18. What are the phase shift and attenuation of constant k high pass filter?
The phase shift of constant k high pass filter is given as = 2 sin
1
( c
2
/
2
)
radians.
The attenuation of constant high pass filter is given as ( )
2
1
2cos / c
nepers
19. For a high pass filter what is the conditions for which the characteristic
impedance Z
OT
is real and imaginary.
For a high pass filter, the characteristic impedance Z
OT
is real if (1/4
2
LC ) < 1
And Imaginary if (1/4
2
LC) >1
20. Give the characteristic impedance of high pass filter constant k filter.
The characteristic impedance of high pass filter constant k filter is given as
( )
2
/ 1 1/ 4
OT
Z L C LC
21. Draw the T type and type low pass constant k filter.
The prototype low pass filters are as shown below.
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22. Draw the T type and type high pass constant k filter
23. What are the advantages of m derived filters?
The advantages of m derived filters are,
1. A sharper cutoff characteristic with steeper rise at f
c
, the slope of the rise being
adjustable by fixing the distance between f
c
and f.
2. Zo of the filter will be more uniform within the pass and when m derived half
section having m = 0.6 are connected at the ends.
3. m derived filters makes it possible to construct composite filters to have any
desired attenuation characteristics.
24. What is composite filter?
A filter designed using one or more prototype constant k filters and m
derived filters to have an attenuation between low pass and high filters is called as
composite filters.
25. Mention the different sections of a composite filters?
raveen008@yahoo.com
The different sections of a composite filters are
1. One or more prototype constant filters are
2. One or more m derived sections
3. Two terminating m derived half sections with m = 0.6
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26. What are the drawbacks of constant k filters (or) what are the
disadvantages of constant k filters?
1. The attenuation does not increase rapidly beyond cutoff frequencies.
2. Characteristic impedance varies widely in the transmission or pass band from
the derived value.
27. Why mderived half section is used as terminating section?
Two m derived half section with m = 0.6 is used as a terminating section to
give constant input and output impedance.
28. Distinguish between low pass and high pass filter.
S.
No
Low Pass Filter High Pass filter
1 This filter passes the frequencies
without attenuation upto a cutoff
frequency fc and attenuates all other
frequencies greater than fc.
It transmits frequencies above a
designed cutoff frequency but
attenuates frequencies below this
2 An ideal low pass filter is as shown
below
An ideal high pass filter is as shown
below
29. Differentiate between band pass filter and band elimination filter
S.No Bandpass filter Band elimination filter
1 This filter passes the frequencies
between two designated cutoff
frequencies and attenuates all other
frequencies
It transmits all frequencies while
attenuates a band of frequency.
2. An ideal band pass filter is as shown
below
An ideal band elimination filter is
as shown below.
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30. Draw a block diagram of a composite filter?
31. Draw the Ttype and type low pass m derived filter
The m derived low pass filters are as shown below.
32. Draw the type and type high pass m derived filter
The m derived high pass filters are as shown below
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33. Give the value of m in m derived low pass and high pass filters.
The value of m in the case of low pass filter is given as below m =
( )
2
1 / fc f
The value of m in the case of high pass filter is as below m =
( )
2
1 / f fc
PART B
1. Define the characteristic impedance of symmetrical networks.
When Z
1
= Z
2
or the two series arms of a T network are equal, or Z
a
= Z
c
and the
shunt arms of a network are equal, the networks are said to be symmetrical.
Filter networks are ordinarily set up as symmetrical sections, basically of the T
or type, such as shown at (b) and (d), Fig.
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Figure: The T and sections as derived from unsymmetrical L sections,
showing notation used in symmetrical network analysis.
Attention is called to the peculiarities of notation employed on the variouos
arms. This peculiarity is largely dictated by custom, arising from the fact that both T
and networks can be considered as built of unsymmetrical L half sections,
connected together in one fashion for the T network, and oppositely for the network
as at (a) and (c), Fig. A series connection of several T or networks leads to so
called ladder networks, which are indistinguishable one from the other except for
the end or terminating L half sections, as can be seen in fig.
For a symmetrical network the image impedances Z
1i
and Z
2i
, are equal to each
other, and the image impedance is then called the characteristic impedance or the
iterative impedance, Z
0
. That is, if a symmetrical T network is terminated in Z
0
, its
input impedance will also be Z
0
, or its impedance transformation ratio is unity. The
term iterative impedance is apparent if the terminating impedance Z
0
is considered as
the input impedance of a chain of similar networks, in which case Z
0
is iterated at the
input to each network.
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Figure: (a) Ladder network made from T section; (b) ladder network built
from sections. The parallel shunt arms will be combined.
The value of Z
0
for a symmetrical network can be easily determined. For the T
network of Fig. (a), terminated in an impedance Z
0
, the input impedance is
( )
2 1 0 1
1in
1 2 0
Z Z / 2 Z Z
Z
2 Z / 2 Z Z
+
+
+ +
It can be assumed that if Z
0
is properly chosen in terms of the network arms, it
should be possible to make Z
1in
equal to Z
0
. Requiring this equality gives
2
2
2
1 2 2 0 1 0
1
0
1 2 0
1
1 2
0
Z / 4 Z Z Z Z Z Z / 2
Z
Z / 2 Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
4
+ + +
+ +
+
For the symmetrical T section, then,
2
1 1
0T 1 2 1 2
2
Z
Z
Z Z Z Z Z 1
4 4Z
_
+ +
,
becomes the characteristic impedance. This result could also have been immediately
obtained from eq. and for the image
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Figure: Determination of Z
0
: (a) for a T section; (b) for a section
impedance of a T section, by using the values of the arms of Fig. Similarly, for the
section of Fig. (b) the input impedance is
2 0
1 2
2 0
1in
2 0
1 2
2 0
2Z Z
Z 2Z
2Z Z
Z
2Z Z
Z 2Z
2Z Z
1 _
+
1
+
,
]
+ +
+
Requiring that
1in 0
Z Z leads to
1 2
0
1 2
Z Z
Z
1 Z / 4Z
+
which is the characteristic impedance of the symmetrical symmetrical section.
Certain information concerning networks was developed from measurements of
Z and Z .
If these measurements are made on the T section of (a), Fig. exclusive of
the load Z
0
, then
2
2
1
1 2
1 1 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
0T
Z
Z Z Z
2
Z Z Z / 2
Z Z
2 Z / 2 Z
Z
Z Z Z Z Z
4
+
+
+
+
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Similar work for the section leads to
2
2
1
2
0
1 2
4Z Z
Z Z Z
Z 4Z
+
Therefore, for a symmetrical network,
0
Z Z Z
This result could have been directly obtained from the image impedance relations of
section. It is a valuable relationship, since it supplies an easy experimental means of
determining the Z
0
of any symmetrical network.
2. Explain the current and voltage ratios as exponentials; the propagation
constant.
Under the assumption of equal input and output impedances, which may now be
interpreted as a Z
0
termination on the network, the absolute value of the ratio of input
current to output current of a given symmetrical network was defined as an
exponential function,* for the purpose of simplifying network calculations. obviously,
the magnitude ratio does not express the
* In the general case of unsymmetrical 4terminal networks, terminated on an image
basis, it is customary to define a transfer constant , by
2 1 1
2 2
input voltamperes E I
E I output voltamperes
Or
1 1
2 2
1 E I
ln
2 E I
where is in general a complex number. For symmetrical networks Z
14
= Z
2
= Z
0
,
and with a termination of Z
0
, the above discussion follows, with customarily
replacing and implying symmetry and Z
0
termination.
complete network performance, the phase angle between the currents being needed
as well. the use of the exponential can be extended to include the phasor current
ratio if it be defined that, under the condition of Z
0
termination,
1
2
I
I
where is a complex number defined as
j +
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Hence
j
1
2
I
I
+
To illustrate further, if 1 2
I / I A ,then
1 2
j
A I / I
Since the input and output impedances are equal under the Z
0
termination, it is
also true that
1
2
V
V
The term has been given the name propagation constant. The exponent is
known as the attenuation constant, since it determines the magnitude ratio between
input and output quantities, or the attenuation produced in passing through the
network. The units of are nepers. The exponent is the phase constant as it
determines the phase angle between input and output quantities, or the shift in phase
introduced by the network. The units of are radians.
If a number of sections all having a common Z
0
value are cascaded, the ratio of
currents is
3 1 2 1
2 3 4 n
I I I I
..
I I I I
from which
1 2 3 n
...
and taking the natural logarithm,
1 2 3 n
... + + +
Thus the overall propagation constant is equal to the sum of the individual
propagation constants.
3. Explain the properties of symmetrical networks.
Use of the definition of , and the introduction of
as the current ratio for a
Z
0
terminated network, leads to further useful results.
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Figure: Symmetrical network with generator and load.
In Fig. the T network is considered equivalent to any connected symmetrical
network, and is terminated in a load Z
0
. The mesh equation are
1
1 2 2 2
1
1 2 2 2 0
Z
E I Z I Z
2
Z
0 I Z I Z Z
2
_
+
,
_
+ + +
,
The current ratio for the two meshes, which is equal to
by definition, can be
obtained from the second equation as
1 2 0 1
2 2
Z / 2 Z Z I
I Z
+ +
After thus introducing
, the above may be written
( )
1
0 2
Z
Z Z 1
2
From Eq. for the characteristic impedance,
2
2
1
1 2
0
Z
Z Z Z
4
+
If Z
0
is eliminated by use of Eq. in Eq. there results
( )
2
2
1
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
Z 1 Z 0
Z
2 1
Z
Z
1
2 2Z
Z
cosh 1
2Z
+
+
+
+
Equation and its other derived forms will be of considerable value in the study of
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filters.
By use of the identify, Eq., that
2 2
cosh sinh 1
it is possible to write
0
2
Z
sinh
Z
Combining Eqs. and leads to
0
1 2
Z
tanh
Z / 2 Z
+
By use of Eq. it is possible to write
1
2
1
2
1 Z
sinh 1 1
2 2 2Z
Z
4Z
_
+
,
_
+ + +
,
Taking the natural logarithm
2
1 1 1
2 2 2
Z Z Z
ln 1
2Z 2Z Z
1
_
1
+ + +
1
,
]
For a network of pure reactances this is not difficult to compute. For an impedance it
may be noted that the logarithm of a complex quantity
B lnB j . +
The input impedance of any T network, terminated in any impedance Z
R
, may
also be written in terms of hyperbolic functions of . Writing
2
12
in 11
22
Z
Z Z
Z
and substituting the required mesh relations from Fig. with Z
0
replaced by Z
R
, then
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( )
2
2
1 2
in 2
1 2 R
1 2 1 2 R
1
1 2 R
Z
Z
Z Z
2 Z / 2 Z Z
Z / 4 Z Z Z / 2 Z Z
Z / 2 Z Z
+
+ +
+ + +
+ +
Use of Eqs. and leads to
2
R 0
0
in
0 R
R 0
0
0 R
Z Z Z / tanh
Z
Z / tanh Z
Z cosh Z sinh
Z
Z cosh Z sinh
+
+
_ +
+
,
This is the input impedance of a symmetrical T network terminated in a load Z
R
, in
terms of the propagation constant and Z
0
of the network.
For a shortcircuited network Z
R
= 0. The input impedance is then Z
where,
from the above equation,
0
Z Z tanh
For an open circuit Z
R
= in the limit, and Z
is then
Z 0
ZR
Z
lim
tanh
which has already been proved from the properties of the characteristic impedance.
In chapter 1, opencircuit and shortcircuit measurements were used to describe
the performance of a network. in this chapter, two new parameters, the characteristic
impedance Z
0
, and the propagation constant , have been introduced, and the
properties of the network have been developed in terms of these new parameters.
The last few equations are relations between the two sets of parameters.
4. Explain the constantk lowpass filter.
If Z
1
and Z
2
of a reactance network are unlike reactance arms, then
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2
1 2
Z Z k
where k is a constant independent of frequency. Networks or filter sections for which
this relation holds are called constantk filters.
As a special case, let
1 2
Z j L and Z j/ C,
then the product
2
1 2
k
L
Z Z R
C
The term R
k
is used since k must be real if Z
1
and Z
2
are of opposite type. A T
section so designed would appear as at (a), Fig.
Figure: (a) Lowpass filter section; (b) reactance curves demonstrating that
(a) is a lowpass section or has a pass band between Z
1
= 0 and Z
1
= 4Z
2
.
The reactances of Z
1
and 4Z
2
will vary with frequency as sketched at (b), Fig.
The curve representing 4Z
2
may be drawn and compared with the curve for Z
1
. It has
been shown by Eq. that a pass band starts at the frequency at which Z
1
= 0 and runs
to the frequency at which
1 2
Z 4Z .
Thus the reactance curves show that a pass band
starts at f = 0 and continues to some higher frequency f
c
. All frequencies above f
c
lie
in a stop, or attenuation, band. Thus the network is called a lowpass filter.
The cutoff frequency f
c
may be readily determined, since at that point
1 2 c
c
c
4j
Z 4Z , j L
C
1
f
LC
This expression may be used to develop certain relations applicable to the low
pass network. then sinh
/ 2
may be evaluated as
2
1
2
j LC Z LC
sinh
2 4Z 4 2
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and in view of Eq. this is
c
f
sinh j
2 f
Since the design is based on an impedance match at zero frequency only, power
transfer only, power transfer to a matched load will drop at higher passband
frequencies. This condition may be undesirable in certain applications, and a remedy
will be discussed in section.
A network such as is described here is called a prototype section. It may be
employed when a sharp cutoff is not required, although cutoff may be sharpened by
using a number of such networks in cascade. This is not usually an economic use of
circuit elements, and introduces excessive losses over other available methods of
raising the attenuation near the cutoff frequency.
5. Explain the constantk highpass filter.
If the positions of inductance and capacitance are interchanged to make
1
Z j/ C
and
2
Z j L,
then Z
1
Z
2
will still be given by
2
1 2
Z Z k
and the filter design obtained will be of the constantk type. The T section will then
appear as in (a), Fig. The reactances of Z
1
and Z
2
are sketched as functions of
frequency in (b), and Z
1
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Figure: (a) Highpass filter section; (b) reactance curves demonstrating that
(a) is a highpass section or has a pass band between Z
1
= 0 and Z
1
= 4Z
2
.
Is compared with 4Z
2
, showing a cutoff frequency at the point at which Z
1
equals
4Z
2
, with a pass band from that frequency to infinity where Z
1
= 0. The network is
thus a highpass filter. All frequencies below f
c
lie in an attenuation, or stop, band.
The cutoff frequency is determined as the frequency at which
1 2
Z 4Z , or
2
0 c
0
c
j
j4 L, 4 LC 1
C
1
f
4 LC
+ +
+
It then appears that the shunt arm
2
Z '
consists of two impedances in series, as
shown in Fig. As required, the characteristic impedance and f
c
remain equal to those
of the T section prototype containing Z
1
and Z
2
values.
Figure: The mderived lowpass filter.
Since m is arbitrary, it is possible to design an infinite variety of filter networks
meeting the required conditions on Z
0
and f
c
. However, Z
2
will be opposite in sign to
Z
1
, and it is desired that this relation continue in the two series impedances given by
Eq. for the
2
Z '
arm. Equation then indicates that (1m
2
)/4m must be positive, forcing
the terms 1 m
2
and m always to be positive. Thus m must always be chosen so that
< 1
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Filter sections obtained in this manner are called mderived sections.
The shunt arm is to be chosen so that it is resonant at some frequency f
above
f
c
. This means that at the resonant frequency and for the lowpass filter
( )
2
2
1 1 m
2 f L
2 f mC 4m
1
f
1 m LC
Since the cutoff frequency for the lowpass filter is
c
1
f
LC
from which
( )
2
c
m 1 f f
This equation determines the m to be used for a particular f
. Similar relations
for the highpass filter can be derived as
2
c
f f 1 m
and
( )
2
c
m 1 f / f
The mderived section is designed following the design of the prototype T
section. The use of a prototype and one or more mderived sections in series results
in a composite filter. If a sharp cutoff is desired, an mderived section may be used
with f
near f
c
, followed by as many mderived sections as desired to place
frequencies of high attenuation where needed to suppress various signal components
or to produce a high attenuation over the entire attenuation band.
The variation of attenuation over the attenuation band for a lowpass mderived
section in the stop band is dependent on the sign of the reactances or
1 1 1 1
2 2
c
Z Z
2cosh or =2sinh
4Z 4Z
f f f f f
< < <
For
1 2
Z j L and Z j/ C for the prototype, then
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( )
1
2
2
Z m L
4Z
4 1/ m C L 1 m / 4m
1
]
so that for
c
f f f
< <
1 c
2 2
mf / f
2cosh
1 f / f
< f
1 c
2 2
mf / f
2sinh
f / f 1
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In the attenuation band, up to f
the value of
drop to zero, because the shunt arm becomes inductive above resonance. The phase
shift of the mderived section is plotted as a function of f/f
c
in fig.
Figure: Variation of phase shift , for the mderived filter
This material demonstrates the ability of the mderived section to overcome the
lack of a sharp cutoff in the simple prototype filter. Although it may be note that the
sharpness of cutoff increases for small values of m, the attenuation beyond the point
of peak attenuation becomes smaller for small m. This emphasizes the necessity of
supplementing the mderived section with a prototype section in series to raise the
attenuation for frequencies well removed from cutoff.
7. Explain the derived section filter.
An mderived section may also be obtained. The characteristic impedance of
the section is
( )
1 2
0
1 2 1 2
Z Z
Z
Z Z 1 Z / 4Z
+
The characteristic impedances of the prototype and mderived sections are to
be equal so that they may be joined without mismatch. By use of the transformation
for the shunt arm,
2
2
Z
Z '
m
+ +
from which
1
1
2 2
1
Z '
1 1
4m
mZ
Z
1 m
and if
1 1 2 2
L C L C , then
2
2 1
1 2
k
1 2
L L
Z Z R
C C
Thus the previously developed theory still applies
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At the cutoff frequencies,
1 2
Z 4Z
Multiplying by Z
1
gives
2 2
1 1 2 k
Z 4Z Z 4R
from which the value of Z
1
at the cutoff frequencies is obtained as
1 k
Z j2R t
so that
1
Z
at lower cutoff f
1
=  Z
1
at upper cutoff f
2
The reactance of the series arm at the cutoff frequencies then can be written by
use of the above as
( )
1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
2 2 1
1 1 1 2 1 1
2
1 1
L L
C C
1 L C L C 1
or the frequency of resonance of the individual arms should be the geometric mean of
the two frequencies of cutoff.
If the filter is terminated in a load R = R
k
, as is customary, then the values of the
circuit components can be determined in terms of R and the cutoff frequencies f
1
and
f
2
. At the lower cutoff frequency,
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1 1
1 1
2
1
1 1
2
0
1
L 2R
C
f
1 4 Rf C
f
In view of Eq., the expression for C
1
becomes
2 1
1
1 2
f f
C
4 Rf f
From equation it is possible to obtain the values for the shunt arm as
( )
( )
2 1 2
2 1
1 2
1
2 2
2 1
R f f
L C R
4 f f
L 1
C
R R f f
This completes the design of the prototype bandpass filter.
Figure: mderived bandpass section
An mderived bandpass section is also possible. Use of the transformation
relation developed in section leads to a network of the form of fig. The shunt arm
then consists of seriesresonant and antiresonant circuits in series. Plotting reactance
curves for these two circuits and adding to obtain the reactance variation of the shunt
arm, Z
2
of the filter, gives the dashed curve of fig. The antiresonant frequency of the
arm as a whole must, by previous reasoning, be f
0
of the filter. The reactance curve
for Z
2
then shows that the shunt arm becomes resonant at a frequency below f
0
and
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again at a frequency above f
0
.
Figure: Reactance curves for the shunt arm of the mderived bandpass
section.
At these frequencies the network is shortcircuited, and thus they are frequencies of
high attenuation, f
, the reactances X
r
and X
ar
are equal and opposite, so that
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
1
2
2 2
1
2
2 1 2
1 1
2
2 2
j L / m j/ mC j 1 m
j L
4m j 1 / mC L / m
4m/ 1 m C
L C
1 m
L C 1
4 L C 1
_
1
,
]
In view of the fact that
1 1 2 2
2
0
1
L C L C
L
Equation becomes
2
2 2
2 2
2 1
2
0
1 m f
1 4 f L C
4 f
_
,
The term L
2
C
1
can be evaluated as a function of f
1
and f
2
from Equations and
( ) ( )
2
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
2 4
1 2 1 2 0
f f R f f f f
L C
4 Rf f 4 f f 16 f
1
1
]
Equation then reduces to
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( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 2 2
1 2 2 1
2 1 2
1 2
2
1 m f f f f f f
f f
f f f 0
1 m
t +
+ +
Equation may be solved to determine the value of m, giving
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 1
2
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
2
1 2
f f f
m 1
f f f
1 f f f f
f f f
1
1
The value of m may be chosen to place either one of the two frequencies of
peak attenuation at a desired point, the other frequency of peak attenuation then
being definitely fixed. That this is true may be chosen by forming the product for
1 2
f f
from Equations and:
( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2
2
1 2 0
f 2f f 4m f f f 2f f f
f f f f
4 1 m
f f f
2
+ + +
Thus f
0
is the geometric mean of the frequencies of peak attenuation and, by
Equation, of the cutoff frequencies as well. If m is selected to place f
01
at a desired
point, then by Equation,
2
f
and
2
f
,
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Since
2
2 2
0
1
L C ,
2
1
1 2
2
0
f
1 f C R
f
2 1
2
1 2
1 f f
C
R f f
_
,
In view of the fact that
0 1 2
2 2
1
f f f
2 L C
then
( )
2
2 1
R
L
4 f f
By use of Equation, the values for the series arm are obtained as
( )
( )
2 1
1
1 2
1
2 1
R f f
L
f f
1
C
4 R f f
Section of the mderived form may also be obtained.
10. Explain the crystal filters.
The lattice structure can also be shown to have filter properties. Considering
the network of fig.
Figure: Lattice filter section
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( )
( )
2
1 2
1 2
1
2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
1 2
Z / 2 2Z
Z
2 Z / 2 2Z
Z
Z
4
Z Z Z Z
Z
Z / 2 2Z Z / 2 2Z
Z Z
Z / 4 Z
+
+
+
+ +
+
The characteristic impedance of the fig. Lattice filter section. Lattice section then is
0L sc 1 2
Z Z Z Z Z
Thus if the section elements are reactive, Z
0L
is real, or a pass band exists for
frequencies for which Z
1
and Z
2
are of opposite sign. Over ranges where Z
1
and Z
2
have the same sign, an attenuation band exists.
Propagation can be investigated further by noting that
sc 1
oc 2 1 2
Z Z 1
tanh
Z Z 1 Z / 4Z
1
1
+
]
It may be noted that Z
0L
depends on the product of Z
1
and Z
2
, whereas
depends on the ratio of Z
1
to Z
2
. This feature permits somewhat greater versatility in
design of the lattice section over the T or section, especially for filters in which
certain of the elements are constructed of piezoelectric crystals. These crystals have
a resonant frequency of mechanical vibration dependent on certain of their
dimensions; and because of the very high equivalent Q of the crystals, it is possible to
make very narrow band filters and filters in which the attenuation rises very rapidly at
cutoff.
The equivalent electric circuit of a quartz mechanicalfilter crystal is shown in
fig. (a), which shows a possibility of both resonance and antiresonance occurring. The
inductance L
x
is very large, being in henrys for crystals resonating near 500 kc, so that
while Rx may approximate a few hundred or few thousand ohms, the effective Q may
be in the range of 10,000 to 30,000. Considering the properties of resonant circuits,
such as Q would provide a band width of 20 to 50 cycles at 500 kc.
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Figure: (a) Equivalent electrical circuit for a piezoelectric crystal; (b)
reactance curves for the circuit of (a).
The resistance of the crystal is due largely to mechanical damping introduced
by the electrodes and by the surrounding atmosphere. By placing a crystal in an
evacuated container, the value of Q can be notably increased. The electrodes are
normally electroplated onto the crystal faces and need not introduce much damping.
Capacitance C
s
is the equivalent series capacitance of the crystal forming a
resonant by the crystal electrodes. The values of C
s
, and C
p
are such that C
p
>> C
s
, so
that resonant and antiresonant frequencies of the circuit lie very close together,
differing by a fraction of 1 per cent of the resonant frequency. The reactance curve
sketch of fig. (b) shows the resonant frequency below the antiresonant one. By
placing adjustable capacitors in parallel with the crystal, C
p
can be increased, resulting
in the antiresonant frequency being moved closer to the resonant point.
Since the crystal represents either a resonant or antiresonant circuit, it may be
used to replace the normal elements of the bandpass or bandelimination filter. as
previously shown for bandpass action, the resonant frequency of one arm must equal
the antiresonant frequency of the other arm.
Figure: (a) Circuit of a lattice crystal filter with series inductors and parallel
capacitors; (b) the electrical equivalent of (a).
The pass band with crystal elements will then be found to extend from the
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lowest crystal resonant frequency to the highest crystal antiresonant frequency, or a
width of pass band equal to twice the separation of the resonant and antiresonant
frequencies of one crystal. This range will result in a pass band a fraction of 1 per
cent wide. The band width can be reduced by putting adjustable capacitors in parallel
with the crystal, furnishing a means of adjustment of the width of the pass band.
By the addition of coils in series with the crystals the pass bands may be
widened. Since the added coils have Q values very much below those of the crystals,
there will be some loss in sharpness at cutoff. A circuit including series coils is shown
in fig. (a), with its equivalent drawn at (b). The reactance curves for the A and B
portions of this circuit are drawn in fig. (a), which shows how the resonances and
antiresonances are arranged. The presence of the series coil adds an additional
resonance, and the pass band exists from the lowest resonance of one crystal to the
highest resonance of the other. If f
1
and f
2
are the frequencies of resonance of one of
the circuits and f
R
is that of the antiresonance, then
s
1,2 R
p
C
f f 1
C
m
The separation of f
1
and f
2
represents twothirds of the pass band and is seen to
depend on the
s p
C / C
ratio. Since s p
C / C
may be of the order of 0.01, it can be seen
that the separation of f
1
and f
2
be of the order of 0.10 f
R
, or 10 per cent of the
resonant frequency. By placing coils in series with the crystals, it has been possible to
widen the pass band considerably. By adjustment of C
p
it is then possible to narrow
the band to any desired amount.
