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- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Hormone Reset Diet: The 21-day Diet That Resets Your Metabolism
- Bloody Sunday: A Thriller
- WomanCode: Perfect Your Cycle, Amplify Your Fertility, Supercharge Your Sex Drive, and Become a Power Source
- The Final Day: A John Matherson Novel
- Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich
- Vermilion Drift: A Novel
- King, Warrior, Magician, Lover: Rediscovering the Archetypes of the Mature Masculine
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Managing Yourself (with bonus article "How Will You Measure Your Life?" by Clayton M. Christensen)
- Amity and Prosperity: One Family and the Fracturing of America
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- Chernobyl 01:23:40: The Incredible True Story of the World's Worst Nuclear Disaster
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- Free to Focus: A Total Productivity System to Achieve More by Doing Less
- Atomic Accidents: A History of Nuclear Meltdowns and Disasters: From the Ozark Mountains to Fukushima
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- The Power of Full Engagement: Managing Energy, Not Time, is the Key to High Performance and Personal Renewal
- The Subtle Body: An Encyclopedia of Your Energetic Anatomy
- Lost in the Solar System
- The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life, Work, and Team With Positive Energy

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Unit 1

Content

Topic About Sources Scalars and Vectors Vector Addition and Subtraction How to Draw vectors Solving Vectors Resolving Vectors Questions & Answers Newtons Laws of Motion Reaction Force Problems Projectile Motion Example Momentum & Collisions Impulse Friction Moments Equilibrium Energy Centre of Mass & Gravity Circular Motion Examples Simple Harmonic Motion Examples Geostationary Orbit Wave Types of Waves Longitudinal and Transverse In-phase and Out-of-phase Progressive and Standing Diffraction Interference Refraction Youngs Double Slit Lenses Page 2 3 4 5 6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-19 20 21-22 23-24 25-27 28 29-30 31-33 34 35 36-37 38-42 43-44 45-47 48 49 50 51 52-53 54-55 56 57-60 61-62 63 64-68

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About

This e-book was created to give students a well-rounded understanding on difficult topics in advanced level physics. It was created based on the CAPE syllabus which is also compatible with other major syllabuses such as the A-Level syllabus. It was created mainly for students doing physics in their first year of college.

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Sources

Most of the content present in this e-book was provided by Science Decoder, you can find us as at: http://getyournotes.blogspot.com The following articles were taken from the internet: Youngs Double Slit taken from: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/interference/doubleslit/index.html http://vsg.quasihome.com/interfer.htm

Recommended Sites: BiologyMad: - A very useful site containing a lot of biology notes that are covered in higher level biology such as A-Level and CAPE. Chemguide: - Another useful site which covers the hardest and less recognized topics in chemistry. In addition it has many other features and is highly recommended by other sites. A-Level Physics Notes: - As the name suggests it covers allot of topics in a-level.Allot of these topic are difficult but by just using this site as reference can greatly help you. They have allot of diagrams and explanations along with these notes

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Scalars have magnitude only but Vectors have both magnitude and direction. The table below displays some of the most popular scalar and vector quantities.

S.I Units

Mass --> Grams (g), or Kilograms (Kg) Length --> Meter(m) Time --> Seconds(s)

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Example #1.

Example #2

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A Vector can be defined by capital letters at both ends or by one lower case letter.

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Solving Vectors

Here is an example on how to solve a vector question: Example #1: A force of 3N acts at an angle of 90 degrees to a force of 4N. Find the magnitude and direction of their resultant R.

(Note: a line similar to the 3N was drawn on right to make the vector tail to head. The resultant line R was then drawn from the tail of 4N line to Head of 3N line on right. Also note that direction in this case is the unknown angle.)

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Resolving Vectors

Resolving vectors means splitting vectors into two perpendicular components. Resolving vectors can be very easy if youre focused. Here Ill be showing you how to resolve a vector and then solve its horizontal and vertical components. Using the vector below F it must first be split (resolved) into its vertical and horizontal components before it can be solved.

Vector F

1. Identify the component (line) adjacent to the given angle A (here it is the horizontal component). 2. Label the adjacent component as F x COS A.

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3. Identify the component opposite to the given angle A (here it is the vertical component). 4. Label opposite component as F x SIN A.

