 19 14 8 32 1 0 0 0 61 45 28 16 12 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 60 43 31 18 12 9 6 4 3 3 2 1 72 51 31 20 14 9 6 4 43 33 24 13 40 1 1 1 0 84 61 38 22 16 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81 59 42 24 17 12 8 6 5 4 3 2 98 69 42 27 19 13 8 6 58 45 33 18 50 1 1 1 1 138 101 63 36 26 16 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 134 98 70 40 28 20 13 9 8 6 5 4 161 114 70 44 31 21 13 10 96 74 55 30 65 2 1 1 1 241 176 111 64 46 28 20 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 234 171 122 70 50 35 24 16 14 11 9 8 282 200 122 77 54 37 22 18 168 129 96 53 80 3 3 3 2 364 266 167 96 69 43 30 22 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 354 258 185 106 75 53 36 25 21 17 14 11 426 302 185 117 82 56 34 28 254 195 145 81 90 4 4 4 3 476 347 219 126 91 56 40 29 25 20 17 14 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 462 337 241 138 98 69 47 33 27 22 18 15 556 394 241 153 107 74 45 36 332 255 190 105 100 6 5 5 4 608 443 279 161 116 71 51 37 32 26 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 590 430 309 177 126 88 60 42 35 29 24 19 711 504 309 195 137 94 57 46 424 326 243 135

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

*Types RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

109

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A34. Continued
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 10 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 40 14 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 50 22 16 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 65 39 28 20 15 13 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 80 60 43 31 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 90 78 56 40 30 25 21 17 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 100 100 72 51 38 32 27 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 6 5 5 4

Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2, FHH-3 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 15 8 7 10 8 7 18 14 11 8 22 17 21 16 12 27 20 14 39 27 19 13 8 46 33 22 14 9 4 3 20 14 12 18 15 12 33 24 19 15 38 29 36 28 21 47 35 25 69 48 33 23 15 82 57 38 25 16 8 6 Raceway Size (mm) 25 32 24 41 20 34 30 52 25 43 20 34 53 92 39 68 31 25 63 48 59 46 34 77 56 41 111 78 54 37 25 133 93 63 41 27 13 10 55 43 108 83 103 79 60 133 98 72 193 136 93 64 43 230 161 108 72 47 23 18 40 56 47 71 58 47 125 92 74 58 148 113 140 108 81 181 133 98 262 185 127 87 58 313 220 148 98 64 31 24 50 92 78 116 96 78 206 152 123 96 244 186 231 179 134 298 220 161 433 305 209 144 96 516 362 244 161 105 51 40

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A35 should be used.

110

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A35. Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

Conductor Size (mm2)


8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

15
2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 20 25 32 40 50 65


4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 11 9 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 15 11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 16 12 9 7 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 15 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 20 15 11 8 7 5 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 29 18 13 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 34 25 18 13 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 46 35 26 19 13 12 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 52 32 23 17 14 12 10 8 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 59 44 32 23 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1

80
69 53 40 29 21 18 15 13 11 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 78 48 34 26 22 18 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 90 66 48 34 26 22 18 15 13 10 9 8 7 6 4 3 3 3

90
90 70 52 38 27 23 20 17 14 11 9 8 8 6 5 4 4 3 102 63 45 34 29 24 20 16 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 3 117 87 63 45 34 29 24 20 17 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 4

100
115 89 67 49 34 30 25 21 18 14 12 1110 8 7 5 5 4 130 81 58 43 37 30 25 21 16 14 12 11 9 7 6 6 4 149 111 81 58 43 37 31 25 21 17 14 13 11 9 8 6 6 5

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductor is compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

111

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A36. Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
CONDUCTORS Type RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6) 15 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 4 1 4 20 8 7 6 5 4 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 10 7 4 8 Raceway Size 25 15 12 10 9 7 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 17 13 7 15 (mm) 32 27 21 19 16 13 6 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 40 31 23 13 27 40 37 29 26 22 17 9 7 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 55 42 32 17 37 50 61 49 43 36 29 15 12 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 92 71 52 29 61

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

3 3 1

7 5 3

12 9 5

21 17 10

29 23 14

49 38 23

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

10 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

17 13 9 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

112

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A36. Continued

CONDUCTORS Type THHN, THWN, THWN-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 15 10 7 4 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 7 5 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 12 8 5 3 1 1 1 1 7 5 4 1 1 1 1 20 18 13 8 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 13 9 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 15 9 6 4 3 1 1 13 10 7 4 3 1 1 Raceway Size 25 32 23 15 8 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 23 16 9 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 38 27 16 10 7 5 3 2 22 17 13 7 5 4 2 (mm) 32 58 42 26 15 11 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 56 41 29 17 12 8 5 4 3 2 1 1 68 48 29 18 13 9 5 4 40 31 23 13 9 7 5 40 80 58 36 21 15 9 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 77 56 40 23 16 11 8 5 4 4 3 2 93 66 40 25 18 12 7 6 55 42 32 17 13 9 6 50 132 96 60 35 25 15 11 8 7 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 128 93 67 38 27 19 13 9 7 6 5 4 154 109 67 42 30 20 12 10 92 71 52 29 21 15 11

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

113

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A36. Continued

CONDUCTORS Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 15 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Raceway Size 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 (mm) 32 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 40 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 50 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 15 6 5 8 7 5 15 11 9 7 18 13 17 13 10 22 16 12 31 22 15 10 7 38 26 18 12 7 3 3 20 12 10 15 13 10 28 20 16 13 33 25 31 24 18 40 29 22 58 41 28 19 13 69 49 33 22 14 7 5 Raceway Size 25 21 18 27 22 18 48 35 29 22 57 43 54 42 31 70 51 38 101 71 49 33 22 121 85 57 38 24 12 9 (mm) 32 39 32 49 40 32 86 64 51 40 102 78 97 75 56 125 92 68 182 128 88 60 40 217 152 102 68 44 21 17 40 53 45 67 55 45 119 88 71 55 141 107 133 103 77 172 127 93 250 176 121 83 55 298 209 141 93 61 29 23 50 88 74 111 92 74 197 145 117 92 233 178 221 171 128 285 210 154 413 291 200 138 92 493 346 233 154 101 49 38

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A37 should be used.

114

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A37. Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size (mm2)
8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 20 25 32


1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 12 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 14 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

40
15 11 8 6 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 17 10 7 5 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 14 10 7 5 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

50
25 19 14 10 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 17 12 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 32 24 17 12 9 8 7 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductor is compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

115

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A38 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Flexible Metal Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6) CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7 5 3 6 20 10 8 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 11 8 5 10 25 15 12 11 9 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 18 13 7 15 32 24 19 17 14 11 6 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 36 28 21 11 24 40 35 28 25 21 17 9 7 5 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 53 41 30 17 35 50 62 50 44 37 30 15 12 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 94 72 54 30 62 65 94 75 67 55 45 23 19 14 11 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 141 108 81 45 94 80 135 108 96 80 64 34 27 21 16 10 9 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 203 156 116 64 135 90 184 148 131 109 88 46 37 29 22 14 12 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 277 212 158 88 184 100 240 193 171 142 115 60 48 37 28 19 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 361 277 207 115 240

Type RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

5 4 1

8 6 4

12 10 6

19 15 9

28 22 13

50 39 23

75 59 35

108 85 51

148 115 69

193 151 90

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

7 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

18 13 10 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1

27 20 14 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2

39 29 21 15 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3

53 39 29 20 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 6 5

69 51 37 26 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

116

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A38 Continued
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 0 0 0 0 13 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 15 11 6 4 3 1 1 1 9 7 5 3 1 1 1 20 0 0 0 0 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 15 11 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 18 11 7 5 3 1 1 15 11 8 5 3 2 1 25 0 0 0 0 33 24 15 9 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 24 17 10 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 39 28 17 11 7 5 3 2 23 18 13 7 5 4 3 32 0 0 0 0 52 38 24 14 10 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 51 37 26 15 11 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 61 43 26 17 12 8 5 4 36 28 21 11 8 6 4 40 1 1 1 0 76 56 35 20 14 9 6 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 74 54 39 22 16 11 7 5 4 3 3 2 89 63 39 24 17 12 7 6 53 41 30 17 12 9 6 50 1 1 1 1 134 98 62 35 25 16 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 130 95 68 39 28 19 13 9 8 6 5 4 157 111 68 43 30 21 12 10 94 72 54 30 22 16 11 65 1 1 1 1 202 147 93 53 38 24 17 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 196 143 103 59 42 29 20 14 11 9 8 6 236 168 103 65 45 31 19 15 141 108 81 45 33 24 17 80 3 2 2 1 291 212 134 77 55 34 24 18 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 282 206 148 85 60 42 29 20 17 14 11 9 340 241 148 93 65 45 27 22 203 156 116 64 48 34 24 90 4 3 3 2 396 289 182 105 76 46 33 24 20 17 14 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 385 281 201 115 82 57 39 27 23 19 15 13 463 329 201 127 89 61 37 30 277 212 158 88 65 47 33 100 5 4 4 3 518 378 238 137 99 61 43 32 27 22 18 15 12 11 9 8 7 5 4 4 3 502 367 263 151 107 75 51 36 30 24 20 16 605 429 263 166 117 80 49 39 361 277 207 115 85 61 44

Type RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2 THHN, THWN, THWN-2

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

117

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A38 Continued
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 40 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 50 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 65 13 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 80 18 15 13 10 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 90 25 21 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 100 32 27 23 19 15 13 11 9 8 7 5 4 4 3

Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2

FIXTURE WIRES Conductor Size (mm2) FFH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 0.75 1.25 SF-2, SFF-2 0.75 1.25 2.0 SF-1, SFF-1 0.75 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, 0.75 TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, 1.25 XFF XF, XFF 2.0 TFN, TFFN 0.75 1.25 PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, 0.75 PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF 1.25 2.0 HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF 0.75 1.25 2.0 KF-2, KFF-2 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 KF-1, KFF-1 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 XF, XFF 3.5 5.5 Type 15 8 7 11 9 7 19 14 11 9 23 17 22 17 12 28 20 15 41 28 19 13 9 48 34 23 15 10 5 4 20 14 12 18 15 12 32 24 19 15 38 29 36 28 21 47 35 25 68 48 33 23 15 82 57 38 25 16 8 6 Raceway Size 25 22 19 28 23 19 50 37 30 23 59 45 56 43 32 72 53 39 105 74 51 35 23 125 88 59 39 25 12 10 (mm) 32 35 29 44 36 29 78 58 47 36 93 71 88 68 51 113 83 61 164 116 80 55 36 196 138 93 61 40 19 15 40 51 43 64 53 43 114 84 68 53 135 103 128 99 74 165 121 89 239 168 116 80 53 285 200 135 89 58 28 22 50 90 76 113 94 76 201 148 120 94 237 181 225 174 130 290 214 157 421 297 204 140 94 503 353 237 157 103 50 39

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A39 should be used.

118

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A39 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Flexible Metal Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Type
THW, THHW, THW-2

Conductor Size (mm2)


8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65


2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 11 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 9 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 14 11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 16 10 7 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 19 14 10 7 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 20 15 11 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 29 18 13 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 33 24 18 13 9 8 7 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 38 29 22 16 11 10 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 43 27 19 14 12 10 8 7 5 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 50 37 27 19 14 12 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1

80
55 43 32 23 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 62 38 28 21 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 1 71 53 38 28 21 17 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2

90
75 58 43 32 22 19 16 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 85 52 38 28 24 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 97 72 52 38 28 24 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3

100
98 76 57 42 29 25 21 18 15 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 111 69 49 37 31 26 22 18 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 127 95 69 49 37 31 26 22 18 14 12 11 10 8 6 5 5 4

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductor is compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

119

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A40 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Intermediate Metal Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6) CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 6 5 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 7 5 3 6 20 11 9 8 6 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 13 9 5 11 25 18 14 13 11 8 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 21 15 8 18 32 31 25 22 18 15 8 6 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 47 36 27 15 31 40 42 34 30 25 20 10 8 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 64 49 36 20 42 50 69 56 49 41 33 17 14 11 8 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 104 80 59 33 69 65 98 79 70 58 47 24 19 15 11 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 147 113 84 47 98 80 151 122 108 89 72 38 30 23 18 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 228 175 130 72 151 90 202 163 144 120 97 50 40 31 24 16 14 12 10 9 6 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 2 304 234 174 97 202 100 261 209 186 154 124 65 52 41 31 20 18 15 13 11 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 392 301 224 124 261

Type RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

5 4 2

9 7 4

14 11 7

25 19 12

34 26 16

56 43 26

79 61 37

122 95 57

163 127 76

209 163 98

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

9 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

12 9 6 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1

20 15 11 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1

28 21 15 11 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 2

43 32 23 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 4 4

58 43 31 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 6 5

75 56 41 28 24 20 17 14 12 10 8 7

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

120

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A40 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2 THHN, THWN, THWN-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 Raceway Size (mm) 15 0 0 0 14 10 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 10 7 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 16 11 7 4 3 1 1 1 10 7 5 3 1 1 1 20 0 0 0 24 17 11 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 17 12 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 28 20 12 7 5 3 1 1 17 13 9 5 4 3 1 25 0 0 0 39 29 18 10 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 38 28 20 11 8 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 46 32 20 12 9 6 3 3 27 21 15 8 6 4 3 32 1 0 0 68 49 31 18 13 8 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 66 48 34 19 14 10 6 4 4 3 2 1 79 56 34 21 15 10 6 5 47 36 27 15 11 8 5 40 1 1 0 91 67 42 24 17 10 7 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 89 65 46 26 19 13 9 6 5 4 3 3 107 76 46 29 20 14 8 7 64 49 36 20 15 11 7 50 1 1 1 149 109 68 39 28 17 12 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 145 106 76 43 31 21 15 10 8 7 6 5 175 124 76 48 33 23 14 11 104 80 59 33 24 18 12 65 1 1 1 211 154 97 56 40 25 17 13 11 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 205 150 107 61 44 30 21 14 12 10 8 7 247 175 107 68 47 33 20 16 147 113 84 47 35 25 18 80 3 2 1 326 238 150 86 62 38 27 20 17 14 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 317 231 166 95 67 47 32 22 19 15 13 10 381 271 166 105 73 50 30 25 228 175 130 72 53 39 27 90 4 3 3 436 318 200 115 83 51 36 27 23 19 16 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 423 309 221 127 90 63 43 30 25 21 17 14 510 362 221 140 98 67 41 33 304 234 174 97 71 52 37 100 5 4 3 562 410 258 149 107 66 47 35 29 24 20 17 13 12 10 9 7 6 5 5 4 545 398 285 163 116 81 56 39 32 27 22 18 657 466 285 180 127 87 53 43 392 301 224 124 92 67 47

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

121

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A40 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 Raceway Size (mm) 15 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 32 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 40 5 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 50 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 65 13 11 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 80 20 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 90 27 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 100 35 30 25 20 17 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 5 4

FIXTURE WIRES Conductor Size (mm2) FHH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 0.75 1.25 SF-2, SFF-2 0.75 1.25 2.0 SF-1, SFF-1 0.75 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, 0.75 TFF, XF, XFF RFH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF 1.25 Type XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF ZF, ZFF, ZHF, HF, HFF 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 15 9 8 12 10 8 21 15 12 10 25 19 23 18 13 30 22 16 44 31 21 14 10 52 37 25 16 10 5 4 20 16 13 20 17 13 36 26 21 17 42 32 40 31 23 52 38 28 75 53 36 25 17 90 63 42 28 18 9 7 Raceway Size (mm) 25 32 26 45 22 38 33 57 27 47 22 38 59 101 43 75 35 27 69 53 66 51 38 85 63 46 123 87 60 41 27 147 103 69 46 30 14 11 60 47 119 91 113 87 66 146 108 79 212 149 103 70 47 253 178 119 79 52 25 19 40 61 51 77 64 51 137 101 81 64 161 123 153 118 89 197 145 107 287 202 139 95 64 342 240 161 107 70 34 26 50 100 84 126 104 84 223 165 133 104 264 201 250 193 145 322 238 175 468 330 227 156 104 558 392 264 175 114 56 43

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A41 should be used.

122

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A41 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Intermediate Metal Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

Conductor Size (mm2)


8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

15
2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 20 25 32 40 50 65


4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 13 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 14 9 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 16 12 9 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 17 13 10 7 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 12 8 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 16 12 8 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 22 16 12 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 32 20 14 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 37 27 20 14 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 40 31 23 17 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 45 28 20 15 13 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 52 38 28 20 15 13 11 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1

80
62 48 36 26 18 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 70 43 31 23 20 16 14 11 9 7 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 80 59 43 31 23 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2

90
83 64 48 35 25 21 18 15 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 93 58 41 31 26 22 18 15 12 10 9 8 7 5 4 4 3 107 80 58 41 31 26 22 18 15 12 10 9 8 7 5 4 4 3

100
107 82 62 45 32 27 23 20 16 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 120 74 53 40 34 28 24 19 15 13 11 10 9 7 6 6 4 138 103 74 53 40 34 29 24 20 16 13 12 11 9 7 6 6 4

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductor is compressed to the extent that interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

123

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A42 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Liquidtight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit (Type FNMC-B*) (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)]
2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6)

CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 10


3 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 1 3

Type
RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

15
6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7 5 3 6

20
10 8 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 12 9 5 10

25
16 13 12 10 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 19 14 8 16

32
29 23 21 17 14 7 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 44 33 25 14 29

40
38 30 27 22 18 9 7 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 57 43 32 18 38

50
62 50 44 36 29 15 12 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 93 71 53 29 62

TW

RHH, RHW, RHW-2, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH, RHW, RHW-2, THHW, THW RHH, RHW, RHW-2, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH, RHW, RHW-2, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

3 1 1

5 3 1

8 6 4

13 10 6

23 18 11

30 23 14

50 39 23

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

8 6 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

18 13 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

*Corresponds to Section 3.51.2.1(2). Types RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

124

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A42 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type THHN, THWN, THWN-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 Raceway Size (mm) 10 8 5 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 6 4 2 1 1 0 0 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 15 13 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 15 10 6 4 3 1 1 1 9 7 5 3 1 1 1 20 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 15 11 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 18 11 7 5 3 1 1 15 12 9 5 3 2 1 25 36 26 16 9 7 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 25 18 10 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 42 30 18 11 8 5 3 2 25 19 14 8 6 4 3 32 63 46 29 16 12 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 61 44 32 18 13 9 6 4 3 3 2 1 73 52 32 20 14 9 6 5 44 33 25 14 10 7 5 40 81 59 37 21 15 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 79 57 41 23 17 12 8 5 4 4 3 2 95 67 41 26 18 12 7 6 57 43 32 18 13 9 7 50 133 97 61 35 25 15 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 129 94 68 39 27 19 13 9 7 6 5 4 156 111 68 43 30 20 12 10 93 71 53 29 22 16 11

