WELLESLEY COLLEGE
HIGHER ALGEBRA
A SEQUEL TO
s.
HIGHER ALGEBRA
A SEQUEL TO
BY
H.
S.
HALL,
M.A.,
FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASTER OF THE MILITARY AND ENGINEERING SIDE, CLIFTON COLLEGE
AND
S.
KNIGHT,
B.A.,
FOURTH EDITION.
Honfcon:
MACMILLAN AND
AND NEW YOKE.
1891
[The Right of Translation
is
CO.
reserved.}
2
TO
422
12/
Third Edition revised and enlarged 1889. Reprinted 1890. Fourth Edition 1891.
PREFACE.
The
present work
is
Algebra for Schools. The first few chapters are devoted to a fuller discussion of Ratio, Proportion, Variation, and the Progressions, which in the former work were treated in an elementary manner and we have here introduced theorems
;
for
first
course of
to
:
work covers ground for the most the student, and enters upon subjects of special
these
importance
we have endeavoured
to treat
minutely
and thoroughly, discussing both bookwork and examples witli that fulness which we have always found necessary in
our experience as teachers.
It has
all
as
completely as possible
the
of
single
room
more than an introductory sketch our object has been to map out a suitable
for
much indebted to the Rev. W. A. Whitworth for permission to make use of some of the proofs given in his Choice and Chance. For many years we have used these proofs in our own teaching, and we are convinced that this
vi
PREFACE.
part of Algebra
sense reasoning from first principles by a system of than by the proofs usually found in algebraical textbooks. The discussion of Convergency and Divergency of Series
made common
is
far
more
intelligible to the
beginner
always presents great difficulty to the student on his first The inherent difficulties of the subject are no reading.
doubt considerable, and these are increased by the place it has ordinarily occupied, and by the somewhat inadequate treatment it has hitherto received. Accordingly we have
placed this section somewhat later than is usual; much thought has been bestowed on its general arrangement, and
on the selection of suitable examples to illustrate the text and we have endeavoured to make it more interesting and intelligible by previously introducing a short chapter on Limiting Values and Vanishing Fractions. In the chapter on Summation of Series we have laid
much
stress
its
wide and
is
important applications.
The
basis of this
method
a well
known formula
which in
the absence of a purely algebraical proof can hardly be considered admissible in a treatise on Algebra. The proof of the
Finite Difference formula which 396,
we have given
in Arts. 395,
we
believe to be
new and
original,
of the Difference
Method from
this
many interesting types of series which have hitherto been relegated to a much later stage in the student's reading.
introduce
We
Simmons
of
and our warmest thanks are due to him, both for his aid in criticising and improving the text, and for placing at our disposal several interesting and
original problems.
It
is
Analytical
PKEFACE.
ledge of Determinants and
their
applications.
yii
We
may
have
of Determi
nants in Chapter
xxxm.,
in the
hope that
it
provide
the student with a useful introductory course, and prepare him for a more complete study of the subject.
The
in the
last
chapter contains
all
Theory of Equations suitable for a first reading. The Theory of Equations follows so naturally on the study of Algebra that no apology is needed for here introducing prowhich usually find place in a separate treatise. In fact, a considerable part of Chapter xxxv. may be read with advantage at a much earlier stage, and may conveniently be studied before some of the harder sections of previous
positions
chapters.
It will
is
as nearly as possible
complete in
but
it is
recom
mended
that
all
sections
marked with an
asterisk should be
one book
indebted.
which
it is
difficult
to
say
how
far
we
are
Todhunter's Algebra for Schools and Colleges has been the recognised English textbook for so long that it is hardly
any one writing a textbook on Algebra at the present day should not be largely influenced by it. At the same time, though for many years Todhunter's Algebra has been in constant use among our pupils, we have rarely adopted the order and arrangement there laid down; in many chapters we have found it expedient to make frequent use of alternative proofs; and we have always largely supThese notes, plemented the text by manuscript notes. which now appear scattered throughout the present work, have been collected at different times during the last twenty
possible that
H. H. A. b
Viii
PREFACE.
it is
years, so that
impossible to
make
definite acknowledge
ment
in every case
other writers.
where assistance has been obtained from But speaking generally, our acknowledge
ments are chiefly due to the treatises of Schlomilch, Serret, and Laurent; and among English writers, besides Todhunter's Algebra, we have occasionally consulted the works of De Morgan, Colenso, Gross, and Chrystal. To the Rev. J. Wolsienholme, D.Sc, Professor of Mathematics at the Royal Indian Engineering College, our thanks
are
due for his kindness in allowing us to select questions from his unique collection of problems and the consequent
;
we
gratefully acknowledge.
remains
for
reading and
in particular
we
are indebted to
Watson
it.
and
for
many
valuable suggestions;
**'
1887
"
H.
S.
S. R.
HALL, KNIGHT.
j
<
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
I.
ratio.
PAGE
.
2 3
a
a1
_c _e
/pan + qc n +re n +
...\
n
'
b~d~f~"'~\pb n + qd n + rf n +...J
+ a 2 + a 3 +... + an b l + b 2 + b.i + ... + b n
lies
flh
an
Cross multiplication
8
9
Eliminant
Examples
10
CHAPTER
Definitions
II.
proportion.
13
definitions
and Propositions Comparison between algebraical and geometrical Case of incommensurable quantities Examples II.
1G
17 19
CHAPTER
If
III.
VARIATION.
21
Ace B, then
A = mB
Inverse variation
Joint variation
li
22
23
is
Ace
B when G
constant,
and A
& C when B
.
is
constant, then
A=mBG
Illustrations.
23
Examples on
joint variation
.21
20 b1
Examples
III
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Sum
of
IV.
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
PAGE
series
28
29
31
31
d)n2s =
33
35
Examples IV. b
f'
CHAPTER
V.
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
Insertion of geometric
means
....
.
38
39
Sum Sum
40
41
43
n terms Examples V. b
of
Sum
of
an arithmeticogeometric
series
44 45
CHAPTER VI.
Harmonic mean
......
.
Formulae connecting A. M., G.M., H.M. Hints for solution of questions in Progressions
Sum of squares of the natural numbers Sum of cubes of the natural numbers 2 notation
Examples
VI.
a.
.....
pyramid on a square base
Number
of shot in
Pyramid on a triangular base Pyramid on a rectangular base Incomplete pyramid Examples VI. b
.....
VII.
scales of notation.
5J
CHAPTER
Examples VII.
a.
57 59
.
59
01
CONTENTS.
XI
PAGE
The
difference between a
number and
tho
sum
of its digits
is
divisible
by r  1
Proof of rule for " casting out the nines "
Test of divisibility by r
62
C3
64
+1
Examples VII. b
65
CHAPTER
VIII.
+ jc + s/d
07
68
69
70
72 74
.
75
.
a + ib = 0, then a = Q, b =
a
75
+ ib = c + id, then a = c,
of product
is
=d
75
77
Modulus
ib
77
79
;
1 + w f or =
79
80
81
CHAPTER
A
Conditions for
IX.
...
equal in magni
83
imaginary roots
c
84
Sum
of roots
product of roots = a
.....
(1)
85 86
88 88
in general the
same
90 92
93
exceptions
Examples IX. b
Definitions of function, variable, rativnnl integral function
...
a
+ 2fy + c may
Condition that ax
root
+ bx + c = and
a'x + b'x
common
96
96
Examples IX.
c.
Xll
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Reciprocal equations
X.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
page
.
97 100
101
Examples X. a
Equations involving two unknown quantities
....
103
104
106 107 109 111
Examples X. d
113
CHAPTER XL
Preliminary proposition
.115
115 Number of permutations of n things r at a time 117 Number of combinations of n things r at a time The number of combinations of n things r at a time is equal to the .119 number of combinations of n things ?irata time Number of ways in which m + n +p + ... things can be divided into
. .
classes containing m, n, p,
...
things severally
....
when p
120
122
Examples XI. a
Signification of the terms 'like'
and 'unlike'
all at
.....
a time,
124
Number
Number
of arrangements of
n things taken
things
.
are alike of one kind, q things are alike of a second kind, &c.
of
125
may
be
repeated
126
127
greatest
.
The total number of combinations of n things To find for what value of r the expression n Gr is Ab initio proof of the formula for the number
things r at a time
127 128
of combinations of n
p + q+r+
...
things, whereof
are alike
129
131
Examples XI. b
CHAPTER
Illustrations of the
XII.
mathematical induction.
133
134
method of proof
Examples XII
135
CONTENTS.
Xlii
CHAPTER XIII.
11
,
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
Expansion of (x + a) when n is a positive integer General term of the expansion The expansion may be made to depend upon the case in which the first term is unity Second proof of the binomial theorem Examples XLII. a The coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and end
are equal
....
PAGE
137
139
140
141
142 143
143
Sum Sum
of the coefficients
of coefficients of
146
odd terms
is
equal to
sum
of coefficients of even
terms
146
146
147
CHAPTER
XIV.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
ANY INDEX.
150
153 155
155
(1
+ x)'
.....
Examples XIV. a Expansion of (lrx) n is only arithmetically intelligible when x<l The expression (.rf?/)'1 can always be expanded by the binomial
theorem General term of the expansion of
(1
_n .r)
....
(l
157
157
158 159 161
(1
 x)~ n
+ x)
n
.
162
164 105
166
Number
of
homogeneous products of
letters
Number of terms in the expansion of a multinomial Number of combinations of n things r at a time, repetitions being allowed
Examples XIV.
c
107
CHAPTER XV.
General term in the expansion of
positive integer
(a
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
+ bx + ex 2 + dx 3 +
...) p ,
when ^
n
,
is a
170
<lv :i
...)
when
//
a rational quantity
171
Examples
XV
173
XIV
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Definition.
XVI.
LOGARITHMS.
PAGE
175 176
N=a)og a N
178
.....
.179
180
181
Advantages of logarithms to base 10 Advantages of always keeping the mantissa positive Given the logarithms of all numbers to base a, to find the logarithms
to base b
.
....
.
182
183 183
185
log a &xlog 6 a = l
Examples XVI. b
CHAPTER
Expansion
e is
XVII.
of ax .
the limit of
(
(
Series for l\ n
1
187
is infinite
+
V
)
when n
188
191
Expansion of
log,, (1
+ x)
.
192
e
log,,
(n
+ 1)  log n
194
195 195
CHAPTER
Interest
XVIII.
and Amount of a given sum at simple interest Present Value and Discount of a given sum at simple interest Interest and Amount of a given sum at compound interest Nominal and true annual rates of interest
.
.198
.
198 199
Case of compound interest payable every moment Present Value and Discount of a given sum at compound interest Examples XVIII. a
Annuities.
Definitions
....
.
200 200
201 202
202
203 203 204
204
.
Amount Amount
compound
interest
Present value of an annuity, compound interest Number of years' purchase Present value of a deferred annuity, compound interest
.205
206
206
CONTENTS.
XV
CHAPTER
Elementary Propositions
Arithmetic
XIX.
INEQUALITIES.
PAGE 208
is
209
quantities being given, their product
:
is
greatest
when
are
sum
is least
when they
210
211
The arithmetic mean of a number of positive quantities is greater than the geometric mean Given sum of a, &, c, ...; to find the greatest value of am b n c p Easy cases of maxima and minima Examples XIX. a The arithmetic mean of the ?/i th powers of a number of positive
quantities
is
212 212
213
greater than
m th
except
If a
when
m lies between
power of and 1
(
their arithmetic
mean,
214
and
and a>b,
+
>
+^
216
+ b\ a+b
Examples XIX. b
CHAPTER XX.
Definition of Limit
a when x is zero By taking x small enough, any term of the series a + a rr + a^x + ... may be made as large as we please compared with the sum of all that follow it; and by taking x large enough, any term may be made as large as we please compared with the sum of all that
Limit of a
x3
is
+ a x x + a 2 x" + a 3
+ ...
....
.
.
220
222
precede
it
222
.
Method
221
226
Discussion of
equations
some
peculiarities
in the
solution
of
simultaneous
....
227 228
Examples
XX
XXI.
CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCY OF
CHAPTER
.....
SERIES.
230
232
u Lim ~ n
u
i
is less
than
XVI
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Comparison
of 2rtn with
an auxiliary
series
2v n
234 235
237
The
auxiliary series
^p
+ 2P + 3~p +
Limits of
Product of
n an
and nx n when n
is infinite
238
238
241
infinite
a.
.
number
of factors
Examples XXI.
wseries is convergent
when
u
v series is
v
.
convergent,
if
u jii
v nl
.
Series is convergent
if
Lim Lim
]n
<
\un+i
 1
)
J
]
.
Series
Series
is
convergent
(n)
if
n log
series
>
2a
,l
20
compared with
{n)
The
auxiliary series
(log n) p
Series is convergent if
Lim
series
\n
l log
249 252
CHAPTER
If the equation
XXII.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
.
.
f(x)=0 has more than n roots, it is an identity Proof of principle of undetermined coefficients for finite series
254
254
Examples XXII. a
Proof of principle of undetermined coefficients for infinite series
.
256
.
Examples XX1T. b
257 2C0
CHAPTER
Use of partial fractions Examples XXIII
XXIII.
PARTIAL FRACTIONS.
261
265 265
CHAPTER XXIV.
Scale of relation
recurring series.
267
Sum
of a recurring series
269
269
Generating function
Examples XXIV
272
CONTENTS.
XV ii
CHAPTER XXV.
continued fractions.
Conversion of a fraction into a continued fraction Convergents are alternately less and greater than the continued fraction Law of formation of the successive convergents
....
.
PAGE
273
275
275 27G
277
Pn&wlPnl4n=(~ Examples XXV. a. The convergents gradually approximate to the continued fraction Lhnits of the error in taking any convergent for the continued fraction Each convergent is nearer to the continued fraction than a fraction
.
1)n
278
279
280
p'
.
or <x~, according
P as>
q
or
<
q
281
Examples XXV. b
281
CHAPTER XXVI.
Solution of axbi/ = c
286 286
287
Number
of solutions of
ax + by = c
287
c'z
.
Examples XXVI.
...
= d'
289
290
CHAPTER XXVII.
Numerical example
293
21)4
Examples XXVII. a
Conversion of a quadratic surd into a continued fraction
.
.
295
The quotients recur The period ends with a partial quotient 2a x The partial quotients equidistant from first and The penultimate convergents of the periods Examples XXVII. b.
. .
296 297
last are equal
.
.
298
299 301
CHAPTER
XXVIII.
Solution of ax 2 + 2hxy
303
304
xviii
CONTENTS.
CONTENTS.
XIX
PAGE
If
a, 2a, 3a,
......
...
(6
1)
a when divided by
6 leave
350
352 352
(p(abcd...)=<p(a)(p(b)<p(c) <p(d)
PO'(ii)(iJ)(il)
Wilson's Theorem
:
\p
=M
(p)
where p
.......
the
general
....
is
a prime
354 354
355
35G
357
Examples XXX.
b.