Figure: (a) Reactacne curves for the circuit of fig. (a); (b) attenuation
curves for that circuit.
Thus the use of coils permits the bands to be widened to pass speech
frequencies, and crystal filters are quite generally used to separate the various
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channels in carrier telephone circuits, in the range above 50 kilocycles.
11. Design a composite low pass filter to meet the following specifications.
The fitler is to be terminated in 500 ohms resistance and it is to have a
cutoff frequency of 1000 Hz with very high attenuation at 1065 and 1250 Hz.
Solution:
Given R= 500 ; fc = 1000 Hz; f = 1065 Hz.
f2 = 1250 Hz.
i) Design of low pass constant kT section
500
0.159
1000
1 1
0.63
. 1000 500
R
I H
fc
C f
fc R
The assembly of this filter is a shown below with inductance L/2 in each series arm.
ii. Design of m derived low pass T section (Ref fig (b)
a) for
2
2
2
1 1
1065
1000
m 1 1 0.344
1065
t
f
fc
m
f
1
1
1
1
]
]
The components of m derived lowpass T section filter for m = 0.344 are
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( )
( )
2
2
0.344 1.59
0.0273
2 2
0.344 0.636 0.218
0.344
1
. 0.159
4 4 0.344
= 0.102 H
mL
H
mc f
m
L
m
The assembly of this m derived lowpass t section filter is as shown below
2
2
2
2
1000
1
1250
fc
m
f
1
1
1
1
]
]
The components of m derived low pass T section filter for m = 0.6 are
( )
( )
2
2
0.6 0.159
0.048
2 2
0.6 0.636 0.3816
1 0.6
1
0.159
4 4 0.6
= 0.0424 H
mL
H
mc f
m
m
The assembly of the m derived low pass T section filter for m = 0.6 as shown
below.
Assembling all the three sections we will get the desired composite filter.
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In the 3
rd
section i.e., for m = 0.6, the filter is divided into sections so these
value get changed.
( )
2
1
2 . 0.0424 2 0.0848
4
0.218
0.109
2 2
m
L
m
mc f
and f
Combine the elements with ever possible. The series inductors may be added
and the resulting final design I as shown below.
12. i. Describe a prototype T section band stop filter.
ii. Determine the formulae required for designing band stop filter.
iii. Explain the advantages of m derived band stop fitler.
i. Band stop filter:
A band stop or bad elimination filter attenuates a certain range of frequencies
and passes all other frequencies there fore a band stop action may be thought of as
that of a low pass filter in parallel with a high pass filter in which the cut off frequency
of low pass filter is below that of high pass filter.
ii.
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Ttype
( ) ( )
( )
1 1 1 1
1 1 2 2
1 1
2
1 1 1 1 1
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1
1
1/ 1/
1/
1/ 1
LC LC
LC L C
Z j L
j C
j L C j LC C
j L j C
j L
j L j C L C
+
+
If the filter is to be constant K type
Z
1
Z
2
= RK
2
2
2 1 1 2
2
1 2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2 1
1 2
1
1 2
1 2
2 2
1 1 2
1
1
1; 4
4 4
LC j L
j RK
C L C
LC L C
L L
RK
C C
Z
Z Z
L Z
Z Z Z RK
1
1
Z
1
at lower cut off fi = Z
1
at upper cut off f
1 2 1 2
1 1 1
1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
1 1
1
1 1
j L j L
j C j C
L L
C C
1
+ +
1
]
+
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( )
( ) ( )
2 2 1
1 1 2 1 1
2
1 1 2
0
2 2
1 1 2
2 2
0 2 0
2 2
1 1 2
2 2
0 0 0
2
0 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
2
1
2
k
k
LC LC
LC
f f f
f f f
f f f f f f f
fr f f
Z JR
j L jR
j C
1
1
]
1
1
]
+ + +
+
1 1
1 1
2
1 1 1 1
1
2
1 2
k
k
j L jR
C
C L R C
1
+
1
]
2
1
1 1 2
0
2 1
1
1 2 2
4
k
k
r
R f C
f f
R f C
f
2 1
1
1 2
4
k
f f
C
R f f
( )
( )
( )
1 1 2 2
0 1 2
1
2 1
2 1 2
2 1
2 2
1
2 2
2 1
1 1
4
4
1
k
k
k
k k
LC
f f
R
L
f f
R f f
L C R
f f
L
C
R R f f
3
0 6
3
0
80 10
0.02 10
2 10
L
R
C
R ohms
14. Design a constant k low pass T and II sections fitlers having cutoff
frequency = 3000 Hz and nominal characteristic impedance R0= 600 ohm.
Solution:
Given f
c
= 3000 Hz; Ro = 600
0
0
600 1
3000 5
63.68
1 1
600 3000
0.1753
c
c
R
L
f
L mH
C
R f
C f
Hence the require T and II section lowpass filter are 63.68 mH
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15. Design a constant k low pass filter having Fc= 2000 Hz and nominal
characteristic impedance R0=600. Also find the frequency at which this
filter offers attenuation of 19.1 dB.
Solution:
Given: f
c
= 2000 Hz: R0 = 600 ohm ; = attenuation = 19.1 dB.
0
600
600 2000
95.54
c
R
L
f
L mH
0
1 1
600 2000
0.263
c
C F
R f
C F
16. Design a T section constant K high pass filter having cut off frequency
of 10KHz and nominal characteristic resistance of Ro=600 om. Find i) its
characteristic impedance and phase constants at 25 KHz and ii) Attenuation
5KHz.
Solution:
Given Fc = 10 KHz ; R0 = 600 ohm
0
600
4 4 10 103
4.77
c
R
L
f
L mH
Each capacitor in the series arm T section is 2C= 0.02652 F and the inductor
in shunt arm is L=4.777 mH.
At f= 25 KHz
( ) ( )
2
0
2
1
1
10
600 1
25
545
2 sin / 2sin 10/ 25
47.2 =47.52 /180=0.0824 radians
OT
OT
OT
c
fc
Z R
f
Z
Z
f f
or
1
1
]
1
1
]
In the attenuation band, is given as,
( ) ( )
1 1
2 cosh / 2 cosh 10/ 5
2.6 nepers
c
f f nepers nepers
17. Determine a prototype band pass fitler section having cut off
frequencies of 2000 Hz and 500 Hz and nominal characteristic impedance of
600 ohms.
Solution:
( ) ( )
( )
0
1
2 1
1
1
2 1
1
1 2
600
5000 2000
63.68
31.84
2
5000 2000
4 , , 4 600 5000 2000
0.0381
0.0762
a
R
L
f f
L mH
L
mH
f f
C F F
R f f
C F
ICI F
Practically
R L
is alwas higher then
G C
6. What is called an infinite line?
The analysis of the transmission of the electric waves along any uniform and
symmetrical transmission line can be done interms of the result existing for an
imaginary
line of infinite length, having electrical constants per unit length identical to that of
the line under consideration.
7. Discuss the importance of smooth line.
A line terminated in its characteristic impedance Ro is called properly terminated
line which acts as a smooth line. Because of proper termination, there is no mismatch
of impedance. Hence no reflection takes place. Thus no standing waves are
produced. Then the maximum power transfer from generator to load is possible.
8. Draw the equivalent circuit of a unit length of transmission line.
9. Define characteristic impedance.
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When a finite transmission line is terminated with ZO and the input impedance is
also ZO, then ZO is known as characteristic impedance. i.e the input impedance of an
infinite line is characteristic impedance of line,
10. Define return loss.
Return loss is defined as the ratio of power at the receiving end due to incident
wave to power due to reflected wave by the load.
Returns loss = 20 log
R o
R o
Z Z
Z Z
+
db
11. Define reflection factor?
Reflection factor is defined as the ratio which indicates the change in current in the
load due to reflection at the mismatched junction.
K=
2
R o
R o
Z Z
Z Z +
12. Express reflection factor in terms of impedance.
Reflection factor =
1 2
1 2
2 Z Z
Z Z +
where Z1 and Z2 are the impedance seen looking both ways at any junction.
13. Find out the value of Reflection coefficient (K) for the following;
i) Properly matched condition  K = 1
ii) Short circuited line  K = 0
iii) Open circuited line K = 0
14. What is Campells equation?
It makes possible the calculation of the effects of loading coils in reducing
attenuation and distortion.
1
sinh
2
Zc
CoshN N CoshN
Zo
+
when
ZC loading coil impedance
Zo Characteristic impedance
N Length of Transmission line section
Propagation constant
1
Modified propagation constant.
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15. What are the basic application of transmission lines?
i. It is used to transmit energy
ii. It can be used a circuit elements like L>C. and resonant circuits.
iii. It can be used as filters, transformers, measuring devices.
16. State the condition for minimum attenuation with L and C variable.
With L variable , L =
CR
G
With C; variable , C =
LG
R
In general, RC = LG
17. Give the types of transmission line
The commonly used transmission lines are:
i) Open wire line.
ii) Coaxial line
iii) Strip line
iv) Waveguides
v) Optical fibers.
18. Write short notes on transmission line.
The open wire transmission line consists of two conductors spaced at a certain
distance apart. The spacing between the conductors is large in comparison to the
diameter of the line conductors. As a result these lines can operate at higher
frequencies.
This type of line is used in transmission of electric power, telegraphy and
telephony,
The conductor of open wire line is as shown below.
19. Give the advantages of open wire transmission line.
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The advantages of open wire line are:
(i) Simple to construct and low cost.
(ii) Insulation between the line and conductor is air so, the dielectric loss is
extremely small.
(iii) It is balanced with respect to ground
20. What are the disadvantages of open wire transmission line?
(i) These lines are unsuitable for use at frequencies above 100MHz. Because
energy loss takes place due to radiation.
21. Write short notes on coaxial line (or) Coaxial cable.
To avoid radiation losses taking place in open wire lines at high frequencies a
closed field configuration is used by surrounding the inner conductor with an outer
cylindrical hollow conductor and the arrangement is termed as a coaxial cable.
22. Give the advantages and disadvantages of coaxial transmission line.
Advantages:
(i) The electric and magnetic fields are confined with in the outer conductor so
the radiation losses are eliminated.
(ii) It provides outer shielding from outer interfacing signals.
(iii) The coaxial line can be used up to the frequency range of about 1 GHz for
transmission of signals.
Disadvantages:
(i) They are costlier than open wire line.
(ii) Beyond 1GHz these cables cannot be used because losses in the dielectric
increases with frequency.
23. What do you mean by Waveguide?
Wave guides are hollow conducting tubes of uniform cross section used for U. H. F.
Transmission by continuous reflection from the inner walls of the guide.
24. Give the application of microwaves
(i) Satellite communication (ii) Telemetry (iii) Transmission of video signals (iv)
Microwave oven.
25. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Waveguide?
The advantages of waveguides are:
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i) In wave guides, no power is lost through radiation because the electric
and magnetic fields are confined to the space within the guides.
ii) The dielectric loss is negligible.
iii) Frequencies of the wave higher than 3GHz can be easily transmitted
iv) Several modes of electromagnetic waves can be propagated with in a
single Waveguide.
The Disadvantages of wave guides are:
(i) Cost of the wave guide is so high
(ii) The wave guide walls should be specially plated to reduce resistance to avoid
skin effect and power loss.
26. What is an optical fiber?
An optical fiber is a dielectric wave guide that operates at optical frequencies. It
confines electromagnetic energy in the form of light within its surfaces and guides the
light in a direction parallel to its axis.
27. What are the advantages and disadvantages of optical fiber?
Advantages:
(i) Low transmission loss and very high band width
(ii) Small size and weight
(iii) No radio frequency and electromagnetic interference
(iv) Ruggedness and flexibility
Disadvantages:
(i) It is difficult to run cables where the bending occurs.
(ii) Different specialized techniques have to be followed to join ends of two
cables.
28. What are the four important parameters of a transmission line?
The main four parameters of transmission line are
Resistance  R
Inductance  L
Capacitance  C
Conductance  G
29. Define propagation constant of uniform line.
The propagation constant per unit length of a uniform line is defined as the natural
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logarithm of steady state vector ratio of current or voltage at any point, to that at a
point unit distance further from source, when the line is infinitely long
30. When a transmission line is said to be uniform?
A line is said to be uniform, when the primary constants R, L, C and G are
uniformly distributed along the entire length of transmission.
31. Name the secondary constants of transmission line.
Characteristic impedance Zo and Propagation constant P (or) are the
Secondary constants of transmission line
32. What is the value of characteristic impedance of openwire line?
The characteristic impedance of openwire line is
Z
o
= 276 log
10
S
r
ohms
Where S is the spacing between two wirescentre to centre
r is radius of either of the wire.
33. What is the value of characteristic impedance of coaxial cable?
The characteristic impedance of coaxial cable Is
10
138log
D
Zo
d
ohms
Where
D is inner diameter of outer conductor
d is diameter of inner conductor
34. Define velocity of propagation.
Velocity of propagation is defined as the velocity with which a signal of single
frequency propagates along the line at a particular frequency f . It is denoted as Vp
and its unit is km/sec.
35. Define group velocity.
Group velocity is defined as the velocity of envelope of a complex signal. (or) It is a
velocity with which a signal produced by variation of a steadystate wave or by
introduction of group frequencies. It is denoted as Vg.
36. What is loading of a transmission line?
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The process of achieving the condition RC = LG either by artificially increasing L
or decreasing C is called loading of a line.
37. What are the advantages of lumped loading?
The advantages of lumped loading are
There is no practical limit to the value by which the inductance can be
increased.
Cost is small
Hysterisis and eddy current losses are small.
38. What are the disadvantages of reflection?
1. Reduction in efficiency,
2. If the attenuation is not large, then the reflected wave appears as echo at
the sending end.
3. The part of received energy is rejected by the load, hence output reduces.
These are the disadvantages of reflection.
39. What is frequency distortion?
A complex applied voltage, such as a voice voltage containing many frequency
will not have all frequencies transmitted with equal attenuation of the received wave
form will not be identical with the input wave form at the sending end. This variation
is called frequency distortion.
40. What is phase or Delay Distortion?
All frequencies applied to a transmission line will not have the same time of
transmission, some frequencies being delayed more than others. For an applied voice
voltage wave, the received wave will not be identical with the input wave form at the
sending end, since some components will be delays more than the other. This
phenomenon is called Delay distortion.
41. Define Reflection coefficient.
The ratio of amplitudes of the reflected of incident voltage waves at the
receiving end of the line is called reflection coefficient.
Reflected voltage at load
K
Incident voltage at load
This is because both E and I are function of S.
2
2
..........(3)
d E
ZEY
ds
IZ
2
2
.....(4)
and
d I
YIZ
ds
The equations (3) and (4) are the second order differential equations describing
the transmission line having distributed constants, all along its length. It is necessary
to solve these equations to obtain the expression of E and I.
Replace the operation d/dS by m hence we get.
(m
2
ZY) E = 0 but E 0
m =
ZY t
.. (5)
Same result is true for the current equation.
So, there exists two solutions for positive sign of m and negative sign of m. The
general solution of the equations for E and I are,
..........(6)
( 1) ...........(7)
E Ae ZYS Be ZYS
I e ZYS e ZYS
+
+
Where A, B, C and arbitrary constants of integration.
It is now necessary to obtain the values of A, ,B, C and D.
As distance is measured from the receiving end S = 0 indicates the receiving end
E = IE
R
and I = I
R
at S = 0
Substituting in the solution,
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E
R
= A + B .. (8(a))
I
R
= C + D ..(9(b))
Same condition can be used in the equations obtained by differentiating the equations
(6) and (7) with respect to S.
( )
( )
dE
A ZYe ZYs B ZY e ZYs
ds
and
dI
C ZYe ZYs D ZY e ZYs
ds
But
dE dI
IZand Ey
ds ds
+
+
( ) ...(9)
( ) ..(10)
( )
IZ A ZYe Zys B Zy e Zys
andEY C ZYe ZYs D ZY e ZYs
A B
I ZYe Zys ZY e ZYs
Z Z
. . ....(11)
.....(12)
Y Y
i e I A e ZYS B e ZYS
Z Z
Z Z
andE C e ZYS D ZYS
Y Y
SHORT SECTION PQ, distance x from the sending end of transmission line.
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Now use S = 0 , E = E
R
and I  I
R
............(13( )
.........(13( )
R
R
Y Y
I A B a
Z Z
Y Y
andE C D b
Z Z
The equation 8a, 13a, 13b are to be solved simultaneously to obtain the values of
the constants A, B, C and D.
Now while solving these equations use the results,
R
R o
R
E R j L Z
Z andZ
I G j C Y
+
+
Hence the various constants obtained, after solving the equations simultaneously
are,
1 .......(14)
2 2 2
1 ........(15)
2 2 2
1 .........(16)
2 2 2
O R R R
R
O R R R
R
R R R R
O
Z E I E Z
A
Y Z
Z E I E Z
B
Y Z
I E I Z Y
C
Z Z
_
+ +
,
_
,
_
+ +
,
1 ............(17)
2 2 2
R R R R
O
I E I Z Y
D
Z Z
_
,
Hence the general solution of the differential equation is,
1 1 ..(18)
2
1 1 ..(19)
2
O O R
R R
R R R
O O
Z Z E
E e ZYS e ZYS
Z Z
I Z Z
E e ZYS e ZYS
Z Z
1 _ _
+ +
1
, ,
]
1 _ _
+ +
1
, , ]
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Taking LCM as Z
R
and taking
R O
R
Z Z
Z
+
out from equation (18)
( ) ( )
..(20)
2 2 ( )
R R O R R O
R R R O
E Z Z E Z Z
I e ZYs e ZYs
Z Z Z Z
1 +
1
+
]
Taking LCM as Zo and taking
R O
R
Z Z
Z
+
out from equation (19)
( ) ( )
..(21)
2 ( )
R R O R O
O R O
I Z Z Z Z
I e ZYS e ZYS
Z Z Z
1 +
1
+
]
The negative sign is used to convert Z
o
Z
R
to Z
R
 Z
o
The equation (20) and (21) is the general solution of a transmission line.
Another way of representing the equation is
( )
Re Re
( )
2
2
R
R O R O
R
R
Oe
R
Oe
E
E Z Z e ZYs Z Z e ZYs
Z
E
E Z ZYs Z ZYs Z ZYs
Z
Z ZYs
1
+ +
]
1
+ +
]
But
2
R R
R R
R R
R
E E
Z hence I
I Z
e ZYs e ZYs
E E
1
+
+
1
]
......(22)
2
R O
e ZYs e ZYs
I Z
1
+
1
]
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and
2
.............(23)
2
R
R
O
e ZYs e ZYs
I I
E e ZYs e ZYs
Z
1
+
+
1
]
1
+
1
]
But
( ) ( )
2
2
1 ....(24)
R R O
e ZYs e ZYs
COSh ZYsand
e ZYs e ZYs
Sinh ZYs
E E Cosh ZYs Z Sinh ZYs
+
+
and I
( ) ( )
/ sinh ..........(25)
R R O
I Cosh ZYs E Z ZYs
The equation (24) and (25) give the values of E and I at any point along the length
of the line.
Important Note:
The similar equations can be obtained in terms of sending and voltage Es and Is. If X
is the distance measured down the line from the sending end then,
X = 1 s
And the equation (24) and (25) get transferred in term Es and Is as
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
/
S S O
S S O
E E Cosh ZYx I Z Sinh ZYx
I I Cosh ZY x E Z Sinh ZYx
+
+
And ZY as derived earlier and hence equation can be written in terms of
propagation constant .
Summarizing.
If receiving end parameters are known and s is distance measure from the receiving
end then,
E= E
R
cos h ( s ) +I
R
Zo sin h ( s)
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I = I
R
cosh ( s) +ER /Zo sin h ( s)
And if sending end parameters are known and X is distance measure from the
receiving end then,
E = Es cosh ( x ) + Is Zo sinh ( x )
I = Is cosh ( x ) +Es/Zo sinh( x)
Any set of equations can be used to solve the problems depending on the values
given.
2. Explain the physical significance of General solution.
From the qeuesed solutions, the sending end current can be obtained by
substituting S = I measured from the receiving end.
Es = E
R
cosh ( I ) + I
R
Zo sinh ( I ) (1)
Is = I
R
[cos h ( I) + E
R
/Zo sin h ( I ) ..(2)
Now Z
R
= E
R
/ I
R
Is = [ I
R
cos h ( I) + Z
R
/Zo I
R
sin h ( I ) ]
Is = [ I
R
cos h ( I )+ Z
R
/ Zo sinh ( I ) ] (3)
Now if the line is terminated in its characteristic impedance Zo then,
Is = [ I
R
cosh ( I ) + sinh ( I ) ]. As Z
R
= Zo
Is / I
R
= [ cosh ( I ) + sinh ( I ) ]= e
W
.(4)
This is the equation which is already derived for the line terminated in Zo. Using
E
R
= I
R
Z
R
in equation (1),
Es = Z
R
I
R
cosh ( I ) + I
R
Zo sinh ( I )
Es = I
R
[ (Z
R
cos h ( I ) + Zo sinh ( I ) ]..(5)
Dividing (5) by (3),
[ ]
[ ]
cosh( ) sinh( )
cosh( ) / sinh( )
R R O
s
s R R O
I Z I Z I
E
I I I Z Z I
+
+
But Es / Is = Zs
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[ ]
[ ]
cosh( ) sinh( )
cosh( ) sinh( )
O R O
S
O R
Z Z I Z I
Z
Z I Z I
+
+
When the line is terminated in Zo then Z
R
= Zo SO substituting in equation (6) we
get
Zs = Zo
This shows that for a line terminated in its characteristic impedance, it input
impedance is also its characteristic impedance.
Now consider an infinite line I
Using this in equation (6) we get,
[ ]
[ ]
tanh( )
tanh( )
tanh( )
........(8)
O R O
S
O R
S O
Z Z Z I
Z
Z Z I
and I IasI
Z Z
+
This shows that finite line terminated in its characteristic impedance behaves as
an infinite line, to the sending end generator.
Thus the equations for Ex and Ix are applicable for the finite line terminated in Zo.
The equations are reproduced here for the convenience of the reader.
Ex = E
s
e
yx
and I
x
= Is e
yx
If in practice instruments are connected along the line then the instruments will
show the magnitude Es e
yx
and Is e
yx
while the phase angles cannot be obtained. If
the graph for Ex or Ix is plotted against x then it can be shown.
This is the physical significance of the general solution of a transmission line . Its
use will be more clear by studying the various cases of the line.
3. State and explain different types of distortions in line.
When the received signal is not the exact replication of the transmitted signal then
the signal is said to be distorted. There exists some kind of distortion in the signal.
There are three types of distortions present in the transmitted wave along the
transmission line.
1. Due to variation of characteristic impedance Zo with frequency.
2. Frequency distortion due to the variation of attenuation constant with
frequency.
3. Phase distortion due to the variation of phase constant with frequency.
Distortion due to Zo varying with Frequency:
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The characteristic impedance Zo of the line varies with the frequency while the line
is terminated in an impedance with does not vary with frequency in similar fashion as
that of Zo. This causes the distortion. The power is absorbed at certain frequencies
while its gets reflected for certain frequencies. So there exists the selective power
absorption, due to this type of distortion.
It is known that,
(1 / )
(1 / )
O
R j L R j L R
Z
G j C G j C G
+ + +
+ +
If for the line, the condition LG += CR is satisfied the L/R = C/G and hence
(1 / ) (1 / )
/ /
O
J L R J C G
Z R G O L C O
+ +
< <
o o
For such a line Zo does not vary with frequency and it is purely resistive in
nature.
Such a line can be easily and correctly terminated in an impedance which matches
with Z
o
at the frequencies for such a line / /
R
Z R Gor L G . This eliminates the
distortion and hence selective power absorption.
4. Write brief notes on lumped loading.
In this type of loading the inductors are introduced in lumps at the uniform
distances in the line. Such inductors are called lumped inductors. The inductors are
introduced in the limbs to keep the line as balanced circuit. The lumped inductors are
in the form of coils called loading coils.
The lumped loading is preferred for the open wire lines and cables for the
transmission improvement. The loading coil design is very much important in this
method. The core of the coil is usually Toro dial in shape and made if dimensions,
very low eddy current losses and negligible external field which restricts the
interference with neighboring circuits.
The loading coil is wound of the largest gauge of wire consistent with small size.
Each winding is divided into equal parts, so that exactly half the inductance can be
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inserted in to each leg of the circuit. These are built into steel sizes to accommodate
one or more coils. The pots protect the coils from external magnetic fields, weather
and mechanical damage. The fig. shows the construction of loading coils. White
installing the coils, the care must be taken so that the circuit balance is maintained.
No winding is reversed. If winding is, it will neutralized the inductance of other
winding reduced the overall inductance.
In the case of lumped loading. The line behaves properly provided spacing is
uniform and loading is balanced, up to a certain frequency called cutoff frequency of
the line. Upto this frequency, the added inductance behaves as if it is distributed
uniformly along the line. But above this cutoff frequency the attenuation constant
increases rapidly. The line acts as low pass fitter. The graph of against the
frequency called the attenuation frequency characteristics of the line show in the fig.
It can be see that for continuous loading the attenuation is independent if frequency
while for lumped loading it increases rapidly after the cutoff frequency.
If the loading section distance is d than keeping inductance LS of the loading coil
constant, cut off frequency is found to be proportional to the *. Hence to get the
higher cut off frequency, small lumped inductance must be used at smaller distances.