The following formulas can then be used to solve the components: Horizontal component = F x COS A Vertical component = F x SIN A Note: When resolving vectors the component adjacent to the given angle is ALWAYS the vector multiplied by the cosine (COS) of the angle while the component opposite the given angle is always the vector multiplied by the sin (SIN) of the angle.

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In previous articles we covered the topic of resolving vectors, how to resolve a vector, definitions and a complete guide on how to go about splitting/resolving a vector into its perpendicular components and how to label them, in this article we will look at some examples on how to resolve vectors.

Question # 1 Calculate the horizontal and vertical components of a 50N force which is acting 40 degrees to the horizontal.

40

Answer: The question asked for the values of the horizontal and vertical components, so first you need to split the vector seen in the diagram above into its horizontal and vertical components:

Vertical Component

40

Horizontal Component

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Now that you have identified both components the next thing that needs to be done is to label the components. Look at the diagram above and find out which of the components is adjacent to the given angle and label it Fcos, where F is the force and is the given angle. Also find out which component is opposite to the given angle and label it Fsin. In this example the component adjacent to the given angle is the horizontal component so it is labeled 50cos 400. The component opposite to the given angle is the vertical component so it is labeled 50sin400.

50sin40

40

50cos40

Therefore your answer should be: Horizontal component = 50cos400 = 38.30N Vertical Component = 50sin400 = 32.14N

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Here are the three Newtons Laws of motion: 1. Newton's first(1st) law of motion, 2. Second(2nd) Law of motion 3. And Newton's third (3rd) Law of motion.

Newtons 1st law of motion states that everybody continues in its state of rest or in constant velocity motion unless acted upon by an external force. Newtons first law of motion simply means that no change in motion takes place unless an external force acts on the body.

Newtons second law of motion The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the external force acting upon it. In its simplest form what newtons second law of motion is saying the acceleration on a body is directly proportional to the external force applied. The formulas relating to newtons second law of motion is: Force = mv - mu / t Or can be simplified as: F = m (v - u) / t but remember a = v - u / t Therefore F = ma Where F is force, m is mass, u and v are initial and final velocity respectively, t is time and a is acceleration.

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Newtons third law motion Newtons 3rd law of motion states that if a body A exerts a force on a body B, then Body B will exert an equal but opposite force on Body A.

Applications of Newtons Laws of motion: 1st law: - When a car crashes the car stops but the person on the inside continues to move because there is no external force exerted on the person. 2nd Law: - Increase the force, by using gas, on the car and the acceleration will also increase. 3rd Law: - A bouncing ball applies a force to the ground and the ground applies an equal but opposite force on the ball.

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In previous articles we discussed newtons laws of motion and how they apply to life-like situations. In this article well be using formulas/equations from the laws of motion and the laws themselves to solve various problems involving reaction force. By the end of this tutorial you should be able to: 1. Find the reaction force in a system 2. Apply newtons laws of motion to various questions 3. Find missing variables such as acceleration when given values for other variables.

Problem #1 A body of mass 7kg rest on a floor lift. Calculate the reaction force R exerted by the floor of the lift on the body if: a) The lift has an upward acceleration of 2m/s2. b) The lift has a downward acceleration of 3m/s2. c) The lift is moving with constant velocity.

Answer: The first thing that needs to be done is to draw a diagram to represent the information in the question, doing this makes your calculations allot easier and reduces risk of errors. In questions like these where theres a mass there is always a weight acting downward from the body; so the first thing to be drawn on the diagram is the weight (W) acting downward. Next is the reaction force(R), the reaction force always acts perpendicularly to the body. When done your diagram should look something like this:

Floor Lift

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a) This part of the question asked for the reaction force when the lift has an upward acceleration of 2m/s2.

When forces are moving in opposite directions you must subtract the smaller from the larger. In this question the reaction force is larger than the weight because the lift is moving in the upward direction. Well use the formula derived from newtons laws of motion:

Your answer should know look something like this: F = Mass acceleration R W = Mass acceleration R 70 = 7 x 2 R = 14 + 70 R = 84N Weight = mass x gravity Weight = 7 x 10 Weight = 70N

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b) This part of the question is very similar to the one previously done. The question asked for the reaction force when given a downward acceleration of 3m/s2. In part a of the question the reaction force was larger because the lift was moving in an upward direction; therefore it also follows that the opposite should happen in this part of the question since the lift is now moving in the downward direction. Therefore the weight is larger than the reaction force.

c) In this part of the problem youre required to find the reaction force given that the lift is moving at a constant velocity. Since it is moving at constant velocity acceleration would be zero and no motion is taking place. F=0 RW=0 R 70 = 0 R = 70N Note: Here the reaction force is equal to the weight

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Problem # 2 A body of mass 5kg is pulled up a smooth plane inclined at 300 to the horizontal by a force of 40N acting parallel to the plane. Calculate the acceleration of the body and the force exerted on it by the plane.