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

125

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A42 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 Raceway Size (mm) 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 40 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 50 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 10 5 4 6 5 4 11 8 7 5 14 10 13 10 7 17 12 9 24 17 12 8 5 29 20 14 9 6 3 1 15 8 7 11 9 7 19 14 11 9 23 17 21 16 12 28 20 15 40 28 19 13 9 48 34 23 15 10 5 3 Raceway Size (mm) 20 25 32 15 24 42 12 20 35 19 30 53 15 25 44 12 20 35 33 53 94 24 39 69 20 15 39 30 37 29 21 48 35 26 70 49 34 23 15 83 58 39 26 17 8 6 32 25 63 48 60 46 35 77 57 42 112 79 54 37 25 134 94 63 42 27 13 10 56 44 111 85 105 81 61 136 100 73 197 139 95 65 44 235 165 111 73 48 23 18 40 54 46 69 57 46 122 90 72 57 144 110 136 105 79 176 129 95 255 180 123 85 57 304 214 144 95 62 30 23 50 89 75 113 93 75 199 147 119 93 236 180 223 173 129 288 212 156 418 295 202 139 93 499 350 236 156 102 50 39

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A43 should be used.

126

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A43 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Liquidtight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit (Type FNMC-B*) (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size (mm2) 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 10 15 20 25 32 1 2 4 7 12 1 1 3 5 9 1 1 2 4 7 1 1 1 3 5 0 1 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 7 13 1 1 3 4 8 1 1 1 3 6 0 1 1 2 4 0 1 1 1 4 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 5 9 15 1 2 4 6 11 1 1 3 4 8 1 1 1 3 6 0 1 1 2 4 0 1 1 1 4 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

Type THW, THW-2, THHW

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

40 15 12 9 6 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 11 7 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 15 11 7 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

50 25 19 14 11 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 17 12 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 33 24 17 12 9 8 7 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

*Corresponds to Section 3.51.2.1(2).

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductors compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

127

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A44 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Liquidtight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit (Type FNMC-A*) (Based On Table 9.1.1.1)
CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 10
3 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 1 3

Type
RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)]


2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6)

15
6 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7 5 3 6

20
10 8 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 12 9 5 10

25
16 13 11 9 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 19 14 8 16

32
28 23 20 17 13 7 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 43 33 24 13 28

40
38 31 27 23 18 9 7 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 58 44 33 18 38

50
64 51 45 38 30 16 13 10 7 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 96 74 55 30 64

TW

RHH, RHW, RHW-2, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH, RHW, RHW-2, THHW, THW RHH, RHW, RHW-2, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH, RHW, RHW-2, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

3 1 1

4 3 1

8 6 4

13 10 6

23 18 10

31 24 14

51 40 24

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

18 13 10 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

*Correspond to Section 3.51.2.1(1). Types RHH, RHW,and RHW-2 without outer covering.

128

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A44 Continued
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 10 8 5 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 15 13 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 15 10 6 4 3 1 1 1 9 7 5 3 1 1 1 20 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 15 11 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 18 11 7 5 3 1 1 15 12 9 5 3 2 1 25 35 25 16 9 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 25 18 10 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 41 29 18 11 8 5 3 2 24 19 14 8 5 4 3 32 62 45 28 16 12 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 60 44 31 18 13 9 6 4 3 3 2 1 72 51 31 20 14 9 6 4 43 33 24 13 10 7 5 40 83 60 38 22 16 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 80 59 42 24 17 12 8 5 5 4 3 2 97 69 42 26 18 13 8 6 58 44 33 18 13 10 7 50 137 100 63 36 26 16 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 133 97 70 40 28 20 13 9 8 6 5 4 161 114 70 44 31 21 13 10 96 74 55 30 22 16 11

Type THHN, THWN, THWN-2

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

129

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A44 Continued
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 40 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 50 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 10 5 4 6 5 4 12 8 7 5 14 10 13 10 7 17 12 9 25 17 12 8 5 29 21 14 9 6 3 1 15 8 7 11 9 7 19 14 11 9 22 17 21 16 12 27 20 15 40 28 19 13 9 48 33 22 15 10 4 3 Raceway Size (mm) 20 25 32 14 23 41 12 20 35 18 29 52 15 24 43 12 20 35 33 52 92 24 39 68 19 15 39 29 37 28 21 47 35 25 69 48 33 23 15 82 57 39 25 17 8 6 31 24 62 47 59 45 34 76 56 41 110 77 53 36 24 131 92 62 41 27 13 10 55 43 109 83 103 80 60 133 98 72 193 136 94 64 43 231 162 109 72 47 23 18 40 55 47 70 58 47 124 91 74 58 146 112 139 107 80 179 132 97 260 183 126 86 58 310 218 146 97 63 31 24 50 92 77 116 96 77 205 152 122 96 243 185 230 178 133 297 219 161 431 303 209 143 96 514 361 243 161 105 51 40

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A45 should be used.

130

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A45 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Liquidtight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit (Type FNMC-A*) (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size (mm2)
8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 10 15 20 25 32


1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 11 9 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 15 11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

40
16 12 9 6 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 15 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

50
26 20 15 11 8 7 5 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 29 18 13 10 8 7 6 5 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 34 25 18 13 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

*Corresponds to Section 3.51.2.1(1).

131

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A46 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6) CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7 5 3 6 20 10 8 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 12 9 5 10 25 16 13 12 10 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 19 14 8 16 32 29 23 21 17 14 7 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 44 33 25 14 29 40 38 30 27 22 18 9 7 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 57 43 32 18 38 50 62 50 44 36 29 15 12 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 93 71 53 29 62 65 93 75 66 55 44 23 18 14 11 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 140 108 80 44 93 80 143 115 102 84 68 36 28 22 17 11 10 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 215 165 123 68 143 90 186 149 133 110 89 46 37 29 22 14 13 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 280 215 160 89 186 100 243 195 173 144 116 61 48 38 29 19 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 365 280 209 116 243

Type RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

5 3 1

8 6 4

13 10 6

23 18 11

30 23 14

50 39 23

75 58 35

115 89 53

149 117 70

195 152 91

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

8 6 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

18 13 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1

27 20 14 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2

41 30 22 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 3

53 40 29 20 17 15 12 10 8 7 6 6 5

70 52 38 26 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

132

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A46 Continued
CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 0 0 0 0 13 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 20 14 8 5 4 2 1 1 9 7 5 3 1 1 1 20 0 0 0 0 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 15 11 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 18 11 7 5 3 1 1 15 12 9 5 3 2 1 25 0 0 0 0 36 26 16 9 7 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 25 18 10 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 42 30 18 11 8 5 3 2 25 19 14 8 6 4 3 32 1 0 0 0 63 46 29 16 12 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 61 44 32 18 13 9 6 4 3 3 2 1 73 52 32 20 14 9 6 5 44 33 25 14 10 7 5 40 1 1 1 0 81 59 37 21 15 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 79 57 41 23 17 12 8 5 4 4 3 2 95 67 41 26 18 12 7 6 57 43 32 18 13 9 7 50 1 1 1 1 133 97 61 35 25 15 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 129 94 68 39 27 19 13 9 7 6 5 4 156 111 68 43 30 20 12 10 93 71 53 29 22 16 11 65 1 1 1 1 201 146 92 53 38 23 17 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 195 142 102 58 41 29 20 14 11 9 8 6 235 167 102 64 45 31 19 15 140 108 80 44 33 24 17 80 3 2 2 1 308 225 141 81 59 36 26 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 1 299 218 156 89 64 44 30 21 18 14 12 10 360 255 156 99 69 48 29 23 215 165 123 68 50 36 26 90 4 3 3 2 401 292 184 106 76 47 33 25 21 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 389 284 203 117 83 58 40 28 23 19 16 13 469 332 203 129 90 62 38 30 280 215 160 89 66 48 34 100 5 4 4 3 523 381 240 138 100 61 44 32 27 23 19 15 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 5 3 507 370 266 152 108 75 52 36 30 25 20 17 611 434 266 168 118 81 49 40 365 280 209 116 86 62 44

Type RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2 THHN, THWN, THWN-2

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

133

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A46 Continued
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 40 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 50 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 65 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 80 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 1 90 25 21 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 100 33 28 23 19 16 13 11 10 8 7 6 5 5 3

Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 15 8 7 11 9 7 19 14 11 9 23 17 21 16 12 28 20 15 40 28 19 13 9 48 34 23 15 10 5 3 20 15 12 19 15 12 33 24 20 15 39 30 37 29 21 48 35 26 70 49 34 23 15 83 58 39 26 17 8 6 Raceway Size 25 24 20 30 25 20 53 39 32 25 63 48 60 46 35 77 57 42 112 79 54 37 25 134 94 63 42 27 13 10 (mm) 32 42 35 53 44 35 94 69 56 44 111 85 105 81 61 136 100 73 197 139 95 65 44 235 165 111 73 48 23 18 40 54 46 69 57 46 122 90 72 57 144 110 136 105 79 176 129 95 255 180 123 85 57 304 214 144 95 62 30 23 50 89 75 113 93 75 199 147 119 93 236 180 223 173 129 288 212 156 418 295 202 139 93 499 350 236 156 102 50 39

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A47 should be used.