5. Write short notes on different types of transmission lines.
Transmission is the process it transmitting some signals from one place to
another. Here it can be data as in the case of transmission of computer data along
telephone lies or it can be audit/video signals from radio or television broad cost.
Electrical energy can be transmitted from one point to another by one of the two
methods namely
1. By radiation of electromagnetic waves through free space.
2. By use of electrical conductor arrangement known as transmission line.
Transmission line is a conductive method of guiding electrical energy from one
place to another. In communication these lines are used as link between transmitter
and receiver.
Transmission lines may be grouped as lumped lines or distributed lines while in
distributed liens, the electrical parameters like inductance, capacitance, resistance
and conductance are distributed uniformly across the entire line length white in
lumped lines these parameters are jumped at intervals along the line.
The commonly used transmission lines are
1. Open wire line.
2. Coaxial line.
3. Strip line.
4. Wave guides
5. Optical fibers.
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1. Open wire line:
These lines consist of two conductors spaced at a certain distance apart. This type
of line is used in transmission of electric power, telegraphy and telephony signals.
The construction of open wire line is as shown below.
These lines have distributed sonic resistance and inductance, shunt capacitance
and conductance. The electric and magnetic fields existing in the lines are shown
below.
The spacing between the conductors is large in comparison to the diameter of the
line conductors. As a result these lines can operate at high voltage. However when
operating at higher frequency the larger spacing proves to be a disadvantages
because radiation of energy from the open wire line takes place. However the
radiation loss can be minimized by reducing the spacing between wires.
The primary constants of a open wire transmission line are, resistance, inductance,
capacitance and conductance per unit length can be given as,
R = 2p /r
2
ohms.
L = / log e (S / r ) Henries.
Where,
P Specific resistance
r radios
S Spacing between conductors.
Advantages of open wire lines:
1. Simple to construct and low cost
2. Insulation between the line conductors is air. As a result the electric loss is
extremely small
3. It is balanced with respect to ground.
Disadvantages:
1. These lines are unsuitable for use at frequencies above 100 Mhz because energy
loss takes place due to radiation.
2. Coaxial lines (or) Coaxial cables:
The avoid radiation losses taking place in open wire lines at high frequencies, a
closed field configuration is used by surrounding the inner conductor with an outer
cylindrical hollow conductor and the arrangement is termed as a coaxial cable.
The construction of coaxial cable, the electric magnetic field existing in a coaxial
cable s as shown above and below.
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A typical air inner copper conductor held in position by insulating discs
Flexible cables have polythene dielectric and outer conductor in the form of copper
braided or flexibility.
It D and d are diameters of the outer and inner conductor, and also and
be the permeability and permittivity of the insulting medium, then the characteristics
impedance P of the cable is given by
10
138 / log ( / )
o
Z r r d d
the velocity of propagation
8
3*10 / V r r
Advantages:
1. The electric and magnetic fields are continued with in the conductor there by
eliminating radiation losses.
2. It provides effective shielding from outer interfering signals.
Disadvantages:
1. They are costlier then open wire lines.
2. Beyond 1Ghz these cables cannot be used because losses in the dielectric
increases with frequency.
STRIP LINES
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A form of line using finite plates and an inverting dielectric medium is turned as
strip line.
Strip lines are two types:
1. Trip late
2. Micro strip.
.Trip late Line:
This line resembles as a coaxial line in which side conductors have been
removed. The energy propagation in this line is in the form of TEM waves, provided.
The distance b/w the centre and outer plate is smaller compared with the wave length
of the signal
Disadvantages:
1. It is costlier and it also requires a manufacturing skill.
Micro strip line:
The micro strip line has a narrow conductor supported by a dielectric. The bottom
conducting plates serve as earth plate.
The micro strip line is widely used in microwave integrated circuits these
components find wide application in couplers circulators and receiver.
Micro strip lines are fabricated on fiber glass or polystyrenes printed circuit boards
as about 1.5mm thickness with copper strips. 3mm wide.
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Wave guides:
Wave guides are hollow conducting takes a uniform gross section used for U. H. F.
transform by continuous reflection from the inner walls of the guide.
Wave guide are used to minimize losses and for high power transmission at
microwave freq.
The shape of the wave guide may be rectangle or cylindrical thro which
electromagnetic waves are propagated. The propagation takes place in open wire
and coaxial lines propagation takes place in the form d transverse electric (TE) and
transverse magnetic waves.
Rectangular waveguide Elliptical waveguide.
Advantages:
1. In wave guide no power is cost throughout, because she elastic and magnetic fields
are confined to the space with in the guides.
2. The dielectric loss is negligible.
3. Several modes of electro magnetic waves can be propagated with in a single wave
guide.
4. Frequency of the wave higher than 39 hz can be easily transmitted.
Disadvantages:
1. Cost of the wave guide is very high.
2. Wave guide walls should be specially plated to reduce resistance to avoid skin
effect and power less.
Optical fibers:
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The entrance appearance of optical fibers are similar to C0axial cables. Here the
copper cores are replaced by highly put e glass (or) silica which is used to carry
modulated light energy similar to micro wave energy.
An optical fiber is a dielectric wave guide that operated at optical frequency. It
confines electromagnetic energy in the form a light to within its surfaces and guide
the light in a direction 11 d to the axis. The structure of a time cable is show below.
Advantages:
1.Low transmission loss and high band width.
2. Electrical isolation is there.
3. No radio frequency and electromagnetic item.
4. High degree of data securing is afforded.
5. Small sue and weight.
Disadvantages:
1. The cost of fiber able is very high (Rs.7000/ per meter).
2. It is difficult to run the cables where the bending occurs.
3. Different specializes technique have to the followed to join ends of two cables.
6. Explain about transmission line parameter:
Transmission line parameter:
In a open wire line, when a current is passed through it, a magnetic fields are
produced around the conductors and the voltage drop occurs along the line similarly
when a voltage is passed through a open wire line, an electric field is produced b/w
the two conductor.
The magnetic field proportional to the usual indicate that the line L as series
inductance L and the voltage drop indicate the presented series resistance R
Similarly the electric field proportion to the voltage indicates that the line contains
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shunt capacitance C and this capacitance is new useless (or) perfect so, the line also
contains conductance G
These four parameter R, L, C and G are distributed along the whole length of the
line.
The four line parameters, R, L, C. and G are termed as primary customs of a
transmission line. They are defined
Resistance R
Resistance R is designed as loop resistance per unit length of line. They it is the
sun of resistance of both the wire for unit line length. It is ohm/kn.
Inductance L
Inductance t L is defined as loop inductance per unit length of line. Thus it is the
sum of inductance of both wire for unit length. Its unit is HCGrier /km.
Conductance G
Conductance G is define as shunt conductance b/w the two wires per unit length
of line. Its unit is mhos / km.
Capacitance:
Capacitance is defined as shunt capacitance b/w the two wipes per unit length: Its
unit is farad / km
Impedance Z
The series impedance of a transmission line per unit length is given as ,
Z = R + j L ,
Where,
R line resistance, and j L Line reactance.
Admittance: Y:
The shunt admittance. Y of a transmission line per unit length is given at y = G +
j c.
Where,
G line conductance and j C line susceptance.
Characteristic Impedance Zo:
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Characteristic impedance is defines as the ratio of square root of impedance to
admittances.
/
( ) /( )
o
o
Z Z Y
Z R j L G j C
+ +
Propagation constant Y:
Propagation constant is defined at the product of square root of impedance and
admittance.
( )( ) r ZY R j L G j L + +
These characteristic impedance Z
o
and r are called as secondary constants of
transmission line.
In addition to primary and secondary constants of a transmission line there are 3
more units of transmission line theory.
Wave length:
It is defined as the distance that the wave travels along the line in order that the
total shift is 2 radiance.
It is denoted by and its unit is meter.
= 2 /
Group Velocity:
The group velocity is defined as the velocity of the develop is a complete signal.
It is denoted at g.
2 1 2 1
( ) /( ) g
Velocity of propagation:
It is defined as the velocity with which a signal of single frequency propagation
along the line at a particular frequency f.
g = f
g = 2 f/
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7. Derive the expression for telephone cables:
Telephone cables (or) telex lines are used as low frequencies transmission line. A
telephone cable is formed by two wines insulated from each other by a layer oil
impregnated paper and then twisted in pains. A large no of each pairs form an
underground cable. Such transmission lines are called as telephone cables.
At low frequencies, the series inductance reactance is quite negligible as negligible
as compared to line resistance R. Similarly line conductance is also vary small as
compared to susceptance substituting the condition in general equation for
propagation constant
( ) and the characteristic input (Zo) given.
=
( )( )..........(1)
0; 0
XY
R j L G j c
subG L
+ +
= j RC
=
45 ..........(2)
cos 45 sin 45
Rc
j RC j RC
+ +
o
o o
=
/ 2 / 2
/ 2............(3)
/ 2............(4)
RC j RC
RC
RC
+
Characteristic impedance ( )( )
o
Z R j L G j L + +
0
0
/
/ 45 ............(5)
Z R j C
Z R C and
<
o
Velocity of propagation V
p
is given as
p 4= /
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p = w/
/ 2 2 / ...........(6)
p
RC V RC
From the above equation its observed that and are independent on frequency.
This the higher frequency are attenuated move and travel faster than the lower
frequency resulting in frequency and delay distortion. Hence large distortion occurs
at higher frequencies in a telephone lines.
8. Explain insertion loss in detail and derive the expression for the same.
Insertion loss occurs due to insertion of a network or a line in between source and
load.
If input impedance Z
s
is not equal to generator impedance Z
g
, then reflection loss
occurs at terminals
11
1
. If Z
R
is not equal to Z
o
, then second reflection loss occurs at terminals 22
1
. The
overall effect of insertion of a line is to change the current through the load and hence
power delivered to load is less compared too power delivered to load when it was
directly connected to generator.
Thus insertion loss of a line or a network is defined as the number of ropers or dB
by which the current in the load is changed by insertion of a line or a network
between the load and the source.
Consider the circuit in which generator of impedance Z
g
is connected to a load of
impedance Z
R
.
1
(1)
R
g R
E
I
Z Z
+
The line is inserted between load and generator.
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Let Zs be input impedance of a line which different than Zg,
(2)
S
g S
E
I
Z Z
+
We know that input impedance of line is
(3)
(3) (2)
( ) ( )
l l
S O l l
S
l l
g O l l
s l l l l
g o
e ke
Z Z
e ke
sub in
E
I
e ke
Z Z
e ke
E
I
Z e ke Z e ke
1 +
1
1 +
+
1
]
+ +
we know that
( )
( ) (4)
2
l l R R o
s
o
I Z Z
I e ke
Z
+
This equation is obtained from general solution of line by substituting s = l
2
(5)
( )
O S
R
l l
R O
Z I
I
Z Z e ke
1 +
]
0
2 ( )
(6)
( ) ( )
( )( )
+ +
+
l l
o
l l l l
g
l l
R o
Z E e ke
Z e ke Z e ke
Z Z e ke
we know that ref. 10eff. K=
(7)
R o
R o
Z Z
Z Z
+
0
0
2
( )
R
l l l l
R R o
R o o g
R o R o
Z E
I
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z e e Z e e
Z Z Z Z
_ _ _
+ + +
' )
+ +
, , ,
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2
( )
o
R
l l l l R o R o
R o o o g g
R o R o
Z E
I
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z e Z e Z e Z e
Z Z Z Z
_ _
+ + +
' )
+ +
, ,
0
2
(8)
( )( ) ( )
R l l
R O o g R o
Z E
I
Z Z Z Z e Z Z e
+ + +
1
1
0
.
2
( )( ) ( _ )( )
R
R
g R
R
o
R
l l
R o g R o o g
I
Insertionloss
I
E
Z Z
I
I loss
Z E
I
Z Z Z Z e Z Z Z Z e
+
+ + +
1
( )( ) ( )( )
(9)
2 ( )
l l
R o o g R o o g
R
R o g R
Z Z Z Z e Z Z Z Z e
I
I Z Z z
+ + +
+
The length of line is usually very large hence 0
l
e
2
nd
term in numerator can be
neglected.
1
0
( )( )
(10)
2 ( )
l
R o g
R
R o g R
Z Z Z Z e
I
I Z Z Z
+ +
+
0
( )( )
2 ( )
l j l
R o o g
g R
Z Z Z Z e e
Z Z Z
+ +
+
( ) j + Q
But insertion loss has too be calculated as a function of ratio of current magnitudes
and hence e
j
l
can be neglected.
2
(11)
2   
2 ,
l
R o o g
R
R o g R
g R
Z Z Z Z e
I
I Z Z Z
Xand by Z Z
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
L
g R R O O
R
R g R O R
g O R O R l R
R
g O R O R
Z Z Z Z Z Zg e
I
I Z Z Z Zg Z
Z Z Z Z ZgZ
I
e
I
Z Z Z Z Zg Z
All the terms on RHS are reflection factors.
Let Ks =
2
 
g o
g o
Z Z
Z Z +
= reflection factor at source side (13)
2
 
R o
R
R o
Z Z
k
Z Z
+
= reflection factor at load side (14)
2
 
g R
SR
g R
Z Z
k
Z Z
+
= refl factor for direct connection (15)
l
e
1
2
1
0
1
2
2
2
2
o
o
Z
Z Z
Z
Z
Z
Z Z
_
+
,
+
+ +
1 1 1
2 0 1 2 2 0
2
2 1
1 2
2
2 1
1 2
2
1
1 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2
4
4
o o
o
o
o
Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
1 _ _
+ + + + +
1
] , ,
+
+
+
to obtain Z
1
and Z
2
we open circuit and short circuit the network
In open circuit the line is kept open and input impedance is measured.
1
2
2
oc
Z
Z Z +
In short circuit the second end of line is short ed and input impedance is measured.
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1 1
2
1
2
1
1
2

2 2
2
2
2
sc
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
1
+
1
]
+
+
2
1 1 2
1 2
1
2
4 2
2
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
+ +
+
2
2
.
.
o
sc c
o
o oc sc o sc oc
Z
Z
Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z
(iii) we know that
1
2 2
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1
2 2 2
1
2
1
2 4
1 (1)
2 2
o
o
Z Z
e
Z Z
subZ
Z Z Z
e
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
e
Z Z Z
+ +
+ + +
_
+ + +
,
mathematically
2
1 1 1
2 2 2
1
2
1
2
1 (2)
2 2
(1) (2)
2
1
2 2
Z Z Z
e
Z Z Z
Z
e e
Z
Z e e
Z
_
+ +
,
+ +
+
+
;
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1
2
1
2.
1 1
2 2 2
cosh 1
2
cosh sinh
(cosh sinh ) cosh 1
2
sinh 1 1
2 2
o
Z
Z
Nowe
Z
e
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
+
+
_
+ +
,
1
+ + +
1
]
Sinh
2
0 2
1 1
2
2
1
2 0
sinh
tanh
cosh
1
2 2
.
2
o
o
o sc oc c
Z
Z
Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
Z
ButZ Z Z andZ Z
+ +
+
tanh
tanh
sc oc
oc
sc
oc
Z Z
Z
Z
Z
10. Write a note on Reflection factor and Reflection loss and derive the
same.
Reflection occurs due to improper termination at the receiving end. This concept
can be extended to the function of any two impedances . Let a source of voltage Es
and impedance
1
Z
is connected to a load of impedance
2
Z
. If
2
Z
is not equal to
1
Z
,
reflection of energy takes place resulting in a change in the ratio of V to current and
alteration in the distribution of energy between the Electric and magnetic field. The
energy transferred to
2
Z
is less than that with impedance matching. A reflection is
said to have occurred. The magnitude of this loss can be computed by taking the
ratio of current actually flowing into the load to the load to the current that would
have flown if the impedance is were matched. The matching of impedance is called
as image matching and can be obtained on a live by connecting a transformer.
According to the transformer theory,
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1 2
2 1
I z
I z
(1)
For matching, the magnitude of
1
Z
can be made equal to
2
Z
by choosing
proper transformer ratio. The current which flows through the generator is
1
1
1
(2)
2
I
E
I
Z
The current
1
2
I (Under image matching condition) which flows through the load
1 1
2 1
2
1 1
2
2 1
1
2
1 2
2
(3)
Z
I I
Z
Z E
I
Z Z
E
I
Z Z
Without image matching, the current flowing through the load is
2
2
1 2
.
(4)
I
E
I
Z Z
+
The ratio of the current actually flowing into the load to that current flowing under
image condition
is
1 2 2
1
2 1 2
2
(5)
Z Z I
R
I Z Z
This is called as Reflection factor (R)
Reflection loss
It is defined as the no.of repers or dB by which the current in the load under image
matched condition would exceed the current actually flowing in the load. Then
The reflection loss in repers is
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
2
20 log
2
loss
loss
Z Z
R lu in lepers
Z Z
Z Z
R dB
Z Z
1
+
1
+
1
]
1
+
1
+
1
]
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11. Explain the Reflection of a line not terminated by Z0.
Referring to Equation
0
( )
( )
2 ( )
( )
( )
2 ( )
zys
R o
R o
R o
zys
o R
R
R o
Z Z ER
E Z Z e ZYS e
ZR Z Z
Z Z IR
I Z Z e ZYS e
ZO Z Z
1
+ +
1
+
]
1
+ +
1
+
]
There are current and voltage relationships derived for the lines which are terminated
in
o
Z
But if a line is not terminated in
o
Z
(or) it is joined to same impedance other
than
o
Z
then part of the wave is reflected back phenomenon exists for a line which is
not terminated in
o
Z
.
Reflection is maximum when the line oCi, eZR=
Reflection is maximum S c i eZ R =O
Reflection is zero when
R o
Z Z S
distance measured from the receiving end and
treated positive.
When
R o
Z Z
1) One part varying exponentially with positive S
2) One part varying exponentially with negative S
( )
( )
85 85 0
)
2
2
2
( )
( ) 2
2 2
( ) ( )
2 2
+ _
+
,
+
+
+
+
R R o R o
R R
R o
R o R
R o e
o
rly R o R R
o o
E Z Z Z Z
E e zys e ys
Z Z
ER Z Z
ZR
ER Z Z E
E e zys Z Z ys
Z ZR
IR Z Z I Z Z
III I e e
Z Z
The first component of E or I which varies exponentially with TS is called incident
wave which flows from the sending end to the receiving end. S=O at the receiving
and maximum m(s=l) at the sending end. Thus as incident wave travels from the
sending end to the receiving end, its amplification decreases. A wave which flows
from sending end to the receiving end, with decreasing amplitude is the incident
wave.
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The second component of voltage or current which travels from the receiving end
to the sending end which varies
85
e and its amplitude decreases as its progress towards
the sending end.
The total instantaneous voltage at any point on the line is the vector sum of incident
and the reflected currents are in out of phase with each other.
R o
If z Z
it can be seen that the reflected wave is absent end there is not
reflection. Such a line is uniform and there is no discontinuity existing to send the
reflected wave back along the line. Similarly along the line and the energy is
absorbed wave. Such a finite line terminated in
o
Z
without having any reflection is
called a smooth line.
12. Derive an expression for input impedance and transfer impedance and
of transmission line terminated by an impedance.
From the general solution
( )
( )
(81) (81)
(81) (81)
o R o
s
o R
Z Z wsh Z Sinh
Zin Z Z
Z wsh Z Sinh
+
+
Dividing by
( cosh (81) ) .
R
Z both Nr and Dr
We get
Z
81 81
81 81
81 81 81 81
81 81 81 81
1 (81)
(81)
(81)
( )
(81)
(3) (81)
( / )
( / )
o
R
o
o
R
R o
s
o R
R o
s o
o R
Z
Jauh
Z
Zs Z
Z
Jauh
Z
Z Z Jauh
or z
Z Z Jauh
e e
or equ jauh
e e
Z Z e e e e
Z Z
Z Z e e e e
+
+
1 +
1
+
]
+
1 +
1
+ + +
]
Equ. (3) and (4) are the I/P Impedance of a live terminated by an impedance.
Let
s
T
R
E
Z
I
s
R
o
s T
R o
R s o
s R
s R
s
o
E
I Sinh
Z xIR
I Z
I
I Z
while E E Z
Es I Zo E
E E
I
Z
Sub in equ (5)
2 2
2
2 2
cosh(81) cosh(81)
1 sinh(81)
sinh(81)
cosh (81) cosh(81) sinh (81)
1
sinh(81)
sinh(81) cosh(81) cosh(81) sinh (81)
(cosh (81) (81)) cosh(81)
(1) cosh(81)
1
1
]
s R T
R o o
R T
o
o T R T
T R
T R
E E Z
I Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Sinh Z
Z Z
This is the reg. transfer impedence.
13. Derive an expression for the Input impedance of a lossless line.
I/P impedance of a lossless live of any length or obtained from equ.
tanh(81)
______(1)
tanh(81)
,
+
+
R o
in o o
o R
Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
for loss live o therefore P j will become jB only
Hence,
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81 81 81 81
cosh(81) sinh(81)
2 2
T R o
T R o
Z Z Z
e e e e
Z Z Z
+
1 1 + +
+
1 1
] ]
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tanh( )
_____(2)
tanh( )
tanh tan
R o
in o
o R
Z Z j l
Z Z
Z Z j l
But j l l
+
Therefore
tan
tan( )
2
2
tan
______(3)
2
tan
R o
o
o R
R o
o
o R
Z jZ l
Zin Z
Z Z j l
l
Since
l
Z jZ
Zin Z
l
Z Z
1 +
1
+
]
1
+
1
1
1 +
]
Again for a lossless live, the resistive component of the live i.e., R and G will be
equal to zero
Thus
( )( ) P j R jwl G jwc
O j jwLxjwc
j jw LC
w LC
+ + +
+
(or)
If f is the frequency of operation and terminating impedance is a pure resistance
R
R
Equ (3) will become
Therefore, I/P Impedance of a lossy and lossless line.
14. Derive the equation for T and section equivalent to lines.
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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w LC
tan 2
tan 2
R o
in
o R
R jZ f LCl
Z
Z JR f LCl
+
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10c 1 3
2 3
15c 1
2 3
1 10c 3
2 20c 3
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
+
+
+
3 2 3 1
Z Z Z Z +
2 3
3 1
2 3
2 3
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
= Z Z
_
+ +
+
,
+
( )
( )
3 2 3 2 3
2 3
Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z
+
+
( )
( )
2
3 3 2 3 2 3
3 3
3 20c 10c 15c
Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z
Z Z 2 Z
_
,
+
The input impedance of oc and SC lines are,
l l R o
R o
o
10c o
l l R o
R o
Z Z
e e
Z Z
Z
Z Z
tan h l Z Z
e e
Z Z
_
_
+
+
,
_
+
, ,
for oc, Z
R
=
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l l
10c o
l l
l l
ly
13C
l l
e e
2 Z
e e
e e
III Z 20tan h l=20
e e
_
+
+
,
_
+
+
,
since the line is symmetrical
Z
10c
=Z
20c
o o
3 o
2
o o o
Z Z
Z Z tan hrl
tan h l tan h l
Z Z Z tan h l
=
tan h l tan h l
_
,
1
1
]
2 o
2 o o
o
Z
= 1 tan h l
tan h l
Z Z 1
= sec h l cosh l
tan h l sin h l cos h h l
Z
=
sin h l
( ) ( )
( )
l l
1 2 10c 3 o 3
l l
2 l l
l l l l
o
2
3 o
2
l l
e e
Z Z Z Z Z Z
e e
Z e e
e e e e
Z Z
e e
_
+
+
,
_
+
+ +
+
,
( )
l l
e e
+
( )
l
e e
+
( )
l
l l
e e
+
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
l l
2
3 o
l l
l l 2 l 2 l
2
o
l l
e e
Z Z 1
e e
e e 2 e e 2
Z
e e 2
_
+
+
,
_
+ +
+
,
( )
2
o o
2 l l
l l
4 2
z z
e e
e e
_
_
,
,
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( )
l l
10c 2 o
l l l l
l l
o
l l
e e 2
Z Z Z
e e e e
e e 2
Z
e e
_
+
+ +
,
1
+
1
1
+
]
( )
( ) ( )
2
l l / 2
o
l / 2 l / 2 l / 2 l / 2
l / 2 l / 2
o
l / 2 l / 2
1 2 o
o o
e e
Z
e e e e
e e
Z
e e
z z z tan h l/2
Z tan h l/2 Z tanh l/2
1
1
+
1
]
_
,
 Section equivalent :
1 2 2 3 3 1 A B c
A 10c
2 A B c
1 2 2 3 3 1 c A B
B 20c
3 A B c
1 2 2 3 3 1 A B
C 15c
1 A B
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z (Z Z )
Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z (Z Z )
Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
+ + +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
+ +
+
Since the line is symmetrical
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Z
A
=Z
c
=
( )
20C 15c
20c 20c 20c 10c 15c
z z
Z Z Z Z Z
+
l l
o
l l
e e
Z
e e
+
+
l l
o
l l
l l
o
o
l l l l
e e
Z
e e
2Z e e
Z
e e e e
_
_
+
+
,
,
_
+
,
2
o
l l
o
o
l l l l
l / 2 l / 2
o
Z
2Z e e
Z
e e e e
Z e e
_
+
( )
( )
( )
l / 2 l / 2
2
l / 2 l / 2
e e
e e
( )
o o
A c
2oc 15c
B
20c 10c 15c
2 2
o o
o o
Z Z
Z Z
tan h l tan h l
Z .Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z sin hrl
=
Z / sin h l Z
o
Z sin h l
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UNIT III
THE LINE AT RADIO FREQUENCIES
PART A
1. What is dissipation line?
A line for which the effect of resistance R is completely neglected is called
dissipation less line. Dissipation less there is used for transmission of power at high
frequency in which losses are neglected completely.
2. What is the nature and value of Z
o
for dissipation less line?
For dissipation less line, Z
o
is purely resistive and is given by
o o
L
Z R
C
3. What is the value of and for a dissipation less line?
The value of attenuation constant for a dissipation less line is zero and the
value of phase constant for a dissipation less line is LC radian / m.