300 Answers

Before we begin calculating some other components must be added to the diagram. Remember in the previous question we said that where ever theres a mass there is weight acting downwards. Also the weight must be resolved/split into its perpendicular components with respect to the plane. One of the components of weight is parallel to the plane while the other is perpendicular to the plane. Finally we must now add the reaction force. Remember that the reaction force must be perpendicular to the plane of the body.

60

300

)

W = 5 x10 = 50N

You may have noticed that another angle was added to the diagram, 600, this was needed in order to find the perpendicular components of the weight. If you look at the diagram closely youll see that the line for the weight cuts the base of the triangle forming a 900 angle. Therefore the 60 degrees was found

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by subtracting the sum of the 90 degrees and 30 degrees from 180 giving 60 degrees. Because all angles in a triangle add up to 180. Now that we have labeled our diagram we can now begin answering the question. The first part asked for the acceleration of the body.

Using newtons second law F = Mass x Acceleration (a) 40 W x cos60 = 5 x a 40 50 x cos60 = 5 x a 40 50(0.5) = 5 x a 40 25 = 5 x a 15 = 5 x a 15/5 = a 3m/s2 = a

The next part of the question asked for the force exerted on the body by the plane, the force exerted is the reaction force. No motion is taking place in this direction therefore:

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Projectile Motion

- A body in projectile motion will move in two dimensions simultaneously. Bodies that are in projectile motion are resolved (divided) into two components. A vertical component (Vy) and an horizontal component (Vx). These components however are dealt with simultaneously.

Vy = VsinA Vx = VcosA V = Sqrt [Vy^2 + Vx^2] TanA = Vy / Vx => A = Tan^-1 A (Vy / Vx)

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Example calculation involving projectile motion: 1. A body is projected with a velocity of 200m/s at an angle of 30 C to the horizontal.

Calculate the time taken to reach its maximum height. Calculate its velocity after 16 seconds.

Answers:

angle A = 30 C V = 200m/s Acceleration(a) = -10 m/s2 Vy = 0 m/s Therefore Uy = VsinA Uy = 200 x Sin 30 Uy = 100 m/s

Note:

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Vy = -60 m/s Therefore V = [Vy^2 + Vx^2] = *(-60)^2 + (173.2)^2] = 33598 = 183.30 m/s

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What is momentum?

Momentum can be defined as the product of mass and velocity (m x v). Principle of conservation of momentum: The principle of conservation of momentum states that the total linear momentum of a system of interacting (colliding) bodies, on which no external force is acting remains constant. This principle is basically saying momentum before collision is equal to momentum after collision.

Types of collisions:

There are two types of collisions covered in physics they are Elastic and Inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are those formed when the colliding bodies separate after collision, hence its name. When elastic collisions take place two things are conserved, Momentum and Kinetic Energy (K.E.), meaning none is lost from the system. Therefore in elastic collisions momentum before collision is equal to momentum after collision, and similarly Kinetic energy before collision is equal to kinetic energy after collision.

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In-elastic collisions refer to collisions in which the objects remain or stick together after collision. Seeing that the objects remain together after collision Kinetic energy is therefore not conserved only momentum is conserved.

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Impulse

What is Impulse?

Impulse can be defined as the force per unit time or change in momentum. Momentum is changed whenever a force is applied to a body. From these definitions one can already see what formulas are in relation to impulse.

Impulse = Force x Time Or Impulse = Change in momentum= mV mU Where m is Mass and V, U is final and initial velocity respectively. Below are some calculations involving impulse. Here youll be using the formulas above to find the missing variable. Example 1. A force of 100 N is applied for 8 seconds. What is the impulse? Answer: Right away you can easily solve for impulse using the first formula above because all other variables are given. Therefore Impulse = Force x Time = 100N x 8sec = 800Ns

Example 2. An impulse of 250Ns is applied for 10 seconds. What is the applied force. Answer: Again you can see that you have to use the first formula above, but in this case they gave values for impulse and time, therefore all you have to do is transpose the formula to make Force the subject and then solve for Force.