CHAPTER XXXI.
Law
a,+
theory
of
continued
FRACTIONS.
of formation of successive convergents

359
a.2
...
if
Lim
'"
y
n4' 1
>0
362
n+l
The convergents
h
. .
.
a l ~ a 2~
if
a n <kl
+ bn
.
363
General value of convergent when a n and b n are constant Cases where general value of convergent can be found
a x + a2 +
is
364
365
incommensurable,
if
<1
cl
.
366
Examples XXXI. a
Series expressed as continued fractions
367
369
371
Examples XXXI. b
372
CHAPTER XXXII.
and illustrations. (Examples XXXII. a /Compound Events
Definitions
I
[
probability.
.
Simple Events
373
376
377
is
pp'
378 379
381
Chance of an event which can haj^pen in mutually exclusive ways Examples XXXII. b Chance of an event happening exactly r times in n trials Expectation and probable value "Problem of points"
.
383
385
....... .......
386
388
XX
CONTENTS.
PAOE
Examples XXXII.
Inverse probability
c.
389
391
.
P P Q r = ^rjjn
.... ....
dktkrminants.
392
396
899
Examples XXXII. d
Local Probability. Geometrical methods Miscellaneous examples
401
402
405
Examples XXXII.
CHAPTER XXXIII.
Eliminant of two homogeneous linear equations Eliminant of three homogeneous linear equations Determinant is not altered by interchanging rows and columns Development of determinant of third order
.
.
.
.....
.
409
.410
.
410
411
Sign of a determinant
.
is
.
altered by interchanging
. . .
fcw<
adjacent rows or
columns If two rows or columns are identical, the determinant vanishes A factor common to any row or column may be placed outside Cases where constituents are made up of a number of terms
.
.
412
. .
112
412
413
.111
417 419 422
423
42jl
Examples XXXIII. a
Application to solution of simultaneous equations
Sia^^
b.
...
. .
... ...
.
425
\r,
Examples XXXIII.
CHAPTER XXXIV.
Keview of the fundamental laws of Algebra f(x) when divided by x  a leaves remainder Quotient of / (x) when divided by x  a Method of Detached Coefficients
.
432 433
434
434
435
Examples
of identities
worked out
.
437
438
CONTENTS.
XXI
PAGE
Examples XXXIV. a
Identities proved
438
440
441
Value of an + bn + cn when a + b + c = Q
442
442
Examples XXXIV.
Elimination
b.
444
444 445 446
of elimination
method
Sylvester's Dialytic
Bezout's method
....
.
Method
446
447 449
Examples XXXIV.
c.
CHAPTER XXXV.
theory of equations.
.
.
Every equation of the n th degree has n roots and no more Kelations between the roots and the coefficients These relations are not sufficient for the solution Cases of solution under given conditions Easy cases of symmetrical functions of the roots
452 452
454 454
455
Examples XXXV. a. Imaginary and surd roots occur in pairs Formation and solution of equations with surd
Descartes' Kule of Signs
456
roots
....
457
458
459
Examples XXXV. b
Value of /(.r +
Calculation of
//).
Derived Functions
process
460 462
463 464
f(x+h) by Horner's
value gradually
x)
changes
its
If f(a)
and/ (b)
6
a and
An An
If
465
465
/ (x) =
f (x) =
/'(*)_
J
(X)
1
,
1
,
xa
of
xb
xc
.
an assigned power of the roots Examples XXXV. c Transformation of equations Equation with roots of sign opposite to those of f(x) = Equation with roots multiples of those of f{x) =0
Sum
468
470
471
.
.
471
472
XX11
CONTENTS.
....
(x)
.
Equation with roots squares of those of f(x) = Equation with roots exceeding by h those of f (x) = Bemoval of an assigned term Equation with roots given functions of those of f{x). Examples XXXV. d Cubic equations. Cardan's Solution
Discussion of the solution
Solution by Trigonometry in the irreducible case
.
475
476
477
Biquadratic Equations.
Descartes' Solution
Ferrari's Solution
Undetermined multipliers
Discriminating cubic
;
y =1, a+\ + b + \ + c + \
&c.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
CHAPTER
RATIO.
I.
Ratio is the relation which one quantity Definition. bears to another of the same kind, the comparison being made by considering what multiple, part, or parts, one quantity is of the
1.
other.
The and
ratio of
B
To
is usually written A to The quantities B. are called the terms of the ratio. The first term is
:
find
of B,
we
divide
by
^
,
B may
and we
In order to compare two quantities they must be expressed in terms of the same unit. Thus the ratio of 2 to 15s. is measured
or
8
.
ratio expresses the number of times that one quantity contains another, and therefore every ratio is an abstract quantity.
3.
a
b
it
:
ma
mJ'
:
;
follows that the ratio a b is equal to the ratio ma mb that is, the value of a ratio remains unaltered if the antecedent and the consequent are multiplied or divided by the same quantity.
H. H. A.
2
4.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
or more ratios may be compared by reducing their Thus suppose equivalent fractions to a common denominator.
Two
_
bx x and = = hence h by by y the ratio a b is greater than, equal to, or less than the ratio x y according as ay is greater than, equal to, or less than bx.
_
and x
y J are two
ratios.
x
a aV JNow  = ~
xt
5.
The
ratio of
ratio
of
two
integers.
Thus the
ratio
is
measured by the
a
fraction
or =
be
and
is
therefore equivalent
to
the
ratio
d
ad
:
be.
or both, of the terms of a ratio be a surd quantity, then no two integers can be found which will exactly measure their ratio. Thus the ratio J'2 1 cannot be exactly expressed by any two integers.
6.
If either,
If the ratio of any two quantities can be Definition. expressed exactly by the ratio of two integers, the quantities otherwise, they are said to be are said to be commensurable incommensurable.
7.
;
Although we cannot find two integers which will exactly measure the ratio of two incommensurable quantities, we can always find two integers whose ratio differs from that required by as small a quantity as we please.
Thus
and therefore
,
,
J5 V= J5 > mm(>
.
2236068...
4
=
,
A1I , 559017...
559017
and <
559018
jooOOOO
;
between the
ratios
559017
1000000 and
than 000001. By carrying the decimals further, a closer approximation may be arrived at.
J5
is less
Ratios are compounded by multiplying toDefinition. gether the fractions which denote them ; or by multiplying together the antecedents for a new antecedent, and the consequents for a new consequent.
8.
Example.
Find the
ratio
compounded
:
2a
Sb, Q>ab
5c 2 c
KATIO.
m The
.
required ratio =
.
,.
2a
x Gab x a 6b be
c 
1
'
_4a
~ DC
9.
Definition. When the ratio a b is compounded with 2 2 and is called the duplicate ratio itself the resulting ratio is a b 3 3 Similarly a b is called the triplicate ratio of a of a b. b.
: :
Also a
2
:
" 2
is
b.
Examples.
The duplicate ratio of 2a 3b is 4a 2 96. The subduplicate ratio of 49 25 is 7 5. The triplicate ratio of 2x 1 is 8a; 3 1.
: : :
said to he a ratio of greater inequality, of less inequality, or of equality, according as the antecedent is greater than, less than, or equal to the consequent.
10.
Definition.
ratio
is
11.
less
its
of greater inequality is diminished, and a ratio of inequality is increased, by adding the same quantity to both
ratio
..
terms.
a , ,, Let T be the
6
ratio,
its
and
let
adding x to both
terms. erms.
Now
a
b
a+x
b
ax bx
+x
b(b+x) x(a b)
~b(b + x)
}
is
greater or
H.
/,
it d.
a <b,
a
7
<
a
b
~t~
x
;
+ x
is
the
its terms.
two or more ratios are equal many useful propositions may be proved by introducing a single symbol to
When
12
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
will illustrate
//
,
.
a b
.
.
e
f n
11
'
=
(
+ qc + re + js \pb n + qd n + rt n +
/pan r
.\ n
)
,
. .
where
p, q,
r,
n are any
7
quantities ivhatever.
Ijet
ace =
,
~>
&
j
')
then
bk,
= dk,
n
=fk, ...;
re
n
whence
pan =pbn
'''
qc"
n
= qd"k
...
'
= rf"k",...
n
n
pa" + gc" + re +
H
pb + qd"+rf+...
+r/i +...
= k";
i
'pa"
e
By
2)b"
giving different values to p, q, r, n many particular cases of this general proposition may be deduced ; or they may be proved independently by using the same method. For instance,
_c
b~d'f'"
each of these ratios
b+d +f+
:
a result of such frequent utility that the following verbal equivalent should be noticed When a series of fractions are equal, each of them is equal to the sum of all the numerators divided by the sum of all the denominators.
Example
1.
If b
(I
= C =>
shew that
Let
_ _^._A,, X;.
6
rf
then
a = bk,
= dk, e =fk
RATIO.
aa6+2cg3qgy _ "" k 4 + 2tlf  Bbf3
5
+2d?fk*  3bf 3 k 3 4 + 2r//  36/8 a
c
e
'*
W
fc
...
=
Example
2.
ace
bdf'
If
=f=
b
prove that
3
*2 + a2
#+a
x Let a
then
y2 + &2 y+b
A;
,
+ c2 _ z+c
?/
.c
+ y +2 2 + (a + & + c) 2 a; + ?/ + 2 + a + &+c
)
2;
;
=r==
y
c
it
so that x = ,
= 6/c, = ch
(k*
s a + a3
a:
+a
z
= aW+a* =

+a ah
(ife
+ l)a
x*+a*
ar
+y
+
&
ga +e_
+a
?/
'
/c
+l)o +1
+ l)&
(fc
+1
&
+ l)c +1
&(a + & + c) + a +
_ (lea
+c
x+y+z+a+b+c
13.
If
an equation
is
to certain
quantities,
we may
For
2 2 y + mxifz + ny z
homogeneous in
x, y, %
11
x, y, z.
Let
a, j3,
portional to
respectively.
Put h = =
a
75
= y
3
so that
4
x
ak,
y=
/3k, z
= yk
then
that
is,
Ia f3k
0,
;
7a /?
an equation of the same form as the original a, /?, y in the places of x, y, z respectively.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
is
6
14.
.
important.
If
y*
1
y~
2
. ,....
3
r
be
nominators are
all
+ a8 + a 3 + b +b 2 +b 3 +
a,
l
...
+ an
'
+bn
least
lies
and
of them. Let
=*
Suppose that
least fraction,
all
be the
and denote
a
b
by k
then
/c
1
'
.'.a r
..
ko r
>
a
y
>k
b
l
a> kb
'
a2
ba
> k;
so on;
..
a 2 > kb 2
and
.*.
by
addition,
a ,+2
+ 3 +
l
+ an >
bl
+b + K +
,
.
'
+K) k
ar
br
'>
a + a 2 + a3 +
+ au
b.+b 2 + b.+ 9 3
1
+b n
that
Similarly
we may prove
l
a + a2 + a 3 +
6
.
+ an
+*.+*
+K
<
at
V
all
where
is tlie
In like manner the theorem may be proved when denominators are negative.
15.
in
the
Art. 12 is of such great value in all branches of mathematics, that the student should be able to use it with some freedom in any particular case that may arise, without necessarily introducing an auxiliary symbol.
Example
prove that
X
1.
If
+ ca
+
c
=
c
V 
+ ab
=
a
z
,
+ bc
x+y+z
a+b
RATIO.
t Each
i
_
'
+b+c
"
(
''
Again, if we multiply both numerator and denominator of the three given fractions by y + z, z + x, x + y respectively,
each fractions
+ z) \ j + ca) = (y + z)(b
{l

?( + *>
(z
__.
'(* + *
(x + y)
+ x)
(c
+ ab)
(a+be)
(y
+z)
(2).
.'.
from
(1)
and
(2),
x+y+z
a
_x
(y
+ z)+y
2
+ b + c~
Example
2.
If
l(mb + ncla)
I
m(nc + lamb)
n
n
(la
+ mb  nc)
'
prove that
m
y
(cz
x(by + czax)
+ axby)
y
z(ax + by cz)
z
We have
m
la
mb + nc
nc
+ lamb
n
n la + mb
nc
=m
v z +'"2/a"
= two
similar expressions
ny + mz _lz + nx b a
Multiply the
y,
_ mx + ly
c
first
and below by
.r,
the second by
then
nxy + mxz ax
Jyz
= _2lyz
by
+ cz ax
similar expressions
= two
I
m
y
(cz
(by
+ cz ax)
+ axby)
n (ax + bycz)'
8
16.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If
we have two
unknown
(1),
(2),
a x+b y+
l
l
c
l
z=Q
a2 x +
b 2y
+ c2 z =
;
we cannot
form
we
can,
ordinary
way and
x
%
obtain
b c2
l
i '
y
z
__
cxa
"
 c2 a
>
afi 2
a
b 2
'
l
or,
more symmetrically,
y
x
b c2
x
cla
c a,
2
afi 2
a_p x
'
,(3).
represented by (1) write down the ratios x y z in terms of the coefficients of the equations by the following rule
:
:
when we have two equations of the type and (2) we may always by the above formula
Multiply the coefficients across in the way indicated by the arrows, remembering that in forming the products any one obtained by descending is positive, and any one obtained by ascending is negative. The three results
h i cz h fv
c
x
a2
an a
A a b
2
>
are proportional to
x, y, z respectively.
This
is
called the
RATIO.
Example
1.
Find the
ratios of
x
t
7x=4y + Qz
By
transposition
"Write
down
4
11
8 3
4
11,
12
(4)x(3)llx(8),
or
'*
(8)xl2(3)x7,
100,
7 x 11  12 x (4),
75,
y
125;
z
x x

100 ~ ^75~"125'
x,
that
,.
is,
*
3
=z ?
5
Example
2.
Eliminate
x, y, z
+ ^ 1 + c 12 = a^ + ^y + c^^O
a 1 a;
(1),
(2),
Ogaj+fegy+c^^O
(3).
From
(2)
and
(3),
by cross multiplication,
k> C 3
*__ " Vs
_
C 2i
y ~ C 32
2 6 3
j*
. '
~ ll ih
k,
(1),
(Va is
63ca)
+ &i
(^'"3
 c 3 a a) + ('i
A
" A)
= 
This relation
Example
3.
ax + by + cz =
(1),
(2),
(ca) (ab)
(3).
From
(1)
and
(2),
by cross multiplication, x z y
bc
..
= ^ =
ca
c),
x = k (b
Substituting in
(3),
k {bc(bc) + ca
(c
a)
+ ab (a 
b)}
\
={b c)
(c
a) {a
{a
b),
b)
k{{bc)(c^ln'nce
a) {a  &)
..
= (be) [e  a)
z
fcsslj
x = c b, y ar,
= b  a.