4. What are nodes and antinodes on a line?
Nodes are points of zero voltage or current in a standing wave system and
Antinodes are points of maximum voltage or current in a standing wave system.
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5. Draw the graph between standing wave ratio (s) and reflection co
efficient (k)
6. Give the expression for skin depth.
Skin depth or nominal depth of penetration is given by
/
S meters
f m
l
where p is the resistivity of conductor in /m
f is the frequency in HZ
m is absolute magnetic permeability of conductor
in H/M
7. What are the advantages of dissipation less line?
The advantages of dissipation less line are
The line acts as a smooth line
No reflection takes place at receiving end
Standing waves are not produces.
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8. Calculate the reflection co efficient if VSWR of the line is 1.5.
VSWR =
1  
1  
1  
1.5
1  
1   1.5 1.5 
0.5   1.5 
0.5
 
2.5
  0.2
K
K
K
K
K K
K K
K
K
+
+
+
9. Define standing wave ratio.
The ratio of maximum and minimum magnitude of current or voltage on a line
having standing waves is called standing wave ratio.
max max
min
   
.
   
miin
V I
i eSWR
V I
10. What are standing waves?
When a transmission line is not terminated in its characteristic impedance, the
traveling electromagnetic wave from generator at sending end is reflected completely
or partially at the terminating end. The combination of incident and reflected wave
gives rise to standing waves of current and voltage with definite maxima and minima
along the line.
11. Give the relationship between VSWR and reflection coefficient for a
transmission line
The relationship between VSWR(S), and reflection coefficient K is
1  
1  
K
S
K
+
1 +
1
+
]
where R
o
is characteristic impedance
Z
R
is terminating impedance
is phase constant
s is length of the line.
16. Give the expression for input impedance of short circuited line.
The input impedance of short circuited line is
2
tan
sc o
s
Z jR
,
where is wavelength
s is length of the line
R
o
is characteristic impedance
17. Give the expression for input impedance of open circuited line.
The input impedance of open circuited line is
2
cot
oc o
S
Z jR
_
,
where is wave length
s is length of the line
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R
o
is characteristic impedance
18. Define dissipation factor.
Dissipation factor is defined as the ratio of energy dissipated to energy stored in
dielectric per cycle.
19. Name the device used for measuring standing wave.
The derive used for measuring standing wave is directional coupler.
20. What is the maximum resistive input impedance of a dissipation less
line?
The maximum resistive input impedance of a dissipation less line is
R
max
= S R
o
Where S is standing wave ratio and
Ro is characteristic impedance.
21. What is the minimum resistive input impedance of a dissipation less
line?
The minimum resistive input impedance of dissipation less line is
min
s
R
R
S
+
+ + +
+
+ +
100
500
0.2 k
1 0.2 1.2
1 0.2 0.8
1.5
S
S
+
24. Sketch the standing waves on a dissipation less line terminated in a load
not equal to Ro.
25. Sketch the standing waves on a line having openor short circuit
termination.
26. What is directional coupler?
Directional coupler is a device which is used to measure standing waves. It
consists of Coaxial transmission line having two small holes in the outer sheath
spaced by
1
4
wavelength clamped over these holes is a small section of line,
terminated in its Ro value at both ends to prevent reflection.
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27. State the use of half wave line.
The expression for the input impedance of the line is given as ZS = ZR. Thus the
line represent repeats its terminating impedance. Hence it is operated as one to one
transformer. The main application of a half wave line is to connect a load to a source
where both of them cannot be made adjacent.
28. What are the uses of quarter wave line?
The expression for input impedance of quarter wave line is given by
2
O
R
R
Zs
Z
This equation is similar to the equation for impedance matching using transformer.
Hence the quarter wave line is considered as transformer to match impedance of Z
R
&
Z
S
. It is used as an impedance matching section. It is used to couple a transmission
line to a resistive load such as antenna.
29. What do you mean by reflection loss?
When there is mismatch b/w the line and load, the reflection takes place. Because
of this the energy delivered to the load by the line is less it composition with the
power delivered to the load by a properly terminated line. This loss in power is called
reflection loss.
30. Explain how smith chart can be used as an admittance chart.
If the smith chart is to be used for admittance, the ri axis becomes gi axis,
whileXi axis becomes bi axis. Then above real axis, the susceptance is inductive
which is negative. The extreme left point on the real axis represents zero
conductance while the extreme right point on the real axis represent infinite
conductance.
31. What is the practical value of SWR we can achieve by double stub
matching?
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SWR = 1.2
32. What is smith chart?
Smith chart is an impedance (or) admittance chart which is used to calculate all
the parameters of transmission line. It consists of two sets of circles.
33. What is stub matching?
A section of transmission line is used as a matching by inserting then b/w load and
source. This is called sub matching.
34. What are the advantages of stub matching?
1. The length and characteristic impedance of the line remain unaltered.
2. From mechanical stand point, adjustable susceptance are added in shunt with
the line.
35. Give type of stub matching.
1. Single stub matching
2. Double stub matching.
36. Name the impedance transformer that are used at higher frequencies?
At higher frequency the impedance transformers consists as a section of
transmission line in various arrangements as listed below.
1. Quarter wave transformer (impedance inverter)
2. Stub matching.
1. Single stub matching
2. Double stub matching.
37. What are the advantage and disadvantages as quarter transformer?
Advantages:
1. It is very useful device because d its simplicity.
2. Its behaviour can be easily calculated.
Disadvantages:
1. It is so sensitive to change in freq.
38. What do you mean by impedance circle diagram?
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If impedance are plotted in the form of R X diagram it turns that for a loss less
line terminated in some fixed impedance ZF, the locus of the i/p impedance. Z
in
as
electrical length pl is varied as a circle. This circle diagram is known as impedance
circle diagram.
39. Draw the family of constant S Circle diagram.
40. Explain the direction of movement towards generator or load in circle
diagram.
In circle diagram, the movement in the clockwise corresponds to transverse from
the load towards the generator and the movement in the anti clockwise direction
corresponds to transverse from the generator towards the load.
41. What are the advantages and disadvantages * circle diagram.
Advantages:
1. It is very useful in calculating line impedance and admittances.
Disadvantages:
1. S and pl circles are not concentric making interpolation difficult.
2. Only limited range impedance value can be contained in nc chart.
42. What are the differences between circle diagram and smith chart?
The basic difference between circle diagram and smith charts are:
1. In circle diagram, the resistance component * an impedance represented in
rectangular form .
2. In smith chart, the resistive component p and resistive component x and
impedance are refines in circular form.
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43. Draw the family of constant R circles in smith chart.
44. Draw the family of constant x circle in smith chart.
45. Give the properties or smith chart:
The properties of smith chart are:
1. Normalizing impedance.
2.Plotting as an impedance
3.Determination of K in magnitude and direction
4.Determination of swr
5.Movement along the periphery of the chart.
46. Give some applications of smith chart:
1. Smith chart can be used as an admittance, diagram
2. Used for convey r + aj impedance into admittance.
3. Any value of input impedance can be easily determined.
4. Smith chart can also be used to determined load and impedance
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5. The input impedance and admittance of shot circuited line and open circuited
line can be easily calculated.
47. Draw a diagram showing how a quarter wave transformer can be used
for matching two lines.
48. What are the disadvantages of single stub marks?
1. The single stub matching system is useful only for fixed frequencies.
2. Final adjustment of the sub has to the moved along the line shifts.
49. Why short circuit stub is used in single stub matching?
The short circuit is invariably used because.
1. It radiates ups power and
2. It effective length may be varied by means of a shorting bar which normally
takes the shapes of shorting plugs.
50. A loss less line has a characteristic impedance of 400 . Determine the
stands wave ratio with the following receiving and impedance Z1 = 70 +
0.0
Solution:
O R R O
O R R O
Z Z Z Z
K
Z Z Z Z
+ +
Z
R
= 70 ; Zo = 400
70 400
33/ 47
70 400
k
+
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  33/ 47
1   1 33/ 47
5.71
1   1 33/ 47
k
k
s
k
+ +
51. Give the formula to calculate the position and length of a short circuited
stub,
The position of the stub can be calculated using the formula.
1
1
1 tan
2
20
tan
2 2
O
Z Z
S
R
+ +
+
1+1K1=1.51.51K1
2.51K1=1.51=.5
1K1=0.2.
60. Give the expression for L & C for openwire line at high frequency?
7 0
/ ( ) 9.21 10 log /
2
12.07
/
h d d
L n henrys m or L henrys m
a a
C f m
d
n
a
l
l
61. Give the expression for L & C for coaxial line at high frequency
7
2 10 henrys/m
2
C= /
b
n
a
b
L n
a
farads m
l
l
PART B
1. Write short notes on reflection losses on unmatched line.
If a line is not matched to its load then the energy delivered by the line of the load
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is less than the energy delivered by the matched line to load. Due to this unmatched
system reflected waves and standing waves are produced. The voltage at a
maximum voltage point is due to the in phase sum of the incident and reflected
waves.
In measurement of power and impedance on a Tx line we found that
max
(1  .........(1)
2
R R O
I Z R
E k
+
The total power transmitted along the line and delivered to the load is given as
( )
max min
2 2
    (   )   .  
   
..........(5)
i r i r
o o
i r
o
E E E E E E
P
R R
E E
R
+
From the above expression we can recognize the transmitted power as the
difference of two powers. One power Pi being transmitted in the incident wave and
the other power Pr traveling back in the reflected wave.
The ratio of the power P delivered to the load to the power transmitted by the
incident wave is
2
2 2
2
   
1
 
i r i r r
i i i i
P P E E E P
P P E E
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2
1   K
2
2
1
1
1
4
............(6)
( 1)
S
S
S
S
1
1
+
]
+
Now the ratio power absorbed by the load to the power transmitted is plotted as a
function of S as shown in fig.
2. Explain Eighth wave line and half wave line.
Eighth Wave Line:
The input impedance of a line of length s = /8 is
tan
(1)
tan
tan( / 4)
(2)
tan( / 4
2 /
1 +
1
+
]
1 +
1
+
]
R O
S O
O R
R O
S O
O R
Z jR s
Z R
R jZ s
Z jR
Z R
R jZ
Where
2
. / 4
8
(3)
R O
S O
O R
Z jR
Z R
R jZ
1 +
1
+
]
If the line is terminated in a pure resistance R
R
, then
(4)
R O
S O
O R
R jR
Z R
R jR
1 +
1
+
]
In equation (4) the numerator and denominator have identical magnitudes so equ
($) becomes
Zs = Ro (5)
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Thus an eighth wave line can be used to transform any resistance to an
impedance with a magnitude equal to Ro of the line. (or) to obtain a magnitude match
between a resistance of any value and a source of R0 internal resistance.
Half Wave Line:
When a length of line having s = / 2 is used, the input impedance is
tan
(1) tan 0
tan
..........(2)
R O
S O
O R
S R
Z jR
Z R Since
R jZ
Z Z
1 +
1
+
]
Thus a half wave length of line may be considered as a one to one transformer.
*It has greater utility in connecting a load to a source in cases where the load and
source cannot be made adjacent.
*A group of capacitors may be placed in parallel by connecting them with sections
of line n half waves in length. As a result insulators on a high frequency line should
not be spaced at half wave intervals, since their effect would then be cumulative,
lowering the insulation resistance of the line.
3. Explain the principle and application of Quarter wave transformer for
impedance matching (or) what are the features of a Quarter wave
transformer?
Quarter wave line Impedance Matching:
The expression for the input impedance of dissipation less line is given as
tan
(1)
tan
SR O
S O
O R
Z jR s
Z R
R jZ s
1 +
1
+
]
Equ (1) is rearranged as
tan
(2)
tan
R
O
S O
O
R
Z
jR
s
Z R
R
jZ
s
1
+
1
1
1
+
1
]
For a Quarter wave line , s = / 4
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equ (2) becomes
tan / 2
tan / 2
R
O
S O
O
R
Z
jR
Z R
R
jZ
1
+
1
1
1
+
]
2
0
.............(3)
S
R
R
Z
Z
1
]
1
1
1
]
K
L
K
L
L meter
5. A load of ZR = 140 ohms is to be connected to a line RO = 100 ohms by a
quarter wave matching transformer.
a. Find ZO of the matching transformer,
b. What is the S for the transformer?
c. If the input voltage to the line is 100v. Find the load voltage.
Solution
min max
) . 14,100
) / 140/100
118.322 . 1.1832
) 100 ; 1.1832 100
118.32
O R O
R O
O
load
a Z Z R
b S Z Z
Z OHMS S
c V v V
V volts
d) The location of V
max
on the N4 line is located at the load.
6. A 150 ohm transmission line is terminated by a load of 200 j300.
Determine the location and length of a short circuited matching stub.
Solution:
Given Z
o
= 150 ohm
Z
R
= Z
L
= 200 j 300 ohm
The single stub is constructed as follows
a) Calculate
200 300
150
1.33 2.00
R
r
O
r
Z
Z
Z
Z j
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b) Mark this point as A in the smith chart.
c) Draw the SWR circle through A the S value is 4.9
d)Extend the radial line from point A through the center to the other side of the
SWR circle and mark the point as B and to the outer perimeter as point C at
0.0057
The point B is the normalized load admittance (0.23 +j 0.36) equal to the
reciprocal of the normalized load impedance at point A (1.33 j 200)
d) Find the intersection of SWR circle and G = 1 circle mark it as point D
e) Extend the radial line from the centre to D continue the line to the perimeter E
at 0.183
The distance from load to the junction of the transmission line and the stub is
I
1
= 0.183  0.057 ; I
1
= 0.126
f) Final step is the determination of the length of the stub. The susceptance at
point D is 0 = j 1.8. So the susceptance contributed by the stub must be j 1.8.
Point F corresponds to this for a short circuited line at 0.33 . The length of the
matching stub is from 0.25 to 0.33
i.e., (0.33 0.25 ) = 0.08 = 1
2
7. Explain in details the constant R circles and constant X circles in a
smith chart.
A modified form of a circle diagram for the dissipation less line is the smith
chart developed by P.H smith. This chart consists of two circles.
1. R circles and 2. X circles (For R circles & X circles diagram refer part A
question)
This chart is also know as circular chart.
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/ 1
. . .
/ 1
1
/
1
R O R O
R O R O
r
r R o
r
Z Z Z Z
W K T K
Z Z Z Z
Z
K WhereZ Z Z
Z
+
+
Z
r
Normalized terminating impedance
Hence Zr =
1
1
K
K
+
+
When equation (1) and (2) are solved, we get two sets of circles. Equation (1)
will yield a family of circle called R circles and equation (2) will yield a family of
circles called x circles.
The constant R circles:
Consider equ (1) and cross multiply
2 2
2 2
1
(1 )
r x
r x
K K
R
K K
+
We get
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
(1 2 ) 1
2 1 0
r r x r x
r r x r r
R K K K K K
R K R RK RK K K
+ +
+ + + +
2 2
( 1) ( 1) 2 1
r r r
K R K R K R R + + +
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2 2
2 2
2 .
( 1) 1
( 1)
2 . 1
1 1
r
r x
r
r x
K R
R K K R
R
K R R
K K
R R
1
+
1
+
]
+
+ +
Adding
2
2
(1 )
R
R +
on both sides to make it a perfect square we have .
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 . (1 )
1 (1 ) (1 ) (1 )
1
1 1 (1 )
r
r x
x r
K R R R R
K K
R R R R
R R R
K K
R R R
+ + +
+ + + +
1
+ + +
1
+ + +
]
2 2
2
1
............(3)
1 1
x r
R
K K
R R
1 1
+
1 1
+ +
] ]
This equation represents the family of circles on the reflection coefficient plane,
these circles are called constant R circles having radius 1/1 + R and centre (R / 1 +
R, O ). These circles have their centers on the positive Kr axis and are contained in
the region 0 to 1 as shown in the figure below.
R = o corresponds to a circle with center (0,0( on the plane K plane. This circle
forms the periphery of the smith chart. All constant R circles touch the point ( 1, 0 )
Including that R = which is the same as the point itself.
Constant X circles:
Consider the equation (2) and cross multiplying, we get
2 2
2 2
2
(1 )
2
(1 ) 0
x
r
x
r x
K
K K
X
K
K K
X
+
+
Adding (1/x
2
) on both sides in order to make the Kx terms a perfect square we get,
2 2
( 1) ( 1/ ) (1/ ....................(4)
r x
K K X X +
Equation (4) represents another family of circles called constant X circles with
centre, (1, 1/x ) and radius (1/x on the k plane as shown in figure below.
X being the reactance can be positive or negative whenever X is positive the
circle lies above the horizontal line. On the other hand when X is negative the circle
lies below the real axis Kx = 0.
When X=0 , the circle degenerates into a straight line because straight line is
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circle whose radius is infinity and for X = 0, the radius 1/x will be infinity. All the
circles touch the point (1, 0 )
8. Derive an expression for the position of attachment and length of short
circuited stub will remove the standing wave on a large potion of a
transmission line.
Consider a transmission line having a characteristic admittance y
o
terminated in a
pure conductance y
R
as shown in the figure.
Since we connect stub in parallel with the main line it is easier to deal with the
admittance as they can be added up.
We know that y
R
is different from y
o
standing waves are set up. When we along
the line from the load towards the source (generator), the input admittance will be
varying for a maximum conductance through a parallel combination of conductance
and inductance a minimum conductance and so on this cycle repeats for every / 2.
When the line is traversed from the point of maximum (or minimum) conductance
to that of minimum (or maximum) conductance, there will be a point at which the real
part of the admittance is equal to the characteristic admittance. If a suitable
susceptance, obtained by using an appropriate length of a short circuited or open
circuited line called stub is added in shunt at this point so as to obtain and 0
resonance with the susceptance already existing, then up to that point matching has
been achieved.
The input impedance of a transmission line at any point is given as
[ ]
tan
tan
..........(1)
tan
R O
R O
in O
O R
Z jZ s
Z jZ s
Z Z
Z jZ s
+
+
+
Convert impedance to admittance
tan
tan
R O
in O
O R
Y jY s
Y Y
Y jY s
1 +
1
+
]
tan
..........(2)
1 tan
O r
in
O R
Y Y j s
Y
Y jY s
1 +
1
+
]
Where
R
r
o
Y
Y
Y
+
+ +
+
r r
in
r r
r r
r
Y j s jY s
Y
jY s jY s
Y s j Y s
Y s
For on reflection Y
in
= 1
Thus, the stub has too be located at a point where the real part is equal to unity.
2
2
(1 tan )
1
1 tan
r
r
Y s
Y s
+ +
+
2 2
2
2
tan ( ) 1
tan 1
tan 1/
r r r
r
r
s Y Y Y
Y s
s Y
tan .................(4)
o
R
Y
s
Y
This equation gives the location of the stub S and can further simplified as
1
tan /
o R
s Y Y
1
1
2
. tan /
. tan / .................(5)
2
R o
R o
s Z Z
s Z Z
+
r o o R s
o r o o R
r o o R
R o o R
R o
Y Y Y Y b
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Y Y
( )
o R o
s
o R
Y Y Y
b
Y Y
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
A r
A
O r
r r
A
r
r r
r
A A A
Y Y j S
Y
Y jY S
Y j S jy S
Y
jyr S jy s S
Y S j y S
y S
y s jb
Where,
2 2
1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1
(1 ) tan
;
1 tan 1 tan
r r
A A
r r
Y Sec S Y S
S b
Y S Y S
+ +
When a stub having a susceptance value is altered b
1
is added at this point, the
new admittance value will be,
A A A
y s jb +
Since only the susceptance value is altered by the addition of the stub the
conductance part remains unchanged
The stub length at B is adjusted such that the zero value y
A
is equal to I How the
location of the stub can be encountered in practice.
The distance s
1
can never be more than or equal to / 2.
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The distance chosen will be either / v or 3 / 8.
Since matching is obtained between the point B and generator, we have
reflection loss occurring to the right of B due to mismatch.
In order to avoid this loss, sometimes the first stub is located at the load itself. In
common practice the distance s
1
is of the order of 0.1 to 0.15
10. Give the method of constructing single stub matching using Smith Chart.
A single Stub matching is constructing by following the procedure as below.
Step 1 : Calculate the normalized impedance of admittance.
Step 2 : Mark this point as A in the smith chart,
Step 3 : Draw the SWR circle through A
Step 4 : Extend the radial line from point A through the centre to the other side of
the SWR . Circle and mark this point as B
Step 5 : Extend the AB radial line towards outer perimeter and mark it as C
Step 6 : Find the intersection of SWR circle and G = 1 circle mark it as D
Step 7 : Extend the radial line from the center to D and continue the line to the
perimeter and mark it as E
Step 8 : The difference between the points C and E gives the distance of the stub
to load.
Step 9 : Find the susceptance at the point D to cancel this susceptance mark it in
opposite direction and mark it as F.
Step 10 : Find the difference between the values of 0.25 and the value at F point.
This gives the length of the stub.
This is the procedure to construct a single stub matching using smith chart.
11. A 9/16 long lossless line has Zs/Ro = 1.5 + j0.9. Where Zs is the
impedance and Ro is the characteristic resistance. Find the load impedance
normalized to R0 and also the standing wave ratio.
Solution
The given values are,
1.5 0.0
9/16
o
o
Z
j
R
S
+
+
1
+
1
]
1
+
1
]
O R O S
O O
R O
S
R O
Z Z jR
R R jZR s
Z R j
Z
Z R
j
R
9
/ tan
8
1.5 0.9
9
1 tan
8
R O
R
Z R j
j
Z
j
R
_
+
,
+
_
+
,
9
(1.5 0.9)1 . tan / tan(9 / 8)
8
(1.5 0.9)1 1 .(0.4142) / (0.4142)
(0.5 0.9) / (0.37278 0.6213 1) (0.4142)
0.4142 (1.5 0.9)
0.6272 0.6213
R
R O
O
R
R O
O
R O
R
O
jZ
j Z R j
R
jZ
j Z R j
R
j Z R j j
Z j j
R j
+ + +
_
+ + + +
,
+ +
+
+
0.4142 (1.5 0.9) 1.5 0.4858
0.6272 0.6213 0.6272 0.6213
0.8198 1.5867
R
O
j j j
j j
Z
j
R
+
+ +
+
Reflection coefficient
/ 1
/ 1
0.8198 1.5867 1
0.8198 1.5857 1
0.180 1.5867
0.37569 0.544
1.8198 1.58
  0.3757
+ +
+
+ +
+
+
+
R O R O
R O R O
Z R Z R
K
Z R Z R
j
k
j
j
j
j
k
Standing wave ratio, S =
1   1 0.3757
1   1 0.3757
K
K
+ +
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S = 2.20
12. If a lossless line has R
o
=200 ohms. What length of the line will be
required to obtain at the input of an inductance of 8 micro hertz at
frequency of 70 mHz with far end short circuited? Repeat the calculation of
open circuited received end.
Solution
The input impedance of a short circuit 4d line is a pure reactance is given by,
0
tan(2 / ).
ac
Z jR S
Substitute the values
6 6
1
2
2 70 10 8 10 200tan
2 15 70
tan
200
2
tan 17.6
s
s
J j
s
s
_
,
_
86.75
180
radians
0.241 S
The impedance of an open circuited line is given by
2
cot
oc o
s
Z jR
,
Substitute the values,
( )
6 6
1
2
2 70 10 80 10 200cot
2 2 560
cot 17.6
200
cot 2 / 17.6
2 / cos 17.6
s
J j
s
s
_
,
_
,
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3.25
180
(1 2 / ) 3.25 /180
radians
s
2 3.25
1 ; 0.981. / 2
180
s
s
0.4905 s
13) Explain the terms standing waves , Nodes, standing wave Ratio
If the voltage magnitudes are measured along the length of a line terminated in
a load other than
o
R
the plotted values will appear as
Figure: Resistive load of value not equal to RO
In the case of either OC(or)SC lines current magnitudes will be same except there
will be a
/
shift of maxima and minima.
Nodes Minimum (i.e) are points of zero voltage (or)zero currents. Antinodes
maxima (i.e) are points of maxima (voltage or current). For a open circuited like the
voltage modes occur at a distance of
/ 4, 3 / 4, 5 / 4....
current mode occurs at a
distance of o,
/ 2, / 2, .....
For a short circuited line, this modal pts get shifted by a
distance of / 4 and voltage modes occur 0.
/ 2, .....
and current modes occurs at
/ 4, 3 / 4, 5 / 4......
The ratio of maximum to minimum magnitude of voltage or current in a line
having standing waves is called Standing Wave Ratio.
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14) Derive the interrelation between reflection coefficient and standing
wave Ratio(SWR).
From the SWR it is clear that the points of voltage maxima occur at points where the
incident and reflected waves are in phase with each other.
/ max/     _______(1) E Ei Er +
The voltage minimum occurs at pts. Where with each other.
/Emin/=/Ei//Er/________(2)
From
max    
 
min    
E Ei Er
S
E Ei Er
+
i
by E
on both sides
      1  
      1  
1  
(  ) _____(4)
1  
1   ( ) 1  
Ei Ei Er Ei k
S
Ei Ei Er Ei k
k
S k Er Ei
k
k s k
+ +
+
1k1=
ma Im
1 1
min Im
max Im
1 ( ) 1
min Im
E ax
E in
E ax
or
E in
+ +
15) Draw the phaser diagram for the i/pimpedance on the line and
concenent on it .
(or)
Derive the I/Pimpedance of an dissipationless line.