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Force = 25 N

Example 3. A body of 4kg is moving at 5m/s when it is given an impulse of 8Ns in the direction of the motion. a) What is the Velocity of the body immediately after the impulse? b) If the impulse acts for 0.02 seconds. What is the average value of the force exerted? Answers: a) Here they gave you mass (4kg), initial velocity (5m/s) and impulse (8Ns). Therefore all you need to do is transpose the second formula, which relates impulse to momentum, to make the final velocity(V) the subject of the formula and then solve. Therefore Impulse = mV - mU Impulse + mU = mV mU + mU Impulse + mU = mV

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b) All you need to do is transpose for force and then solve. When done transposing you should get:

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Friction

What is Friction?

Friction can be defined as a resistance force formed from the rubbing between two surfaces. Friction is a form of force that slows down motion and dampens energy. There are two types of friction: Static/Moving Friction Sliding/Dynamic(moving) Friction

Static Friction

Static friction is the friction caused between objects that are not moving relative to each other. Limiting friction is the maximum value of static friction just before the object begins moving. Therefore it can also be concluded that the value of the required force to just begin moving the object is equal to the Limiting Friction.

Sliding friction is the friction formed between objects that are moving relative to each other. It is important to note that static friction is always greater than sliding/dynamic friction.

Laws of Friction

1. The frictional force between two surfaces opposes their relative or attempted motion in other words friction is a resistance force. 2. Frictional forces are independent of the area of contact of the surfaces. 3. For two surfaces which have no relative motion the limiting frictional force is directly proportional to the normal reaction force. Formula: FR F = KR R Therefore F = uR F Where K = u = Coefficient of sliding friction. F = Pull force = Frictional force R = Normal reaction force Science Decoder

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Moments

What is Moments?

By definition Moments, also known as torque, is the turning effect of a force. Moments can either be in a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. The unit of moments is the Newton Meter (Nm).

Moments (torque) = Force Perpendicular distance from the pivot

Example 1

Find the total moments of the system below:

4m

6m

50N

Identify which force in the system is moving in the clockwise direction and which is moving in an anticlockwise direction. The 50N force is the one moving in the clockwise direction (the same direction a clocks pointer would move) while the 80N is moving in the opposite direction (anti-clockwise direction).

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4m

6m

80N

50N

Anti-Clockwise

Clockwise

Step 2 Use the formula given above to calculate the clockwise and anti-clockwise moments separately. Moments = Force Perpendicular distance Clockwise Moments = Force Perpendicular Distance = 50N 6m = 300Nm

Step 3 Now that you have calculated both clockwise and anti-clockwise moments you can now find the total moments of the system. This is found by subtracting the smaller moments from the larger, in this case the smaller of the two is the clockwise while the larger is the anti-clockwise. Total Moments = 320Nm 300Nm = 20Nm in the anti-clockwise direction Because anticlockwise is larger Science Decoder

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Equilibrium

What is Equilibrium?

When a system is said to be in equilibrium this means it is in balance and is either moving at constant velocity motion or is at rest. Situations that must exist for a system to be at equilibrium: 1. The resultant force in any direction must be zero. 2. The total moments of the system must be zero. Meaning: Clockwise Moments = Anti- Clockwise Moments

Example 1 If the system below is in equilibrium find the unknown force F.

6m

8m

120N

Step 1 In the question they stated that the system is in equilibrium, therefore you can go ahead and use the equation: Clockwise Moments = Anti-Clockwise Moments

But remember that formula for moments is: Force Perpendicular distance from pivot

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Step 2 Identify the forces in the system that are moving clockwise and anti-clockwise with their respective perpendicular distances, and then substitute those values in the above equation:

6m

8m

120N

Anti-Clockwise

Clockwise

After substituting the values above into the formula you should get:

Clockwise Moments = Anti-Clockwise Moments Clockwise Force Perpendicular distance = Anti-clockwise Force Perpendicular Distance

F 8m = 120N 6m

Step 3 After placing the values into the formula all that is left to do is transpose the formula to make F the subject then solve for F. The overall calculation would then be:

Clockwise Moments = Anti-Clockwise Moments Clockwise Force Perpendicular distance = Anti-clockwise Force Perpendicular Distance

F 8m = 120N 6m

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F = 90N

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Energy

What is Energy?