10
17.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If in Art. 16
we put
ax+
x
=
+ +
1,
bxy
c
t
= 0,
=
>
v+
and
(3)
h 2y
c2
becomes
b x c2
x 
y
b 2c l
cx a
a
 c2a
*
aj> %
 a2 b
'
]
a
l
b2
a b
afi 2
a b
2
Hence any two simultaneous equations involving two unknowns in the first degree may be solved by the rule of cross
multiplication.
Example.
Solve
5x3y 1 = 0, x + 2y = 12.
5x  3y  1
By
transposition,
= 0,
1
x + 2y 12 = 0;
*'
x 36 + 2
 1 + 60 ~
38
10 + 3
whence
x=
= is' y lS'
59
EXAMPLES.
1.
I.
the ratio 2a
36,
ratio of 9b 2
ab.
:
9,
and the
,
ratio 27
56.
(3)
2a
j:
/6a?


and the
ratio
Sax
2by.
2.
If
#+7
8,
find x.
3.
37
to
make
5.
6.
equal to
:
If x
y=3
4,
7x4y
x
:
3x+y.
y.
If 15 (2a2
 y 2 ) = *7xy,
RATIO.
7
If
2rt 4 &
2
"
11
?= =
+ 3a 5eV _^__^__ = _
2 2
prove that
"
8.
If v
= = 6ca
prove that
j
is
equal
t<
y
a
9.
If
q + rp
(q
r+pq
p + qr
shew that
10.
 r) x + (r  p) y + (p  q) z = 0.
If
xz
==
=
y '
z.
ii
if
y+ z = z+ v == r+ ^ pb + qc pc + qa pa + qb'
'
Khew
tliat
2 (*+?+*)
a+o + c
12.
If
.tfS
i'=^ = 2 ,
a
o
c
3
?/
shew
tliat
+a
.rfa
1<J.
t 2
t ;,, y* + b 2

+6
.,
j.
II
2y + 2g.v _ 2g + 2.cy
i
_ 2A+2yg =
2a + 26c
BheW that
14.
26 +
2ca
=
2c
2
+ 2a")
If
shew that
15.
If
prove 1
16.
+y 2 + ^2 = (.v+^ + ^) 2 x a=y b = z c. I (my + rut  Ix) = m (nz + Ix  my) = n (Ix + my  nz\ y+zx = z+xy x+yz = n
(a 2 +6 2 + c2 )
(.i,
: : :
j
Shew
ax + cy +
is
= Q,
a3
17.
Eliminate
ctx
x, y, z
12
18.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If
shew that
19.
X z = j* = y 1  a \b \c
II
i > l
9 L
prove that
+ ca + ab + 2abc = l.
:
3x4y + 7z =
0,
21.
x+y=
3x2y+17z =
x* + 3f + 2z
s
z,
2xy2z = 0, to?f+=l8.
22.
0,
= l67.
23.
3x 2  2y 2 + oz 2 = 0,
7a*
 3y 2 I5z 2 = 0,
5.04^ + 73 = 6.
ff+2y+32=19.
24.
If
.*
+^L^
+
*<>,
n </c+V
?==
m
Jb+Jo
(b
Ja+Jb
shew that
Solve the equations
25.
'
=
(ab)(c\/ab)
 c)
=
(c
= a)
(b
(a 
V be)
\J ac)
26.
+ C2=a 2# + & 2y +
6' 2
2==0,
x + y + z + (bc)(ca) (ab) = 0.
27.
If
a(y+x)=x,
2

prove that 1
28.
s2
{I
If
prove that
^
(2)
x2 bcf 2
(be
y
2
)
z2
cag 2
{ea 
abh 2
)
f
(ab
 h 2 ) = (fg  eh)
CHAPTER
II.
PROPORTION,
Definition.
c
18.
When
them
quantities composing
ft
two
if
=  then
,
a, b, c,
d are
is
proportionals.
This
is
expressed by
is
saying that a
is
to b as c
to d,
:
a
or
written
d.
and
the means.
the
product of
the
extremes
equal
to the
Let
a, b, c,
d be the
Then by J
whence
definition
=.
ad =
if
be.
Hence
fourth
of
the
may be
Thus
if a, c,
d are
given, then b
Conversely, if there are any four quantities, a, b, c, d, such that ad = be, then a, b, c, d are proportionals ; a and d being the extremes, b and c the means ; or vice versa.
Quantities are said to be in continued Definition. proportion when the first is to the second, as the second is and so on. Thus to the third, as the third to the fourth are in continued proportion when a, b, c, d,
20.
;
bed
14
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If three quantities a,
b,
a
..
ac
= b2
[Art. 18.]
In this case
c
\
and
21.
c is
three quantities are proportionals the first is third in the duplicate ratio of the first to tJie second.
If
the
a. b, c:
then T = .
be
Now
cue
=r =
a
X
x 
a
6
c
=
:
F,;
b
2
.
that
is,
= a2
same as the
definition
Book
:
v.
22.
If
b  c
d and
e
,
'f=g
e
h,
then will ae
bf= eg dh.
:
.b
a
or
F b
c 
and >=!:
j
ae
'*
eg
bf
or ae
:
dh
eg
c
bf=
:
dh.
Cor.
If
a
b
d,
:
and
then
This
is
x=d
v/,
a
the theorem
x=
y
known
as ex cequali in Geometry.
b,
c,
d form a proportion, many other proportions may be deduced by the properties of fractions. The results of these operations are very useful, and some of them are often quoted by the annexed names borrowed from
23.
If four quantities a,
Geometry.
:; ;
PROPORTION.
(1)
15
c.
If a
=c
d,
then b
1
f
a=d
r
[Invertendo.]
For  = b
therefore
=
=1
=
c
_
d'
d'
:
that
or
is
a
b
:
a=d
:
c.
(2)
If
acZ
a

b=c
;
d,
then a
=
;
d.
[Alternando.]
For
that or
(3)
!
,
be
therefore
j =
c
a
c
is,
= =
b
,
:
a
b
:
a
If
7:
d.
d, tlien
a+
+d
d.
[Componeudo.']
lor
that
or
(4)
is
,
therefore
s
+1 =
7
,
d
c
a+b
o
=
6
+d d=
c
a+ b
If
+d
:
d.
d,
then
ab
7
= c d
d.
[Divideudo.]
For
.
=
= ,
d
therefore b
b
,
"
that
or
is,
1 =  1 d a 7 = =
:
bcd
3
ab
(5)
d
:
d.
If
(3)
df,
then a
+6 a b=c+d:c d.
For by
r = ja
and by
.
(4)
. . .
j
bcd
=
c
^j
.'.
by J
+&
=
+d
division,
or
a+
This proposition
is
usually quoted as
Componeiuh
a) id JJivi
dendo.
may
'
16
24.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
The
results of the preceding article are the algebraical equivalents of some of the propositions in the fifth book of Euclid, and the student is advised to make himself familiar with them
When
fourth
25.
there are
to
four proportionals,
of
the second is
the
is to the fourth.
We
shall
now compare
is
said to be proportionals
when
if
any
equi
multiples whatever be taken of the first and third, and also any equimultiples wJiatever of the second and fourth, the multiple of the third is greater than, equal to, or less than the multiple of the fourth, according as the multiple of the first is greater than, equal to, or less than the multiple of the second.
Four quantities
according as p>a
I.
a,
b,
c,
are in proportion
when
p>c
= qd
qb,
p and
q being
any positive
integers tcJudever.
definition of proportion
from
 
c
,
by multiplying both
sides
u by 
we
obtain
pa
qb
2)C
qd
pc = qd according as pa =
qb,
To deduce
qb, to
prove
c
~d'
PROPORTION.
If
is
17
j
not equal to 
Suppose
>
^
then
it
some fraction 2
which
lies
P
0).
Hence
and
>
p < ?
(1)
(2>
From
from
pa>qb;
2)c<qd\
(2)
 =
which proves
represented geometrically but not referred to any common unit of measurement. So that Euclid's definition is applicable to incommensurable as well as to commensurable quantities ; whereas the algebraical definition, strictly speaking, applies only to commensurable quantities, since it tacitly assumes that a is the same determinate multiple, part, or parts, of b that c is of d. But the proofs which have been given for commensurable quantities will still be true for incommensurables, since the ratio of two incommensurables can always be made to differ from the ratio of two integers by less than any assignable quantity. This lias been shewn in Art. 7 ; it may also be proved more generally as in the
next
article.
Suppose that a and b are incommensurable; divide b into m equal parts each equal to /?, so that b = m/3, where m is a positive integer. Also suppose f3 is contained in a more than n times and less than n+ 1 times;
27.
then
that
i,
mp
imp
is,
=
lies
between
and
so that
j
differs
from
by
And
since
we
H. H. A.
'
18
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
m can
Hence
we
will
and two integers n and m can be found whose ratio express that of a and b to any required degree of accuracy.
please,
28.
In solving problems. tions is greatly facilitated by a skilful use of the operations componendo and dividendo.
Example
If
1.
(2ma + 6mb
+ Snc + 9wtZ) (2ma  Gmb  Snc + 9nd) = (2ma  6mb + Snc  9/uZ) (2mm + Gmi  Snc  dnd),
.*.
d are proportionals. 2ma + Gmb + Snc + 9nd _ 2ma + Qmb  Snc  9nd 2ma  bmb + Snc  \)nd 2 ma  6mb  Snc + 9nd componendo and dividendo, 2 (2ma + Snc) _ 2 {2ma  Sue) 2~{Gmb + 9nd) ~ 2 (Smb  9m/)
c,
'
Alternando,
2ma + Snc 
= =   ,. n 2maSnc bmbvna
:
.)nd Gmb + (
Ama _ \2mb
One
a
lQnd
b
,
whence
or
a
:
d.
Example
2.
Jx+l _ 4a; +
.r
*'
+ l_ x1 "
16a; 2
16a;
2
8a;+l
*
24a; + 9
2x
2
"
whence
~
2
16a; 2
8a; + 5
'
16a; 4
16a;
4a;
= 16a;  8a; + 5
2
5 x = .
PROPORTION.
19
II.
EXAMPLES.
1.
3, 5, 27.
2.
and
24,
(2)
36'0a 4
II
and 250a 26 2
3.
X
'
y
If
4. 5.
f
 and
x
.
=c
d,
:
prove that
a2 c + ac2
b 2d
:
+ bd2 = (a + c) 3
(b
:
+ df.
pc 2 qd2
.
pa 2 + <?6 2
>a 2
qb 2 =pc 2 + qd2
:
6.
ac
bd=*Ja 2 + c 2
:
*Jb
+ d2
<
7.
\/a 2 ~+"c2
\/^+d^=jS /ac + ^
^Jbd+j.
If a, 6,
8.
9.
c, o?
10. 11.
If b is a
mean
c,
prove that
a 2_fr2 + c2
a 2 6 2 + c 2
12.
If
6=c
d,
and
:
/=#
h t prove that
:
ae + bf
aebf=cg + dh
cgdh.
2afi3afi+a;+l 20733072071
3^^ + 50713
307 3
072
507+13*
14.
Zx*+x2  2o7  3 _ 5o74 + 2o72 7o7 + 3 ~~ 3ot*  x 2 + 2o; + 3 5o? 4  2o7 2 + 7o  3
(m\n)x (a b)
'
15.
(mn)x (a + 6)
If a,
&, c, o?
16.
+ d=b + c +
(a K
b)(a c)
^
a
.
17.
If a, b,
c,
d, e are in
(ab + be + cd + e&) 2 = (a 2 + 6 2 + c 2 + rf 2 ) (6 2 +
+ d + e2
2
).
22
20
18.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If the work done by x 1 men in x 2 men in x  1 days in the ratio of 9
+ 1 days is
:
to the
work done
by x +
19.
10, find x.
Find four proportionals such that the sum of the extremes is 21, the sum of the means 19, and the sum of the squares of all four numbers is 442.
Two casks A and were filled with two kinds of sherry, mixed 20. in the ratio of in the cask A in the ratio of 2 7, and in the cask What quantity must be taken from each to form a mixture 5. 1 shall consist of 2 gallons of one kind and 9 gallons of the other \ which
:
wine; it is then filled with water, then nine gallons of the mixture are drawn, and the cask is again filled with water. If the quantity of wine now in the cask be to the quantity of water in it as 16 to 9, how much does the cask hold?
21.
full of
If four positive quantities are in continued proportion, shew that the difference between the first and last is at least three times as great as the difference between the other two.
22.
In England the population increased 15*9 per cent, between 1871 and 1881; if the town population increased 18 per cent, and the country population 4 per cent., compare the town and country popula23.
tions in 1871.
In a certain country the consumption of tea is five times the consumption of coffee. If a per cent, more tea and b per cent, more coffee were consumed, the aggregate amount consumed would be 1c per cent, more but if b per cent, more tea and a per cent, more coffee were consumed, the aggregate amount consumed would be 3c per cent,
24.
;
more
compare a and
b.
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc bronze is an alloy 25. containing 80 per cent, of copper, 4 of zinc, and 16 of tin. fused mass of brass and bronze is found to contain 74 per cent, of copper, 16 of zinc, and 10 of tin find the ratio of copper to zinc in the composition
;
of brass.
crew can row a certain course up stream in 84 minutes; 26. they can row the same course down stream in 9 minutes less than they could row it in still water how long would they take to row down with the stream ?
:
CHAPTER
III.
VARIATION.
Definition. One quantity A is said to vary directly as another B, when the two quantities depend upon each other in such a manner that if B is changed, A is changed in the same
29.
ratio.
Note.
as B.
The word
and
is
said to vary
a train moving at a uniform rate travels 40 miles in 60 minutes, it will travel 20 miles in 30 minutes, 80 miles in 120 minutes, and so on; the distance in each case being increased or diminished in the same ratio as the time. This is expressed by saying that when the velocity is uniform
For instance
if
the distance is ptroportional to the time, or the distance varies as the time. 30.
The symbol
is
on
read
"A
is
so
that
31.
If A.
varies as B, tlien
constant quantity.
a,
lt
a,
a3 ...,
b
x
b 2 , b3
...
are corresponding
Inen, by deimition,
a b = =,
V
:
a b = ^ K
a
3
b
r
;
and
so on,
K
.
/. si
6,
= =* = y^=
62
.
,.j
63
TT
Hence
that
is,
=
any value r
of
A
_
==
B
is
is
7u,
where
.'.
constant.
A=mB.
22
If
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
any pair
of corresponding values of
A and B
if
the constant
m can be
determined.
3
For instance,
^=12, we have
and
32.
=m x
12;
A = \B.
One quantity A is said to vary inversely Definition. as another Z?, when A varies directly as the reciprocal of B.
Thus
if
varies inversely as B,
A = ^
where
m is
:
constant.
If 6
the same work in and so on. Thus it appears that 4 hours, 2 men in 24 hours when the number of men is increased, the time is proportionately decreased; and viceversa.
hours, 12
;
men
men would do
if
By
supposition /x=
if
where
m is constant.