134

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A47 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size (mm2)
8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

in

Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

10
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 20 25 32 40 50


2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 8 6 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 15 11 8 6 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 15 12 9 6 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 11 7 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 15 11 7 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 19 14 11 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 17 12 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 33 24 17 12 9 8 7 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

65
38 29 22 16 11 10 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 43 26 19 14 12 10 8 7 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 49 37 26 19 14 12 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1

80
58 45 34 25 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 1 66 41 29 22 19 15 13 10 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 76 56 41 29 22 19 16 13 11 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2

90
76 59 44 32 23 20 16 14 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 86 53 38 28 24 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 98 73 53 38 28 24 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3

100
99 77 57 42 30 26 21 18 15 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 112 69 50 37 32 26 22 18 14 12 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 129 95 69 50 37 32 27 22 18 15 12 11 10 8 6 5 5 4

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductors compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

135

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A48 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Rigid Metal Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)

CONDUCTORS Type RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6) Raceway Size (mm) 15 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7 5 3 6 20 10 8 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 12 9 5 10 25 17 13 12 10 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 19 14 8 17 32 29 23 21 17 14 7 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 44 33 25 14 29 40 39 32 28 23 19 10 8 6 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 59 45 34 19 39 50 65 52 46 38 31 16 13 10 7 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 98 75 56 31 65 65 93 75 66 55 44 23 18 14 11 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 140 107 80 44 93 80 143 115 102 85 68 36 29 22 17 11 10 8 7 6 4 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 216 165 123 68 143 90 191 154 136 113 91 48 38 30 23 15 13 11 10 8 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 1 288 221 164 91 191 100 246 198 176 146 118 61 49 38 29 19 17 14 12 11 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 370 284 212 118 246 125 387 311 276 229 185 97 77 60 46 30 26 23 20 17 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 581 446 332 185 387 150 558 448 398 330 267 139 112 87 66 44 38 33 28 24 18 16 15 13 11 9 8 8 6 839 644 480 267 558

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

5 3 1

8 6 4

13 10 6

23 18 11

32 25 15

52 41 24

75 58 35

115 90 54

154 198 120 154 72 92

311 242 145

448 350 209

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

8 6 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

18 14 10 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1

27 20 14 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2

41 31 22 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 3

55 41 30 21 18 15 13 10 8 7 6 6 5

71 53 38 27 23 19 16 14 11 9 8 7 6

111 83 60 42 36 31 26 21 17 15 13 12 10

160 120 87 61 52 44 37 31 25 22 19 17 14

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

136

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A48 Continued

CONDUCTORS Type RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2 THHN, THWN, THWN-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 Raceway Size (mm) 15 0 0 0 0 13 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 15 10 6 4 3 1 1 1 9 7 5 3 1 1 1 20 0 0 0 0 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 16 11 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 18 11 7 5 3 1 1 15 12 9 5 3 2 1 25 0 0 0 0 36 26 17 9 7 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 35 26 18 10 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 42 30 18 11 8 5 3 2 25 19 14 8 6 4 3 32 1 0 0 0 63 46 29 16 12 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 61 44 32 18 13 9 6 4 3 3 2 1 73 52 32 20 14 9 6 5 44 33 25 14 10 7 5 40 1 1 1 0 85 62 39 22 16 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 83 60 43 25 17 12 8 6 5 4 3 2 100 71 43 27 19 13 8 6 59 45 34 19 14 10 7 50 1 1 1 1 140 102 64 37 27 16 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 136 99 71 41 29 20 14 9 8 6 5 4 164 116 71 45 31 22 13 10 98 75 56 31 23 16 12 65 1 1 1 1 200 146 92 53 38 23 17 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 194 142 102 58 41 29 20 14 11 9 8 6 234 166 102 64 45 31 19 15 140 107 80 44 33 24 17 80 3 2 2 1 309 225 142 82 59 36 26 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 1 300 219 157 90 64 44 31 21 18 14 12 10 361 256 157 99 69 48 29 23 216 165 123 68 51 37 26 90 100 125 150

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

4 5 3 4 3 4 2 3 412 531 301 387 189 244 109 140 79 101 48 62 34 44 25 33 21 27 18 23 15 19 12 16 10 13 8 11 7 10 7 8 5 7 4 6 4 5 4 5 3 4 400 515 292 376 209 269 120 154 85 110 59 77 41 53 28 37 24 19 16 13 482 342 209 132 93 64 39 31 288 221 164 91 68 49 35 30 25 21 17 621 440 269 170 120 82 50 40 370 284 212 118 87 63 45

8 12 7 10 7 10 5 8 833 1202 608 877 383 552 221 318 159 230 98 141 70 100 51 74 43 63 36 52 30 43 25 36 20 29 17 25 15 22 13 20 11 16 9 13 7 11 7 11 6 8 808 1166 590 851 423 610 242 350 172 249 120 174 83 120 57 83 48 40 33 27 974 691 423 267 188 129 78 63 581 446 332 185 137 99 70 69 57 47 39 1405 997 610 386 271 186 113 92 839 644 480 267 197 143 101

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

137

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A48 Continued

CONDUCTORS Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 Raceway Size (mm) 15 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 32 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 40 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 50 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 65 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 80 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 1 90 26 22 18 15 12 10 9 7 7 5 4 4 4 3 100 33 28 23 19 16 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 4 125 52 44 37 30 25 20 18 15 14 11 9 7 7 6 150 76 64 53 44 36 30 25 22 20 16 13 11 11 8

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 15 8 7 11 9 7 19 14 11 9 23 17 21 16 12 28 20 15 40 28 19 13 9 48 34 23 15 10 5 3 20 15 12 19 15 12 33 25 20 15 40 30 38 29 22 48 36 26 71 50 34 23 15 84 59 40 26 17 8 6 Raceway Size 25 24 20 31 25 20 54 40 32 25 64 49 61 47 35 79 58 42 114 80 55 38 25 136 96 64 42 28 13 10 (mm) 32 42 35 53 44 35 94 69 56 44 111 84 105 81 61 135 100 73 197 138 95 65 44 235 165 111 73 48 23 18 40 57 48 72 59 48 127 94 76 59 150 115 143 110 83 184 136 100 267 188 129 89 59 318 224 150 100 65 32 25 50 94 79 118 98 79 209 155 125 98 248 189 235 181 136 303 223 164 439 310 213 146 98 524 368 248 164 107 52 41

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A49 should be used.

138

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A49 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Rigid Metal Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size (mm2)
8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

15
2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 20 25 32 40 50 65 80


4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 6 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 8 6 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 15 11 8 6 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 16 12 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 21 15 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 20 15 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 30 18 13 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 34 25 18 13 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 38 29 22 16 11 10 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 43 26 19 14 12 10 8 7 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 49 36 26 19 14 12 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 59 45 34 25 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 1 66 41 29 22 19 15 13 10 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 76 56 41 29 22 19 16 13 11 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2

90
78 60 45 33 23 20 17 14 12 9 8 7 7 5 4 4 4 3 88 55 39 29 25 21 17 14 11 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 101 75 55 39 29 25 21 17 14 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 3

100
101 78 58 43 30 26 22 19 15 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 114 70 50 38 32 26 22 18 14 12 11 10 8 6 5 5 4 130 97 70 50 38 32 27 22 19 15 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4

125
158 122 91 67 47 41 34 29 24 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 7 6 179 110 79 60 51 42 35 29 23 20 17 15 13 10 9 9 6 205 152 110 79 60 51 43 35 29 23 20 18 16 13 10 8 8 7

150
228 176 132 97 68 59 50 42 35 28 24 22 20 17 13 11 11 9 258 159 114 86 73 60 51 42 33 28 25 22 19 15 13 13 9 296 220 159 114 86 73 62 51 42 34 29 25 23 19 15 12 12 10

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductors compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

139

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A50 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Rigid PVC Conduit, Schedule 80 (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
CONDUCTORS Type
RH RHH, RHW, RHW2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)]


2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6)

Raceway Size (mm) 15


4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 1 4

20
8 6 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 9 6 3 8

25
13 10 9 7 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 15 11 6 13

32
23 19 17 14 11 6 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 27 20 11 23

40
32 26 23 19 15 8 6 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 49 38 28 15 32

50
55 44 39 32 26 13 11 8 6 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 82 63 47 26 55

65
79 63 56 46 37 19 16 12 9 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 118 91 67 37 79

80
123 99 88 73 59 31 24 19 14 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 185 142 106 59 123

90
166 133 118 98 79 41 33 26 20 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 250 192 143 79 166

100
215 173 153 127 103 54 43 33 25 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 2 324 248 185 103 215

125
341 274 243 202 163 85 68 53 41 27 23 20 17 15 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 514 394 294 163 341

150
490 394 349 290 234 122 98 77 58 38 33 29 25 21 16 14 13 12 10 8 7 7 5 736 565 421 234 490