Energy can be defined as the capacity to do work.

Types of Energy

Mechanical Energy: - By definition mechanical energy is the sum of Kinetic energy(K.E) and Potential energy(P.E). Mechanical energy = Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy

Potential Energy: - Potential Energy is energy due to a bodys position or condition.

In a system where only forces associated with potential energy are acting (gravitational/ elastic), the sum of the Kinetic and Potential energies is constant. K.E + P.E = Constant These conditions exist for any object rising of falling above the earths surface: a) For a body that is rising Loss in K.E = Gain in P.E b) For a boy falling towards the earth Loss in P.E = Gain in K.E

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Are they the same?

Many persons get confused when they hear about center of mass and center of gravity because they both sound the same. However the truth is they may and may not coincide depending on certain conditions. These conditions include whether or not they are in a uniform or non-uniform gravitational field. When in a uniform gravitational field they do coincide but when they are not in a uniform gravitational field they are treated differently

Centre of Mass:

The center of mass is that point of an object where all its mass appears to be located.

Centre of Gravity:

The center of gravity of an object is that point at which all the gravity force appears to be acting, but in reality gravity acts on all points of the object.

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Circular Motion

What is Circular Motion?

Circular motion refers to motion along a circular path or circular orbit. Two types of velocities take place when an object is moving in circular motion these include Scalar velocity and Angular Velocity

Scalar Velocity

Scalar velocity can be defined as the velocity occurring around the circumference of the circle formed by the path.

Angular Velocity

Angular velocity can be defined as the rate of turn of the angle present at the center of the circle.

The formula below shows the relationship between angular and scalar velocity:

Period (T)

Period can be defined as the time taken for an object to complete one revolution. The formula below shows the relationship between angular velocity and period:

Frequency

Frequency can be defined as the number of revolutions per second. It is said to be the inverse of period

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From the previous article we looked at circular motion, its definition, formulas involved, types of velocities etc. Now we will look at different calculations involving circular motion. This tutorial is intended to give you a well-rounded understanding on how to calculate different variables involved in circular motion questions namely: a) b) c) d) e) Calculating Tension. Calculating Centripetal force. Calculating centripetal acceleration. Calculating scalar and angular velocities. And calculating period and frequency.

Lets first begin with some short descriptions and formulas. When an object is travelling in a circular motion its direction is changing continually, this results in a change in velocity it also follows that any change in velocity causes acceleration and for an acceleration to take place a force is needed. The force present when a body is moving in a circular motion is known as centripetal force, this force acts towards the center of motion.

Centripetal Force F

It is also said that the centripetal acceleration must move in the same direction as the centripetal force, therefore it also acts toward the center of motion. The formulas below show the relationship between centripetal acceleration and angular and scalar velocity:

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To read more about angular and scalar velocity click here (ctrl + click .

Example #1

30o

1.2m T

The pendulum above has a mass of 2kg. The pendulum is moving in a horizontal circle. The string is inclined at 30o to the vertical. a) b) c) d) e) Calculate the tension in the string Calculate the centripetal force. Calculate the centripetal acceleration. Calculate Scalar & angular velocities. Calculate period & frequency of centripetal motion.

Answers: First before we begin answering the question we need to make some additions to the drawing above. We want to work with an angle besides the 30o if you look at the diagram youll realize theres a triangle but one of the angles are missing, this is the angle we want to use. You can easily find this angle because you are already given one angle (30o) and since it is a right angled triangle (indicated by the box formed between the vertical and horizontal line)it also has 90o, therefore the remaining angle must be 60o, if we were to add them all up we would get a total of 180o. So place the 60o in the missing position. The question also stated that you would need to calculate tension, so you would need to split the T in its horizontal and perpendicular components. This would give T sin 60o for the vertical component and T cos 60o for the horizontal component. Now place these components in the diagram. The next thing to note is that the pendulum has a mass 2kg therefore a downward force of weight must be acting on the body, add this as well to the diagram.