Tit
Putting x = 8, y = 3, we have
.*.
2
?;t
=n>
= 18,
and
v *jx
a;
18
r
,
= 512.
Example 2. The square of the time of a planet's revolution varies as the cube of its distance from the Sun; find the time of Venus' revolution, assuming the distances of the Earth and Venus from the Sun to be 91J and 66 millions of miles respectively.
Let
or
P
;
of miles
we have
some constant.
P aD
2
3
,
P*=kD 3
is
where k
whence
4x4x4
365
'
VARIATION.
For Venus, whence
23
;
pa^i^ili x 66 x 66 x 6G
3 b.)
P = 4x66
::
/264
365
approximately,
= 2244.
Hence the time
33.
of revolution is nearly 224 days.
One quantity is said to vary jointly as a number of others, when it varies directly as their product. Thus A varies jointly as B and C, when A = mBC. For instance, the interest on a sum of money varies jointly as the
Definition.
principal, the time,
cent.
3 i.
Definition.
is
and
in
versely as C,
35.
when A
varies as ^
7/*A varies as
is constant,
when C
is constant,
when
vary.
then
tvill
and
A varies as C
B and C
vary as
BC
ivhen both
B and partly on Suppose these latter variations to take place sepathat of C. rately, each in its turn producing its own effect on A also let a, b, c be certain simultaneous values of A, B, C.
The variation
of
Let C be constant while B changes to b ; then A must undergo a partial change and will assume some intermediate value a\ where
1
"=2.
(1)
Let
be constant, that
is,
A must
a' to its
From
that
or
is,
(1)
and
(2) x
'
 =
a
A = =be
BC,
varies as
BC.
24
36.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
The following are
article.
illustrations of the
theorem proved in
the last
work done by a given number of men varies directly as the number of days they work, and the amount of work done in a given time varies directly as the number of men therefore when the number of days and the number of men are both variable, the amount of work will vary as the product of the number of men and the number of days.
The amount
of
Again, in Geometry the area of a triangle varies directly as its base when the height is constant, and directly as the height when the base is constant and when both the height and base are variable, the area varies as the product of the numbers
;
The volume of a right circular cone varies as the square of the the base when the height is constant, and as the height when the radius of base is constant. If the radius of the base is 7 feet and the height 15 feet, the volume is 770 cubic feet ; find the height of a cone whose volume is 132 cubic feet and which stands on a base whose radius is 3 feet.
Example.
Let h and r denote respectively the height ani radius of the base measured in feet also let V be the volume in cubic feet.
;
Then
V=mr
h,
where
m is
constant.
By
supposition,
770 m x
2 7 x 15
whence
m=
22
;
.*.
by substituting
V=
132, r = S,
we
get
132= xOxft;
X
22
7i= 14
is
14
feet.
case in
The proposition of Art. 35 can easily be extended to the which the variation of A depends upon that of more than
Further, the variations may be either direct or The principle is interesting because of its frequent ocinverse. For example, in the theory of currence in Physical Science. gases it is found by experiment that the pressure (p) of a gas varies as the "absolute temperature" (t) when its volume (v) is constant, and that the pressure varies inversely as the volume when the temperature is constant ; that is
two
variables.
2? oc
t,
when v
is
constant
, ,
VARIATION.
25
and
p
these results
cc
when
is
constant.
that,
From
we should expect
the formula
when both
and v are
variable,
we should have
cc
or
pv = kt, where k
this is
is
constant
the case.
found to be
Example. The duration of a railway journey varies directly as the distance and inversely as the velocity; the velocity varies directly as the square root of the quantity of coal used per mile, and inversely as the number of carriages in the train. In a journey of 25 miles in half an hour with 18 carriages 10 cwt. of coal is required; how much coal will be consumed in a journey of 21 miles in 28 minutes with 16 carriages?
Let
t be the time expressed in hours, d the distance in miles,
v the velocity in miles per hour, q the quantity of coal in cwt., c the number of carriages.
We have
and
t oc
v
*!l
c
oc
whence
or
t
t oc
k is constant.
7 where
,
we have
;
_ k x 18 x 25 ~ 2 jm
that
is,
=
^
25x36"
. .
Hence
cd ^T 2o 36 Jq
v/lO
x
t,
c,
of the
'
that
is,
s/q=15x28
/
n/10x 16x21
=5^10,
,
whence
q
of coal
is
= = 6.
6cwt.
26
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES.
1.
III.
If
varies as y,
and
find
x when y = 10.
find
2.
If
varies inversely as Q,
P=7
when # = 3,
and
P when
3.
If the square of
x3 when y = 4,
3
10 C=
when #=y
4.
varies as
and
i?
C jointly;
i? varies
if
A=2
when # =  and
Z? and
find
5.
when A = 54 and
= 3.
and
as C, then
J.
\/
AB will
6.
BC, then
Z>
varies inversely as 7
C
.
7.
varies directly as
Q and
inversely as
R\
also
P=o ~
when
^ =  and
8.
9.
R =
a'
find
(^
If
varies as
x2 y\
y varies as the sum of two quantities, of which one varies x and the other inversely as x and if y = 6 when x=4, and y = 31 when x = 3 find the equation between x and y.
If directly as
;
If 3/ is equal to the sum of two quantities one of which varies 10. as x directly, and the other as x2 inversely; and if y 19 when x=2, or
find
11.
in terms of x.
If
varies directly as the square root of and inversely as when 24 if 3 when .=256 and C=2, find
4=
A=
and
C=g
12.
+z
provided that
=2 when x =3
varies as Z> 2 ,
and
y = \.
and C jointly, while If J. varies as varies as D. varies inversely as A, shew that
13.
and
varies as the sum of three quantities of which the first is constant, the second varies as .r, and the third as x 2 and if y = when x=l, y l when x=2, and y 4 when x = 3; find y when x=7.
14.
If
When a body falls from rest its distance from the starting 15. point varies as the square of the time it has been falling if a body falls through 402^ feet in 5 seconds, how far does it fall in 10 seconds ? Also how far does it fall in the 10th second?
:
VARIATION.
27
Given that the volume of a sphere varies as the cul>c of its 16. radius, and that when the radius is 3& feet the volume is 179rj cubic feet, find the volume when the radius is 1 foot 9 inches.
of a circular disc varies as the square of the radius when the thickness remains the same; it also varies as the thickness when the radius remains the same. Two discs have their thicknesses in the ratio of 9 8 find the ratio of their radii if the weight of the first is twice that of the second.
17.
:
The weight
a certain regatta the number of races on each day varied jointly as the number of days from the beginning and end of the regatta up to and including the day in question. On three successive days there were respectively 6, 5 and 3 races. Which days were these, and how long did the regatta last?
18.
At
19.
The
price of a
diamond
Three rings of equal weight, each composed of a diamond set in gold, have values ., b, c> the diamonds in them weighing 3, 4, 5 carats respectively. Shew that the value of a diamond of one carat is
persons are awarded pensions in proportion to the square One has served 9 years root of the number of years they have served. If the receives a pensio?i greater by ,50. longer than the other and length of service of the first had exceeded that of the second by 4 years How long 8. their pensions would have been in the proportion of 9 had they served and what were their respective pensions ?
20.
:
Two
attraction of a planet on its satellites varies directly as the mass (M)of the planet, and inversely as the square of the distance (D) also the square of a satellite's time of revolution varies directly as the distance and inversely as the force of attraction. If m v d v t v d2 2 are simultaneous values of J/, D, T respectively, prove and 2
21.
;
The
that
of revolution of that moon of Jupiter whose distance is to the distance of our Moon as 35 31, having given the Earth, and that the that the mass of Jupiter is 343 times that of Moon's period is 27*32 days.
Hence
The consumption of coal by a locomotive varies as the square of the velocity; when the speed is 10 miles an hour the consumption of
22.
coal per hour is 2 tons if the price of coal be 10s. per ton, and the other expenses of the engine be lis. 3c/. an hour, find the least cost of a journey of 100 miles.
:
CHAPTER
IV.
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
Quantities are said to be in Arithmetical Definition. Progression when they increase or decrease by a common dif38.
ference.
Thus each
Progression
:
of
the following
11, 15,
series
forms an Arithmetical
3,
7, 2,
8,
a,
4, 10,
d,
a+
a + 2d, a + 3d,
The common
the series
by subtracting any term of from that which follows it. In the first of the above
difference is found
is
in the second it
is
in
If
we examine
a,
the series
d,
a+
a+
2d,
a + 3d,
. .
we
notice that in
any term
3 rd 6 th
the coefficient
seiies.
of d
is
always
less
by one
Thus the
term
is
a + 2d; a + 5d ;
a+ a+
I9d',
(
20 th
and, generally, the
If
?i
term term
is
is is
th p term
p
d.
\)d.
if
I
n be the number
of terms,
and
denote the
last,
or
th
term,
40.
we have
To find
the
=a+
(n 1)
sum of a number of
first
terms in Arithmetical
Progression.
term,
d the common
difference,
number
of terms.
Also
let I
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
the required
8
29
sum
then
d)
= a+(a +
(a
+ 2d) +
...
(I
2d)
+ (ld) +
l;
= I+
(I
d)
(I
 2d) +
...
+ (a + 2d)+
(a + d)
a.
series,
= (a +
l)
+
I),
(a
l)
+ (a + l)+
...
to
n terms
= n (a +
'
= ^(a +
a
l)
(1);
and
..
l~a + (nl)d
s
(2),
= ^{2a + (nl)d\
last
(3).
three useful formula; (1), in each of these any one of the letters may denote (2), (3) the unknown quantity when the three others are known. For instance, in (1) if we substitute given values for s, n, I, we obtain an equation for finding a ; and similarly in the other formulae. But it is necessary to guard against a too mechanical use of these general formulae, and it will often be found better to solve simple questions by a mental rather than by an actual reference to the requisite formula.
41.
tlie
In
article
we have
Example 1. Find the sura of the series 5^, Here the common difference is 1^; hence from
the
GJ, 8,
(3),
to 17 terms.
sum
2 x
+ 16 *li
= y (11+20)
17x31 ~2
= 263.
Example
400
:
2.
find the
The first term of a series is 5, the last 45, and number of terms, and the common difference.
(1)
the
sum
If
+ 4r>);
whence
n = 10.
30
If
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
d be the
common
difference
45= the
whence
42.
If
16
th
term = 5 + 15d;
d = 2f
of
an Arithmetical Progression be
given, the series can be completely determined; for the data furnish two simultaneous equations, the solution of which will give the first term and the common difference.
Example.
23
rd
of
an A. P. are  61 and 64
difference,
;
find the
term.
If
a be the
common
4
th
and
whence we obtain
64 = the
term = a + 3d
;
d=
5 jr, a = Hh.
Definition. When three quantities are in Arithmetical Progression the middle one is said to be the arithmetic mean of the other two.
43.
Thus a
44.
is
the arithmetic
To find
b
the arithmetic
Let a and
Then
since a, A, b are in
A. P. we must have b  A = A a,
difference
common
a A
whence
45.
+
2
Between two given quantities it is always possible to insert any number of terms such that the whole series thus formed shall be in A. P. and by an extension of the definition in
;
Art. 43, the terms thus inserted are called the arithmetic means.
Example.
Insert 20 arithmetic
67.
;
Including the extremes, the number of terms will be 22 so that we have which 4 is the first and 67 the last.
Let d be the
then
common
difference
;
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
46.
31
betiveen
To
insert
two
given quantities.
Let a and
Including the extremes the number of terms will be u + 2 so that we have to find a series of n + 2 terms in A. P., of which a is the first, and b is the last.
= the
(n
2)
th
term
whence
d=
71+
'
a
,
n+l
293
;
2 (b
H
*
n+l
='
a)
,
a+
nib a)
*
n+l
_
'
The sum
numbers
in A.P. is 27,
common
;
difference
ad + a + a + d = 27
..
d, 9,
+ d.
+ (9 + d) 2 = 293;
whence
and the numbers are
term
4, 9, 14.
d=5;
of the first
w"'
p terms
By
putting
respectively,
last
we obtain
term = 2,
term =3p 1
..
EXAMPLES.
1.
IV.
a.
Sum
2, 3, 4J,...
to 20 terms.
2.
Sum
3.
Sum,
4
, o
7
I
,...
to 19 terms.
32
4.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Sum
3,
, If,... to n terms. o
5.
6.
7.
3'75,
35,
325,... to
16 terms.
8.
Sum Sum
Sum Sum
n
.
3
j=
,
9.
tt
V5
;..
to 25 terms.
to 40 terms.
. . .
6,
4a a,
36,
6a ,...
56,.
,
. .
to
,
n terms.
+6 Sum 
3a6 ^
to 21 terms.
,,
13.
Insert 19 arithmetic
Insert 17 arithmetic
14. 15.
Insert 18 arithmetic
Insert
as
and
1.
S.v.
16.
17.
18.
arithmetic
n odd numbers.
is 2,
term
sum
155;
The sum
5
;
of 15 terms of
an A. P.
is
600,
differ
ence
is
The
sum
is 18,
is
30
The sum
of three
numbers
in A. P.
is
504
find them.
22.
The sum
is
of three
numbers
in A. P. is 12,
their
cubes
23.
24.
408
find them.
series
is 4?i4 1.
series
whose p ih term
is
^ + 2.
+ b.
25.
26.
series
whose n th term
is
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
47.
33
In an Arithmetical Progression when s, a, d are given, to determine the values of n we have the quadratic equation
s
when both
is
How many
sum may be
9,
6, 3,...
must be
Here
that
or
is,
nlnU = Q,
(nll)(n+4)=0;
.'.
?i=ll or 
4.
If
we take 11 terms
of the series,
6,
we have
21
 9, the
sum
If
of which
is 66.
at the last of these terms and count backwards four terms, the and thus, although the negative solution does not directly answer the question proposed, we are enabled to give it an intelligible meaning, and we see that it answers a question closely connected with that to which the positive solution applies.
we begin
sum
is
also 66;
can justify this interpretation in the general case in the following way.
48.
We
The equation
to determine
is
dn 2 + (2ad)n2s =
(1).
Since in the case under discussion the roots of this equation have The last opposite signs, let us denote them by n and  n term of the series corresponding to n is
.
a + (n l
d
yi.,
term and count backwards, the common terms is difference must be denoted by  d, and the sum of
if
we
beirin
at
this
{2
and we
shall
+ ,!</) +
(,
!)(</)}
6.
shew that
this is equal to
H. H. A.
34
For the expression
'
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
==
2a + (2n
n l)dl
2
^ 1
1
2an2 + 2n n 2 d  n 2 (n2 +
x
1)
= ^ I 2n n 2 d  (da*  2a  d .n2 )\
x
= l(4s2s) = s,
since
n2
satisfies
dn 2 + (2a d)
2s
0,
and n n 2
}
is
the
When
Example.
