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CONTRACEPTION

DR. C. E. ENYINDAH
OBGYN
UPTH

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Introduction
 Definition
 Ideal contraceptives
 Safe
 Simple and easy to use
 100% effective
 Promptly reversible
 Devoid of side effects
 Cheap
 Independent of coitus

10/14/08 Acceptable to both couples
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Reasons for family planning

 Health – maternal, paternal


 Socio-economic
 Family welfare
 Marital adjustment
 Individual welfare
 Community and national

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Assessment of effectiveness

 Raymond Pearl Index (1932)


 Use effectiveness
 Extended use effectiveness
 Life table analysis
 Method failure
 Patient failure

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF
FAMILY PLANNING
 NON-APPLIANCE METHOD
 Abstinence
 Cultural enforcement: virginity
 Abstinence by prolonged lactation
 Polygamy
 Menstruation
 Blood relationship
 Celibacy
 Physical exercise
 Douching
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APPLIANCE METHOD
 Oral method
 Scarification
 Traditional barrier method
 Redfeather (Teso)
 Magun
 Charms
 Leopard skin (armlets/rings/pendants)
 Snake skin (armlets/pendants/wrist bands)
 Spiritual Power
 Abortion
 Infanticide and child dumping
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MODERN METHODS OF
FAMILY PLANNING
 REVERSIBLE METHODS
• NATURAL METHODS
 Rhythm method
 Coitus interruptus
 Abstinence
 Breastfeeding
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• BARRIER METHODS
 Condoms
 Diaphragm
 Cervical caps
 Vault cap
 Vimule
• SPERMICIDAL AGENTS
 Jellies
 Foams
 Vaginal sponge
 Vaginal rings
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B.HORMONAL AGENTS
 Oral
 Injectables
 Sub-dermal implants

• IUCD(INTRAUTERINE
CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE)

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 IRREVERSIBLE METHODS

 Female

 Male

 EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

 Yuzpe regimen

 Levonorgestrel

 IUCD

 Mifepristone (RU486)

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NEW METHODS UNDER
INVESTIGATION
 Male pill
 Synthetic anologues of GnRH
 Contraceptive vaccines
 Anti-HCG
 LHRH
 Antisperm agents
 Hyaluronidase
 Proacrosin
 Acrosin
 Male birth control pil
 Gossypol
 Intrauterine instillation of chloroquine HCL or
loaded into IUCD
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