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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max Im
min Im
E ax
Scors
E in
1
1 1
1
S
k
S
+
max Im Im
/ /
min Im Im
E ax in
K or
E ax in
+
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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2 2
cos sin
2 2
cos sin
cos sin
cos sin
+
+
1
+
1
]
1
+
1
]
R R o
s
s
R
s
R
o
R o
s
o R
s s
E jI R
E
Z
E s s
I
I j
R
IR
E s j R s
ER
Z
ER
IR j s
R I
divide by
divide by os
1
1
1
1
1
+
1
1
1
+
1
]
1
+
1
1
1
+
1
]
R o
R
s
R
o
o
s R
o
c s
I R
j jan s
E
ER
Z
ER
I
j jan s
R IR
R
j tan s
ZR
Z Z
ZR
j jan s
R
__________(2)
Another form of I/P Impedance Equ.
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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124
tan
tan
R o
s o
o
Z jR s
Z R
R jzR s
1 +
1
+
]
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0
2 2
1 1
( )
( )
2
( )
2
sin
/ / sin   1
sin
tan tan tan
cos
+
+
+ _
,
1 +
1
]
+
+
s
R R o
s
s
s
s
s
s
E Z Z
ej ke j s
E
zR
z
zR Zo I
I ej ke j s
Ro
ej ke j s
R
ej ke j s
ej s COS s j s
ej s COS s s
s
s
s
angleof reflection coefficient
1 1 1
________(3)
1 1 1
o
s k s
R
s k s
1 +
1
1
]
1 1 1 2
1 1 1 2
o
k s
R
k s
1 +
1
1
]
I/P Impedance is maximum at a distance of
2 ________(1)
. .
2
1 1 1
(max)
1 1 1
s o o
s
i e s
k
z Z sz
k
+ 1
]
If we travel a distance of / 4 from pt. where impedance is maximum,
we get a point of minimum impedance.
/ i p
impedance is min if,
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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125
(max)
s
z szo
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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2
/ 4 ( )
2
)
2
2
S
s
s
+
+
+
1 1 1 1 1 1
min
1 1 1 1 1 1
o o
k k
Z Z Z
k k
1 +
1
1
1
+
]
]
16) Derive the I/P Impedance expression for a lossless line terminated one
a)short circuit b)open circuit
a)Short circuit
I/P impedance of a dissipation less live is
tan
tan
R o
s o
o
Z jR s
Z R
R jZR s
1 +
1
+
]
for a short circuit live ZR = 0, so that
ZSC = Ro
tan
o
o
jR s
R
1
1
]
As Z is purely reactive or imaginary then Let
2
tan
s
Z j s
s
jxs jRo
_
,
2
tan
s
o
x s
R
with length of
line S may be as for
;
;
4
;
2
3
;
4
;
s
J
o
s
J
o
s
J
o
s
J
o
s
J
o
X
S
Z
X
S
Z
X
S o
Z
X
S
Z
X
S
Z
For an opencircuited live,
R
Z
1 tan
tan
o
R
oc
o
R
R
j S
Z
Z R
R
j S
Z
1
+
1
1
1
+
1
]
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1
tan
2
cot
tan
2
cot
oc o
oc o o
s
o
Z R
j S
j S
Z R jR
S X
X S
j
R
1
]
1
1
]
Similarly for open circuit.
S = 0,
, , 3 , , , ,
4 2 4
s
o
X
o o
Z
Sc and Oc impedance is purely reactance value. For the first quarter wavelength,
shoot ckt, line acts as inductance and next wavelength it acts as capacitance.
However, the curves are for the ideal dissipatedness live. In a practical live there will
be a small resistance component of
1
P
o
impedance indicating source power loss; and
zero or infinite impedance are never achieved the actual values treading to minima
and maxima.
17. A load of admittance
o
1/ R
1.25 j.25.
G
+
Find the length of location of single
stub funec short circuited.
The normalized load admittance is given by
+
R
o
Y
1.25 j0.25
G
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( )
( )
+
+
R
o
o
o R o R
o
R R o
1/ 2
1.25 j.25
1/ R
R
1
R 2 R 2
R
2 2 R
1
2R
1 1.25+j0.25
=
1 1.25+j.25
o
o
o
o
.25j.25
=
2.25+j.25
0.3535135
=
2.26386.34
=0.1561141.34
=0.15612.466
Calculating value of cos
1
(1K1)
Cos
1
(1k1)=cos
1
(0.1561)=1.414
Calculation for length of location of stub:
Case(1)
( )
( )
1
1
1
cos 1k1
S
2
cos 1k1
2
2
2.466+1.414
= . I 0.0587
4
_
,
1
1
1
]
1
1
1
]
Case (2)
( )
1
1
1
cos 1k1
S .
4
2.466 3.142 1.414
.
4
S 0.1662
+ +
length of the stub,
( )
( )
2
1
2
1
1 1k1
L tan
2 21k1
1 0.3535
= tan
2 2 0.3535
1
1
1
]
1
1
1
]
( )
( )
1
1
= tan 1.3231
2
= tan 1.013231
2
L 0.353
18. A loss less RF line has Z
o
of 600 of is connected to a resistive load of
75 . Find the position of length of short circulated stub of same
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construction as line which would enable the main length of a line to be
correctly terminated at 150MHz.
Given , f=150MHz
R
o
=600
Z
R
=75
Finding ,
f. =c
2
6
C 3 10
2m
f 150 10
1
1
1
]
2
1
1 1k1
L tan
2 21k1
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( )
( )
1
1
]
2
1
1 0.7777
2
L= tan
2 2 0.7777
=0.1222m
Case (2)
( )
( )
1
1
1
cos 1k1
S
2
+ cos 0.7777
= .
4
=1.108m
+ +
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
]
Selecting a point located nearest to the load. Hence the stub location nearest to the
load is calculated in case1.
The stub must be located at a distance 0.8918m from the load of the length of the
stub required is 0.1222m.
19. Design a quarter wave transformer to match a load of 200 to a source
resistance of 500 . Operating frequency is 200 MHz.
For a quarter wave transformer, the input impedance is given by.
2
o
in
R
R
Z 2s
2
The source impedance Z
s
= 500
Load impedance =2 = 200
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2
o
2
o
2
o
o
R
500
200
R 500 200
R 100000
R 316.22
f 200MHz
wave length f. =c
8
6
C 3 10
1.5m
f 200 10
Cs= /4=.345m.
20. A loss less transmission line with Z
o
= 75 of electrical length l=0.3 is
terminated with load impedance of 2 =(40+j20) . Determine the reflection
coefficient at load, SWR of line, input impedance of the line.
Solution:
Given Z
o
=R
o
=75
Z
r
=(40+J20)
Reflection coefficient is given by
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( )
( )
R o
R o
o
o
o
Z R
K
Z R
40+j20 75
=
40 j20 75
35+j20
=
115 j20
40.31129.74
=
116.7219.86
=0.345319.88
+ +
+
Standing wave ratio is
1 1k1
S
1 1k1
1+0.3453
=
1 0.3453
=2.0548
+
]
40 j210.82
75
136.55 j123.1
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TECH HIGHTECH
( )
1
]
o
o
o
214.58 79.25
75
183.84 42.03
75 1.167 37.222
69.7 j52.95
21. A line with zero dissipation has R= 0.006 /m, L=2.5 H/m d
C=4.45PF/m. If the line is operated at 10 MHz, find i) R
o
,ii) iii) iv) v)
Given
R=0.006 /m
L=2.5 10
6
H/m
C= 4.45 PF/m
F=10MHz
At f=10MHz, WL=2 fL=2 fL=2 10 10
6
2.5 10
6
=15.708
WL > > R at 10 MHz
So according to standard assumption for the dissipation less line, we can
neglect R.
i) Characteristic impedance
6
o o
12
L 2.5 10
Z R 749.53
C 4.45 10
UNIT IV
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PART A
1. What are guided waves? Give examples.
The electromagnetic waves that are guided along or over conducting or dielectric
surface are called guided waves.
Examples: Parallel wire and transmission lines.
2. What is cutoff frequency?
The frequency (f
c
) at which the wave motion ceases, is called the cutoff frequency of
the wave guide.
3. Give the expression for guide wavelength when the wave transmitted in
between two parallel plates.
The guide wavelength
2
2
2
c
m
a
,
4. What is TEM wave or principal wave?
TEM wave is a special type of TM wave in which an electric field E along the
direction of propagation is also zero.
[OR]
The transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves are waves in which both electric
and magnetic fields are transverse entirely but have no components of E
z
and H
z
. it is
referred to as principal wave.
5. Mention the characteristic of TEM waves.
It is a special type of TM wave.
It does not have either E
z
or H
z
component.
It velocity is independent of frequency.
Its cutoff frequency is zero.
6. Define attenuation factor.
Attenuation factor
power lost /unit length
2 power transmitted
9. What are the characteristics of TEM waves?
TEM wave is a special type of transverse magnetic wave in which the electric field E
along the direction of propagation is also zero.
10. Give some examples of guided waves.
1. Electromagnetic waves along ordinary parallel wire
2. Wave in wave guides
3. Wave guided along the earth surface from a radio parameter to the receives.
11. What do you mean by cutoff frequency?
Cut off frequency can be defined as the frequency at which the propagation
constant changes form being real to imaginary.
c
m
f
2a M
PART B
1. Derive the field components of the wave propagating between parallel
plates.
Consider an electromagnetic wave propagating between a pair of parallel
perfectly conducting planes of infinite in the y and z directions as shown in Fig 2.1.
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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Fig Parallel conducting guides
Maxwells equations will be solved to determine the electromagnetic field
configurations in the rectangular region.
Maxwells equations for a nonconducting rectangular region and given as
H j E
E j H
x y z
x y z
a a a
H
x y z
H H H
j a a a
y
x x z z z
x y x
x y z
x y z
H
H H H H H
a a a
x z z x x y
E E E
_ _ _
+ +
, ,
,
1
+ +
]
Equating x ,y and z components on both sides,
y
z
x
x z
y
y
x
z
H
H
j E
y z
H H
j E
z x
H
H
j E
z y
_ _ _
+ +
,
, ,
1
+ +
]
Equating x, y and z components on both sides
y
z
x
x z
y
y
x
z
E
E
j H
y z
E E
j H
z x
E
E
j H
X y
The wave equation is given by
2 2
2 2
2
=( +j ) (j )
E E
H H
Where
For a nonconducting medium, it becomes
2 2
2 2
E E
H H
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
.....(3)
E E E
E
x y z
H H H
H
x y z
+ +
)
+ +
It is assumed that the propagation is in the z direction an the variation of field
components in this z direction may be expressed in the form e
yz
,
Where is propagation constant
= +j
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If =0, wave propagates without attenuation.
If is real i.e. =0, there is no wave motion but only an exponential decrease in
amplitude.
0
y
y 0
x
0
y
y
H
H
z
H
,
z
E
E
z
yz
y
yz
y y
x
yz
y
y
Let H e
H e H
Similarly H
Let E e
E
Similarly
x
E
z
x
E
There is no variation in the direction i.e., derivative of y is zero substituting the values
of z derivatives and y derivatives in the equation (1), (2) and (3).
y
y
.....(4)
H
x
.....(5)
x
y x
z
x y
z
y x
z
x y
z
H j E
H
H j E
x
j E
E j H
E
E j H
x
E
j H
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
.....(6)
Where and
+
)
E
E E
x
H
H H
x
E H
E H
x x
Solving the equation (4) and (5) , the fields H
x
, H
y
, E
x
and E
y
can be found out.
To solve H
x
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x
y
the above equation .
H
1
E
z
x y
y x
y
z
x
H
H j E
x
E j H
From
E
j
H
H
j x
1
+
1
]
Substituting the value of E
y
in the above equation.
2
2 2
2 2
1 1
1
z
x x
z
x x
z
x
z
x
H
H H
j j j x
H
H H
j x
H
H
x
H
H
x
1
_
+
1
,
]
1
+
1
]
1 1
+
1
1
]
]
1 +
]
2 2
2 2 2
y'
x
y
h
solve h
E
H
Z
x
z
y
x
H
H
x
where
To
E
j E
x
j E
+
+
y
x
the above equations,
H
1
E
x
z
y
From
j
E
E
j H
x
1
1
]
Substituting the value of Ex in the above equation.
1
.
z
y y
E j
H j H
x
1
1
]
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2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
1
( )
y y
z
y
z
y
E j
H H
x
E j
H
x
E
H y j
x
_
+
y 2 2
2 2 2
H
( )
h
x
E j
x
+
+
To solve E
x
,
z
x
y
y
z
x
,
E
E
x
H
the value of H in the above equation,
E
E
x
x
y
x
x
x
E
j H
j
E
Substituting
j
j E
E
2
2
2
2 2 2
[ ]
z
x x
x
x
E
E E
x
E
E
x
E
E
x
1
+
1
To solve E
y
,
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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142
2
2 y
E j
H
h x
2
z
x
E
E
h x
1
1
2 2 2
h +
Where
The components of electric and magnetic field strength (E
x
,E
y
,H
x
and H
y
) are
expressed in terms of Ez and Hz. It is observed that there must be a z components of
either e or H; otherwise all the components would be zero. Although in general case
Ez and Hz may be present at the same time, it is convenient to divide the solutions
into two sets. In the first case, there is a component of E in the direction of
propagation (Ez), but no component of H in this direction . Such waves are called E or
Transverse magnetic waves. In the second case, there is a component of H in
the direction of propagation (Hz), but no component of E in this direction. Such waves
are called H waves or transverse Electric (TE) waves.
2. Derive the electro Magnetic field for TE waves.
TRANSVERSE ELECTRIC WAVES:
Transverse electric (TE) waves are waves in which the electric field strength E is
entirely transverse. It has a magnetic field strength Hz in the direction of propagation
and no component of electric field E
z
in the same direction (E
z
=0)
Substituting the value of Ez =0 in the following equations.
2
x y 2 2
x y
E and H
E 0 and H 0
E E j
h x h x
Then
The wave equation for the components E
y
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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143
2
z
y
H j
E
h x
+
+
This is a differential equation of simple harmonic motion. The solution of his
equation is given by
E
y
=C
1
sin hx + C
2
cos hx
Where C
1
and C
2
are arbitrary constants.
If Ey is expressed in time and direction
0
( )
yz
y y
E E e
_
,
,
Equations (5) are
y
x
y
x 1
E
x
the first equation , H
the value of E in the above equation:
H sin
y x
z
y
x
E j H
j H
E
From
j
Substituting
m
C x e
j a
,
From the second equation ,
1
y
z
E
H
j x
_
,
_
,
_
1
z 1
.......(7)
yz
yz
m
C Sin x e
a
m m
H C Sin x e
j a a
_
)
,
,
Each value of m specifies a particular field of configuration or mode and the
wave associated with integer m is designated as TE
m0
.wave or TE
m0
mode. The second
subscript refers to another integer which varies with y.
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If m =0 , then all the fields becomes zero, E
y
=0,H
x
=0, H
z
=0. Therefore, the
lowest value of m =1. The lowest order mode is TE
10
. This is called dominant mode in
TE waves.
The propagation constant = +j . If the wave propagates without
attenuation, =0, only phase shift exists.
=j
Then the fields strengths for TE waves.
1
1
1
j z
y
j z
x
j z
z
m
E C Sin x e
a
m
H C Sin x e
j a
jm m
H C Cos x e
a a
,
_
,
The field distributions for TE
10
mode between parallel planes are shown in fig.
Fig. Electric and magnetic fields between parallel planes for the TE
10
.
3. Derive the Electromagnetic fields expression for TM waves.
TRANSVERSE MAGNETIC WAVES:
Transverse magnetic (TM) waves are in which the magnetic field strength H is
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entirely traverse. It has an electric field strength E
z
in the direction of propagation and
no component of magnetic field Hz in the same direction (H
z
=0)
Substituting the value of H
z
=0 in the following equations.
y 2 2
x y z
and E
H 0 and E 0 [ H 0]
z z
x
H H j
H
h x h x
Then
Q
The wave equation for the component H
y
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
( )
h
y
y y
y
y
H
H H
x
H
H
x
But
+
This is also a differential equation of simple harmonic motion. The solution of this
equation is
3 4
sinh +C cosh
y
H C x x
Where C3 and C4 are arbitrary constants. If H
y
is expressed in time and direction ,
then the solution becomes.
3 4
( sinh +C cosh )
yz
y
H C x x e
4
4
y 4
, sin
sin
H cos
yz
z
yz
yz
m m
Therefore E C x e
j a a
jm m
C x e
a a
m
C x e
a
_
,
_
,
_
,
y
z
4
, H
E
= cos
j
x
y
yz
But j E
H
j
m
C x e
a
_
,
The field strengths for TM waves between parallel planes are
4
4
4
cos
sin
yz
y
yz
x
yz
z
m
H C x e
a
m
E C x e
j a
jm m
E C x e
a a
,
_
,
_
,
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The transverse magnetic wave associated with the integer m is designated as
TM
m0
wave or TM
m0
mode. If m=0 all the fields will not be equal to zero i.e., E
x
and H
y
exist and only E
z
=0. In the case of TM wave there is a possibility of m=0
If the wave propagates without attenuation ( =0), the propagation constant
become =j . The field strengths for TM waves between parallel conducting planes
are:
4
cos
j z
y
m
H C x e
a
,
4
4
cos
cos
j z
x
j z
x
m
E C x e
a
jm m
E C x e
a
,
_
,
The field distributions for TM
10
wave between parallel planes shown in fig 2.3
Fig The TM
10
wave
between parallel
planes.
4. Describe the
field expression for
TEM wave guided
by parallel
conducting plane.
TRANSVERSE
ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVES:
It is a special
type of transverse
magnetic wave in
which electric field E
along the direction of
propagation is also
zero. The transverse
electromagnetic
(TEM) waves in which
both electric and
magnetic fields are
transverse entirely
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but has not component of E
z
and H
z
. It is referred to as principal waves.
The field strength for TM waves are:
4
4
cos
cos
j z
y
j z
x
m
H C x e
a
m
E C x e
a
,
_
,
4
4
4
sin
TEM waves E=0 and the minimum value of m=0
0
j z
z
j z
y
j z
x
z
jm m
E C x e
A a
for
H C e
E C e
E
The fields are not only entirely transverse , but they are constant in amplitude
between the parallel planes.
Characteristics:
For, lowest value m=0 and dielectric is air.
Propagation constant
2
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
=j
1
v=
2
=
Velocity c
c
Wavelength
f
_
,
_
,
1 d
d
_
,
Where
group velocity
phase velocity
1
free space velocity
g
p
d
v
d
v
v
The product of group velocity and phase velocity is the square of free space velocity
2
2
g p
v v v
c
6. Obtain the attenuation factor in parallel plane.
The field strengths between parallel conducting planes for TE, TM and TEM
waves have been obtained without any loss. In actual wave guides, there are some
losses. These losses will modify the field strength by the introduction of multiplying
factor e

z
. The attenuation factor that is caused by losses in the walls of the
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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152
2
g p
v
v
v
2
g p
v v c
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guide is determined as follows.
The voltage and current phasors in waveguide are
0
0
V = V
I = I
z j z
z j z
e e
e e
The average power transmitted is
[ ]
av
0 0
* 2
0 0
1
W Real part of VI*
2
1
= Real part of V
2
1
= Real part of V
2
z j z z j z
z
e e I e e
I e
1
]
1
]
Where I* is the complex conjugate of I
*
0
*
z j z
I I e e
1
1
] 1
]
This is the power lost per unit length or power dissipated per unit length.
av
av
2 W Power lost/unit length
2
power transmitted W
The attenuation factor is
This is the attenuation factor for more general case of guided wave
transmission. The can be determined for TE, TM and TEM waves.
7. Derive an expression for attenuation Factor for TE Waves.
The electric and magnetic field strengths between perfectly conduction parallel
planes for TE waves are
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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Power lost/unit length
2 power transmitted
,
_
,
j z
y
j z
x
j z
x
m
E C x e
m
H C x e
jm m
H C x e
The amplitude of linear current density in the conduction planes will be equal to
the tangential component of H at x=0 and x = a,
1
zy z
J H
m C
1
]
1
]
_
,
Power transmitted in z direction for a guide 1 metre wide with a spacing between
conductors of metres is
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2 2
2 2 1 1
0
2
2
1
0
sin sin
2 2
sin
=
2 2
4
x a
x
a
c c m m
x dx x dx
a a
m
x
c x a
m
a
_ _
, ,
1
_
1
,
1
1
1
]
2
1
4
c a
C
a
C a
Substitute the value of
2
2
m
a
_
,
The attenuation factor decreases from infinity at cutoff frequency to a low
value at higher frequency.
2
2
2
m
2
2
a
m
a
a
_
,
,
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155
2 2
3
2m / 2
a
2 2
2
3 2
2m / 2
m
a
a
,
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2
2
2
m
2
2
s
R
a
where Rs
m
a
a
_
,
_
,
At cut off frequency,
2
2
m
a
,
2
2 2 2
c
m
a
_
,
2
2
1
1
c
c
f
f
_
,
_
,
Substituting this value,
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
=
1
c s
c
c
s
c
R
f
f
R
f
a
f
,
_
,
_
,
2
2
2
= =
1
c
s
c
f
R
f
f
a
f
_
1
,
1
]
_
,
Q
8. Derive on Expression for Attenuation Factor for TM Waves.
The Expressions for E and H for the Transverse magnetic waves between
perfectly conducting parallel planes are
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y 4
y 4
z 4
H =C cos
= C cos
= C sin
j z
j z
j z
m
x e
a
m
E x e
a
m m
E x e
j a a
_
,
_
,
_
,
The amplitude of the current density in each plane is
J = C
4
The power loss per unit length in each conducting plane is
2 2
4
s
1 1
j
2 2
R
2
s s
m
m
R C R
1 _ _
1
, , ]
_
,
Power transmitted in the z direction for a guide 1 metre wide with a spacing
between conductors of s metre is
2 2
2 4 4
0
1 1
cos
2 4
Power lost/ unit lengh
Attenuation factor ( ) =
2 power transmitted
a
x
C C m
x dx a
a
2
4
2
4
C
2
2
4
m
m
C
a
_
,
The attenuation factor for TM waves is
2
2
2 / 2
m m
TM
m
a
a
,
The attenuation factor for TE waves is
2 2
2
3 2
2
2
m
m
TE
m
m
a
a
,
Dividing
TE
by
TM
( )
2
2 2
3
2
2
2
=
2
TE
TM
m m
a a
a
m
a
f
_
,
_
,
2
2
1
2
1
.
2
c
m
a
f
m
But f
a
_
,
2
2
c TE
TM
f
f
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158
2
c
TE TM
f
f
_
,
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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The attenuation factor for TM waves is
s
2
2
2
2
2 R
substituting the value of
TM
c
m
a
a
m
a
,
_
,
s
2 2
s
2
2 R
2 R
=
1
TM
c
c
a
a
,
s
2
s
2
2R
=
1
2R
=
1
c
c
f
a
f
f
a
f
,
1
1
]
_
,
Where
c
f
=
f
m
s
m
c m
m
f
R
f
2
2
1
m
m c
TM
c
f
f
f
a
f
f
,
2
2
1
c m
m
TM
c c
f
or
f f
a
f f
1
_ _
1
, , 1
]
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The minimum value of
TM
is determined by equating derivative of with respect to
, zero.
c
f
to
f
_
,
Let K =
2
c m
m
c
f
a
f
x
f
2
3
2
= K
1
1
=
1
x
x
x
K
x
1
3
2
2
=
1
x
K
x
_
,
Differentiating with respect to x,
( )
2 2 3
1 2
2
3
2
2
d 3 ( 1) (2 )
=
dx
1
2
1
K x x x x
x
x
x
1
1
1
_
]
,
=
( )
2 4 2 4
2 3
2
1 3 3 2
2
1
K x x x x
x
x
1
1
1
]
Equating 0
d
dx
( )
( )
2 4 2
2 3
2
4 2
2
2
1 3
0
2
1
3
0
1
K x x x
x
x
x x
x
1
1
1
]
1
1
1
]
x
4
= 3 x
2
Dividing by x
2
, x
2
= 3
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c
c
x = 3
f
x =
f
f
3
f
But
t
t
Take only positive value of frequency
The attenuation
TM
reaches a minimum value at a frequency of 3 times the
cutoff frequency and then increases with frequency.
After substituting this value,
s s
min
2
2 R 2.5R
= =
a
1
a 1
3
_
,
9. Define Wave Impedance. Obtain the wave impedance expressions for TE,
TEM and TM waves.
WAVE IMPEDANCES
In transmissionline theory power is propagated along one axis only, and only
one impedance constant is involved. However, in the three dimensional wave
propagation power may be transmitted along three axes of the coordinate system and
consequently three impedance constants must be defined.
Wave impedances are defined by the following ratios of electric to magnetic
field strengths for the positive directions of the coordinates.
; ;
; ;
y
x z
xy yz zx
y z x
y
x z
yx zy xz
x y z
E
E E
Z Z Z
H H H
E
E E
Z Z Z
H H H
+ + +
+ + +
The wave impedances for the negative directions of the coordinates are
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161
3
c
f f
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; ;
; ;
1
y
x z
xy yz zx
y z x
y
x z
yx zy xz
y z
E
E E
Z Z Z
H H H
E
E E
Z Z Z
x H H
+
For TE waves, the wave impedance is given by
=
y
yx
x
E
Z
H
j
j
2
2
yx
Z
m
a
,
2
2
1 /
1
1
c
c
m
a
m
a
f
f
,
1
1
1
] _
,
Q
2
1
yx
c
Z
f
f
,
At cutoff frequency
2
2
m
a
,
, wave impedance Z
+
yx
becomes infinity. At
very high frequency (greater than cutoff frequency) wave impedance becomes,
2
2
2
yx
m
Z
a
+
1
_
>>
1
,
1
]
Q
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At >>
c
, the wave impedance is equal to the intrinsic impedance.
Z
+
yx
=
For TM waves, the wave impedance is given by
2
2
2
2
1 /
=
1
x
xy
y
c
m
a E
Z
H
m
a
+
_
,
_
,
_
,
2
1
c
xy
f
Z
f
+
_
,
At cutoff frequency
2
2
m
a
1
_
1
,
1
]
, the wave impedance becomes zero.