How many
?
be taken to
amount
Here
that
or
is,
to 71
n ~ {52 +
5)i2
(nl)(5)} = 74;
 57u + 148 = 0,
(n4)(5n37) = 0;
.*.
?i
=4
or 1%.
of
terms
is 4.
It will
sum
of 7
terms
while the
sum
50.
We
1.
:
Example
ratio of
7?t
+l
a,
"
common
difference of the
two
series be
a v d x and
We have
Now we
obtain
M^* +
2a 2
+1
4?i
{nl)d 2
+ 27
by putting n21, we x
have
a 2 + l0d 2
4
,
3.
2.
If
Su S2
first
+3 +. + .
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
We have
S^
{2
(n  1)}
AH+D =n
?i
the required
sum=
=
 {(n m
(n
l)
(3n
+ l) +
~
.
.
(2/> 1
n+
1)}
?l
+ 3n + 5n +
.2p
1
;/)
+ p)
= {n(l + 3 + 5+...21>l)+p} =r 2
2
(l>
+P)
EXAMPLES.
1.
IV.
b.
Given
?
a=
.5
= 100,
find n.
2.
How many
must be taken
first
to
make 208
3.
is
4.
The
;
2n
*1
31 st
and
last
6j
respectively
5.
last
respectively
6.
arranges to pay off a debt of 3600 by 40 annual instalments which form an arithmetic series. When 30 of the instalments are paid he dies leaving a third of the debt unpaid: find the value of the first instalment.
7.
A man
means is inserted; the sum number by unity how many means are there The sum of n terms of the series 2, 5, 8.
arithmetic
8,... is !>">0
find
n.
32
36
9.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Sum
the series 
_
. ,
...
to
terms.
is
terms
is 49,
289,
11.
If the
th
,
that
12.
find
13.
P. is q,
is
The sum
of four integers in A. P.
is 24,
their product is
945
find them.
Divide 20 into four parts which are in A. P., and such that the product of the first and fourth is to the product of the second and third in the ratio of 2 to 3.
14.
15.
The p th term
of an A. P.
is q,
is
find the
tb
term.
16.
How many
If the
terms of the
of
must be taken
find the
tth
?
to
make 306?
17.
sum
n terms
th
of an A. P.
is
2n + 3n 2
is to
term.
'in
the
sum
of
n terms as
2n
1.
th
term as 2m
1 is to
Prove that the sum of an odd number of terms in A. P. to the middle term multiplied by the number of terms.
20.
is
equal
If 5 = n (pn
find the
p th term.
;
of terms in an A. P. is even the sum of the odd the even terms 30, and the last term exceeds the first by terms is 24, of 10 1 find the number of terms.
21.
The number
22.
P.
and the sum of each set is 15. The common difference of the first set is greater by 1 than the common difference of the second set, and the
product of the the numbers.
23.
first set is
find
Find the relation between x and y in order that the ,th mean between x and 2y may be the same as the th mean between 2x and y,
?
?
n means being
24.
If the
that
its
sum
for
for
CHAPTER
V.
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
Quantities are said to be in Geometrical Definition. Progression when they increase or decrease by a constant factor.
51.
Thus each
gression
:
3,
G,
24,
I
9'
3
,
3'
,
I 27'
a, ar,
ar 2 ar
The constant factor is also called the common ratio, and it is found by dividing any term by that which immediately iwecedes
it.
In the
first of
it is
common
ratio is 2
in
the second
in the third it is
r.
52.
If
we examine
the series
3 ar2 ar
,
,
a, ar,
ai A , r is
we
notice that in
any term
the
index of
is is
always
less
by one
tlian the
the series.
Thus
the 3 rd term
ar
2
;
term
ar
s
;
the 20 th term
and, generally,
If
is
ar
19
;
the
ih p term
is
a?^
1
.
term,
of terms,
l
and
if I
denote the
last,
or
n ,h
= ar"~\
When three quantities are in Geometrical Definition. Progression the middle one is called the geometric mean between the other two.
53.
38 To find
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
the geometric
b
mean
Let a and
Then
_G G~ a'
b
common
..
ratio
whence
54.
G 2 = ab; G = Jab.
To
insert
Let a and
In
all
series of
we have
first
to find a
b
and
the
last.
= the
r"
(n
+1
;
2)
th
term
"
~a'
i
""
Hence the required means
value found in
Example.
(1).
<
of,
a? ,...
2
are
ar
n
,
Insert 4 geometric
5.
first,
We
sixth.
the
and 5 the
Let r be tbe
common
ratio
= 160?'5
.
*
'
~32'
whence
r= o'
80, 40, 20, 10.
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
55.
o!)
To find
the
sum of a number
of terms in Geometrical
Progression.
Let a be the first term, r the common Then terms, and s the sum required.
8
ratio,
n the number
l
of
= a + car + ar +
2
n + ar
~2
+ ar"~
r,
we have
+ ar"~ 2 + ar"" +
1
= ar + ar 2 +
rs
..
ar*,
Hence by
subtraction,
s = ar n a
(rl)s = a(r"l);
,..5fe^a
r
(i).
.?S=*3 1 r
Note.
for
s.
(2).
It will
(2)
using
be found convenient to remember both forms given above in all cases except when? isj^ositive and greater than 1.
1
Since ar'^ 1
1,
the formula
(1)
may
S=
be written
rla 7T
a form which
is
sometimes useful.
the series 3 = 2
Example.
Sum
1, ,
to 7 terms.
The common
ratio
hence by formula
(2)
the
sum
(23
2187]
II
2
128
~3
2315
128 * 5
403
40
56.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Consider the series
n
1,
r,
111
^2
,
~3
2
The sum
to
n terms
>
H
.2From
this
27
2
2
result
it
i
appears that however many terms be taken the sum of the above series is always less than 2. Also we see that, by making n sufficiently large, we can make the fraction
njr^i
as
sma U a s we
please.
Thus by taking a
differ
sufficient
little as
number
please
by as
is
we
In the next
57.
article a
discussed.
From
Art. 55
we have
\ r
1
a
1
ar"
1
'
Suppose r
is is
n the
smaller
and consequently
ar'
of
and
of
therefore by
making n
sufficiently large,
we can make
the
sum
n terms
from
by as small a quantity as
we
please.
This result
is
the
sum of an
infinite
^
:
is
more
briefly, the
1.
sum
a
to infinity is
1r'
is
Example
product
is
19,
and whose
216.
a,
;
hence a = 6, and
the
numbers are r
6, 6r.
'
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
6

41
r
..
+ 6 + 6r=19;
613r + 6r2 = 0;
r
whence
=  or
are 4,
6, 9.
The sum
first
of an infinite
number
of terms in G. P. is 15,
and
sum
of their squares
is
45
term,
the
common
'
z
ratio
ci^
terms
is
r
their squares is
r*
(1),
Hence
,=15 1  r
1
Dividing
(2)
by
(1)
~=
+r
a2 45 _ 72 =
9
2)
(3),
and from
(1)
and
,
l
(3)
z
= 5;
... 20 10 o y
,
EXAMPLES.
1.
V.
a.
Sum ,,,...
A
112
O
l,
to 7 terms.
2.
Sum
3.
to 8 terms.
4. 5.
4,
8,...
to 10 terms.
6.
5,
25,...
to
terms.
7.
3,
4,
N/3,
,...
to 2n terms.
8.
1,
1
3,...
to 12 terms. to 7 terms.
9.
j/2 v
2,
8
jr
s '2
,...
42
10.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Sum ~,
11
3 3, j,. to ^ terms.
11.
12.
40.

13.
64
Sum
14.
15.
45,
015, 0005,...
16.
18.
17. 19.
3" 1 3~ 2
,
3',...
v/3,
1,...
7,
N/42,
6,...
20.
The sum
3 terms
;
the
first
is
9 times the
sum
of
21.
The
fifth
term of a G. P.
is 81,
is
24; find
the series.
The sum of a G. P. whose common ratio is 3 is 728, 22. last term is 486 ; find the first term.
In a G. P. the first term is 7, the last 23. 889 find the common ratio.
;
and the
24.
The sum
of three
numbers
in G. P.
is 38,
is
The continued product of three numbers in G. P. is 216, and the sum of the product of them in pairs is 156 find the numbers.
25.
;
26.
s
If
p the
sum
denote the sum of the series l+rp + r2p +... of the series 1 rp + r2p  ... ad inf., prove that
Sp
ad
inf.,
and
/Op
+ Sp == ^*ij'2p'
b, c
27.
If the
th
,
th
that
28.
r th terms of a G. P. be a, a r 6 r *c*=l.
respectively, prove
sum
The sum of an infinite number of terms of a G. P. of their cubes is 192 ; find the series.
is 4,
and the
infinite
Example.
"423.
~ io +
23 iooo
23
iooooo
+
;
~io + IP +
10
5+
'
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
that,*,
43
3_
10
_4
+
,
23 /
3 103
io V
+
1
io
+
io*
10
23
10
:: '
_ _1_
10"
4_
1
23
"
100
99
"io" "!^3
~~
+ 10 990
990
rule.
_23
_419
"
any recurring decimal to a vulgar fraction may be proved by the method employed in the but it is easier to proceed as follows. last example
rule for reducing
;
The general
Tojind
Let
the value
of a recurring decimal.
denote the figures which do not recur, and suppose them j> in number; let Q denote the recurring period consisting of q figures let D denote the value of the recurring decimal ; then
;
D = 'PQQQ
..
10>xD = P'QQQ
and
therefore,
10T+'
*D = PQQQQ
1)
>
D = PQP;
;
that
is,
D = PQ  P
. ' '
10" 1 is a number consisting of q nines; therefore the denominator consists of q nines followed by p ciphers. Hence we have the following rule for reducing a recurring decimal to a
vulgar fraction
:
Now
For
the
the
number number
consisting of consisting of
recurring figures ; for the denominator take a number consisting of as many nines as there are recurring jig n n 8 followed by as many ciphers as there are nonrecurring figures.
nonrecurring
and
r ;
44
60.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To find
a,
the
sum ofn
r,
(a
d)
(a
+ 2d)
(a
+ 3d)
3
,
in which each term is the product of corresponding terms in an arithmetic and geometric series.
then
2
+
. .
...
(a
+ n~^ld)r"'
~
l
rS=
ar + (a + d)r2 +
subtraction,
.
. .
By
2 S(l  r) = a + (dr + dr +
+ dr""
,
(a
+ nlct)
;
dr(\r n ^ =a+
1
)
=
(a v
1
N + n  Id) r
'
'
'
_ ( a + n~^\d )
r"
'
T^r
(a
Cor.
S in
+
the form
dr
dr"
lr
then
if
(lry~
In this
(lr)*
small as
n~ld)r\ T^r
we
all the
r" as
please by taking
be neglected,
sufficiently great.
case,
assuming that
they
terms which
involve r n
made
r)
so small that
may
we
obtain
z
1r
(1
infinity. J
We
shall refer
XXI.
In summing to
If
series
+ 2ar + 3x 2 + 4x 3 +
to infinity.
;
Let
..
S = l + 2a; + 3a: s + 4a s +
xS=
x + 2x* + 3x*+
S(lx) = l + x + x 2 + x*+
1
~lx
a
GE0METK1CAL PROGRESSION.
Example
T
2.
45
Sum
the series 1
,
o
+ + 0"*
.
. .
to n terms.
Let
1
i S== i
+i+
1
7 _ _ + 10 +
Sn2 _..
3n  5
"
5*4
,
+
/3
52
+ 53+
3
+ 57^+
3 \
3n2
5
3n2
\
"
A
"
1
f
1 5
1
"
" 7 1
3n_2
+5j
"~5~
DN
'>i
'
3
1
" I (1 5
_
1\
J
 5.
32
~4
'*
12w + 7 ~ 4 5* .
35 16
12/t+7
16
.
5" 1
'
EXAMPLES.
1.
V.
b.
Sum
1 4
2a 4 3a2 + 4a 3 43
7
77.
. . .
to
n terms.
to infinity.
2.
Sum 1 +  44
lb
+ ^, + zoo + c^rr. 64 +
4
3
15
31
. .
3.
to infinity.
4.
3 2
. . .
to
n terms.
5.
Sum 1 + + + Q + 2 4 o
7
...
to infinity.
6. 7.
Sum l + 3^ + 6 f
l
Prove that the (n + l) th term of a G. P., of which the first term th term of a G. P. of is a and the third term b, is equal to the (2+l) which the first term is a and the fifth term 6.
whose first term is a and common ratio r is equal to the sum of n of a G. P. whose first term is b and common ratio r 1 Prove that b is equal to the sum of the first two terms of the first series.
8.
The sum
of
2n terms of a G.
P.
46
9.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the sum of the
l
infinite series
2
+ (l + b)r + (l + b + b
of three
4,
)r 2 +
{l
+ b + b 2 + b 3 )r3 +...,
;
and
10.
The sum
numbers in G. P. is 70 if the two extremes and the mean by 5, the products are in A. P.
infinite G. P. are together equal to 5, the sum of all the terms that follow it; find
The
first
is
two terms of an
3 times
Sum
12. 13.
.r+a,
,v
(x
+ if)
j
. . .
to
n terms.
14.
+o
2 3
3  2
33
ha +
2
+... to 2p terms.
+ p + 76
15.
16.
454545
7
+ ^2 +
~
+ 34 +

35
to mfinity
72 +
73
74 + 75
.,
to llifinity
17.
If a,
b, c,
If the arithmetic mean between a and b is twice as great as the 18. geometric mean, shew that a 6 = 2 + ^/3 2^3.
19.
series the r th
term of which
is
(2rfl)2'\
Find the sum of 2n terms of a series of which every even term is a times the term before it, and every odd term c times the term before it, the first term being unity.
20.
21.
a,
If
Sn Sv
denote the
ratio
JS2 ,
r,
and common
22.
of n terms of a G. P. whose first term find the sum of Slf S3 /8'5 ,.../8 2B _ 1
r
sum
is
If
first
S3 ,...SP
are the
sums
whose
terms are
1, 2, 3,..,j2,
and
2' 3' 4
'
'
'
^Ti
. . .
prove that
23.
&\
+ S2 + S3 +
+ Sp =f (p + 3).
integer,
If r
<
and
positive,
and
wl
m is a positive
2wi
shew that
(2i
l)r
(lr)<lr
small
+1
.
is indefinitely
when n
is indefinitely great.
CHAPTER
HARMON ICAL PROGRESSION.
VI.
THE PROGRESSIONS.
61.
DEFINITION.