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30o

1.2m T T Sin 60

a) To answer the first question which asked for the tension in the string we use the vertical component but if you look closely you will see that there is weight also acting downward against the vertical component so we use the rule. Upward Forces = Downward forces T sin 60o = weight sin

b) Calculating centripetal force. Remember as stated above that this is the force acting toward the center. Therefore if you look at the diagram you will realize that the horizontal component ( T cos 60o)is the one acting toward the center. This would give: Centripetal force = T cos 60o = 23.9 0.5 = 11.55N

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c) Calculating centripetal acceleration. Remember this moves in the same direction of the force and youre also given mass so all you have to do is transpose this formula to find acceleration: Force = Mass Acceleration

d) In this question they asked for the scalar and angular velocities. The formula that relates these to centripetal acceleration was given above:

Where r is the radius. Since we werent given the value of the radius we would have to find it first before we can find either scalar or angular velocity. Assuming we all can identify the radius on the diagram lets use the formula

os If you look at the triangle formed on the circle you would notice that the adjacent would be the radius and the hypotenuse would be the 1.2m. Therefore:

r = 0.6m

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=v

rads-1

e) Calculating period:

Calculating frequency:

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Simple Harmonic Motion can be defined as the motion of an object where its acceleration is directly proportional to its distance from a fixed point along a path. The acceleration is said to always be directed towards the fixed point. This fixed point is known as the equilibrium position; this is because this is where the object that is swinging freely to come to rest given that it has lost all its energy. The diagram below shows a pendulum in simple harmonic motion:

x

P

Where: P is the equilibrium position (where the body would come to rest) PQ & PR gives the amplitude position which is the greatest displacement from equilibrium position. X is the position from the equilibrium position.

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When the object is swinging freely youll probably realize that it moves faster when passing through its equilibrium position P, this is because the bodys acceleration and velocity is greatest as it passes through the equilibrium position. Also the opposite happens as the body leaves the equilibrium position, the acceleration and velocity lessens as the bodys position, x, moves further away from the equilibrium position. Formulas involved in simple harmonic motion: a = -w2 x where a is acceleration, w is angular velocity and x is distance from equilibrium position. Where v is velocity, A is amplitude.

Where

R P P x P

x

Q

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In previous lessons we spoke about simple harmonic motion, its definition, systems that engage in simple harmonic motion and formulas involved. Now well be looking at calculating Simple harmonic motion questions.

Example # 1 4m A O 2m 3m 3.5m C 4m D E B

In the diagram above a particle is moving with S.H.M with a period of 24 seconds between two points A and B. Find the time taken to travel from: a) b) c) d) A to B O to B O to C D to E

Answers: Note that the period is the time taken to complete one revolution in this case the period is the time taken for the particle to travel from A to B and then to A again (24 seconds as stated in the question above). a) A to B A to B is half a period which would be = 12 second

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If you want to work this question in a more detailed way, you can do this: Distance from A to B to A again = 16m Distance from A to B = 8m Period (A to B to A again) = 24 seconds Time (t) from A to B =???

Cross Multiply

b) O to B O to B is quarter of the period so the answer would be = 6 sec Or you can follow the above pattern: Distance from A to B to A again = 16m Distance from O to B = 4m Period (A to B to A again) = 24 seconds Time (t) from O to B =???

6sec = t

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c) O to C This is one eight of the period which would be = 3 seconds Or by detailed calculation: Distance from A to B to A again = 16m Distance from O to C = 2m Period (A to B to A again) = 24 seconds Time (t) from O to C =???

3sec = t

d) D to E Note with this question, if you observe the diagram carefully you will see that you werent given the distance between D to E directly. However this can easily be found by subtracting the distance O to D from the distance O to E and this would give you the distance from D to E. Distance from A to B to A again = 16m Distance from D to E = 3.5 3 = 0.5m Period (A to B to A again) = 24 seconds Time (t) from D to E =???

0.75sec = t

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The gravitational field strength at any point can be defined as the force per unit mass placed at the point in the field. Formula for Gravitational field strength:

Geostationary orbit refers to a body orbiting a fixed position above the earth. For example a satellite moving with geostationary orbit around the earth has to have the same period of rotation as the earth (24hrs) therefore allowing it to remain above the same geographic area on the earth.

Escape velocity refers to the minimum velocity a body needs to escape the gravitational puul of the earth. Formula for escape velocity:

Where: V is escape velocity G is universal gravitational constant me is mass of the earth re is radius of the earth

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What is a Wave?

A wave is a means of transferring energy from one point to another without the transfer of particles.