At very high frequency (greater than cutoff frequency), the wave impedance
becomes
2
xy
xy
Z
Z
+
+
=
o
intrinsic impedance
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163
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xy o
Z
+
The wave impedances for TE, TM and TEM waves between parallel planes are
shown as functions of frequency in figure.
Wave impedance versus frequency characteristics of waves between
parallel conducting plane
10. A parallel plane wave guide consists of two sheets of good conductor
separated by 10 cm. Find the propagation constant at frequencies of 100
MHz and 10 GHz, when the wave guide is operated in TE
10
mode. Does the
propagation take place in each case.
Given:
TE
10
mode : m = 1, n = 0
a = 10 cm = 0.1 m
f = 100 MHz, 10 GHz
For free space =
o
and =
o
Free space velocity c =
8
1
3 10 / sec
o o
m
Propagation constant is given by
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
[ 2 ]
1 2
m
a
f
f
a c
f
a c
_
,
_ _
, ,
_ _
, ,
Q
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For f = 100 MHz
2
6
2 8
2
1 2 100 10
(0.1) 3 10
2
100
3
31.346 / Nepers metre
,
_
,
,
_
,
Here has imaginary value i.e., = j . Hence propagation takes place at 10 GHz.
11. A pair of perfectly conducting planes are separated 8 cm in air. For
frequency of 5000 MHz with the TM
1
mode excited find the following.
(i) cutoff frequency
(ii) characteristic impedance
(iii) attenuation constant for f = 0.95 f
c
(iv) phase shift
(v) phase velocity and group velocity
(vi) wavelength measured along the guiding walls
Given : TM
1
mode : m = 1
a = 8 cm = 0.08 m
9
1
/
36 10
o
F m
f = 5000 MHz
7
4 10 /
o
H m
(i) Cutoff frequency:
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2
2
2
2
1
.
1
[ , 2 ]
2
c
c
c
m
a
m
a
m
a
m
f v v f
a
_
,
_
Q
But v = c = 3 10
8
m/sec
f
c
=
8
1
3 10
2 0.08
8
18.75 10 1.875 Hz GHz
(ii) Characteristic impedance:
z =
120
o
o
120
ohms or 377 ohms
(iii) Propagation constant becomes attenuation constant (i.e., real value) if the
operating frequency is less than the cutoff frequency.
f = 0.95 f
c
2
2
2 2
2
0.95
c
m
a
m f
a v
f f
_
,
_ _
, ,
_ _
, ,
_ _
, ,
m m
a a
m m
a a
m
a
Nepers m
(iv) Phase shift:
2
2
2 2
5000
2
_
,
_ _
, ,
m
a
f MHz
f m
v a
2
6
8
2
2 5000 10 1
3 10 0.08
100
156.25
3
97.08
_ _
,
,
_
,
or
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2
8
2
9
6
8
1
3 10
1.875 10
1
5000 10
3.236 10 / sec
p
c
c
v
f
f
m
,
Group velocity
2
g
p
c
v
v
8 2
8
(3 10 )
3.236 10
2.78 / sec. m
,
But
8
8
3 10
0.06
50 10
m
12. For a frequency of 6000 MHz and plane separation = 7 cm, find the
following for the TE
1
mode.
(i) cutoff frequency
(ii) angle of incidence of the planes
(iii) phase velocity and group velocity is it possible to propagate TE
3
mode?
Given : TE
1
mode : m = 1, a = 0.07 m
f = 6000 MHz
(i) Cutoff:
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TECH HIGHTECH
2
2
8
8
1
.
2
2
1
3 10
2 0.07
21.4286 10
c
c
c
m
a
m
f
a
m
v
a
f Hz
(ii) Phase velocity
2
8
8
6
8
1
3 10
21.4286 10
1
6000 10
3.2118 10 / sec
p
c
c
v
f
f
m
,
Group velocity
2
g
p
c
v
v
8 2
8
(3 10 )
3.2118 10
2.802 / sec. m
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TECH HIGHTECH
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
6
8
2
2
3 2 6000 10
0.07 3 10
_
,
_ _
, ,
_ _
, ,
_
_
,
,
m
a
m f
a v
m f
a v
1836.735 16000
236.735
48.337 / Nepers m
_
,
_
_
,
,
1
1
1
]
Q
Cutoff Frequency
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8
1
2
1
2 4
3 10
2 0.2 2
375
c
r
m
f
a
m c c
a
MHz
Guide wavelength
2
1
g
c
,
8
9
2
2
2 0.2
0.4
3 10
1 10
0.3
0.3
0.3
1
0.4
0.16
c
g
a
m
m
m
m
8
9
2
3 10
0.075
4 10
0.075
0.1134
0.075
1
0.1
g
m
m
,
(iii) Group velocity
8
8
0.075
3 10
0.1134
1.984 10 / sec.
g
g
v c
m
,
_
,
(iv) Phase velocity
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2
8
8
8
2
8
9
8
1
.
2 2
1
3 10
0.1
30 10
3 10
30 10
1
4 10
4.5356 10 / sec.
,
p
c
c
c
p
c
v
f
f
mv m
f c
a a
f Hz
v
m
8
8
or
0.1134
3 10
0.075
4.5356 10 / sec.
g
p
v c
m
,
_
,
(iv) Wave impedance
0
2
1
TE
c
z
z
,
Intrinsic impedance
0
2
120 ohms
120
0.075
1
0.1
= 570 ohms.
TE
z
z
,
15. An uniform plane wave at 2.45 GHz is transmitted through a medium
having =2.17 s/m =47
o
=
o
. Find the complex propagation constant,
phase velocity and the wave impedance of the medium. If the electric field
mag is 10V/m, find the time average power flow per unit area.
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Given :
F=2.45GHz=2.45 10
9
Hz
W=2 f=2 2.45 10
9
=15.394 10
9
=2.17s/m
=47
o
=47 8.854 10
12
=416.14 10
12
F/m
=
o
=4 10
7
H/m
( )
2
o
j j
= j 
= 123922.51+j41977.94
=361.580.63
+
=58.85+j356.65
=58.85N/m
=356.65 rad/m
V
p
= / =4316 10
8
m/s
wave impedance Z
=54.24
Intrinsic impedance
o
j
j
+
Time average power flow / unit area
P
av
=
1
2
EH
=
1
2
10 192=96w/m
2
16. What are the characteristics of TE and TM waves?
(1) Propagation constant
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2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2
h
h
r h
m
sub h=
a
m
r
a
j
+
_
,
+
at lower freq.
2
is <
2
m
,
a
,
becomes real with value of , and =0. there
is only attenuation, without any propagation.
At higher frequencies value of
2
becomes greater than
2
m
,
a
_
,
making
.imaginary.
For f<f
c
2
m
,
a
_
,
2
,
=0
For f<f
c
2
m
,
a
_
,
<
2
,
=0
For f<f
c
2
m
,
a
_
,
2
,
(ii) Cut off frequency:
at f= f
c
2
2
2
2
c
c
c
m
o
a
m
a
m
a
m
2 f
a
m
f
2a
_
,
_
,
(v) Group wavelength:
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g
2
2
2
2
g
2
2
2
2
v f
2 f
f f
2
m
a
m
sub c
a
2
c
1
2
=
c
2 f 1
/
/
_
,
_
,
g
2
2
V
f
c
1
_
,
2
2
V
m
a
_
,
,
2
2
2
2
o
2
c
m
sub c
a
V
c
1
V
V
f
1
f
UNIT V
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PART A
1. Write down the Maxwells equation for the lossfree region within the
guide?
H
z
+ H
v
= j E
x
,
z
V z
E
E jw H
y
z
x V
H
H jw E
x
,
z
x v
E
E jw H
y
,
y
x
z
H
H
jw E
x y
y
x
z
E
E
jw H
x y
2. What is the wave equation for E
2
and H
2
?
2 2
2
2
2 2
z z
z z
E E
E E
x y
+ +
2 2
2
2
2 2
z z
z z
H H
H H
x y
+ +
3. In waves between parallel plates what are the classification by field
configurations?
1. Transverse Magnetic Waves (TM)
2. Transverse Electric waves (TE)
4. For Rectangular guide shown in figure what is the boundary condition?
E
x
= E
z
= 0 At y = 0, and y = b
E
v
= E
z
= 0 at x = 0 and x = a.
5. Write down the propagation constant for a rectangular guide for TM
waves.
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2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2
= A
m
=
a
G
B
n
b
+
_ _
+
, ,
6. What is the propagation constant for an ordinary transmission line?
j +
Attenuation constant
Phase constant.
7. What is the expression of attenuation constant, propagation constant for
a perfectly conducting wall?
_ _
+
, ,
8. The Cutoff frequency that is the frequency below which wave
propagation will not occur, is
2 2
1 m
=
a
2
c
n
f
b
_ _
+
, ,
9. The curoff wavelength, that is the cutoff wavelength which wave
propagation will not occur is
0
2 2
2
=
m
a
n
b
_ _
+
, ,
10. What is dominant wave?
The wave which has the lowest cutoff frequency is called the dominant wave.
11. For TE
10
wave, what is cutoff frequency?
Cutoff frequency is that frequency for which the corresponding half wavelength
is equal to the width of the guide, the cutoff frequency is independent of the
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dimension b.
12. What is a waveguide?
A hallow conducting metallic tube of uniform section (rectangular or circular) is
used for propagating electromagnetic waves. Waves that are guided along the surface
(walls) of the tube is called waveguide.
13. What do you mean by propagation of waveguide?
Propagation of waveguide can be considered as a phenomenon in which waves
are reflected from wall to wall and hence pass down the waveguide in a zigzag
fashion.
14. Write down the maxwells equation for nonconducting medium.
[ ]
= j E =0
x y z
xH
a a a
xH
x y z
Hx Hy Hz
= j (
a
xEx+
a
yEy+
a z
E
z
]
15. Write down the wave equation for rectangular waveguide.
2 2
2 2
2 2
z z
z z
E E
E E
x y
+ +
16. What is Dominant mode?
The lowest mode for TE wave is TE
10
(m = 1, n = 0) whereas the lowest mode
for TM wave is TM
11
(m = 1, n=1). This wave has the lowest cutoff frequency. Hence
the TE
10
mode is the dominant mode of a rectangular waveguide.
17. What is wave impedance?
The wave impedances defined as the ratio of electric field intensity to magnetic
field intensity are
; ;
y
x z
xy yx zx
y x x
E
E E
Z Z Z
H H H
+ + +
18. What are the wave impedance for different modes?
For TM,
2
1
fc
z
f
_
,
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For TE,
2
1
z
fc
f
,
For TE
M
, z
19. What is characteristic impedance?
For transmission lines the integrated characteristic impedance Z
o
can be defined
as in terms of the voltage current or interms of the power transmitted for a given
voltage or given current.
i.e., Z
o
(V, I) =
V
I
20. What are the sources of attenuation in wave guide?
Attenuation for propagating modes results when there are losses in the
dielectric and in the imperfectly conducting guide walls.
21. What is attenuation constant in propagation?
It is given by
Power lost per unit length
2 x power transmitted.
22. How will you calculate power?
The power transmitted is obtained by integrating the axial component of the
pointing vector through the crosssection of the guide the pointing vector P
z
is given
by
P
t
= E
trans
H
trans
23. What is attenuation constant in terms of power?
The attenuation constant is
lost
2 x power transmitted.
Power
24. What is attenuation constant for TM
11
mode?
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2 2
2
2 2
2
1 1
1 ,
b a
Rs
a b
fc
ab
f a b
_
+
,
_ _
, ,
25. Draw the variation in attenuation with frequency due to wall losses in a
rectangular waveguide?
26. Write the field expression for rectangular TM waves.
E
x
0
2
j c
h
B cos Bx sin Ay
E
y
0
2
j c
h
A sin Bx cos Ay
H
x
0
2
j c
h
A sin Bx cos Ay
H
y
0
2
j c
h
B cos Bx sin Ay
27. Write the field expression of TE wave guide.
H
x
0
2
j
h
C
B
sin Bx cos Ay
H
y
0
2
j
h
C
A
cos Bx sin Ay
H
z
0
= C cos Ay cos Bx
E
x
0
2
j
h
C
A
cos Bx sin Ay
E
y
0
2
j
h
C
B
sin Bx cos Ay
28. What are the types of waveguides?
1. Rectangular waveguide
2. Circular waveguide
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F
TM
11
TE
10
i
n
(
d
B

m
)
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3. Elliptical waveguide
29. Mention the application of waveguides.
The waveguides are employed for transmission of energy at every high
frequencies where the attenuation caused by waveguide is smaller.
Waveguide are used in microwave transmission circular waveguides used as
attenuation and phase shifters.
30. Why are rectangular waveguides preferred over circular waveguides?
Rectangular waveguides are preferred over circular waveguides because of the
following reasons.
1. Rectangular waveguide is smaller in size than a circular waveguide of the
same operating frequency.
2. It does not maintain its polarization through the circular waveguide.
31. Why is rectangular or circular form used as waveguides?
Waveguides usually take the form of rectangular or circular cylinders because of
its simpler form in use and less expensive to manufacture.
32. For an air filled copper xband waveguide with dimension a = 2.286 cms
and b = 1.016 cms determine the cut off frequencies for TE
11
and TM
11
modes?
a = 2.28 6 cm = 2.286 x 10
2
m
b = 1.016 cm = 1.016 x 10
2
m
For TE
11
mode, m = 1, n = 1
Cutoff frequency,
2 2
1 m
a
2
c
n
f
b
_ _
+
, ,
2 2
c m
=
2 a
n
b
_ _
+
, ,
2 2
8 2 2
3 10 10 10
2 2.286 1.016
_ _
+
, ,
F
C
= 16.156 GH
z
.
The cut of frequency for TE
11
mode is same as that of TM
11
.
33. What is an evanescent mode?
When the operating frequency is lower than the cutoff frequency the
propagation constant becomes real i.e., Y = . The wave cannot be propagated. This
nonpropagating mode is known as evanescent mode.
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34. Which are the nonzero field components for the TE
10
mode in a
rectangular waveguide?
H
x
, H
z
and E
y
35. Which are the nonzero field components for the TM
11
mode in a
rectangular waveguide?
E
x
, H
y
E
y
and E
z
36. Draw a neat sketch showing the variation of wave impedance with
frequency for TE and TM waves in a waveguide.
37. What is the cutoff wavelength and cutoff frequency of the TE
10
mode in
a rectangular waveguide?
Cutoff wavelength,
c
= 22
Cutoff frequency, f
c
=
22
C
38. What is the cutoff wavelength and cutoff frequency of the TM
11
mode in
a rectangular waveguide?
Cutoff wavelength,
c
=
2 2
2
1 1
a b
_ _
+
, ,
Cutoff frequency, f
c
=
2 2
1 1 1
2
a b
_ _
+
, ,
=
2 2
1 1
2 a b
_ _
+
, ,
39. What is the wave impedance of TEM waves in waveguide?
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f
c
Region of
number
Propagation
TM
TE
W
a
v
e
i
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
,
40. Write down the expression for wave impedance of TE mode?
2
1
c
Z
f
f
,
41. Write down the expression for wave impedance of TM mode?
2
1
c
f
Z
f
_
,
42. Write down the expression for phase velocity in a waveguide?
2 2
2
=
m
a
n
b
_ _
, ,
43. Define character is the impedance in a waveguide.
For transmission lines the integrated characteristic impedance can be defined
as in terms of the voltage current ratio or in terms power transmitted for a given
voltage or a given current.
i.e., Z
o
(V, I) =
V
I
( )
2
,
*
o
w
Z w I
II
( )
*
,
2
o
VV
Z w I
W
Where V and I are peak phasors. W is the power transmitted. * indicates complex
conjugate.
44. What are the types of power loss in waveguides?
There are two types of power loss occurs in waveguides
1. Loss due to attenuation of signals below cutoff frequency.
2. Loss due to dissipation with in the waveguide walls and the dielectric with in
the waveguide.
45. The larger dimension of the cross section of a rectangular waveguide is
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2cm. Find the cut off frequency and wavelength for the domain and TE
mode.
The given data are a = 2 cm.
We know the dominant TE mode is TE
10
mode, thus m = 1 and n = 0.
The cutoff frequency of rectangular waveguides is
2 2
2 2
c
v m n v m
f
a a a
_ _
+
, ,
Since n = 0
8 8
9
3 10 1 1.5 10
7.5 10 7.5
2 0.02 0.02
GHz
_
,
Cutoff wavelength
c
=
2 2
2 2
m
a
a
m
n
b
_ _
, ,
since n = 0
( ) 2 0.02
0.04
1
c
mts
46. Explain why TEM waves are not possible in rectangular waveguide.
(Apr. 2004.)
Since TEM wave does not have actual component of a E or H. it cannot be
propagated with in a single conductor wave guide.
There fore for a displacement current the guide requires an axial component of
E, which is not present in TEM waves.
47. A rectangular wave guide has the following dimensions l=2.54cm
b=1.27cm, wave guide thickness = 0.127 cm. Calculate the cut off
frequency for TE
11
mode.
2 2
C m n
fc
2 a b
_ _
+
, ,
48. Explain why TM
01
and TM
10
modes in a rectangular wave guide do not
exist. (May 2006)
For the modes TM
01
and TM
10
,
Fe > f
Where f frequency of the wave to be propagated The dominant mode in TM mode
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is TM
11
49. Define the difference between the wave impedance and the intrinsic
impedance.
The intrinsic impedance is given by the ratio between the permeability and
the permittivity.
For free space,
M
377
; for cu.
The wave impedance is the radio between the electrostatic energy and the magnetic
field energy.
y
x
x y
E
E
Z
H H
50. Define surface impedance.
The surface impedance is defined by the conductivity.
s
w
R
2
where the power loss in the 4 walls of the guide is the sum of losses in x=0 and
y=0.
52. Which mode is the dominant mode in a rectangular wave? (Nov 2005)
The dominant modes are, TE
10
and TM
11
But the lowest mode is TE
10
53. Show the excitation method of TE11 and TM11 modes is a rectangular
wave guide.
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Fig. (a) TE11 (b) TM11
54. Give the attenuation factor for TM wave is a rectangular wave guide.
(Apr. 2005)
2 2
s
TM
2
2 2
s
b a
2R a b
ab
1 1 fc
1
a b c
w
where R
2
_ _
, ,
,
where
c
c
and
f
= cut off wave length.
56. Mention the applications of circular waveguides.
Circular waveguides are used as attenuators and phase shifters.
57. Which mode in a circular waveguides has alternation effect decreasing
with increasing in frequency?
TE
01
58. Mention the dominant modes in rectangular and circular waveguides.
For a rectangular waveguide, the dominant mode TE
10
, For a circular waveguide
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the dominant mode TE
11
.
59. Write down the expression for cutoff frequency in a circular waveguide.
2
nm
c
h
f
where h
nm
=
( )
nm
ha
a
60. Calculate the cut off frequency of copper tube with 3 cm diameter inside
with air filled, in TE
11
mode.
2
nm
c
h
f
m
;
2
3
10
2
a m
( )
11
11
a
h
h
a
2
3.85 2
3 10
[ (ha)
11
= 3.85]
= 2.566 x 10
2
2
8
2.566 10
3 10
2
c
f
1
c
1
]
Q
= 12.25 GH
z
61. Determine the cutoff frequency of a circular waveguide with a diameter
of 2.36 cms operating in the dominant mode.
a =
2
2.36
10 .
2
m
Dominant mode is TE
11
,
h
nm
=
( )
nm
ha
a
( )
11
a
h
a
2
3.85 2 10
2.36
= 3.263 x 10
2
2
nm
c
h
f
2
8
3.263 10
3 10
2
8
1
3 10
1
1
]
Q
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f
c
= 15.58 GH
z
.
62. Why is TM
01
mode prepared to the TE
01
mode in a circular waveguide?
TM
01
mode is preferred to the TE
01
mode, since it requires a smaller diameter for
the same cutoff wavelength.
63. Define Q of a waveguide.
Quality factor Q is given by Q =
stored/unit length
lost / unit length / second.
energy
energy
64. Give the relation b/w quality factor and attenuation factor of a
waveguide?
2
2
Q
Vg
_
,
0
=
2
n
jn C
h p
J
n
(hp) sin n
0 0
p p
F H
0 0
p
E H
74. What are the boundry conditions for TM waves in circular guides?
The boundry conditions to be met for TM waves are that E
= q at P = a.
75. What is the wave impedances at a point?
z y z x
zy x y z
y
x z
xy y zx H H H
y
z x
yx xz H H H
E
E E
Z Z Z
E
E E
Z Z Z
+ + +
+ + +
76. What is the work impedence for waves guided by transmission lines /
wave guides?
Z
2
=
2 2
2 2
x y
trans
trans
x y
E E
E
H
H H
+
+
Z
z
= ZP = Z p =
( )
2
2
2
c
2
1
= 1
c
z
w
Z TM
w
_
,
_
,
DE
m
 .a
a
simplifying we get,
f= 3fc
80. Write the wave impedances for TE, TM Q TEM at cut off frequency.
* For TE waves at fc 1 ZTE =
For TM waves at fc 1 ZTM = 0
For TEM waves at fc 1 ZTEM =
81. Relationship between TM and TE:
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2
TE
2
TM
fc
=
f
_
,
The ratio between the attenuation factors of TM and TE waves is given by the
ratio between the cutoff frequency and the wave frequency.
82. Give the equation for the power loss at the magnetic field.
Power loss = I
2
R
= (JYZ)
2
. Rs
= (Hy)
2
. Rs
(Hy) = C4
2
4
\ Power loss=C
2
PART B
1. Write the expression for transverse magnetic waves in rectangular wave
guides.
The wave equations are partial differential equations that can be solved by the
usual technique of assuming a product, solution. This procedure leads to two ordinary
differential the solutions of which are known. Nothing that
E
z
(x, y, z) = E
z
0
(x, y) e
y2
E
z
0
= xy
Where X is a function of x alone, and y is a function of y alone.
2 2
2
2
2 2
d x d y
y x y xy xy
dx dy
+ +
Putting h
2
=
2
y
+
2
as before
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2
2
2 2
0
d x dy
y x h xy
dx dy
+ +
Divide by XY
2 2
2
2 2
1 1 d x d y
h
X dx y dy
+
The above equation equates a function of x alone to a function of y alone. The
only way in which such a relation can hold for all values of x and y is due to have each
of these function equal to some constant.
2
2 2
2
1 d x
h A
X dx
+
2
2
2
1 d y
A
y dy
The solution of equation is
X = c
1
cos B
x
+ c
2
sin B
x
B
2
= h
2
A
2
The above solution is
y = c
3
cos Ay + c
4
sin Ay
This gives
E
2
0
= xy = c
1
c
3
cos Bx cos Ay+c
1
c
4
cos Bx sin Ay + c
2
c
3
sin Bx cos Ay + c
2
c
4
sin
Bx sin Ay.
The constants c
1
, c
2
, c
3
, c
4
, A and B must now be selected to fit the boundary
condition.
E
2
0
= 0 when x = 0, x = a, y = 0 y = b.
If X = 0 the general expression.
E
2
0
= c
1
c
3
cos A
y
+ c
1
c
4
sin Ay
E
2
0
= c
2
c
3
sin Bx cos A
y
+ c
2
c
4
sin Bx sin Ay
When y = 0 reduces to
E
2
0
= c
2
c
3
sin Bx
For this to be zero for all values of x if it possible to have either c
2
(or) c
3
equal
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to zero (assuming B 0) putting c
2
=0 would make E
2
0
identically zero. So instead c
3
will be put equal to zero.
E
2
0
= c
2
c
3
sin Bx sin Ay
In addition to the amplitude constant c = c
2
c
4
If x = a
E
2
0
= c sin B
a
sin A
y
.
In order for this to vanish for all values of y (and assuming A 0) (Because A =
0 would make E
2
0
identically zero)
The constant B must have
m
B
a
when m = 1, 2, 3
Again if y = b;
E
2
0
= c
sin
m
a
x sin Ab
A =
n
b
where n = 1, 2, 3.
Therefore the final expression for
E
2
0
is = c
sin
m
a
x sin
n
y
b
y j E
x
0
=
2
j c
h
B cos Bx sin Ay
E
y
0
=
2
j c
h
A sin Bx cos Ay
0
2
sin cos
z
j c
H A Bx Ay
h
0
2
cos sin
y
j c
H B Bx Ay
h
n
and A =
b
m
B
a
_ _
+
, ,
2 2
c
1 m
f =
a
2
n
b
_ _
+
, ,
c
2 2
2
=
m
a
n
b
_ _
+
, ,
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f
c
c = v
0
2 2
2
v= =
m
a
n
b
_ _
, ,
This last expressions indicates than the velocity of propagation of the wave in
the guide is greater than the phase velocity in free space.
Since the wave length in the guide is given is given by
v
L
f
it will be longer
than the corresponding free space wave length.
2 2
2
2
L =
m
a
n
b
_ _
, ,
In the above expressions the only restriction on m and n is that they be
integers. However from the above equations it is seen that is either m or n is zero
fields will all be identically zero. Therefore the lowest possible values for the either m
or n is unity. The lowest cut off of frequency will occur for m = n = 1 This frequency
TM waves which can be propagated through the guide. This particular wave is called
the TM
11
wave for obvious reasons. High order waves require higher frequencies in
order to be propagated along a guide of given dimensions.
2. Derive the Expression for Transverse Electric waves in Rectangular
waveguides.
The wave equation, in a rectangular waveguide is given by
2 2
2 2
2 2
z z
z z
H H
H H
x y
+ +
The solution of the equation is,
H
z
(x, y) = H
z
0
(x, y) e
vz
H
z
0
(x, y) = xy
Let
Where x function of x only.
Y function of y only.
Substituting the value of H
2
in wave equation,
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2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
0
d x d y
y x xy xy
dx dy
d x d y
y x h xy
dx dy
+ +
+ +
where G
2
= +
2
Dividing by xy
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
1 1
0
1 1
d x d y
h
X dx y dy
d x d y
h
X dx y dy
+ +
+
The equation relates a function of x alone to a function of y alone and this can
be equated to a constant.