Three quantities
c
a, b, c
are said to be in
Any number
of
quantities are said to be in Harmonical every three consecutive terms are in Har
are in
A rithmetical
Progression.
b, c
By
definition, if ,
b
}
~c^~b^~c'
.'.
a(b
c)
c (a
b),
1111
c
a'
Harmonical properties are chiefly interesting because of their importance in Geometry and in the Theory of Sound in Algebra the proposition just proved is the only one of any importance. There is no general formula for the sum of any number of quantities in Harmonical Progression. Questions in H. P. are generally solved by inverting the terms, and making use
63.
:
48
64.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To find
a,
the
harmonic
7tiean
Let
then 
b
,
H their
harmonic mean;
~
11
A. P.
1
''11
I
2
a~b
IV
&'
H~ a
,,
11 +
2ab
a+b
Example.
Insert 40 harmonic
means between
and ^
term
is ;
Here 6
is
first
let
d be the
common
difference
then
6
=^ +
41d ; whence d
are 
= .
41
;
2
,
and harmonic
we have proved
A=
a+
b
(!)
~Y~
G = Jab
(2).
H=^ a+b
_,
(3). v '
Therefore
that
is,
a+ Tr All = .
b 2
2ab
.
a+b
= ab = G 2
7
is
the geometric
//.
From
these results
we
A
HARMONICA! PROGRESSION.
which
is
49
a and b are positive; therefore the arithmetic mean of any two positive quantities is greater than their geometric mean.
positive
if
Also from the equation G*A1I, we see that G is intermediate in value between A and 11; and it lias been proved that
A>
G, therefore
II ; that is, the arithmetic, geometric, and between any tioo positive quantities are in descending
G>
Miscellaneous questions in the Progressions afford scope for skill and ingenuity, the solution being often neatly effected by some special artifice. The student will find the following
hints useful.
1.
If the
same quantity be added to, or subtracted from, all an A P., the resulting terms will form an A. P. with
[Art. 38.]
terms of an A.P. be multiplied or divided by the same quantity, the resulting terms will form an A. P., but with a new common difference. [Art. 38.]
If all the
3.
If all the terms of a G.P. be multiplied or divided by the quantity, the resulting terms will form a G.P. with the
ratio as before.
d...
[Art. 51.]
If a,
b, c,
portion^ since,
by
definition,
bed
,
1
'
may
b
Example H. P.
1.
If a
2
,
2
,
are in A. P.,
shew that
c,
+ a, a +
are
By adding
a*
ab
+ ac + bc + c),
to each term,
we
see that
2
+ ab + ac + bc,
{a
b2
+ ba + bc + ac,
c'
+ ca + cb + ab
(c
are in A.P.
that
..,
is
+ b)
(a
{b
+ b)
are in A. P.
.
+c
b
+a
a
a
+b
are
m A. P.
P
4
that
is,
+ c,
+ a,
+b
are in H.
H. H. A.
'
50
Example 2. If n terms of an A.
I
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
the last term, d tlie common difference, and s the sum 2 P. be connected by the equation Sds={d + 2l) prove that
,
of
d = 2a.
Since the given relation
is
then
a=
= s.
,
Hence by
or
substitution,
8ad = {d + 2a) 2
(d2ay = 0;
..
d 2a.
s
th
Example
3.
If the
th
,
th
th
,
terms of an A. P. are in G.
P.,
shew that
p
q, q
r,
r  s are in G. P.
we have
LAlt bb

a+
^V(q^lJd^T^l)~daT(^l)d
.*.
(4)J
'
 \a + (r 1) d} d]  {a + {s  1) d\
d]
=
Hence p 67.
pq^qr
qr
r,
r
r
8
s
q, q
are in G.P.
The numbers
;
1,
natural numbers
the
first
the
th
are often referred to as the term of the series is n, and the sum of
2, 3,
n terms
is
 (n +1).
68.
To find
the
sum of
the squares
of
the first
n natural
numbers.
then
=l
+
a
3'
+
2
+n
1
2
.
We have
(
n3  (n n _ \y _ 3 (w  2) _ (71 (n 3 2
1
3
l)
= 3n  3n+
2)
1)
+ +
1
1
2)
3 3
; ;
51
^3 =
3(l
6b
a
.
3aS
=n n+
a
l)
= n(n +
.
1) (n
1 4 ;;);
S=
n(n+ l)(2n +
6
C9.
To fiml
the
sum of
the
cubes
of the frst
n natural
numbers.
S
3
',
then
=l +2
3
+ 33 +
4?i
+n\
;
We
have
4 (n  1 )  (?* w _ 2) 4  ( w (
n*
(n
 Gn 2 + 4n  1 4 3 8 2) = 4 (n  1 )  6 (n  1) + 4 (n  1) 3 3) = 4(ra 2)  6 (n 2) + 4 (n  2) l)
4
1
1
3
2
1
Hence, by addition,
.\
w4 = 4#6(l 2 + 2 2 +...+?i 2) + 4(l +2 + .. + 7i)n; 4S = n 4 + n + 6(l 2 + 2 2 +...+7t 2 )(\+2 + ...+n) = n* + 7i + 7i (n+ 1) (2n+ 1) 2n(7i + 1) = 7i (71 + 1) (?r 7i+\ + 2n+\2) = 7i (n + 1 ) (?r + n)
;
,
a g _ w'(n + l) *
_f W (n+l) )'
~
(
'
"
cz^es of the f7'st n natural 7iumhers is equal to the squa7'e of the siwi of these 7iumbers.
^Ae s?<m o/*
Tims
Me
The formulae
and the two preceding articles may be the sum of the squares, and the sum of the cubes
of this
a+
d,
a+
2d,
42
;;
52
70.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
In referring to the results we have just proved it will be convenient to introduce a notation which the student will freWe shall denote the quently meet with in Higher Mathematics.
series
1
. .
+ n by
2,n
1* l
3
+ 2* + 3* +
...
+ 2 3 + 3 3 +...
+na by %n* +8 by 2n
3
;
where 2 placed before a term signifies the sum which that term is the general type.
Example
1.
of all terms of
Sum
the series
1
.
+2
+3
4+
.to
n terms.
The w th term=ra(n+l)=n2 +; and by writing down each term in a similar form we shall have two columns, one consisting of the first n natural
numbers, and the other of their squares.
..
the
(2m + 1)
T
'
n(n +
2
)
l)
n(n+l) j2n+l
n(n + l)(n+2)
3
Example
2.
Sum
to
n terms the
;
series
whose M th term
1_1 is 2'
+ 8m 3  6m 2
8m 2
(m
~~
+ 2 4~ 1) _
6m ( m+1)(2m +
6
1)
= 2  1 + (m + 1) {2m (m + 1)  (2m + 1)
= 2' l + n(n + l)(2n 2 l).
l
EXAMPLES.
1.
VI.
a.
(2)
(3)
2.
2J, 21,
2f,
3i,...
3,...
2,
3i,...
and
11.
3.
2  and o
2
13
EXAMPLES OX THE
4.
riiOGltESSlOXS.
53
ively,
and 9 l are the geometric and harmonic means, respectbetween two numbers, find them.
If 12
:
If the harmonic mean between two quantities is to their geo5. metric means as 12 to 13, prove that the quantities are in the ratio of 4 to 9.
6.
If a,
b, c
be in H.
P.,
:
a
7.
a c.
and the u lh term be
If the
lh
iii
term of a H.
P. be equal to n,
is
equal to
mn
m+n
If the
th
,
th
<7
,
that
9.
(<j
If b
is
the harmonic
1
j
+ =+o a b a c c
,
111
series
c,
prove that
whose n th term
12.
is
3n*n.
11.
ns +^n.
3" 2".
,
(+2).
3
(4' l
13. 16.
(
2 (2+3).
If the
14.
15.
+ 2; 2 )4/i
i
:J
.
i.
P.,
and
on,
(?^+l) th and (r+ l) th terms of an A. P. are in n r are in H. P., shew that the ratio of the common 2
(m+iy\
y
term
in the A. P. is
If I, m, n are three numbers in G. P., prove that the first term 17. th th of an A. P. whose th terms are in H. P. is to the common , and ?i difference as m\\ to 1.
,
18.
If the
term and
19.
sum
a + bu + cri2
find the
nth
Find the sum of n terms of the series whose n th term 2 4?i(?i 2 +l)(6>i fl).
If
is
20.
two geometric means G ly G2 and two harmonic means means A u A H1 7/2 shew that 6^0',, II1 H.2 = A l + A 2 I^ + IL,.
,
21.
If
be the
of
and q the
first
n arithmetic means between two numbers, n harmonic means between the same two numbers,
first
of
lie
between p and
p.
J
that
it
Find the sum of the cubes of the terms of an A. is exactly divisible by the sum of the term.
P.,
and shew
54)
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To find
the
number of
base.
shot
arranged in a complete
pyramid on a square
Suppose that each side of the base contains n shot then the 2 2 number of shot in the lowest layer is n in the next it is (nl) 2 and so on, up to a single shot at the in the next (n2)
; \ ; ;
top.
..
S^n
=
n(n+l)(2n + l)
6
72.
To find
the base
pyramid
then the
number
n+
xi
(n
1)
+ (n 1)
2)
1
+ + n)
that
is,
n(n + V
2 or  [n
In
the
n 1, 2,
for n,
number
layers.
[Art7a]
arranged in a complete
73.
To find
the base
the
shot
pyramid
Let
of which
rectangle.
m and
shot
n be the number
consists of
and short
side
a single row of
m (n l),
or
n+1
number
is is
(in
n + 2);
number
3 (in
n+
3)
and
so
on
number
is
n (m n + n).
PILES OF SHOT
..
AND
SHELLS.
...
55
+n(rnn + n)
+ n2)
n) + (l + 2
1)
...
 n) n (n +
2
1 )
w (n +
(2n +1)
6
l}
n (n + 1 ){3(mn) + 2n +
l)
_n(n + =
74.
(3m n+
6
1)
'
To find
the base
the
number of
is
shot arranged in
an incomplete
sides of the
2>yramid
of which
rectangle.
Let a and
top layer,
b denote the
number
of shot in the
two
the
number
of layers.
of shot is ab
is
is
;
number
number
(a
(a
+ +
1) (6
1)
2) (b
2)
and so on
in the lowest layer the
number
is
+ n 
1) (b
2
.
+n
1)
or
..
ab + (a + b)(nl) + ()il)
6
b) (n
 {6ab +
3 (a
1)
(w
1) (2m
1)}.
it is
Example. Find the number of shot in an incomplete square courses, having 12 shot in each side of the top.
If
pile of 16
we
the base,
place on the given pile a square pile having 11 shot in each side of we obtain a complete square pile of 27 courses;
in the complete pile
= <)'.)30 = 506;
[Art. 7
.]
number
11 x 12 x 23
number of shot
56
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES.
Find the number of shot in
1.
VI.
b.
2. 3.
A square pile, having 15 shot in each side of the base. A triangular pile, having 18 shot in each side of the base. A rectangular pile, the length and the breadth of the base con
and
An incomplete triangular pile, a side of the base having 25 shot, side of the top 14. a
4.
5.
An
The number of shot in a complete rectangular pile is 24395 6. there are 34 shot in the breadth of the base, how many are there in length ?
7.
its
and
of shot in the top layer of a square pile is 169, in the lowest layer is 1089 ; how many shot does the pile contain ?
The number
Find the number of shot in a complete rectangular pile of 8. 15 courses, having 20 shot in the longer side of its base.
Find the number of shot in an incomplete rectangular pile, 9. number of shot in the sides of its upper course being 11 and 18, and the number in the shorter side of its lowest course being 30. What is the number of shot required to complete a rectangular 10.
the
pile
its
side, respectively, of
half the
The number of shot in a triangular pile is greater by 150 than number of shot in a square pile, the number of layers in each being the same; find the number of shot in the lowest layer of the tripile.
angular
Find the number of shot in an incomplete square pile of 16 12. courses when the number of shot in the upper course is 1005 less than in the lowest course.
13.
number
14.
Shew that the number of shot in a square pile is onefourth the of shot in a triangular pile of double the number of courses.
If the
of shot in a triangular pile is to the number of shot in a square pile of double the number of courses as 13 to 175 ; find the number of shot in each pile.
number
The value of a triangular pile of 16 lb. shot is ,51 if the 15. value of iron be 10s. 6d. per cwt., find the number of shot in the lowest layer.
;
If from a complete square pile of n courses a triangular pile of 16. the same number of courses be formed ; shew that the remaining shot will be just sufficient to form another triangular pile, and find the number of shot in its side.
CHAPTER
VII.
SCALES OF NOTATION.
The ordinary numbers with which we are acquainted in Arithmetic are expressed by means of multiples of powers of 10;
76.
for instance
252
4705 = 4
x 10
x
+ 5; 3 10 + 7 x 10 2 +
10 +
5.
This method of representing numbers is called the common or denary scale of notation, and ten is said to be the radix of the scale. The symbols employed in this system of notation are the nine digits and zero.
manner any number other than ten may be taken as the radix of a scale of notation thus if 7 is the radix, a number 3 expressed by 2453 represents 2x7 + 4x7" + 5x7 + 3; and in
In
like
;
Again in a scale whose radix is denoted by r the above number 2453 stands for 2r 3 + 4? ,2 + hr + 3. More generally, if in the scale whose radix is r we denote the digits, beginning with that in the units' place, by a a,, a2 ,...aj then the number so formed will be represented by
tt
a r +a
,r
+a
,
y~~ +
a/
a,r
+ a,
less
where the coefficients a a ,,...,. are integers, all which any one or more after the first may be zero.
than
r,
of
in this scale the digits are r in number, their values ranging from to r 1
Hence
The names Binary, Ternary, Quaternary, Quinary, Senary, Septenary, Octenary, Nonary, Denary, Undenarv, and Duodenary
77.
are used to denote the scales corresponding to the values three,... twelve of the radix.
fae,
58
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
. .
In the undenary, duodenary, scales we shall require symbols to represent the digits which are greater than nine. It is unusual to consider any scale higher than that with radix twelve ; when necessary we shall employ the symbols t, e, T as digits to denote ten eleven and twelve
.
'
'
',
'
'
'.
It
is
especially
'
worthy
',
ten
The ordinary operations of Arithmetic may be performed in any scale but, bearing in mind that the successive powers of the radix are no longer powers of ten, in determining the carrying figures we must not divide by ten, but by the radix of the scale
;
in question.
In the scale of eight subtract 371532 from 530225, and multiply the difference by 27.
1.
Example
530225 371532
136473
136473
27
1226235 275166
4200115
After the first figure of the subtraction, since we cannot Explanation. take 3 from 2 we add 8 thus we have to take 3 from ten, which leaves 7 then 6 from ten, which leaves 4 then 2 from eight which leaves 6 and so on.
;
Again, in multiplying by
7,
we have
2.
down
and carry
Next
put down 3 and carry 6
7x7 + 2 = fifty
;
one = 6x8 + 3;
is
completed.