Waves can come in two forms, they can either be vibrating perpendicular to the direction in which the energy is flowing (transverse waves), or they can move parallel to the direction of energy flow (longitudinal waves).

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In previous lessens we looked at what is a wave. If youre unclear on this topic click here to read more about waves. In physics there are two known types of waves, these are: 1. Mechanical Wave 2. Electromagnetic wave The differences between these two lie in their means of transferring energy. One may not see the difference between sound waves and light rays because as humans we arent capable of seeing such things with our naked eyes but thanks to human intelligence and through many research scientists were able to detect movement of energy in waves and thus differentiate the means by which they are transferred.

Mechanical waves are those that need a material medium with particles to enable them to move. Therefore these waves cant travel on their own. Examples of mechanical waves: Sound Waves Water Waves Waves in springs

Electromagnetic waves are those that do not need any material medium to enable them to move. Therefore these waves can travel on their own. These waves can travel through a vacuum. Examples of electromagnetic waves: Visible light X-rays Infrared rays Ultraviolet rays Radio waves

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What is Longitudinal Wave?

A longitudinal wave is one in which the particles in the wave vibrate parallel to the direction in which the wave is moving. That is the particles can only move in a back or forth movement in the same direction as the wave. Examples of Longitudinal Waves: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sound Waves Waves in Springs Vibrations in Gases Waves in Tsunami

Particle Vibration

Wave Direction

A transverse wave is one in which the particle vibrates perpendicularly to the direction in which the wave is moving. Such waves can only move in an up or down direction with respect to the direction of the wave. Examples of Transverse Waves? 1. 2. 3. 4. Water Waves Waves in Ropes Electromagnetic waves Guitar string that is Vibrating

Particle Vibration

Inphase points are points of a wave that are located at the same position in the wave cycle. Waves that are inphase are separated by an even multiple of half wavelength ().Such waves will undergo constructive interference.

The xs in the diagram above marks points that are in-phase in the wave cycle.

Out of phase points are points that are not located in the same position in the wave cycle. Waves that are out of phase are usually separated by an odd multiple of half wavelengths (). These waves undergo destructive interference.

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Science Decoder

Looking at the diagram above we are going to determine which are in phase against those that are out of phase. 1. 2. 3. 4. to 3 would be inphase because the difference is an even number 2. 2 to 4 would be inphase because the difference is also an even number 2. 2 to 6 would be inphase because the difference is an even number 4. 1 to 4 would be out of phase because it is separated by an odd number 3.

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Science Decoder

In some waves the vibrations can be observed moving throughout the material but in others the vibrations/ disturbances can appear to be still or not present in the material; with these facts scientists were able to categorize waves based on these differing characteristics. These are: 1. Progressive Waves 2. Standing Waves

Progressive Waves

Progressive waves are those waves having visible disturbances meaning the vibrations can be seen moving throughout the material.

Standing/Stationary Waves

Standing waves are produced when two waves interfere this results in an invisible disturbance though the wave is moving throughout the material. Standing waves consist of two different points known as nodes and antinodes. Nodes: These are points in the wave that have zero energy and displacement. Anti-Nodes: These are points in the wave that have the highest energy or amplitude.

The distance between two consecutive nodes or antinodes makes half a wavelength.

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Science Decoder

Waves formed from stringed and wind instruments are stationary waves. Open ends always have an antinode while closed ends have a node.

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Science Decoder

Diffraction

What is Diffraction?

By definition diffraction is the spreading out or scattering of waves as they pass through gaps. However certain conditions must be present for a wave to be diffracted when passing through a gap, the length of the wave and the size of the gap has to be the same or almost the same.

In this example the wavelength of the wave is similar to the size of the gap , therefore diffraction takes place.

In this example the wavelength of the wave is different from the size of the gap , therefore no diffraction occurs.

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Interference

What is Interference?

Interference is what occurs when two or more waves interact with each other producing another wave.

Types of Interference?

There are two types of interference these are: 1. Constructive Interference 2. Destructive Interference

Constructive Interference

In constructive interference, when the waves interfere a larger wave is produced, this is as a result of the waves meeting at in-phase points such as a crest meeting a crest or a trough meeting a trough.

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Destructive Interference

In destructive interference the two original waves will meet to produce a smaller wave. The final wave produced is as a result of the original waves meeting at out of phase points such as a crest meeting a trough. The resulting wave can also be non-existent.