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

3 2 1

6 5 3

10 8 5

19 15 9

26 20 12

44 34 20

63 49 29

99 77 46

133 104 62

173 135 81

274 214 128

394 307 184

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

9 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

16 12 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

22 17 12 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

35 26 19 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1

48 35 26 18 15 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 2

62 46 33 23 20 17 14 12 9 8 7 7 5 4 4 4 3

98 73 53 37 32 27 23 19 15 13 12 10 9 7 6 6 5

141 105 77 54 46 39 33 27 22 19 17 15 13 10 8 8 7

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

140

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A50 Continued

CONDUCTORS Type THHN, THWN, THWN-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 Raceway Size (mm) 15 9 6 4 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 10 7 4 3 2 1 1 0 6 5 3 1 1 1 1 20 17 12 7 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 12 8 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 19 14 8 5 4 2 1 1 11 9 6 3 2 1 1 25 28 20 13 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 20 14 8 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 33 23 14 9 6 4 2 2 20 15 11 6 4 3 2 32 51 37 23 13 9 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 49 36 26 15 10 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 59 42 26 16 11 8 5 4 35 27 20 11 8 6 4 40 70 51 32 18 13 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 68 50 36 20 14 10 7 5 4 3 2 1 82 58 36 22 16 11 6 5 49 38 28 15 11 8 6 50 118 86 54 31 22 14 10 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 115 84 60 34 24 17 12 8 7 5 4 4 138 98 60 38 26 18 11 9 82 63 47 26 19 14 10 65 170 124 78 45 32 20 14 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 164 120 86 49 35 24 17 11 10 8 6 5 198 141 86 54 38 26 16 13 118 91 67 37 28 20 14 80 265 193 122 70 51 31 22 16 14 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 257 188 135 77 55 38 26 18 15 12 10 8 310 220 135 85 60 41 25 20 185 142 106 59 43 31 22 90 358 261 164 95 68 42 30 22 18 15 13 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 347 253 182 104 74 52 35 25 20 17 14 11 418 297 182 115 81 55 33 27 250 192 143 79 59 42 30 100 464 338 213 123 89 54 39 29 24 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 450 328 235 135 96 67 46 32 27 22 18 15 542 385 235 149 104 72 43 35 324 248 185 103 76 55 39 125 150

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

736 1055 537 770 338 485 195 279 141 202 86 124 61 88 45 65 38 55 32 46 26 38 22 31 18 25 15 22 13 19 12 17 10 14 8 12 7 9 7 9 5 7 714 1024 521 747 374 536 214 307 152 218 106 153 73 105 51 73 42 61 35 50 29 41 24 34 860 1233 610 875 374 536 236 339 166 238 114 164 69 99 56 80 514 736 394 565 294 421 163 234 121 173 87 125 62 89

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

141

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A50 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 Raceway Size (mm) 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 40 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 50 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 65 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 80 16 14 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 90 22 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 100 29 24 20 17 14 11 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 125 46 39 32 27 22 18 15 14 12 10 8 6 6 5 150 66 56 46 38 32 26 22 20 17 14 11 9 9 7

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 15 6 5 7 6 5 13 10 8 6 16 12 15 11 8 19 14 10 28 19 13 9 6 33 23 16 10 7 3 2 20 11 9 14 11 9 25 18 15 11 29 22 28 22 16 36 27 19 53 37 25 17 11 63 44 29 19 13 6 5 Raceway Size 25 19 16 24 20 16 42 31 25 20 50 38 47 36 27 61 45 33 88 62 43 29 20 106 74 50 33 21 10 8 (mm) 32 34 28 43 35 28 76 56 45 35 90 68 85 66 49 110 81 59 159 112 77 53 35 190 133 90 59 39 19 15 40 47 39 59 49 39 105 77 62 49 124 95 118 91 68 152 112 82 220 155 107 73 49 263 185 124 82 54 26 20 50 79 67 100 82 67 177 130 105 82 209 159 198 153 115 255 188 138 371 261 179 123 82 442 310 209 138 90 44 34

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A51 should be used.

142

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A51 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Rigid PVC Conduit, Schedule 80 (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 20 25 32 40 50 65 80
3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 11 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 12 9 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 15 9 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 17 13 9 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 22 17 13 9 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 15 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 29 21 15 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 32 25 18 13 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 36 22 16 12 10 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 42 31 22 16 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 50 39 29 21 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 57 35 25 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 1 65 48 35 25 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1

Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

Conductor Size (mm2)


8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

15
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

90
68 52 39 29 20 17 15 12 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 77 47 34 25 22 18 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 88 65 47 34 25 22 18 15 12 10 8 7 7 5 4 3 3 3

100
88 68 51 37 26 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 99 61 44 33 28 23 19 16 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 5 3 114 85 61 44 33 28 24 19 16 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 3

125
140 108 81 60 42 36 30 26 22 17 15 13 12 10 8 7 7 5 158 98 70 53 45 37 31 25 20 17 15 13 11 9 8 8 5 181 134 98 70 53 45 38 31 26 21 17 15 14 11 9 7 7 6

150
200 155 116 85 60 52 44 37 31 25 21 19 17 14 12 10 10 8 226 140 100 75 64 53 44 37 29 25 22 19 16 13 11 11 8 260 193 140 100 75 64 54 44 37 30 25 22 20 17 13 11 11 8

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductors compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

143

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A52 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Rigid PVC Conduit, Schedule 40 and HDPE Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
CONDUCTORS Type
RH RHH, RHW, RHW2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)]


2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6)

Raceway Size (mm) 15


5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 4 2 5

20
9 8 7 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 11 8 4 9

25
16 12 11 9 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 18 13 7 16

32
28 22 20 16 13 7 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 42 32 24 13 28

40
38 30 27 22 18 9 7 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 57 44 32 18 38

50
63 50 45 37 30 15 12 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 94 72 54 30 63

65
90 72 64 53 43 22 18 14 10 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 135 103 77 43 90

80
139 112 99 82 66 35 28 22 16 11 9 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 209 160 119 66 139

90
186 150 133 110 89 46 37 29 22 14 13 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 280 215 160 89 186

100
240 193 171 142 115 60 48 37 28 19 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 361 277 206 115 240

125
378 304 269 224 181 94 76 59 45 29 26 22 19 16 12 11 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 568 436 325 181 378

150
546 439 390 323 261 137 109 85 65 43 37 32 28 24 18 16 14 13 11 9 8 8 6 822 631 470 261 546

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHN, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

4 3 1

8 6 3

12 10 6

22 17 10

30 24 14

50 39 23

72 56 33

112 87 52

150 117 70

193 150 90

304 237 142

439 343 205

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

11 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

18 13 10 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

26 19 14 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1

40 30 22 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 1

53 40 29 20 17 15 12 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2

69 51 37 26 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3

109 81 59 41 35 30 25 21 17 15 13 12 10 8 6 6 5

157 117 85 60 51 43 36 30 25 21 19 17 14 11 10 10 7

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

144

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A52 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type THHN, THWN, THWN-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 Raceway Size (mm) 15 11 8 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 8 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 9 6 3 2 1 1 1 8 6 4 2 1 1 1 20 21 15 9 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 15 10 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 17 10 6 4 3 1 1 14 11 8 4 3 2 1 25 34 25 15 9 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 33 24 17 10 7 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 40 28 17 11 7 5 3 2 24 18 13 7 5 4 3 32 60 43 27 16 11 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 58 42 30 17 12 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 70 49 30 19 13 9 5 4 42 32 24 13 10 7 5 40 82 59 37 21 15 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 79 58 41 24 17 12 8 5 4 4 3 2 95 68 41 26 18 12 7 6 57 44 32 18 13 9 7 50 135 99 62 36 26 16 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 131 96 69 39 28 19 13 9 8 6 5 4 158 112 69 43 30 21 12 10 94 72 54 30 22 16 11 65 193 141 89 51 37 22 16 12 10 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 188 137 98 56 40 28 19 13 11 9 7 6 226 160 98 62 43 30 18 14 135 103 77 43 32 23 16 80 299 218 137 79 57 35 25 18 15 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 290 212 152 87 62 43 30 20 17 14 12 9 350 248 152 96 67 46 28 23 209 160 119 66 49 35 25 90 401 293 184 106 77 47 33 25 21 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 389 284 204 117 83 58 40 28 23 19 16 13 469 333 204 129 90 62 38 30 280 215 160 89 66 48 34 100 517 377 238 137 99 61 43 32 37 22 18 15 12 11 9 8 7 5 4 4 3 502 366 263 150 107 75 51 36 30 24 20 16 605 429 263 166 116 80 49 39 361 277 206 115 85 61 44 125 815 594 374 216 156 96 68 50 42 35 29 24 20 17 15 13 11 9 7 7 6 790 577 414 237 169 118 81 56 150 1178 859 541 312 225 138 98 73 61 51 42 35 28 24 21 19 16 13 11 11 8 1142 834 598 343 244 170 117 81

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

47 68 39 56 32 46 26 38 952 1376 675 976 414 598 261 378 184 265 126 183 77 111 62 90 568 822 436 631 325 470 181 261 134 193 97 140 69 99

145

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A52 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 Raceway Size (mm) 15 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 40 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 50 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 65 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 80 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 90 25 21 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 100 32 27 23 19 15 13 11 9 8 7 5 4 4 3 125 51 43 36 30 24 20 17 15 13 11 9 7 7 6 150 74 62 52 43 35 29 25 22 19 16 13 11 11 8

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 15 8 6 10 8 6 17 13 10 8 20 16 19 15 11 25 18 13 36 26 17 12 8 43 30 20 13 9 4 3 20 14 12 17 14 12 31 23 18 14 37 28 35 27 20 45 33 24 65 46 31 22 14 78 55 37 24 16 8 6 Raceway Size 25 23 19 29 24 19 51 38 30 24 60 46 57 44 33 74 54 40 107 75 52 35 24 128 90 60 40 26 12 10 (mm) 32 40 33 50 42 33 89 66 53 42 105 80 100 77 58 129 95 70 187 132 90 62 42 223 157 105 70 45 22 17 40 54 46 69 57 46 122 90 73 57 144 110 137 106 79 176 130 95 256 180 124 85 57 305 214 144 95 62 30 24 50 90 76 114 94 76 202 149 120 94 239 183 227 175 131 292 216 158 424 299 205 141 94 506 355 239 158 103 50 39

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A53 should be used.