In the addition,
+ 6 = nine = lx8 + l;
1.
we
therefore put
down
and carry
2
Similarly
Example
lee96...G.
Explanation.
Since 15 = 1 x
8.
T + 5 = seventeen = 1 x9 + 8,
seven = e x 9 + 8
;
we put down
Also 8 x
and carry
we
therefore put
and carry
8;
and so on.
SCALES OF NOTATION.
Example
3.
59
Find the
.square root of
442641(646
34
1416112441 12441
EXAMPLES. Vila.
1.
Add
five.
2. 3.
4. 5.
From 3^756
scale of six.
6. 7.
8.
9.
scale.
Subtract 20404020 from 103050301 and find the square root of the result in the octenary scale.
15.
16.
The
(1)
(2)
following
numbers
by the
ordi
nary
rules,
79.
scale.
Let a u an a 2 ,...a be the required digits by which iV expressed, beginning with that in the units' place; then _1 a n r" + a n ,r" + ... + ar~ + a.r + a 2
,
t
is
to be
N=
10
lt
We
a,, "_...",,
60
Divide
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
N by
r,
is
a nr"
if
+ a711 r
...
+a
is
by
r,
the remainder
is
a a2
i
and
no further quotient.
, x
the required digits a a ag1 ...an are determined by successive divisions by the radix of the proposed scale.
Thus
all
Example
1.
2
1 1
5213 = 2x7 4 +lx7 3 + lx7 + 2x7 + 5; Thus and the number required is 21125.
Example
2.
..
the required
number
is 3t0t.
first line
Explanation.
In the
of
work
21 = 2x7+l=fifteen = lx<?
therefore on dividing
+ 4;
4.
by
we put down
nine = 2 x
7
e
;
and carry
;
Next
therefore
4x7 + 1 = twenty
+7
and
so on.
to scale ten by scale twelve.
scale ten,
Example 3. Reduce 7215 from scale twelve and verify the result by working in the
r
working in
7215
f)7215
)874.
t)t^.
t)10.
1.
1
1
JL2
In scale
of ten
80

In scale
of twelve
.4
.2
12
1033 12
1 12401
Thus the
scale ten.
1 x 12 + 5 in calculation is most readily effected by writing this expression in the form [{(7 x 12 + 2) } x 12 + 1] x 12 + 5 thus we multiply 7 by 12, and add 2 to the product; then we multiply 86 by 12 and add 1 to the product; then 1033 by 12 and add 5 to the product.
Explanation.
The
SCALES OF NOTATION.
80.
f>l
Hitherto we have only discussed whole numbers; but fractions may also be expressed in any scale of notation thus
;
5 2 + 10*' 10
,
=
^ G
.
25 in scale r denotes
5 r
Fractions thus expressed in a form analogous to that of ordinary decimal fractions are called radixfractions, and the point The general type of such fractions in is called the radixpoint. scale r is
~
r
>
than
r,
of
81.
To
express
scale.
Let
scale.
We
6 p b2
63 ,
then
rF=b+Hence
l
+ l+
rF
and,
if
we denote
we have
Hi. + J +
the integral part of rF ; and similarly by successive multiplications by r, each of the digits may be found, and the fraction expressed in the pro posed scale.
is
62
If
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
in
the successive multiplications by r any one of the products is an integer the process terminates at this stage, and the given fraction can be expressed by a finite number of digits. & But if none of the products is an integer the process will never terminate, and in this case the digits recur, forming a radixfraction analogous to a recurring decimal.
13
Example
1.
Express
^ as
six.
13
16
7
13x3
7x3
lx3
Kj.
I..
^x6 = 3.
..
=g + ^+ p + = 4513.
and the
13
Qi
Example
2.
to scale five.
We must
5
1*44
5)71. ..3
5)13... 2
J>_
264
_
2...1
404
5_ 024
After this the digits in the fractional part recur; hence the required
number
82.
is
2123401240.
In any scale of notation of which the radix is r, the sum of the digits of any whole number divided by r  1 will leave the same remainder as the whole number divided by r 1.
a n the digits begindenote the number, a a lt a 2 Let ning with that in the units' place, and S the sum of the digits; then ~ = a Q + a r + a2r 2 + + a_/ 1 + arn
,
,
N
1
S=a
r .tfS=a
SCALES OF NOTATION.
03
divisible
Now
is
by r
iVS
* . .
rr
=1
an integer y 6
;
that
is,
=/ +
1
'
when; /
is
some integer
which proves
tlie
proposition.
divisible
by
when
the
taking ?=10 we learn from the above proposition that a number divided by 9 will leave the same remainder as the sum of its digits divided by 9. The rule known as " casting out the nines " for testing the accuracy of multiplication is founded
By
on
this property.
The
rule
may
be thus explained
and 9c
f
d,
and
of the digits of /*, when divided by 9, gives the same remainder as the sum of the digits of bd, when divided by 9. If on trial this should not be the case, the multiplication must have been incorrectly performed. In practice b and d are readily found from the sums of the digits of the two numbers to be
multiplied together.
Example.
of 31256
The sums of the digits of the multiplicand, multiplier, and product are 17, 21, and 31 respectively; again, the sums of the digits of these three numbers = 8x3 = 24, which has 6 for the sum of the are 8, 3, and 7, whence digits; thus we have two different remainders, 6 and 7, and the multiplication
is incorrect.
denote the scale of'r, and the difference, supposed positive, between the sums of the digit* in the odd and the even places; then or + is a multiple, of
84.
If
denote
any number in
N D
N D
r+
1.
64
Let a
,
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
!,
a n denote the
a,r
digits beginning
1
,r"
2
with that
JV= a +
..
A
+ a r 2 + ar* +
...=<*,
+ a
(r
+a
r".
+ a 3 (r3 + 1) + ...; n and the last term on the right will be aw (r"+l) or a n (r 1) Thus every term on the right is according as n is odd or even. hence divisible by r + I
2
Ar a + a a + a3 
(r+1) + 2
1)
^
NOW
.'.
+
}
%
1
'
= an
mteoer.
a0~ a +fl 2~
= is
CC
^D)
an integer;
the
sum
1.
of the digits in the even places is equal to = 0, and is divisible of the digits in the odd places, If the
sum
by r +
1. is
number
in
any
scale of notation
then
441
=4+ +
r
rz
i=(2 + Y;
\
rj
is
Example
2.
In what scale
then
2+ 
the denary
213?
Let r be the scale
;
13 + 2=24375=2^;
7 r
r
16
;
whence
that
is,
"
7r 2 
16r48 =
(7r+12)(/4) = 0.
is 4.
Sometimes
Example by 101215 ?
;
it is
3.
The required scale must be less than 9, since the new number appears the greater also it must be greater than 5 therefore the required scale must be 6, 7, or 8; and by trial we find that it is 7.
;
SCALES OF NOTATION.
65
Example 4. By working in the duodenary scale, find the height of a rectangular solid whose volume is 364 cub. ft. 1048 cub. in., and the area of whose base is 46 sq. ft. 8 sq. in.
The volume
264734 cub.
ft.
is
364^i? cub.
sq.
ft.,
ft.,
scale of twelve is
The
area
is
46^ 4
We
have therefore to
which expressed in the scale of twelve is divide 264*734 by StOS in the scale of twelve.
3*08)264734(7e
3<08.
is 7ft. lliu.
EXAMPLES.
1.
VII.
b.
2.
3. 4.
5. 6.
scale.
five.
7.
8. 9.
10.
scale.
10.
scale.
12.
Transform
Express
ttteee
scale.
Transform 17 "15625 from scale ten to scale twelve. Transform 200 "2 11 from the ternary to the nonary
scale.
scale.
17. 18.
and of '42 in the scale of seven. the denary number 182 denoted by 222?
*4
25 
denoted by 0302?
5
H. H. A.
66
22.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the radix of the scale in which 554 represents the square
of 24.
In what scale is 511197 denoted by 1746335 ? Find the radix of the scale in which the numbers denoted by 24. 479, 698, 907 are in arithmetical progression. In what scale are the radixfractions *16, "20, '28 in geometric 25.
23.
progression ?
26.
is
what
scale will
it
be denoted by 17486?
27.
radix
is
is
28.
greater than 4
digits.
a perfect square in any scale whose radix and that the square root is always expressed by the
same four
29.
Prove that 1331 is a perfect cube in any scale whose radix is greater than three. Find which of the weights 1, 2, 4, 8, 16,... lbs. must be used to 30. weigh one ton. Find which of the weights 1, 3, 9, 27, 81,... lbs. must be used 31. to weigh ten thousand lbs., not more than one of each kind being used but in either scale that is necessary.
32.
radix
is
is
Prove that in the ordinary scale a number will be divisible by 8 if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by eight. Prove that the square of rrrr in the scale of s is rm^OOOl, where 34.
33.
q, r, s
any three consecutive integers. and a new number N' be taken in the scale If any number 35. formed by altering the order of its digits in any way, shew that the be and N' is divisible by r 1. difference between
are
?*,
If a number has an even number of digits, shew that it is 36. divisible by r+1 if the digits equidistant from each end are the same.
37.
JV,
St
be the
sum
of the digits of a
number
and 3#2 be the sum of the digits of the number 3iV, prove that the is a multiple of 3. difference between aS^ and 2 Shew that in the ordinary scale any number formed by 38. writing down three digits and then repeating them in the same order is a multiple of 7, 11, and 13.
In a scale whose radix is odd, 39. digits of any number will be odd if the
the
number be even. If n be odd, and a number in the denary scale be formed 40. by writing down n digits and then repeating them in the same order, shew that it will be divisible by the number formed by the n digits, and also by 9090... 9091 containing n \ digits.
CHAPTER
VIII.
it is rr
proved that
r
Jb + Jc
by Jb Jc, the surd conjugate
to the denominator.
can be
where the denominator involves three quadratic two operations render that denominator rational.
For,
first
Jb + Jc + Jd surds, we may by
'
multiply both numerator and denominator by Jb + Jc Jd; the denominator becomes (Jb + Jc) 2 (Jd) 2 or Then multiply both numerator and denominator b + c d + 2 be.
(b
 d) 2 Abe,
3+^/52^/2
The expression me
 12 _
+ y/5 + V*)
(3+ ^ 5)S _
6
(V2 )
)
v/5+ 2^/2)^51)
U/5+l)U/5l)
2+V5+V10V2
= 1+^5+^/10^2.
52
68
86.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To find
I.
the factor
mial surd.
Case
xn and y
n
is
]a
 $b. p and
q
;
Let ZJa =
n be the
l.c.m. of
then
Now
n xn y is divisible by x  y for all values of n, and ~ n ~' + y"" ). +x n 2y + xn Sf + ar _ y" = (xy) {x
1
Thus the
rationalising factor
1
is
+ xn
~2
+ y"~
l ;
Case
Let
(1)
II.
is
Ja +
fjb.
x, y,
as before; then
).
Thus the
rationalising factor
is
ur ary +
l
+ ay"' 3
is
x"
is
x
n
.
If
is
odd, x"
(x
y"
n~
divisible
by x + y, and
n n x +y =
y) (x
 xn Sj +
is
 xy n ~ 2 + y n ~').
2
Thus the
rationalising factor
n~1
x y+
is
n~2
xy n
+y
n
.
+ y"
x"
1.
+ ^/5.
Let x = 3 2 y = 5 5
and
y,
is
5
14
.
32
53+ 32
53
53,
13
55
14
or
329.
is
+
6
32~.
6
32
 5 s = 3 3  5 2 = 2.
"
V
69
Express
(&+&) *
\5 5 9s )
To
34
which
is
=y
then since
x4
is
y A = [x 3 2
y) (x*
1
.
+ xhj + xy 2 + if')
12
+ 5]
4
.
5
+ 52
4
3*
3*
+ 3~4
and the
rational
denominator
/
i
is
52
/ 3
 3* = 5 2  3 = 22.
2
.
i\
'
12
3~ 4
.
'
3\
..
+Vl
the expression
5 V5
2 + 3 V\& + 5 3^ + 5
+3
'
4
_
3
.
13
+3
4
t
52 + 2
5 2 .3 j
+ 2.
5 .3 4"+2.5 5 .3 j
,J
1
.
113
5.3 2 +5 2 .3 j
11
22
_l l + o 2
3j +
87.
We
how to find the square root of a binomial quadratic surd. We may sometimes extract the square root of an expression containing more than two quadratic surds, such as a + Jb + Jc 4 Jd.
Assume
.'.
Ja + Jb + Jc + Jd = Jx + Jy + Jz
2
a+
Jb + Jc + Jd = x + y + z +
2
Jxy +
Jxz +
Jyz.
If then
Jxy =
Jb, 2
Jxz =
Jc, 2
Jyz = Jd,
satisfy
and if, at the same time, the values of x, y, z thus found x + y + z = a, we shall have obtained the required root.
Example.
of 21
Assume
.'.
V 21  V 5 + V 3  V 15 = slx + Jy  slz
21 
Put
by multiplication,
that
whence
it
follows that
,Jx = 2j3,
x+y+z
= 21,
the required
;;
70
88.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If J a, +
Jh = x + Jy,
+
then
ivill
a,
Jh = x Jy,
For,
by cubing, we obtain
ci
Jb=x
a = x3 + 3xy, Jb
.'.
that
is,
J a  Jb = x Jy.
by the help
if
Similarly,
it
of the
may
be proved that
Ja + Jb = x + Jy,
where n
89.
is
then
Ja  Jb = x Jy,
any
positive integer.
the following method the cube root of an expression of the form a Jb may sometimes be found.
By
Suppose
then
..
Ja + Jb = x + Jy
Ja Jb = x Jy.
Jtf^b=x y
2
(1).
article,
(2).
3 a = x + 3xy
The values
In
(2)
of
(1)
and
(2).
(1)
we
is,
Ja
b=c; then by
c)
substituting for y in
a = x3 + 3x (x 2
that
kx 3 3cx
a.
If
trial,
from
the value of y
do not here assume sjx + sly for the cube root, as in the extraction of the square root; for with this assumption, on cubing we should have
Note.
We
a + Jb = xjx
and since every term on the right rational and irrational parts.
side is irrational
we cannot equate
71
Assume
then
'62^5 = x  ^/y
By
that
is,
^5184  1024
x 5 = a; 2  y
= x'y
72  32^/5 = .c 3  fkcPJy
(1).
Again
+ Sxy  y^'y
whence
72 = x
(1)
+ 3.t//
(2).
From
that
is,
and
(2)
72 = x
ar
}
:i
+ Sx (x  4)
3x = 18.
and the cube root
is
By
trial,
we
3^/5.
the binomial whose cube root we are seekhi" consists of two quadratic surds, we proceed as follows.
90.
When
Example.
By
article,
we
find that
..
=*J3
/J
= v/3+v/2.
91.
We
1.
surds.