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
1
1
0
d x
h A
X dx
d x
h A
X dx
+
+
let
2
2
2
1 d x
B o
X dx
+
The solution of this equation is,
X = C
1
cos Bx + C
2
sin Bx
Similarly
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
0
d y
A
y dy
d y
A
y dy
+
The solution of this equation is
y = C
3
cos Ay + C
4
sin Ay
But H
2
0
= xy
= (c
1
cos Bx + c
2
sin Bx) (c
3
cos Ay + c
4
sin Ay)
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= c
1
c
3
cos Ay cos Bx + c
2
c
3
cos Ay sin Bx + c
1
c
4
cos Bx sin Ay + c
2
c
4
s in Ay
sin Bx
It is known that,
2
2
2 2
z
x
E H j
E
h x h y
For TE waves E
z
= 0
Ex =
2
z
H j
h y
\ =
2
j
h
[ c
1
c
3
A sin Ay cos Bx c
2
c
3
A sin Ay sin Bx + c
1
c
4
A cos Bx cos Ay + c
2
c
4
A cos Ay sin Bx]
Applying Boundary conditions.
E
2
= 0, when y = 0, y = b
If y = 0, the general solution is
Ex =
2
j
h
(c
1
c
4
A cos Bx + c
2
c
4
A sin Bx ] = 0
For E
x
= 0, C
4
= 0 ( c
4
is common)
Then the general solution is
Ex =
2
j
h
[  c
1
c
3
A sin Ay sin Bx c
2
c
3
A sin Ay Sin Bx]
If y = b, Ex = 0
For E
x
= 0, it is possible either B = 0 or A =
n
b
,
It B = 0, the above solution is identically new, so it is bitter to select A =
n
b
.
The general solution is
E
x
0
=
2
j
h
[ c
1
c
3
Ay cos Bx + c
2
c
3
A sin Ay + Sin Bx]
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Similarly for E
y
2
2
2 2
z
y
E H j
E
h y h x
+
=
2
z
H j
h x
=
2
j
h
[ c
1
c
3
B cos Ay Sin Bx + c
2
c
3
cos Ay cos Bx c
1
c
4
B sin Bx sin Ay + c
2
c
4
B sin B
sin Ay cos Bx]
Applying boundry conditions,
E
y
= 0; x = 0 and x = a
E
y
0
=
2
j
h
[c
2
c
3
B cos Ay+c
2
c
3
B cos Ay + c
2
c
4
B Sin Ay]
For E
y
0
=0, c
2
= 0
Then the general solution is
E
y
0
=
2
j
h
[ c
1
c
3
B cos Ay sin Bx c
1
c
4
B sin Bx Sin Ay]
If x = a, then E
y
0
= 0
E
y
0
=
2
j
h
Bc
1
sin Bx [c
3
cos Ay + c
4
Sin Ay]
For E
y
0
= 0, either A = 0 or B =
m
a
E
y
0
=
2
j
h
[ c
1
c
3
B sin Bx cos Ay + c
1
c
4
B sin Bx Sin Ay]
E
x
0
=
2
j
h
[c
1
c
3
A sin Ay cos Bx + c
2
c
3
A sin Ay Sin Bx]
Substituting the value of c
2
= c
4
= 0
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E
x
0
=
2
j
h
c
1
c
3
A sin A cos Bx
E
y
0
=
2
j
h
c
1
c
3
B sin Bx cos Ay
Let C = c
1
c
2
Where A =
n
b
, B =
m
a
Similarly for H
x
0
2 2
2
o z z
x
z
H E j
H
h x h y
H
h x
for propagation = j ,
2
o z
x
H j
H
h x
but
Ey =
2
z
H j
h x
2 z
y
H h
E
x j
Substituting the value of
z
H
x
in the above H
x
0
equation.
2
2
0
y
o o
x
y
h j
H E
h j
E
CA sin A cos Bx
E
y
0
=
2
j
h
CB sin Bx cos Ay
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2
j
h
[ E
2
= 0]
For propagation = j
0
2
z
y
H j
H
h y
But Ex =
2
z
H j
h x
2 z
x
H h
E
y j
in the above H
y
0
equation.
( )
2
2
0
x
o o
y
x
h
j
H E
h j
E
2
j
h
CA sin Ay cos Bx
H
2
0
= xy
= c
1
c
3
B cos Ay cos Bx + c
2
c
3
cos Ay sin Bx +c
1
c
4
cos Bx sin Ay + c
2
c
4
sin Ay
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sin Bx.
But c
2
= c
4
= 0
H
z
0
= c
1
c
3
cos Ay cos Bx
C = c
1
c
3
H
z
0
= C cos Ay cos Bx
The field equation of TE waves are as follows,
H
x
0
=
2
j
h
CB sin Bx cos Ay
H
y
0
=
2
j
h
CA cos Bx sin Ay
H
z
0
= C cos Ay cos Bx
E
x
0
=
2
j
h
CA cos Bx sin Ay
E
y
0
=
2
j
h
CB sin Bx cos Ay
Where A =
n
b
, B =
m
a
_ _
+
, ,
2 2
1 m
a
2
c
n
f
b
_ _
+
, ,
The corresponding cut off wavelength is
2 2
2
m
a
c
n
b
_ _
+
, ,
The velocity of propagation.
v
_ _
, ,
2 2
2
2
m
a
n
b
_ _
, ,
3. Explain about dominant mode in rectangular waveguide.
The lowest mode for TE wave is TE
10
(m = 1, n =0) whereas the lowest mode for
TM waves is TM
11
(m = 1, n = 1). This wave has the lowest cutoff frequency. Hence
the TE
10
mode is the dominant mode of a rectangular wave guide. Because the TE
10
mode has the lowest attenuation of all modes in a rectangular wave guide and its
electric field is definitely polarized in one direction every where.
For TE
10
mode m = 1, n = 0
2 2
2
m
a
0
n
h
b
a
a
_ _
, ,
_
+
,
CB sin Bx cos Ay
H
x
0
=
( )
2
j
a
C
( )
a
sin
( )
x
a
j ac
sin
( )
x
a
H
y
0
= 0
H
z
0
= C cos
( )
x
a
E
x
0
= 0
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E
y
0
=
( )
2
j
a
C
( )
a
sin
( )
x
a
=
j wac
sin
( )
x
a
z)
and the taking the real part of the
product.
H
x
0
(x, y, z, t) =
ac
sin
( )
x
a
sin (wt  z)
H
z
0
(x, y, z, t) = C cos
( )
x
a
cos (wt  z)
E
y
0
(x, y, z, t) =
w a
C sin
( )
x
a
sin (wt  z)
E
x
0
= H
y
0
= 0
For TE
10
mode m = 1, n = 0
2
1
a
.
c
C
a
1
a
2
2
c
f
c
a
where
0 0
1
C
 3 x 10
8
m/sec
2
2
1
2 .
c
c
a
a
_
,
cos z 
z
a
ac
sin
( )
a
x sin z
When y = b
J
s
(y = 0) = J
3
(y = b)
The surface currents on side walls at x = 0 and at y = b are selected the below
figure.
Surface currents on wave guide walls for TE
10
mode in rectangular wave guide.
4. Explain Wave Impedance.
In a Cartesian coordinate s/m three wave impedances (impedance constants)
must be defined. The wave impedances defines as the ratio of electric field intensity
to magnetic field intensity are
; ;
y
x z
xy yx zx
y x x
E
E E
Z Z Z
H H H
+ + +
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The wave impedance in the opposite directions are the negative of those given
above.
(i.e.)
; ;
y
x z
xy yx zx
y x x
E
E E
Z Z Z
H H H
For waves guided by transmission liens or wave guides, the wave impedance
which is seen in the direction of propagation z is given by
Z
z
= z
xy
= Z
yz
2 2
2 2
x y
z
x y
E E
Z
H H
+
+
For TM waves in a rectangular waveguide.
y
x
TM
y x
E
E
Z
H H
It is known that, the propagation constant is
2 2
y h
At cutoff frequency f
c
, = 0
2 2
0
c
h
h
2
w
c
2
= 0, w
c
2
= h
2
( )
2
2
2 2
c 2
f
2
c
h
h
w
The cutoff frequency is
2
c
h
f
2 2
2 2
= h
= w
j w
h
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,
_
,
2 2
2
2
= w
=w 1
= w 1
c
c
w
wc
w
f
f
The wave impedance of TM waves
2
2
2
1
1
1
M
c
c
c
TM
p
Z
f
w
f
f
f
f
Z
f
+
_
_
,
_
,
Where is a characteristic impedance
,
_
,
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For a given mode the waves with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency
cannot be propagated i.e. waves are attenuated as e
y2
=
e
az
with z. It propagates if the
operating frequency is greater than the cutoff frequency. Therefore a waveguide
exhibits the property of a high pass filter.
The wave impedance in a non propagation mode is
2
2
c
1
1
f < f
TM
c
c
Z
j
f
h
f
j
jh f
f
for
,
wave impedance is purely reactive, indicating that there is no power flow for f <
fc
For TE waves in a rectangular wave guide
y
x
TE
y x
E
E
Z
H H
,
_
,
The wave impedance of TE waves
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Z
TE
=
2
2
2
1
1
1
c
c
TE
c
f
w
f
f
f
Z
f
f
,
Where is the characteristic impedance
,
Wave impedance is purely reactive, indicating that there is no power flow for f <
f
c
.
For TEM waves in a rectangular wave guide.
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Wave impedance
( )
x
TEM
y
TEM
E j
Z
H
or
Z
j
Wave impedances of TEM waves is the characteristic impedance of any medium
Z
TEM
=
The variation of wave impedance with frequency is below.
Wave impedance versus frequency characteristics of waves between parallel
conducting plane.
The wave impedance for different are given below.
Mod
e
Wave Impedance
TM
Z =
2
1
c
f
f
_
,
TE
Z =
2
1
c
f
f
,
TEM
z
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The phase velocity in a waveguide is given by
2
2
2
2
1
=w 1
1
1
1
c
c
c
o
c
f
w
f
f
where
f
r
f
f
V
V
f
f
,
_
,
Where V
o
=
1
,
Since
2
2
c o
c
f
f
,
2
1
o
o
c
h
h
,
2 2
0
c
o c
or
2 2
2
2 2
0
o c
c
+
+
+
5. Explain the Excitation methods for various modes?
In order to launch a particular mode, a type of probe is chosen which will
produce lines of E and H that are roughly parallel to the lines of E and H for that mode
possible methods for feeding rectangular waveguides are shown.
In figure the probe is parallel to that y axis and so produces lines of E in the y
direction and lines of H which the in the xz plane. This is the perfect field configuration
for the TE
10
mode.
In Figure the parallel produces fed with opposite phase tend to set up the TE
20
mode in figure the probes which are parallel to the zaxis produces electric field liens
in the xy plane for TE
11
mode.
In figure the probe parallel to the zaxis produce magnetic field lines in the xy
plane. This is the perfect field configuration for the TM
11
mode.
It is possible for several modes to exist simultaneously in waveguides, if the
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frequency is above cutoff for these particular modes. However the waveguide
dimensions are often chosen so that only the dominant mode can exist.
6. Derive the equation for Alternation in waveguides.
For the practical consideration we assumed that the waveguides has infinite
conductivity that the waveguides has infinite conductivity thus there is the no loss,
but impractical the conductivity is not infinite, but some high value, due to this the is
some less occurs in the waveguide, which is known as waveguide attenuation.
Attenuation due to waveguide walls can be defines as
1 Power lost in guide walls
2 transmitted Power
1
]
TM Waves
The current induced in the waveguide alls depend on the magnitude of the H
x
and Hy at the surfaces these the power lost and be written as
2 2 2
0 0
1
2
a b
s s x y
P J Rs R H dx H dy
1
+
1
]
Where J
s
2
= H,
$
2 2
x y
n H i H j + = linear current density per meter length per conducting
wall.
R
s
= Surface impedance =
2
m
m
2 2
0 0
2
a b
m
x y
m
P H dx H dy
1
+
1
]
Substitute the value of H
x
and H
y
integrate and simplify we get,
2 2 2 2 2
2 4
2 8
m
m c
v f c m a m b
f b a
1
_
+
1
,
]
Power transmitted,
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1
2
x y y x
P E H E H
1 +
]
2
2
0 0
1
cos sin
2
a b
c
m c m x n
y dxdy
a a a
1
_ _
1
, ,
]
2 2
2
0 0
1
sin cos
2
a b
c
n c m x n y
dxdy
b a a
_ _
+
, ,
2
2
2
1
8
c
T
c
f abc f
P
f f
_
_
,
,
watt
2 2 2 2
2 4
2
2
2 8
1
2
1
8
m c
c
c
m v f c n a m b
f b a
f abc f
f f
1
_ _
1
+
1
, ,
1
_
_ 1
1
,
, ]
2
2 2
2
2
2
/
2 2
1
m c
c
n m
m v f b a
N m
f
f
f
_ _
+
, ,
,
for TE waves
The power lost
2 2
1 1
2 2
sx sz
J Rs dx J Rs dz
2
2
2 2 2 2
4
0 0
cos sin
2
a b
s
R m x m m x
A dx A dx
a h a a
1
_ _ _
+
1
, , ,
1
]
2 2
2
4
2
2 2
2
4
. 2 plane.
2
2 2
. 2 plane
2
2 2
s
s
R A m
a
A for y
h a
R aA m
a
A for y
h a
1
_
+
1
,
]
1
_
+
1
,
1
]
Total power lost = ( )
2 2
2 2
4
2
s
R A m n
a b
h a a
1
_ _
+ + +
1
, ,
1
]
Power transmitted P
T
= [E
x
H
z
+ E
y
H
x
]
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2
2
2 2
4
0 0
1
cos sin
2
a b
J
A n m x n
P y dxdy
h b a a
1
_ _ _
1
, , ,
1
]
2
2 2
0 0
sin cos
a b
m m x n y
dxdy
a a a
1
_ _ _
+
1
, , ,
1
]
2
2
2
2
1
8 8
c
c
f ab abA
A
f
_
+
,
2 2
2
1
8
c c
f f ab
A
f f
_ _
+
, ,
1 Power lost
2 Power transmitted
1
]
( )
2 2
2 2
4
2
s
R A m n
a b
h a a
1 1
1
_ _
1 + + + 1
1
1 , , 1 1
] ]
]
After simplifications,
2
2
2
1
1
c
c
f m f a
m b f
f
a
c
1
_
+
1
,
1
] _
,
nepers/m
7. Explain the characteristics of TE & TM waves.
The propagation characteristics of TE & TM waves are obtained as follows,
From the above analysis we got
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
P
P =
m n
h p A B
a b
m n
or
a b
m n
or
a b
_ _
+ +
, ,
_ _
, ,
_ _
, ,
We know P is Q complex number I e
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2 2
2
P j
m n
P j
a b
+
_ _
+
, ,
At low frequencies
2 2
2
m n
a b
_ _
<< +
, ,
Thus P becomes real i.e. p =
=
2 2
2
m n
a b
_ _
+
, ,
At high frequencies
2 2
2
m n
a b
_ _
>>
, ,
Thus p becomes purely imaginary [i.e.
_ _
, ,
_ _
, ,
1
_ _
, ,
1
]
_ _
, ,
1
_ _
1
+
1 , ,
]
Where
8
7 12
1 1
3 10 / sec
4 10 8.854 10
v m
The cutoff wavelength is
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( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2
2
c
c
v v ab
f
mb na
v m n
a b
1
+
_ _
1
, ,
1
]
Guide wavelength:
It can be defined as the distance traveled by the wave in order to undergo
a phase shift of 2 radians. It is denoted by,
2 2
2
2 2
~
g
m
a b
1
_ _
+
1
, ,
1
]
Practically the guide wavelength is different from free space wavelength.
W.K.T.
2 2
2
c
m n
a b
_ _
+
, ,
Thus
2 2
2 2 2
c
2 2
1
2 v
=
f
1 1
1
f
g
c c
c
c
v
f
f
f
_
,
_ _ _
+
, ,
,
W.K.T.
1 1 1
, &
c
c
v
f f
2
1
c
c
_
+
,
squaring on both sides we get,
2
2
2 2 2
1
1 1 1
g c
c g
_
_
,
,
+
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Phase Velocity:
W.K.T. The wave propagates in the waveguide
Wavelength
g
2 2 2
2
2 .
2
2 (2 / )
=
g
p g
g
c
f
f
v f
m n
a b
1
_ _
1
, ,
1
]
Since at cutoff frequency
2 2
2
c
m n
a b
_ _
+
, ,
Then
2
2
1
1
1
p
p
v
v
c
fc
f
v
v velocity of light
fc
c
1 1 _
_
1 1
, ]
,
1
]
_
,
The phase velocity is the velocity of TE & TM waves.
Group velocity
It can be defined as v
g
d
dP
W.K.T.
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
( )
c
m n
a b
_
_ _
+
, ,
,
Differentiate the above equation w.r.t. w we get,
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2 2 2
2
2
2
g
2
2 ( )
1
1
d
1
v 1
c
y
d
d
c
fc
f fc
or v
d c
d
or v
d
,
_
1
_ ,
1
1 ,
]
_
,
8. For an a/r filled copper x brand wave side with dimensions a=2.286cm,
b=1.016cm determine the cutoff frequency of the first four propagating
modes. What is the alteration for metre length of the guide when operating
at the frequency of 10GHZ?
Given a =2.286cm; b=1.016cm
F = 10GHZ length = 1m
10 01 11 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
TE ,TE ,TE ,TE
m n
c
a b
1 m n
c
a b
M
c m n
fc
2 a b
_ _
+
, ,
_ _
+
, ,
_ _
+
, ,
for TE
10
mode:
m=1, n=0
8
2
c
fc
2a
3 10
2 2.286 10
6.56 GHZ
_ _
+
, ,
_ _
+
, ,
= 16.156 GHZ
for TE
02
mode:
c
8
2 2
2 2
2
2 2 2
m 0, n = 2
c 2
f
2 b
c 3 10
= 29.53 GH
b 1.016 10
Pr opagation constant,
m n
= M
a b
m n 2f
a b c
_ _
+
, ,
_ _ _
+
, , ,
If the operating frequency is less than the cutoff frequency alternation takes place
i.e., propagation does not take place.
For TE
01
, TE
11,
TE
02
modes propagation will not take place i.e., propagation
constant .
For TE
11
mode, m =1, n = 1
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2 2 2
2 2 9
8
10 10 2 10 10
.
2.286 1.016 3 10
265.77 Nepers in
Alternation = 337.4 1
= 337.4 Nepers
_ _ _
+
, , ,
l
for TE
01
mode; m=0, n=1
2 2
2 9
8
2 2
2 9
8
10 2 10 10
1.016 3 10
227.5 Nepers/ m
Alternation 227.5 1
=227.5Nepers
2 10 2 10 10
=
1.016 3 10
581.88 Nepers/ m
Alternation 581.88 1 58
_ _
, ,
_ _
, ,
l
l 1.88 Nepers
9. A rectangular waveguide has crosssection dimensions a = 7cm & b =
4cm. Determine all the modes which will propagate through the waveguide
at frequency of 6 GHZ
Given a = 7cm = 7 x 10
2
m
b = 4cm = 4 x 10
2
m
f = 6GHZ
_ _
+
, ,
c
2 2
The cutoff wavelength
2
m n
a b
o
8
9
I method,
c
f
3 10
= 5cm
6 10
10
c
for TE mode : m 1,n 0
2a
= 2 7=14cm
If
c
>
o
then the propagation takes place the cut off wavelength .
c
, should be
greater then the minimum wavelength (
o
) for propagation, since
c
,
o
propagation
is possible for TE
10
mode,
01
c
c o 01
11
2 2
2 2
11
zo
for TE mode : m 0;n 1
2b
= 2 4=8cm
,propagation is possible for TE mode,
for TE mode; m=1, n=1
10 10
= 1600
7 4
87.228 rad/ m
propagation is possible for TE mode for
TE mode
>
_ _
+
, ,
m = 2, n = 0
2
2 10
1600
7
j87.95rad/ m
_
,
Guide wavelength
0
g
e
0
8
9
2
f
1
f
c
But
f
3 10
10 10
3cm or 3 10 m
2
g
2
2
3
3
1
10
3.145cm/ 2.145 10 m
,
Characteristic wave impedance
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( )
2
c
2
2z =120
f
1
f
120
3
1
10
395.19
,
Q
11. Design a rectangular waveguide with the following specifications a) At a
7.5 GHz the guide wave length for TE
10
mode is 90% of the cut off wave
length. B) TE
30
& TE
12
wave the same cut off frequency.
Given
g
e
0
8
9
f 7.5GHz
0.9
c
f
3 10
4cm
7.5 10
0
g
2
0
C
2
g
2
c
0
c
2
g
s
0 c
1
1
1
cross multiplying
1
_
+
,
_
_ ,
,
_ _
, ,
2 2
0
2
g 0
1
= 1+(0.9) 1.81
1.81 1.81 4
= 7.24 cm
g g
c
_ _
+
, ,
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g
c
c
0.9
0.9
7.29
= 8.04
0.9
2
c
g
But
cm
a
m
10 c
c
: =2a
a =
2
8.04
a =
2
a = 4.02 cm.
TE
30 c
c
2
for TE :
a =
2
a = 12.067cm
a
m
m
12
c
2 2
for TE : m = 1, n = 2
2
m n
a b
_ _
+
, ,
( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2 2
4
4 1
2/b
(8.04)
12.069
c
m n
a b
_ _
+
, ,
2
0.0619 0.00687
0.055
b
0.055
b = 8.5cm
a = 12.067 cm
A
2
2
2
g
1
= 1+(0.9) 1.81
1.81 0 1081 4
=7.24cm
=7.24cm
s
o
g
o
_
_
+
,
,
>
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But
9
c
0.9
7.24
= 8.04
0.9
2
c
cm
a
m
For TE
10
:
2
/ 2
8.04
2
4.02
c
c
a
a
a
a cm
For TE
30:
2
2
12.067 .
c
a
m
xm
a
a cm
>
For TE
12
: M=1, n=2.
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
4/
2 4 1
(8.0 ~) (12.067)
= 0.06190.00687
= 0.055
4
b
0.055
b =
_ _
, ,
_ _
+
, ,
_
,
c
m n
a b
m n
a b
b
8.5 cm
a =12.067 cm.
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12. An air filled hollow rectangular conducting waveguide has cross section
dimensions of 8x10 cm. How many TE modes will this waveguide transmit at
frequencies below 4 GHz? How these mode are designated & What are their
cutoff frequencies?
Given a = 0.1m, b = 0.08m, f = 4 GHz
8
9
/
3 10
= 0.075 .
4 10
c f
m
_ _
, ,
Propagation constant,
2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
9
8
2 2 2
2
=
2
=
4 10 40
3 10 3
2 40
0.1 0.08 3
_ _
+
, ,
_ _ _
+
, , ,
_ _ _
+
, , ,
_ _ _
+ +
, , ,
m n
a b
m n f
a b c
m n f
a b c
f
c
m n
Let m = 1, n = 0
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2 2
2 2
2 2
1 80
0
0.1 3
= j77.66rad/metre
1 80
m=0, n=1 = 0+
0.08 3
= j74 rad/m
m=1, n=1,
1 80
= 0
0.08 3
= j74rad/m
m=1, n
_ _
+
, ,
1 _
1
] ,
_ _
+ +
, ,
2 2 2
=1,
1 1 80
=
0.1 0.08 3
=j64 rad/m.
_ _ _
+
, , ,
m = 2, n = 0,
2 2
2 2
2 80
0
0.1 3
= j 55.4 rad/m
m=0, n=2
2 80
= 0+
0.08 3
_ _
+
, ,
_ _
+
, ,
2 2 2
=j39.1 rad/m
m=1, n=2
1 2 80
=
1 0.8 3
_ _ _
+
, , ,
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2 2
= 11.708 nepers/m
m=2, n=2
2 2 80
=
1 0.08 3
_ _ _
+
, , ,
It propagation constant
_
+
,
c m n
TE
a b
TE
01:
2
8
3 10 1
0
2 0.08
= 1.875 GHz
c
f
_
+
,
TE
11:
2 2
8
3 10 1 1
=
2 0.1 0.08
= 2.5 GHz
_ _
, ,
TE
20:
8
3 10 2
0
2 0.1
= 3 GHz
c
f
_
+
,
TE
02
:
2
8
3 10 2
0
2 0.08
c
f
_
+
,
TE
21
:
2 2
8
3 10 2 1
2 0.1 0.08
= 3.457 GHz
c
f
_ _
, ,
13. A rectangular air filled copper waveguide with dimension 2cm x 1cm
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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crosssection & 300m length is operation at a cuttz with a dominant mode
find cutoff frequency, guide wavelength, phase velocity, characteristic
impedance and atomization. Assume
7
5.8 10 for copper .
Given
2
2
9
2
8
2
9
2 2 10
1 1 10
9 10
30 30 10
3 10
= 3.33 10
9 10
a cm m
b cm m
f Hz
l cm m
c
f
m
The dominant mode is TE
10
,
Cutoff frequency
8
2
2
3 10
=
2 2 10
7.5
c
c
c c
f
a
f GHz
Guide wavelength
2
2
2
2
1
3.33 10
=
7.5
1
6.02 10
,
g
fc
f
a
m
Phase velocity
2
1
c
VP
fc
f
,
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8
8
3 10
=
7.5
1
5.43 10 / sec
a
VP m
,
Characteristic impedance
2
2
7
1
120
=
7.5
1
9
682 .