146

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A53 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Rigid PVC Conduit, Schedule 40 and HDPE Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 20 25 32 40 50 65 80
4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 11 9 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 8 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 14 11 8 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 15 12 9 6 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 15 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 20 15 11 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 29 18 13 9 8 7 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 33 25 18 13 9 8 7 5 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 37 28 21 15 11 9 8 7 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 41 25 18 14 12 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 47 35 25 18 14 12 10 8 7 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 57 44 33 24 17 15 12 10 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 64 40 28 21 18 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 73 55 40 28 21 18 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 2

Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

Conductor Size (mm2)


8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

15
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

90
76 59 44 32 23 20 16 14 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 86 53 38 29 24 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 99 73 53 38 29 24 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3

100
98 76 57 42 29 25 21 18 15 12 10 9 8 7 5 5 5 4 111 68 49 37 31 26 22 18 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 127 94 68 49 37 31 26 22 18 14 12 11 10 8 6 5 5 4

125
155 119 89 66 46 40 34 29 24 19 16 15 13 11 9 7 7 6 175 108 77 58 49 41 34 28 22 19 17 15 13 10 8 8 6 200 149 108 77 58 49 42 34 29 23 19 17 15 13 10 8 8 6

150
224 173 129 95 67 58 49 42 35 27 24 21 19 16 13 11 11 9 253 156 112 84 72 59 50 41 32 28 24 22 18 15 12 12 9 290 215 156 112 84 72 60 50 42 33 28 25 22 18 15 12 12 9

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductors compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

147

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A54 Maximum Number of Conductors and Fixture Wires in Type A, Rigid PVC Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0(3.2) 2.0 (1.6) CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 7 6 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 8 6 3 7 20 12 10 9 7 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 14 10 6 12 25 20 16 15 12 10 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 24 18 10 20 32 34 27 24 20 16 8 6 5 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 51 39 29 16 34 40 44 35 31 26 21 11 9 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 67 51 38 21 44 50 70 56 49 41 33 17 14 11 8 5 5 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 105 80 60 33 70 65 104 84 74 61 50 26 21 16 12 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 157 120 89 50 104 80 157 126 112 93 75 39 31 24 18 12 10 9 8 7 5 4 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 235 181 135 75 157 90 204 164 146 121 98 51 41 32 24 16 14 12 10 9 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 2 307 236 176 98 204 100 262 211 187 155 125 65 52 41 31 20 18 15 13 11 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 395 303 226 125 262

Type RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

6 4 2

10 8 4

16 13 8

27 21 12

35 28 16

56 44 26

84 65 39

126 98 59

164 128 77

211 165 98

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

9 7 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

13 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

20 15 11 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1

30 22 16 11 10 8 7 6 4 4 3 3 2

45 33 24 17 14 12 10 9 7 6 5 5 4

59 44 32 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5

75 56 41 29 24 21 17 14 12 10 9 8 7

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

148

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A54 Continued
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 0 0 0 0 16 11 7 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 11 8 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 18 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 11 8 6 3 2 1 1 20 0 0 0 0 27 19 12 7 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 19 13 8 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 31 22 13 8 6 4 2 1 18 14 10 6 4 3 1 25 0 0 0 0 44 32 20 12 8 5 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 43 31 22 13 9 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 52 37 22 14 10 7 4 3 31 24 18 10 7 5 3 32 1 1 1 0 73 53 33 19 14 8 6 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 70 51 37 21 15 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 85 60 37 23 16 11 7 5 51 39 29 16 12 8 6 40 1 1 1 1 96 70 44 25 18 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 93 68 48 28 20 14 9 6 5 4 3 3 112 79 48 30 21 15 9 7 67 51 38 21 15 11 8 50 1 1 1 1 150 109 69 40 28 17 12 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 146 106 76 44 31 21 15 10 8 7 6 5 175 124 76 48 34 23 14 11 105 80 60 33 24 18 12 65 1 1 1 1 225 164 103 59 43 26 19 14 11 10 8 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 218 159 114 65 46 32 22 15 13 10 9 7 263 186 114 72 50 35 21 17 157 120 89 50 37 26 19 80 3 3 3 1 338 246 155 89 64 39 28 21 17 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 327 239 171 98 70 49 33 23 19 16 13 11 395 280 171 108 76 52 32 26 235 181 135 75 55 40 28 90 4 3 3 3 441 321 202 117 84 52 37 27 23 19 16 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 427 312 224 128 91 64 44 30 25 21 17 14 515 365 224 141 99 68 41 33 307 236 176 98 75 52 37 100 5 4 4 3 566 412 260 150 108 66 47 35 29 24 20 17 14 12 10 9 7 6 5 5 4 549 400 287 165 117 82 56 39 32 27 22 18 661 469 287 181 127 88 53 43 395 303 226 125 93 67 48

Type RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2 THHN, THWN, THWN-2

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

149

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A54 Continued
Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 15 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 32 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 40 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 50 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 65 14 12 10 8 7 5 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 80 21 18 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 90 28 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 100 35 30 25 20 17 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 5 4

Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2

FIXTURE WIRES Type FFH-2, RFH-2, RFHH-3 SF-2, SFF-2 Conductor Size (mm2) 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 0.75 1.25 2.0 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.5 15 10 9 13 11 9 23 17 14 11 28 21 26 20 15 34 25 18 49 35 24 16 11 59 41 28 18 12 6 4 20 18 15 22 18 15 40 29 24 18 47 36 45 35 26 58 42 31 84 59 40 28 18 100 70 47 31 20 10 8 Raceway Size (mm) 25 32 30 48 25 41 37 61 31 51 25 41 66 108 49 80 39 31 79 60 74 58 43 96 71 52 140 98 67 46 31 167 117 79 52 34 16 13 65 51 128 98 122 94 70 157 116 85 228 160 110 76 51 272 191 128 85 55 27 21 40 64 54 81 67 54 143 105 85 67 169 129 160 124 93 206 152 112 300 211 145 100 67 357 251 169 112 73 35 28 50 100 85 127 105 85 224 165 134 105 265 202 251 194 146 324 239 175 470 331 228 157 105 561 394 265 175 115 56 44

SF-1, SFF-1 RFH-1, RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF RFHH-2, TF, TFF, XF, XFF XF, XFF TFN, TFFN PF, PFF, PGF, PGFF, PAF, PTF, PTFF, PAFF HF, HFF, ZF, ZFF, ZHF

KF-2, KFF-2

KF-1, KFF-1

XF, XFF

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A55 should be used.

150

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A55 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Type A, Rigid PVC Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1, Chapter 9)
Conductor Size (mm2)
8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

Type
THW, THW-2, THHW

15
3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

COMPACT CONDUCTORS Raceway Size (mm) 20 25 32 40 50 65


5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 11 8 6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 14 10 8 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 15 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 18 13 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 18 14 10 7 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 12 9 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 23 17 12 9 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 22 16 12 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 32 20 14 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 37 27 20 14 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 42 33 24 18 13 11 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 48 30 21 16 13 11 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 55 41 30 21 16 13 11 9 8 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 1

80
64 49 37 27 19 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 72 45 32 24 20 17 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 83 62 45 32 24 20 17 14 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2

90
84 65 48 36 25 21 18 15 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 94 58 42 31 27 22 18 15 12 10 9 8 7 5 4 4 3 108 80 58 42 31 27 22 18 15 12 10 9 8 7 5 4 4 3

100
107 83 62 46 32 28 23 20 17 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 121 75 54 40 34 28 24 19 15 13 11 10 9 7 6 6 4 139 103 75 54 40 34 29 24 20 16 13 12 11 9 7 6 6 4

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductors compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

151

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A56 Maximum Number of Conductors in Type EB, PVC Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
CONDUCTORS Type RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 2.0 (1.6) 50 74 59 53 44 35 18 15 11 9 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 111 85 63 35 74 80 166 134 119 98 79 41 33 26 20 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 250 192 143 79 166 Raceway Size (mm) 90 100 217 276 175 222 155 197 128 163 104 132 54 69 43 55 34 43 26 33 17 21 15 19 13 16 11 14 9 12 7 9 6 8 5 7 5 6 4 5 3 4 3 4 2 3 2 3 327 415 251 319 187 238 104 132 217 276 125 424 341 303 251 203 106 85 66 50 33 29 25 22 18 14 12 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 638 490 365 203 424 150 603 485 430 357 288 151 121 94 72 47 41 36 31 26 20 17 16 14 12 10 9 7 7 907 696 519 288 603

TW

RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THHW, THW RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, THW, THHW, THW-2 RHH*, RHW*, RHW-2*, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2

3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2)