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s1

s2

In the diagram above diffraction occurs at slits s1 and s2, the diffracted waves then interfere. The solid lines in the diagram represent crests; therefore in the diagram above the waves interfere at in-phase points (crest to crest) producing bright fringes or bands. In this diagram constructive interference takes place.

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s1

s2

In the diagram above diffraction occurs at slits s1 and s2, the diffracted waves then interfere producing dark bands on the screen. This is known as destructive interference and occurs as a result of the waves interfering at out of phase points (crest to trough), the crest is represented by the solid line while the trough is represented by the broken line.

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Refraction

Refraction can be defined as the bending of a wave as it crosses the boundary between two medium. This takes place for all forms of waves including light.

Refraction occurs because there is a change in velocity between both medium.

Refractive index

Refractive index can be defined as a constant that gives the degree to which refraction or bending of a wave takes place between the two medium. Here are the formulas associated with refractive index:

Snell's Law

n= sin i sin r

anb = 1 / bna

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When waves are entering a denser medium they bend toward the normal but when entering a less dense medium they bend away from the normal.

Refer to the diagrams below. When the wave meets the boundary perpendicularly it is not diffracted it just goes straight through.

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When two waves interact to produce a weaker wave or a stronger wave Interference is said to have occurred. There are two things that must take place for interference to occur:

1. 2.

The sources of these waves must have a constant phase difference and the same frequency. This is called Coherent. Also these waves must have the same amplitude.

In the double slit experiment, a single source is split in two, to generate two coherent sources. When the light from the two sources is projected on a screen, an interference pattern is observed. To explain the origin of the interference pattern, consider the distance traveled from the two sources. At the center of the screen the waves from the two sources are in phase. As we move away from the center, the path traveled by the light from one source is larger than that traveled by the light from the other source. When the difference in path is equal to half a wavelength, destructive interference occurs. Instead, when the difference in pathlength is equal to a wavelength, constructive interference occurs.

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Lenses

What is a Lens?

A lens can be a plastic or a glass or formed from a combination of these two such that when light passes through it the light rays get refracted. Light rays from an object present on one side of a lens, when refracted can form an image on the other side of the lens.

Types of lens

There are two known types of lens these are: 1. A convex/converging lens 2. A concave/diverging lens

Convex Lens

A convex lens is a type of lens that bends/converges light in, it is also known as converging lens. The diagram below shows how light is refracted through a convex lens.

Principle Axis c F

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Concave Lens

A concave lens also known as a diverging lens is one that diverges/ bends light outwards. The diagram below shows the effect on rays being refracted through a concave lens.

F c

If you look at both convex and concave lens you would notice a difference in their structures. A convex lens has more thickness in its middle than at its edges; this is what aids in converging/ bending light inward. However the concave lens is thicker at its edges than at the middle, which helps to diverge light.

F in both diagrams represents focal point. This is the point in a converging lens where the rays converge to and this is the point in a diverging lens such that if the rays where to be traced backward they would meet at this point. P represents the principle axis. This is the imaginary line through the center of the lens. C represents the optical center. f represents the focal length. This is the distance measured from the mirror to the focal point.

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Science Decoder

The object is the body from which the rays of light are emitted before they are refracted. The image is what is formed as a result of the rays being refracted through the lens, they can be seen where the rays of light meet or appear to meet.

Previously we said that images are formed when rays are refracted through a lens and also that they are formed where the rays of light meet or appear to meet. Because some images refracted actually meet at a point while some really dont, with this fact we can place images formed into two categories: Real Images And Virtual Images

Real images are those that are formed where light rays actually meet after being refracted. These can be captured on a photographic film. Virtual images, on the other hand, are those that are formed where light rays appears to meet but really dont after being refracted.

What is Magnification?

The magnification is the ratio of the size of the image to the size of the corresponding object. The formula below shows the relationship between the magnification, height of the image and height of the object:

The formula below shows the relationship between the magnification, distance of image from the lens and distance of object from the lens:

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ho i 2F O F c F 2F hi

In the example above the image formed is real, magnified and inverted.

hi

ho

2F

F O

2F

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In the example above the image formed is virtual, magnified and erect.

Principle of Reversibility

The principle of reversibility states that a ray of light that takes a certain path from A to B will also take the same path from B to A.

The formula below relates focal length, image distance and object distance:

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