TE
TE
Z
fc
f
Z ohms
,
_
Surface resistance
9 7
7
2
9 10 4 10
=
5: 8 10
2.475 10 .
s
s
f
R
R ohms
Alteration constant
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1 7.5
2.47 10 1 2
2 9
=
7.5
1 10 120 1
9
= 0.02 Nepeirs/m
s
o
o
b fc
R
a c
fc
b
f
_
_
+
,
,
,
1
_
1
,
1
]
_
,
Total Alteration
0.02 0.30 0.006 . l nepers
14. What are the reasons for impossibilities of TEM mode in a rectangular
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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234
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waveguide?
TEM mode cannot propagate in a rectangular waveguide can be proved by the
following argument:
1) By definition, TEM wave means that there is no variation of electric &
magnetic fields in the transverse plane. If this is to be satisfied than the
transferees field components Ex, Ey, Hxy & Hy have to be constant w.r.t x & y. if
this so, then this will violate the boundary conditions E
tan
= 0< H normal =o. if the
boundary conditions are to be satisfied for a rectangular waveguide, then this wave
cannot be a TEM wave.
2) In the expression for the field components, if we put E
2
=H
2
=0 then all other
field components Ex, Ey, Hx & Hy will also be zero as could be seen from equation.
11
2
11
2
X
kx
X
y
ky
y
1
, ,
1
]
For the TE
10
mode put m=1 and n=0 in the above equation
2 10
2
3 10
/ 6.56
2 9 2 2 2.286
o
c c
fc TE GHz
a
V
For the TE
01
mode put m= 0 and n = 1.
1/ 2
2 10
01 2
1 1 3 10
/
2 1.016 2 2
c
f TE
b m b
1
1
]
For the TE
20
mode
1/ 2
20
10
4 2
/
2 2
3 10
= 13.12
2 2.286
c z
c c c
f TE
a a a
GHz
1
1
]
For the TE
11
mode.
2
1/ 2
2
11 2 2
/
2
c
c
f TE
a b
1
+
1
1
]
1/ 2 1/ 2
2 2 10 2 2
2 2 2 2
1/ 2
10
3 10 (2.286) (1.016)
2 2 (2.286) (1.016)
3 10 2.5
16.16
2 2.32
1 1 + +
1 1
] ]
1
1
]
c a b
a b
GHz
For the TM
11
mode
11
/
c
f TM
will be same as above F
c
/TM
11
= 16.16 GHz
For the TM
21
mode
1/ 2
1/ 2
10
10
21 2 2 2 2
10 1/ 2
3 10 4 1 4 1
/ 1.5 10
2 (0.286) (1.06)
=1.5 10 [0.765 0.887] 19.28
c
f TM
a b
GHz
1
1
+ +
1
1
]
]
+
For the TM
12
mode
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1/ 2
10
12 2 2
1/ 2
10
2 2
10 1/ 2
3 10 1 4
/
2
1 4
= 1.5 10
(2.286) (1.016)
= 1.5 10 (0.191 3.875)
= 30.24 GHz.
c
f TM
a b
1
+
1
]
1
+
1
]
+
Since the signal frequency is 10 GHz only the modes with cutoff frequencies less
than 10 GHz will propagate and the others will evanesce. The waves that will
propagate is only TE
10
mode. The modes that will evanesce are: TE
01,
TE
20,
TE
11
, TM
21
and TM
12
.
16. A 10GHZ signal is propagated is a dominant mode in a rectangular wave
guide if vg is to be 90% of the free space velocity of the light, then what be
the breath of the waveguide. Find the characteristic impedance also.
Given:
g
TE
V
0.9
C
f 10GHZ
a ?
Z ?
( )
( )
2
g
2
g
2
2
fc
i V C 1
c
V
sub. fc=
2a
V
fc
1
C c
fc
0.9 1
c
fc 4.358GHZ
for f= 10 GHZ
_
,
_
,
_
,
VEL TECH VEL TECH MULTI TECH VEL
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TECH HIGHTECH
( )
TE
2
TE
V
ii fc= 4.358GHZ
2a
a 0.0344m
and Z
fc
1
b
Z 418.868
,
17. Design a rectangular wave guide with following specifications (a) at .5
GHZ the guide g for TE
10
is 90% of c (b) TE
30
& TE
12
have same fc.
Given:
g
c
g
2
f 7.5GHZ
0.9
1
c
,
2
g
2
2 2
2
g g
1
1
c
1
c
,
_
,
_ _
_
,
, ,
( )
2
2
g
2 2
g
1 0.9
1.8
_
+
,
g
g
c
1.8
f
0.053m
( )
30
3V
b TE fc
2a
3V
fc=
2a
2a
c
3
( )
10 30
TE & TE have sane 0.024
fc & c
c 30 0.059
c
a 3
2
9
a 0.08m
3V
fc 5.08x10 Hz
2a
( ) ( )
2 2
1 m n
fc
a b
2
fc 30 fc 12
_ _
+
, ,
( )
12 12
2 2
2
at TE c
m n
a b
sub a=0.08m, we get,
b=2.063m
_ _
+
, ,
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18. Derive the Equation for Beset function:
Beset Function :
In solving for the electromagnetic fields with in guides or circular cross section a
differential equation known as Bessels equation is encountered. The solution of the
equation dents to Bessel functions. These functions will be considered briefly in this
section in propagation for the following section on circular waveguides. These same
functions can be expelled to appear in any two dimensional problem in which these is
circular symmetry. Examples of such problems are the vibrations of a circular
membrane. The propagation of waves within a circular cylinder , and the
electromagnetic field distribution about an in finitely long wire.
The differential equation involved in there problems these the form.
2 2
2 2
d p 1 dp n
1 p 0
dp e de p
_
+ +
,
Where n is any integer. One solution to this equation can be obtained by assuming a
power series solution.
2
0 1 2
p a a e a p ............. + + +
Substitution of this assumed solution back into and equating the coefficients of like
power leads to a series solution for the direrential eqauation, for example in me
special case when n=0
2
2
d p 1 dp
p 0
dp p de
+ +
When the power series is interasted in and the sums of the coefficients of each power
of p are equated to zero. The folowing series is obtained.
( ) ( )
4 6
2
1 1 2 2
2 4 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
e e
e 2 2
p p C 1 .......
2
2! 3!
P P P
C 1 ....
2 2 4 2 4 6
1
_ _
1
_
, ,
1
+ +
1
,
1
]
1
+ +
1
]
( )
2r
r
1 1
T 0
(1/ 2e)
C 1
(r )
this series is convergent for all values of p, either real or complex. iT is called bissels
funtion of the first kind of order zero and is denoted by the symbol.
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J
0
(p)
The zero order refers to the fact that if is the solution case of n=0. The coresponded
solution for n=1,2,3etc are designated.
J
0
(p), J
2
(p), J
3
(p) where the subscript n donotes the order of the bessel function
since second order differential equation, thermust be two linearly independent
solutions for each value of n . The second solution may be obtained ina manner
somewhat similar to thaeir used for the first but starting with a slightly different senes
that is suitably manipulated to yield a solution. The second soulution is known as
bessels function of the seond kind, or neumans function and is designated by the
symbol
N
n
(p)
Where again n indicates the order of the funtion. In the zero order of this solution of
the secend kind the following series is obtained
( )
( )
( )
0
2r
r
2
r 1
0 0
2 P
N (p) ln r Jo(p)
R
1/ 2p
2 1 1 1
1 1 ....
2 3 r
r!
p AJ (p) Bw (p)
_
+
' )
,
_
+ + + +
,
+
A plot of J
o
(p) and N
o
(e) is shown is shown in figure. Because all the neumarn
function become infinte at p=0; these second solutions cannot be used for any
physical problem in which the origin is included us for example the hellow wave
guide problem
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In is apperent the (except near the origin for No (p) ) these curves beat a
marked similary to
2
( ) cos( / 4)
2
( ) sin( / 4)
E
J e P
e
No P P
e
19. Derive the solution of the field equations of cylindrical coordinates.
The method of solution of the electromagnetic equations for guided ofcircular
cross section is similar to that followed for rectangular guides however, in order to
simplify the applications of the boundary conditions, it is expedient to express the
field equations & the wave equations in the cylindrical coordinate system.
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In cylindrical coordinates in a nonconducting region mass ells equations are.
2
2
2
2
2
1 ( )
1 ( )
_
,
_
,
j E
E
E j E
E
H j E
E
E jw H
H H
j E
E E
j Hz
These equations can be combined to give
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
E
h H j
E
h H j
E H j
h E
H
2
E
2 2
H
j
+
l
2 2 2
h +
The wave equation in cylindrical coordinates for E
2
is
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 1
2
f E E E
+ + +
proceeding in a manner similar to that followed in the rectangular case, let
E
2
= P(P) e ( )
2
2
z
c
e E e
be written
2
2
( )( cos sin )
V
n n
H Jn Ph c n D n e +
for Tm waves the remaining beld components can be obtained by inserting (b) into
equation (b) for 7E waves (7) must be inserted into the set corresponding to(b).
20. Derive the equation for Tm & TE waves in circular waveguides.
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As in the case of rectangular guides, it is convenient to divide the possible
solution for circular guides into transverse magnetic & transverse electric waves for
the TM waves H
2
is identically zero and the wave equation for E
2
is used. The Bonn
dry conditions require the E
2
must vanish at the surface of the guide from (6)
Jn(ha) = 0 (8)
Where a is the radius of the guide. There is an infinite number of possible TM
waves corresponding to the infinitive number of roots of (8) As before h
2
=
2
2
+
&
in the case of rectangular guides h
2
must be less than
2
2 for transmission to occur.
There extract high frequencies will be required. This in turn means that only the first
few roots of (8) will be of practical interest the first few roots are.
(ha)
01
= 2.405 (ha)
11
= 3.85
(ha)
02
= 5.25 (ha)
12
= 7.02
The first subscript refers to the value of n & the second refers to the roots n their
order of magnitude. The various Tm waves will be referred to as Tm
0,
& Tm
12
etc.
Since
2 2
h this gives for
mn
=
2 2
h nm
the cutoff or critical frequency below which transmission of a wave will not occur is
2
(ha)nm
hnm=
a
c
hnm
f
m
Where
from equation (b) the various components of TM waves can be computed of Tm waves
can be computed in terms of E
2
. The expression for Tm waves in circular guides are
E
2
0
=An Jn (h
)cos n
=
1
2
(( ) sin )
jAn n
Jn h n
h
The variation of each of there field components with time & in the 2 direction
are shown by multiplying each of the expressions of (3) by the factor
( ) i t z
e
& taking
the real part. In the original expression (6) for E
2
1 the arbitrary constant b
n
has been
part equal to zero. The relative amplitudes of An & B
n
determine the orientation of the
field in the guide, & for a circular guide & any particular value of n
1
the
=0, can
always i.e. oriented to make either An or B
n
equal to new.
For transverse electric waves E
2
is identically zero & H
2
is given by equation (6),
by substituting (6) into (5), the remaining for Tm waves in circular guides are.
2
2
( ) cos
'( ) cos
( ) sin
H CnJn hl n
j cn
Hl Jn h n
h
jo cn
H Jn h n
h
E H
The boundary conditions to be met for Tm waves are that E at
1
a
from (b) E is
proportional to
/ Hz
&
to Jn (h
) (h
& its the roots of (47) which must be determined. The first few of these roots are
(ha)
1
01
= 3.83 (ha)
1
11
= 1.84
(l a)
1
02
= 7.02 (ha)
1
12
= 3.33
The corresponding TE waves are referred to as TE
01,
TE
11
& so on
The equations for f
c,
, , &
are identical to those for the Tm waves. It is
understood, of course that the roots of equation (7) are to be used in connection with
TE waves only.
The equations shows that the wave having the lowest cutoff frequency is the
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TE
11
wave. The wave having the next lowest cutoff frequency is the Tm
01
.
21. Derive the expression for wave impedance & characteristic impedance.
The wave impedances at a point have been defined by equation already. For
waves guided by transmission lines 1 wave guider, interest centers on the wave
impedance which is seen when looking in the direction of propagation that is along
the =axis.
2 2
2 2
y
y x
E
Ex Ey
H H
Hx Hy
+
+
2xy = 2yx = 2
z
The wave impedances looking in the 2direction are equal & may be put equal to 2
z
,
where
2
z
=
2 2
2 2
trans
trans
E x y
H
Hx Hy
+
+
is the ratio of the total transverse electric field transverse electric field straits to the
total transverse magnetic field strength.
A similar inspection of egn (b) for in waves in circular grids shows that for them
also
2
z
=2p = 2 =
If is seen that for in waves in rectangular a circle girder a indeed in cylindrical grids of
any cresssection the wave impedance in the direction of propagation U
Constant over the cross section of the guide, & is the same for girder of different
shapes reaching that.
2 2
h
& that the cutoff angular frequency
c
has been defined is that frequency that
wakes.
2 2
c
h
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it follows that
2 2
1 ( / ) M c
Then from (3) a (+) the wave impedance is the 2direction for Tm waves is
2 2
2 2
2 ( ) 1 ( / )
= 7 1( c / )
z
m
Tm c
Thus for any cylindrical guide the wave impedance for Tm waves is dependent
only on the intrinsic impedance of the dielectric & the ration of the frequency to the
cutoff frequency
For TE waves the same conclusion can be recharged. However for TE waves it is
found that.
2 2
7
( )
1 ( / )
z
c
Z TE
for TEM waves between parallel planes or on ordinary parallel wire or cotrig
transmission lines the cutoff frequency is zero, d the wave impedance reducer to,
Z
z
(TEM) =7
The dependence of on the ratic of frequency to cutoff frequency as shown by
(3) effects the phase velocity & the wavelength in a corresponding manner thus the
phase or wave velocity in a cylindrical guide of any cross section is given by.
2 2 2 2
1 1
1 ( / ) 1 ( / )
o
u
c c
Where V
o
= 1 , d
&
are the constants of the dielectric. The wavelength
in the guide measured in the direction of propagation, is
2 2
2 2
V 2 1
1 ( / )
>o
=
1( c / )
f c
Where o is the wavelength of a TEM wave of frequency f in a dielectric having the
constants
&
. Since
2 2
/ =
2 2
/ o c it follows that
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2 2
o c
c o
o c
Where V & I are peak phasors. For ordinary transmission fives these definitions
are equivalent but for wave guides they lead to three values that depend upon the
guide dimensions in the same way but which differ by a constant.
For example consider the three definitions given by (6) for the case of the TE
10
mode in a rectangular grids. The voltage will be taken as the maximum voltage from
the lower face of the grids to the upper face this warms at x=9/2 & has a value,
U
n
=H
x
= sin
j ac x
a
= 0.02727 m.
i) cut off wavelength:
11
2
( )
2 2.25
=
1.84
c
a
ha
= 7.68 cm / 0.0768 m.
ii) Guide wavelength:
2
2
1
0.02727
=
0.02727
1
0.0768
= 0.029 m.
,
_
,
g
A
c
iii) Phase velocity :
VP
8
8
0.029
3 10
0.02727
0.029 10 / sec.
1
]
_
,
g
c
m
iv) Group velocity:
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V
g
8
8
0.02727
3 10
0.029
2.80 10 / sec
,
_
,
g
u
c
u m
v) Characteristic impedance:
Z
2
2
20
1
120
1108 ~ .
0.2727
1
0.029
c
,
_
,
23. Calculate the cutoff wavelength the guide wavelength & the
characteristic wave impedance diameter is ucm for a g GHZ signal
propagated in it is the TE
11
mode.
Given:
F = 9 GHZ
D = 4cm; a=A/2 =2cm
For TE
11
:
(ha)
11
= 1.8~
cutoff wavelength
X
c
( )
11
2
9
2
=
2 a
= 6.8 / 0.068.3
1.8~
/
3 10
3.33 / 0.0333 ,
9 10
a
ha
cm m
x c f
cm m
Guide wavelength,
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9
2
2
1 ( / )
3.33
=
.33
1
6.83
c
_
,
= 3.81cm/ 0.0381 m.
Diacharacteristic wave: m Polence
Z
z
2
2
=
1 ( / )
120
=
3.35
1
6.83
=435.7 ohms.
c
> >
_
,
24. Determine the cutof frequencies of the first two propagating modes of
circular waveguide with a=0.5 cm &
1
2.25
if the guide is 50cm in length
operating at f=13 GHz determine the attenuation
Given :
A=0.5cm = 0.5x10
2
m
2.25, 0
50 , 0.5
13
r
l cm m
f Hz
Cutoff frequency:
F
c
11
( )
2
c
ha
a
F
x
TE
01
mode:
(ha) 0.1 = 3.832
for
=
8
2
3.832 3 10
2 0.5 10
=36.6 GHz
for TE
11
mode:
(ha)
11
=1.8~1
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F
c
=
8
2
1.8 ~1 3 10
2 0.5 10
Propagator constant
2
2
2
( ) 1
=
nm
nm
h
ha c
a
1
_
+
1
,
1
]
(or) TE
01
2
2
01
2
2
9
2 8
2 ( )
3.832 2 13 10 2.25
=
0.5 10 3 10
648.5 / .
_
,
,
_
_
,
,
f ha
a c
Nepers m
Propagation constant
b) The phase constant in the guide is
.
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2 2
9
7
12
11
3 10
4 10
8.854 10
( )
h
f
ha
h
a
9 2 7 12
12
1.8 ~1
(2 3 10 ) 4 10 8.854
5 10
,
the wavelength in the guide is
2
2
50.9
12.3 . cm
26. An air filled circular loan guide having an inner radius of icon is excited
in dominant mode at 10 GHz. Find the a) cut off frequency of dominant
mode at 10GHz . Find the cutoff frequency: guide wavelength and wave
impedance. Find the bandwidth. For operation in dominant mode only.
The dominant mode is TE,
For TE,, mode (ha)
11
= 1.84)
F = 10x10
9
H2
A = 1x10
2
m
a) unit off frequency:
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8
2
( ),
2
1.841 3 10
2 1 10
c
ha c
f
a
b) Guide wavelength:
2
2
2
9
1
1
/
3 10
10 10
g
fc
c f
2
2
2
2
3 10
3 10
8.795
1
10
6.3 10
m
g
m
,
c) wave impedance:
2
2
1
120
8.795
1
10
792
TE
z
fc
f
ha c
a
ha
GHz
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27. Derive the field configuration, cutoff frequency and velocity of
propagation for TM waves in rectangular wave guides.
Consider the shape of the rectangular waveguides above with dimensions a and
b (assume a > b) and the parameters e and m. For TM waves, H
z
=0 and E, should be
solved from equation for TM mode;
2
0 2 0
0 xy
z z
N E h E +
Since E
z
(x,y,z) = ( )
0
,
gz
z
E x y e
_ _
, ,
From
2 2 2
, have
y z
k h k we
2
2
m n
h
a b
_ _
+
, ,
For TM waves, we have
0
0
2
0
0
2
z
x
z
y
E jW
H
h y
E jW
H
h x
0
0
2
0
0
2
z
x
z
y
E Y
E
h x
E
E
h y
>
Which is thus greater than 1, the wavelength of a plane wave in the filling medium.
The phase velocity is
1
p
w w
u
k
>
Which is greater than the speed of light (plane wave) in the filling material
Attenuation for propagating modes results when there are losses in the dielectric and
in the imperfectly conducting guide walls. The attenuation constant due to the losses
in the dielectric can be found as follows:
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2 2 2
2 2
1 1 1
c c c
c
f f f
j j k k jk jw jw
f f jw f
_ _ _
+
, , ,
28. Derive the field configuration cutoff frequency and velocity of
propagation for TE waves in rectangular wave guide.
TE Modes
Consider again the rectangular waveguide below the dimensions a and b
(assume a>b) and the parameters e and m.
For TE waves E
z
=0 and H
z
should be solved from equation of TE mode;
Since H
z
(x,y,z) = ( )
0
, ,
gz
z
H x y e
From al these, we get
( )
( )
0
0
/
, cos cos
z
A m
m n
H x y H x y
a b
_ _
, ,
From
2 2 2
, have;
y z
k h k we
2 2
2
m n
h
a b
_ _
+
, ,
For TE waves, we have
0
0
2
0
0
2
z
x
z
y
H
H
h x
H
H
h y
0
0
2
z
x
H jw
E
h y
0
0
2
z
y
H jW
E
h x
, , ,
_ _ _
, , ,
_ _ _
, , ,
_ _ _
, , ,
Where
2 2
2
m n
j j w s
a b
_ _
, ,
As explained before, m and n represent possible modes and it is shown as the TE
mn
mode. ,m denotes the number of half cycle variations of the fields in the xdirection
and n denotes the number of half cycle variations of the fields in the ydirection.
Here, the cutoff wave number is
2 2
c
m n
k
a b
_ _
+
, ,
And therefore,
2 2
c
k k
The cutoff frequency is at the point where g vanishes, Therefore,
( )
2 2
1
2
c z
m n
f H
a b
_ _
+
, ,
Since I = u/f, we have the cutoff wavelength
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( )
2 2
2
c
m
m n
a b
_ _
+
, ,
At a given operating frequency f, only those frequencies, which have f>f
c
will
propagate. The modes with f<f
c
will not propagate
The mode with the lowest cutoff frequency is called the dominant mode. Since TE
10
mode is the minimum possible mode that gives nonzero field expressions for
rectangular waveguides, it is the dominant mode of a rectangular waveguide with a>b
and so the dominant frequency is
( ) ( )
10
1
2
c
f Hz
a
The wave impedance is defined as the ratio of the tranverse electric and magnetic
fields. Therefore, we get from the expressions for E
x
and H
y
(see the equations
above);
x
TE TE
y
E jw jw k
Z Z
H j
The guide wavelength is defined as the distance between two equal phase planes
along the waveguide and it is equal to
2 2
g
k
>
Which is thus greater than 1, the wavelength of a plane wave in the filling medium.
The phase velocity is
1
p
w w
u
k
>
Which is greater than the speed of the plane wave in the filling material
The attenuation constant due to the losses in the dielectric is obtained as follows:
2 2 2
2 2
1 1 1
c c c
c
f f f
j j k k jk jw jw
f f jw f
_ _ _
+
, , ,
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After some manipulation, we get
2
2
tan
2
2 1
d
c
cn k
f
f
,
Example:
Consider a length of airfilled copper xband waveguide, with dimensions
a=2.286 cm, b= 1.016 cm. find the cutoff frequencies of the first four
propagating modes.
Solution:
From the formula for the cutoff frequency
( )
2 2 2 2
1
2 2
air filled
c
m n c m n
f Hz
a b a b
_ _ _ _
+ +
, , , ,
B.E./B.TECH. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2008
FIFTH SEMESTER
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
EC 1305 TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
(COMMON TO B.E. (PART TIME) FOURTH SEMESTER REGULATION
2005)
PART  A
1. Briefly discuss the difference between wavelength and period of a sine wave.
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2. Find the attenuation and phase shift constant of a wave propagating along the
line whose propagation constant is 1.048 10
4
88.8
o
.
3. Give the minimum and maximum value of SWR and reflection coefficient.
4. Why is the quarter wave line called as copper insulator?
5. Enumerate the properties of TEM waves between parallel planes of perfect
conductors.
6. Plot the frequency versus attenuation characteristic curve of TM and TE
waves guided between parallel conducting plates.
7. How is the TE
10
mode launched or initiated in rectangular wave guide using an
open ended coaxial cable?
8. Calculate the cutoff frequency of a rectangular wave guide whose dimensions
are a=2.5cm and b=1.5cm operating at TE
10
mode.
9. Why is the Bessels function of the second kind (neumanns function applicable
for the field analysis inside the circular wave guide?
10. Distinguish between wave guides and cavity resonator.
PART B
11. (a) Derive the general transmission line equations for voltage and current any
point on a line.
Or
(b)(i) Write a brief notes on frequency and phase distortions.
(ii) The characteristic impedance of a 805mlong transmission line 94 
23.2
o
, the attenuation constant is 74.5 10
6
Np/m and the phase shift
constant is 174 10
6
rad / m at 5KHz. Calculate the line parameters R, L, G
and C per meter and the phase velocity on the line.
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12. (a) (i) A 75 loss less transmission line is to be matched to a resistive load
impedance of Z
L
=100 via a quarterwave section. Find the characteristic
impedance of the quarter wave transformer.
(ii) A 50 loss less transmission line is terminated in a load impedance of
Z
L
=(25+j50) . Use the SMITH chart to find.
(1)Voltage reflection coefficient,
(2)VSWR,
(3) Input impedance of the line, given that the line is 3.3 long and
(4)Input admittance of the line.
Or
(b) A 50 loss less feeder line is to be matched to an antenna with Z
L
(75j20)
at 100MHz using SINGLE shorted stub. Calculate the stub length and distance
between the antenna and stub using smith chart.
13. (a)(i) Derive the components of Electric and Magnetic field strength
between a pair of parallel perfectly conducting planes of infinite extent in
the Y and Z directions. The planes are separated in X direction by a
meter.
(ii) A parallel perfectly conducting plates are separated by 5cmin air and
carries a signal with frequency of 10 GHz in TM
11
mode. Find the cutoff
frequency and Cutoff wave length.
Or
(b) (i) Discuss on the characteristics of TE, TM and TEM waves between parallel
conducting planes. And also derive the expressions for the cut off
frequency and phase velocity from the propagation constant.
(ii) Describe the Velocity of propagation of wave between a pair of perfectly
conducting plates.
14. (a) Derive the field configuration, cut of frequency and velocity of
propagation for TE waves in rectangular wave guide.
Or
(b) A TE
10
wave at 10 GHz propagates in a Xband copper rectangular wave
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guide whose inner dimensions are a=2.3cm and b =1cm, which is filled
with Teflon
r
=2.1,
r
=1. Calculate the cutoff frequency, velocity of
propagation, Phase velocity, Phase constant, Guide wave length and Wave
impedance.
15. (a)(i) Derive the expression for TM wave components in circular wave
guides using Bessel function.
(ii) Write a brief note on excitation of modes in circular wave guides.
Or
(b) Derive the equation for Q factor of a rectangular cavity resonator for TE
101
mode.
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