59 46 28

134 104 62

175 136 81

222 173 104

341 266 159

485 378 227

14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

21 16 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

48 36 26 18 15 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 2

62 46 34 24 20 17 14 12 10 8 7 7 5 4 4 3 3

79 59 43 30 26 22 18 15 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4

122 91 66 46 40 34 28 24 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 6

173 129 94 66 56 48 40 34 27 24 21 19 16 13 11 8 8

*Type RHH, RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

152

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A56 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type THHN, THWN, THWN-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 38 2.0 (1.6) 3.5 (2.0) 5.5 (2.6) 8.0 (3.2) 14 22 30 50 159 116 73 42 30 19 13 10 8 7 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 155 113 81 46 33 23 16 11 9 7 6 5 186 132 81 51 36 24 15 12 111 85 63 35 26 19 13 80 359 262 165 95 68 42 30 22 18 15 13 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 348 254 182 104 74 52 36 25 20 17 14 11 419 297 182 115 81 55 34 27 250 192 143 79 59 42 30 Raceway Size (mm) 90 100 468 595 342 434 215 274 124 158 89 114 55 70 39 50 29 37 24 31 20 26 17 21 14 18 11 14 10 12 8 11 7 10 6 8 5 6 4 5 3 4 3 4 454 578 332 422 238 302 136 173 97 123 68 86 46 59 32 41 27 22 18 15 547 388 238 150 105 72 44 36 327 251 187 104 77 56 39 34 28 23 19 696 494 302 191 134 92 56 45 415 319 238 132 98 71 50 125 915 667 420 242 175 107 76 57 48 40 33 27 22 19 17 15 12 10 8 6 6 888 648 465 266 189 132 91 63 53 43 36 29 1069 759 465 294 206 142 86 70 638 490 365 203 150 109 77 150 1300 948 597 344 248 153 109 80 68 56 47 39 31 27 24 21 18 14 12 9 9 1261 920 660 378 269 188 129 90 75 62 51 42 1519 1078 660 417 293 201 122 99 907 696 519 288 213 155 110

FEP, FEPB, PFA, PFAH, TFE

PFA, PFAH, TFE PFA, PFAH, TFE, Z

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2, ZW

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A57 should be used.

153

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A56 Continued
CONDUCTORS Type XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2 Conductor Size [mm2 (mm dia.)] 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 50 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 80 22 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 Raceway Size 90 29 25 20 17 14 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 (mm) 100 37 31 26 22 18 15 12 11 10 8 6 5 4 4 125 58 48 40 33 27 22 19 17 15 12 10 8 6 6 150 82 69 57 47 39 32 28 24 22 18 14 12 9 9

Note: This table is for concentric stranded conductors only. For compact stranded conductors, Table A57 should be used.

154

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


Table A57 Maximum Number of Compact Conductors in Type EB, PVC Conduit (Based on Table 9.1.1.1)
CONDUCTORS Type
THW, THW2, THHW

Conductor Size (mm2)


8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500 8.0 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 325 375 400 500

50
30 23 17 13 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 34 21 15 11 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 39 29 21 15 11 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1

80
68 52 39 29 20 17 15 12 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 77 47 34 25 22 18 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 88 65 47 34 25 22 18 15 12 10 8 7 7 5 4 3 3 3

Raceway Size (mm) 90 100


89 69 51 38 26 23 19 16 14 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 100 62 44 33 28 23 20 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 3 3 115 85 62 44 33 28 24 20 16 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 113 87 65 48 34 29 24 21 17 14 12 11 10 8 6 5 4 4 128 79 57 42 36 30 25 20 16 14 12 11 9 7 6 4 4 146 109 79 57 42 36 30 25 21 17 14 12 11 9 7 6 5 5

125
174 134 100 74 52 45 38 32 27 21 19 17 15 12 10 8 7 7 196 121 87 65 56 46 38 32 25 22 19 17 14 11 9 7 7 225 167 121 87 65 56 47 38 32 26 22 19 17 14 11 9 7 7

150
247 191 143 105 74 64 54 46 38 30 26 24 21 18 14 12 9 9 279 172 124 93 79 65 55 45 35 31 27 24 20 16 14 10 10 320 238 172 124 93 79 67 55 46 37 31 28 25 20 16 13 10 10

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

XHHW, XHHW-2

Definition: Compact stranding is the result of a manufacturing process where the standard conductors compressed to the extent that the interstices (voids between strand wires) are virtually eliminated.

155

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

156

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

ANNEX B
Conductor Application and Insulation

157

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

158

Table B1. Conductor Application and Insulations


Trade Name Type Letter Maximum Operating Temperatur e 90C Application Provisions Dry and damp locations Material Insulation Conductor Area (mm2) 2.0 5.5 8.0 30 2.0 8.0 14 30 0.75 1.25 1.25 5.5 5.6 22 23 250 0.65 3.5 5.5 8.0 14 22 30 38 100 101 250 251 500
c

Thickness (mm) 0.50 0.80 0.40 0.40 0.58 0.90 1.30 1.40 (a) 0.80 0.80 1.20 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 (b) 0.40 0.50 0.80 0.80 1.00 1.30 1.60 1.80

Outer Coveringa None

Fluorinated ethylene propylene

FEP or FEPB

200C

Dry locations special applicationsb

Flourinated ethylene Propylene Flourinated ethylene Propylene Magnesium oxide

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Glass braid Other suitable braid material Copper or alloy steel

Mineral insulation (metal sheathed)

MI

90C 250C

Dry and wet locations For special applications


b

159

Moisture-, heat-, and oil-resistant thermoplastic

MTW

60C

90C

Machine tool wiring in wet locations as permitted in NFPA 79 see Article 6.70) Machine tool wiring in dry locations as permitted in NFPA 79 (see Article 6.70)

Flame-retardant moisture-, heat-, and oil-resistant thermoplastic

(a) None (b) Nylon jacket or equivalent

Paper

85C

Perfluoroalkoxy

PFA

90C 200C

For underground service conductors, or by special permission Dry and damp locations Dry locations special applicationsb

Paper

Lead sheath

Perfluoro-alkoxy

2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100

0.50 0.80 1.20

None

Perfluoroalkoxy

PFAH

250C

Dry locations only. Only for leads Within apparatus or within raceways connected to apparatus (nickel or nickel-coated copper only) Dry and damp locations Dry and damp locations

Perfluoroalkoxy

2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100

0.50 0.80 1.20

None

Thermoset Thermoset

RH RHH

75C 90C

Flame-retardant thermoset

2.0 3.5d 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000 For 601 2000 Volts, see Table 3.10.1.62 2.0 5.5dd 8.0 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000 For 601 2000 Volts, see Table 3.10.1.62

0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20

Moisture resistant, flame-retardant, nonmetallic covering1

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

160
Moistureresistant thermoset RHWe 75C Dry and wet locations Where over 2 000 volts Insulation, shall be Ozone resistant Flame-retardant, moisture-resistant thermoset
a b c

1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20

Moisture resistant, flame-retardant, nonmetallic covering5

Some insulations do not require an outer covering. Where Design conditions require maximum conductor operating temperature above 90 oC For signaling circuits permitting 300-volts insulation. d For size 2.0 3.5 mm2, RHH insulation shall be 1.20 mm thickness. e Listed wire type designated with the suffix -2, such as RHW-2, shall be permitted to be used at continuous 90 oC operating temperature, wet or dry. f Some rubber insulations do not require an outer covering.

Table B1. (Continued)


Trade Name Moistureresistant thermoset Type Letter RHW-2 Maximum Operating Temperature 90C Application Provisions Dry and wet locations Insulation Materials Flame-retardant, moisture-resistant thermoset Conductor Area (mm2) 2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000 For 601 2 000 Volts, see Table 3.10.1.62 2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000 2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 2.0 5.5 8.0 14 30 38 100 2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 Thickness (mm) 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20 Outer Coveringa Moistureresistant, flame-retardant, nonmetallic coveringf

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Silicon

SA

90C

Dry and wet locations

200C Thermoset SIS 90C

For special applicationb Switchboard wiring only Switchboard Wiring only

Silicon rubber Flame-retardant thermoset Thermoplastic

Thermoplastic and fibrous outer braid Extended polytetrafluoro -ethylene

TBS

90C

TFE

250C

Dry locations only. Only for leads within apparatus or within raceways connected to apparatus,or as open wiring (Nickel or nickelcoated copper only)

Extruded Polytetrafluoroethylene

1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20 0.80 1.20 2.40 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 0.50 0.80 1.20

Glass or other suitable braid material

161

None

Flame-retardant, nonmetallic covering None

Heat-resistant thermoplastic

THHN

90C

Dry and damp location

Flame- retardant, heat-resistant thermoplastic

Moisture-and heat-resistant thermoplastic

THHW

75C 90C

Wet location Dry location

Flame-retardant, moisture- and heatresistant thermoplastic

Moisture-and heat-resistant thermoplastic

THWc

75C 90C

Dry and wet locations Special applications within electric discharge lighting equip. Limited to 1 000 open circuit volts or less (size 2.0 8.0 mm2 only as permitted in Section 4.10.6.10) Dry and wet locations

Flame-retardant, moisture- and heatresistant thermoplastic

2.0 3.5 5.5 8.0 14 22 30 38 100 125 250 251 500 2.0 5.5 8.0 14 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 2.0 5.5 8.0 14 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000

0.40 0.50 0.80 1.00 1.30 1.60 1.80 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20

Nylon jacket or equivalent

None

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

None

162
Moisture-and heat-resistant thermoplastic THWNe 75C
a b

Flame-retardant, moisture- and heatresistant thermoplastic

2.0 3.5 5.5 8.0 14 22 30 38 100 125 250 251 500

0.40 0.50 0.80 1.00 1.30 1.60 1.80

Nylon jacket or equivalent

Some insulations do not require an outer covering Where design conditions require maximum conductor operating temperature above 90C e Listed wire type designated with the suffix -2, such as RHW-2, shall be permitted to be used at a continuous 90C operating temperature, wet or dry. f Some rubber insulations do not require an outer covering.

Table B1. (Continued)


Trade Name Type Letter Maximum Operating Temperature 60 C Application Provisions Dry and wet locations Insulation Materials Flame-retardant, Moisture-resistant Thermoplastic Conductor Area (mm2) 2.0 5.5 8.0 14 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000 2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 Thickness (mm) 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20 1.60g 2.00g 2.40g Outer Coveringa None

Moistureresistant thermoplastic

TW

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Underground feeder and branch-circuit cable single conductor (For Type UF cable employing more than one conductor, see Article 3.39.) Underground service-entrance Cable single conductor (For Type USE cable employing more than one conductor, see Article 3.38.)

UF

60C

See Article 3.39

Moisture-resistant

Integral with insulation

163

75C

Moisture- and heat- resistant

USEe

75C

See Article 3.38.

Heat- and moistureresistant

2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000

1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20

Moistureresistant nonmetallic covering [(See 3.38.1.1(b)]

Thermoset

XHH

90C

Dry and damp locations

Flame-retardant thermoset

Moistureresistant thermoset

XHHWe

90C

Dry and damp locations Wet locations

Flame-retardant moisture-resistant thermoset

Moistureresistant thermoset

XHHW-2

90C

Dry and damp locations

Flame-retardant moisture-resistant thermoset

Modified ethylene tetrafluoroethylene Modified ethylene tetrafluoroethylene


a

90C 150C

Dry and damp locations Dry locations special applicationsb Wet locations Dry and damp locations Dry locations special applicationsb

Modified ethylene tetrafluoroethylene

ZWe

75C 90C 150C

Modified ethylene tetrafluoro-ethylene

2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000 2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000 2.0 5.5 8.0 30 38 100 101 250 251 500 501 1 000 2.0 3.5 5.5 8.0 22 30 38 50 100 2.0 5.5

0.80 1.20 1.40 1.70 2.00 2.40 0.80 1.20 1.40 1.70 2.00 2.40 0.80 1.20 1.40 1.70 2.00 2.40 0.40 0.50 0.64 0.89 1.20 8.0 30

None

None

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

None

164
b e

None

None

Some insulations do not require an outer covering. Where design conditions require maximum conductor operating temperatures above 90C. Listed wire types designated with the suffix 2, such as RHW-2, shall be permitted to be used at a continuous 90C operating temperature, wet or dry. g Includes integral jacket. i Insulation thickness shall be permitted to be 2.80 mm for listed Type USE conductors that have been subjected to special investigations. The nonmetallic covering over individual rubber-covered conductors of aluminum-sheathed cable and of lead-sheathed or multiconductor cable shall not be required to be flame retardant. For Type MC cable, see 3.30.3.1. For nonmetallic-sheathed cable, see Part 3.34.3. For Type UF cable, see Part 3.40.3.

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

ANNEX C
Philippine National Standard for Electrical Products
1. PNS 35-1:2004 Electric wires and cables Thermoplastic insulated electric copper wires and cables rated 600 volts Part 1: General specifications Electric wires and cables Thermoplastic insulated electric copper wires and cables rated 600 volts Part 1: Non-metallic flat jacketed electric wires Specifications Electric wires and cables Copper redraw rod for electrical purposes Specification Electric wires and cables EC aluminum redraw rod for electrical purposes Specification Enameled copper wires Test method Polyurethane enameled copper wires, class 105 Specifications Polyester enameled copper wires, class 105 Specification Polyvinyl formal enameled copper wires, class 105 Specification Polyester amide-imide enameled copper wires, class 180 - Specification Oleo-resinous enameled copper wires Specification Electrical products Polyvinyl chloride insulated flexible cords and fixture wires Specification Electric wires and cables Annealed copper wires Specification Electric wires and cables PVC insulated low voltages cable for road vehicles Specification 165

2.

PNS 35-2:2006

3.

PNS 40:1984

4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

PNS 43:1984 Amendments 01: 1985 PNS 106:1987 PNS 107:1987 PNS 108:1987 PNS 109:1987 PNS 110:1987

10. PNS 111:1987

11. CDPNS 163:XXXX -

12. PNS 260:2004

13. CDPNS 261:XXXX -

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


14. CDPNS 661:XXXX Organic chemicals Plasticized Polyvinyl chloride compounds for electrical insulation Specification Electrical wires and cables Ampacities of insulated electric 8u77 conductors, 0-35,000 volts Electrical wires and cables Harddrawn solid copper wires for electrical purposes Specification Electrical wires and cables Hard-drawn copper stranded Specification Electric wires and cables Copper and aluminum conductors for electrical purposes Test methods Hard-drawn aluminum wires for electric purposes Specifications Hard-drawn aluminum stranded conductors Specification Electric wires and cables Soft-drawn (annealed) copper stranded conductors for electrical purposes Specification Electric wires and cables PVC insulated battery cables Specification Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 1: Methods for general application Section 1: Measurement of thickness and overall dimensions Test for determining mechanical properties Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 1: Methods for general application Section 2: Thermal ageing methods Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 1: Methods for general application Section 3: Methods of determining the density Water absorption tests Shrinkage 166

15. PNS 662:1992

16. PNS 1086:1992

17. PNS 1087:1992 18. PNS 1088:2006

19. PNS 1129:1993 20. PNS 1130:1993 21. PNS 1207:2006

22. PNS 1289:1995

23. PNS 1487-1-1:1997 -

24. PNS 1487-1-2:1997 -

25. PNS 1487-1-3:1997 -

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


26. PNS 1487-1-4:1997 Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 1: Methods for general application Section 4: Test at low temperature Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 2: Methods specific to elastomeric compounds Section 1: Ozone resistance testhot set testMineral oil immersion test Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 3: Methods specific to PVC compounds Section 1: Pressure test at high temperature Test for resistance to cracking Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 3: Methods specific to PVC compounds Section 2: loss of mass test Thermal stability test Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 4: Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropelene compounds Section 1: Resistance to environmental stress cracking Wrapping test after thermal ageing in air Measurement of the melt flow index carbon black and/or mineral content measurement in PE Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Part 4: Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropelene compounds Section 2: Elongation at break after preconditioning Wrapping test after thermal ageing in air Measurement of mass increase Long term stability test (Appendix A) Test method for copper167

27. PNS 1487-2-1:1997 Amendments 01 & 02:1997

28. PNS 1487-3-1:1997 -

29. PNS 1487-3-2:1997 -

30. PNS 1487-4-1:1997 -

31. PNS 1487-4-2:1997 -

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


catalysed oxidative degradation (Appendix B) Electric wires and cables Thermoplastic-insulated underground feeder - Specification Standard Specification for Aluminum 1350-H19 Wire for Electrical Purposes (ASTM published 2004) Standard Specification Concentric-LayStranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors (ASTM published 2004) Standard Specification for Aluminum 1350 Drawing Stock for Electrical Purposes (ASTM published 2003) Standard Specification for Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors (ASTM published 2004) Standard Specification for Aluminum 1350 Round Wire, Annealed and Intermediate Tempers, for Electrical Purposes (ASTM published 2004) Standard Specification for 19 Wire Combination Unilay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors for Subsequent Insulation (ASTM published 2004) Standard Specification for 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy Wire for Electrical Purposes-Annealed and Intermediate Tempers (ASTM published 2000) Standard Specification Concentric-LayStranded Conductors of 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy for Subsequent Covering or Insulation (ASTM published 1999) Standard Specification for Rope-LayStranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members, for Electrical Conductors (ASTM published 2001) 168

32. PNS 2048:2006

33. PNS ASTM B230: 2005 34. PNS ASTM B231: 2005 35. PNS ASTM B233: 2005 36. PNS ASTM B400: 2005

37. PNS ASTM B609: 2005

38. PNS ASTM B786: 2005

39. PNS ASTM B800: 2005

40. PNS ASTM B801: 2005

41. PNS ASTM B172: 2005

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual


42. PNS ASTM B173: 2005 Standard Specification for Rope-LayStranded Copper Conductors Having Concentric-Stranded members, for Electrical Conductors (ASTM published 2001) Standard Specification for BunchStranded Copper Conductors for Electrical Conductors (ASTM published 2002) Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride Jacket for Wire and Cable (ASTM published 2001) Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Polyethylene Insulation for Electrical Wire and Cable (ASTM published 2002) Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Insulation for Wire and Cable, 60OC Operation (ASTM published 2002) Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable, 75OC Operation (ASTM published 2002) Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Polyethylene Jacket for Electrical Wire and Cable (ASTM published 2002) Standard Specification for TrackResistant Black Thermoplastic HighDensity Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable, 75OC Operation (ASTM published 2001)

43. PNS ASTM B174: 2005

44. PNS ASTM D1047:2005 45. PNS ASTM D1351:2005

46. PNS ASTM D2219:2005

47. PNS ASTM D2220:2005

48. PNS ASTM D2308:2005

49. PNS ASTM D3554:2005

169

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

170

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Annex D

171

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

Bibliography
1) Electric Cables Handbook 3rd Edition by Moore (Blackwell, 1997) 2) Cable handbook by Phelps Dodge Philippines 3) National Electrical Code 4) Philippine Electrical Code 5) Wikipedia

173

Power Cables & Wires Technical Manual

174