4
'Example
V9^3 N
The expression
=
fj
4
^
3  33
(J + l)
l3 3 + l) (3 3
3 +
ri
l)
iMi]3 ~d
3
+1
+1 +l
"
72
Example
2.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the square root of
The expression = \
{3x  3
+ 2 J(2x + l)(x4)
Example
3.
Given
^5 = 223607,
J2 + J7 3J5'
Multiplying numerator and denominator by >J2,
the expression
2
^62^/5
+ ^146^/5
n/51
+ 3^/5
EXAMPLES. Villa.
Express as equivalent fractions with rational denominator
1
i L
+ V2V3'
1
2 A
^
J2+J3J5'
3.
4
fi
^^
i i
*Jal\/2a + *Ja + l
(j3 + x/5)(j5 + ^/2)
^10 + ^5^/3
Find a factor which
7.
will rationalise
^/5
#3 a/2.
N/3l.
3
8.
+ ^/2.
9.
06+6*.
10.
11.
+ 4/7.
12.
4/5^3.
73
16
*/3
17
v 8 + ^4
of
20. 22.
162 N /202
G
v/28 + 2 N /l3.>.
21. 23.
24.
+ ,/12^24,/8.
a+36+4+4^/a4^62V3oS
21+3 N /8  6 N /3  Jl  v'24
(5
 N /56 + 2 N /21.
28.
26.
38 + 17^5.
27.
30.
9970^/2.
29.
54^3 + 41^5.
135^387^6.
a + x + \J%ax + x2
l
32.
i
33.
35.
+ 2 + (l+a 2 + a 4 ) 2
a
34.
l+(l 2 )" 2
If
= j
= i
S
72 +
1 1
ab 
lb'
2
.
36.
If
jl'jl
y = /z7^
~ 5j y + 3^
V2615J3 5V2V38T573'
1
V3319 N
"
1
6 + 2V3 /32
_>
39.
(28
 10 N/3)  (7 + 4 v/.3)
2
2
.
40.
(26 + 15 s fzf
 (26 +
15 N/3)
41.
N/18
42.
43.
 a/3+V5
N /8
+ V3  V5
*/2.
.
Divide
x*+ 1 + 3# #2 by *  1 +
(b 2
44.
1
,
when
2.r;
= Ja+ i\'"
xs/x*\
74
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Imaginary Quantities.
Although from the rule of signs it is evident that a negative quantity cannot have a real square rootlet imaginary quantities represented by symbols of the form J a, J 1 are of frequent occurrence in mathematical investigations, and their
92.
therefore proceed to explain use leads to valuable results. in what sense such roots are to be regarded.
We
J a x J a =  a, and we shall accept the meaning to which this assumption leads us.
It will be found that this definition will enable us to bring imaginary quantities under the dominion of ordinary algebraical rules, and that through their use results may be obtained which can be relied on with as much certainty as others which depend
solely
on the use
of real quantities.
93.
By
definition,
..
J I
x
JI = 2
1.
Ja.Jl
(
Ja.
.
Jl^a^l);
be regarded as equivalent to
that
is,
J a J 1) =  a.
J a J 1 may
.
J a.
It will generally be found convenient to indicate the imaginary character of an expression by the presence of the
symbol
J 1
thus
JZjtf = Jja
95.
1)
= a J7 JT.
always consider that, in the absence of any statement to the contrary, of the signs which may be prefixed before a radical the positive sign is to be taken. But in the use of imaginary quantities there is one point of importance which
shall
We
deserves notice.
75
ab,
we have
J a x J b = Jab.
Thus
in funning the product of
a and
J b
it
would appear
J a x J b = J a J.
x \/b
Jl
=  Jab.
96.
It
is
imaginary
'
to all expres
sions which are not wholly real. Thus as the general type of all imaginary expressions. are real quantities, but not necessarily rational.
97.
a+bjl may
In dealing with imaginary quantities we apply the laws of combination which have been proved in the case of other surd
quantities.
Example Example
1. 2.
+b
J  1
(c
+d
J
1)
= a c + (b d)
c
J
1.
The product
of a 4 b
J  f and
*/
+ djl
= (a + bj^l)(e + dj^l)
= ac  bd 4 (be + ad)
98.
1.
If a + b
if
J 1 = 0,
2/tew
a=
0,
em( b
0.
For,
a+
then
J^\ = 0, bJ\=a;
b
.'.
2
6" = a";
b
2
.'.
a +
= 0.
;
are both positive, therefore their sum cannot be zero unless each of them is separately zero that is, a 0,
Now
6
2 and
and
= 0.
7f& + bJ^T = c + d J~l
99.
1,
then a
= c, andh
;
<I
For, by transposition, a
tlierefore,
c+
and
by the
last article,
d) J 1 = a c = 0, and 6 ^ = 0;
(b
that
is
a=
c,
</.
76
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Thus in order that two imaginary expressions may necessary and sufficient that the real parts should be
imaginary parts should
be equal. be equal it
is
equal,
and
the
When two imaginary expressions differ Definition. 100. only in the sign of the imaginary part they are said to be conjugate.
Thus a b J
Similarly
1 is
conjugate to a + b
is
J 1.
^2 + 3^1
conjugate to
J  3 J 1.
'2
The sum and the product of two conjugate imayinary 101. expressions are both real.
For
(
Again
= a + b2
2
102.
a +
is
Definition. The positive value of the square root of called the modulus of each of the conjugate expressions
a +b
103.
J 1
the
and a
1.
The modulus of
sions is equal to
a+bj 1
and c+dJ\.
which
is
Then
their
product = ac
bd +
2
(ad
+ bc)
be)
2
J 1,
an
= J(ac 
bd)
+ (ad +
J (a
b
2
(c
dr)
Ja
2 2 Jc + d
denominator of a fraction
is
of the
it
1.
77
dj  1 a + b J=l
c
(c
dJ\)(abJ \
be) J
b
72
1
~(a + b J~i)(abJT)
ac + bd + (ad
a +
ac
+ bd a + b~
i
ad be v a' + b
Thus by reference to Art. 97, we see that the sum, difference, product, and quotient of two imaginary expressions is in each case an imaginary expression of the same form.
105.
To find
of a + h
1.
Assume
J a + b V 1 =x + y s/ 1,
a+
By
squaring,
bj\=x y
2
+ 2xy J
parts,
therefore,
by equating
real
and imaginary
2
x2
2
y =
^!/ =
2 2
)
a
b
(1),
(2);
2
..
(x
+y
(x
2
 ff + (2xyY
,
=a +
.
.
2.2
;
x s + if =
obtain
Ja
6"
(3).
From
(1)
and
.
(3),
we
Ja *
+2b 2 + a
."=*
Ja + b a i
2
is
obtained.
(3)
Since x and y are real quantities, x 2 + y is positive, and therefore in the positive sign must be prefixed before the quantity *Ja 2 + b.
Also from (2) we see that the product xy must have the same sign as hence x and y must have like signs if b is positive, and unlike signs if b
negative.
is
;;
78
Example
1.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the square root
of
 24
JN/
1.
Assume
then
J 7 21*/ l = x + y J 1
724 N/T l =
^
2/
+ 2^
T l;
(1),
* 2 ?/ 2
2a;?/
=7
=
24.
and
(2).
From
(1)
and
(2),
x = 9
and
..
= 16 x= 3,
2
?y
?/==
4.
is
negative,
we must take
3,
?/
x
3,
y =  4 j or # = 
= 4.
1
Thus the
that
is,
roots are
3  4 /  1
and 3 + 4
*J
7  7  247"TT= (3  4 J ~i).
2.
Example
To
 64a 4
It
\/ *J 
1.
Assume
70
1 is often represented by the letter i; but 106. The symbol until the student has had a little practice in the use of imaginary
it
symbol
1
J
;
1.
It is
or
thus
(71)^1,
?',
i*=ij
it
and since each power is obtained by multiplying the one before by J 1, or we see that the results must now recur.
107.
investigate the properties of certain imaginary quantities which are of very frequent occurrence.
shall
We
now
Suppose
that
.
x  ^1
(x
then x 3 =
1
)
1,
or
x3
is,
(x
x+
1)^0.
1
either
0,
or
x2 + x +
x=
whence
It
35=1, or
W3
be shewn by actual involution that each of these Thus unity has three cube values when cubed is equal to unity.
roots,
may
l+JZTs
2
"'
1733~'
2
two
of
x2 + x +
their product is equal to unity
=0.
that
is,
.
aft=
\
that
is,
2 aft = a = a2 ft
since a
2
= 1.
Similarly
108.
other, it
we may shew
that a =
ft
Since each of the imaginary roots is thr, square of thr is usual to denote the three cube roots of unity by 1, <d, >~.
80
Also
a)
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
satisfies
the equation x + x +
.
1
;
to
+ w2 =
that
is,
the
sum of the
Again,
to
o>
w =
therefore (1) the product of the two imaginary roots is unity 3 (2) every integral power of w is unity.
It is useful to 109. integral powers of a> are 1,
it
notice
to,
;
that the
2
;
must be
If
rt>
of the
form
3m
if
1.
n be not a
multiple of
1
must be
3m +
o>
of the
3m
form
3m +
or
3m + 2.
It
KO
110.
"
n n = dm + 1 O w = om +,
.
Wn
"
=to
.to
2
to.
see that every quantity has three cube roots, two of which are imaginary. For the cube roots of a 3 are those 2 7 Similarly the cube roots of a x 1, and therefore are a, ao>, aw 2 7 of 9 are ^9, o> ^9, a> ^9, where ^ 9 is the cube root found by the In future, unless otherwise stated, ordinary arithmetical rule.
.
We now
the symbol %ja will always be taken to denote the arithmetical cube root of a.
(9
4.
Example
1.
Reduce
/
,
1 \2
.
to the
form A +
2 + N/l
Bj  1.
The expression
49 + 12^1
2
+ v/ :=~l
(5 + 12 N/Jl)(2V^l)
(2+
Jl)(2JT)
10 + 12 + 29 4+1
J~l
=2+ 5
which
is
W(x
29
1;
Example
Since
x 3 + if =
.'.
+ y)
x*
for
+ y 9 = (x + y) w + w2 = 1, and w 3 = l.
: ;
81
Shew
that
(a
(a
+ wb + arc)
+ w2 6 + toe)  a 2 + b2 + c 2 a
60  ca
 ab.
In the product of
the coefficients of
Zr
+ wb + arc and
are or, or 1
+ orb + wc,
and
= w2 + o>4 = or + o> =  1 coefficients of ca and a& = 2 + o> =  1 (a + cob + arc) {a + urb + wc) = a 2 + b 2 + c 2  be  ea o>
.*.
ab.
Example
4.
Shew
that
(l
+ >)'(lM+U?)*=0.
1
Since
(1
+ w + o> 2 = 0, we have
(1
+ u w 2
3
)
 w + wa)3=(  2m2) 3 
(
{
 2o>) :J
= 8o> 6 + 8a/ = 8 + 8
= 0.
EXAMPLES.
1.
VIII.
b.
Multiply 2 \/~~3 + 3
Multiply 3
V 3^
by 4 *J^3 5 a/^2.
by 3
2.
V ^7  5 V^ l+V 3^
V^+ 5 V^.
.
3.
Multiply
AT
IX' Multiply
I
e^ 1 +e'^~ 1 by e^ _1 e V*.
a;
4.
by #
lV^ =
3V2
1
,
3 a/~2~ + 2 *J~h
o.
3V22V5
a+rV^l
aWisTi
(a +
3+2
V~l
25\/
(.f
32 V^l
2
axfi
a+a?V^l"
5V :r l'
ia
+
3
,
+ Vl)a .vV1
(W l)^
.r
+ V1
\/
11.
l) 4n
a positive integer.
12.
Jd + 40 V"T+ V9  40 V ?.
(j
H. H. A.
82
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the square root of
13.
16.
S + ISV^L
14.
llCOV 17
!".
15.
47 + 8V3.
SV^l.
17.
a 2 l+2a^^l.
18.
ab2(a 2 b 2 )*/^T.
A + iB
ZU>
23r
a + O8
3
2V3i\/2'
(^ + ^)
2
zu
1T
09
If
24.
26.
9<*
(^) 2
a + io
a ib
2 1, co, g>
(l+co 2 ) 4 = co.
(1
(lco + co 2 )(l+coor)
= 4.
 co)
(1
co
 CO 4 )
(1
 co 5 )  9.
27. 28.
29.
(2
(lco
+ co 2 )(lco 2 +
co
)(lco 4 + co 8 )... to
2>i
factors = 2 2 .
Prove that A3 +yZ + > _ 2#gZ = (x+y+z) (# + i/a> + Za> 2 ) (x +y<o 2 + Za).
30.
If
x=a+b
xyz=a3 +b3
^ 2
?/
.
y aw + Z>co 2
s=co 2 +
6co,
shew that
(1)
(2) (3)
31.
If
(
shew that
+ 2 + 5 2 = 6a6. a3 +y3 +s3 =3(a3 +&3) ax + cy + bz = X, ex + by + az = I", Zu + ay + gs = if, 2 + 6 2 + c2  be  ca  ab) (x2 +y2 + z2 yz zx  xy) = X 2 +Y2 + Z  YZ XZ XY.
k
CHAPTER
IX.
After
(1),
of the equation is
x=
Jtf^iac
\ 2a
(2). v
'
We
shall
propositions connected
is
A
if
tiro roots.
have three Then since each of these values must different roots a, f3, y. satisfy the equation, we have
For,
c
ax 2 + bx +
aa 2
2
t
ba +
c~0
c
(1), (2),
afi
+ bp +
ay 2 + by + c =
(3).
From
(1)
and
(2),
by subtraction,
a(a 2
divide out
p
2 )
+ b(aP) = 0;
is
by a fi which, by hypothesis,
a (a + ft) + b = 0.
Similarly from (2) and (3)
a
..
{fi
y)
by subtraction
is
a (a  y)
which
impossible, since,
y.
not equal to
by hypothesis, a is not zero, and u Hence there cannot be three different roots.
is
84
113.
/3,
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
In Art. Ill b +
let
so that
2 Jb  Aac
2a
, '
P
'
:
b Jb Aac =
2
2a
'
a and
(3
(2)
 Aac (the quantity under the radical) are real and unequal. 2 If b Aac is zero, a and ft are real and
If b
2
is
positive,
equal, each
77
2a
If b
 Aac
is
negative, a
and
ft
If b
Aac
is
unequal.
applying these tests the nature of the roots of any quadratic may be determined without solving the equation.
Example
Here
1.
By
cannot be
satisfied
a=
2, b
=  6, c 7
so that
Example
2.
If the equation
a?
+2
(k
l\
The condition
+ 2) 2 = 9,
fc2_5ft + 4=0,
(fc4)(fcl)=0j
..
k = A, or
1.
Example
are rational.
3.
Shew
x 2  2p3 +p 2
q 2 + 2qr r2 =
2 2 2 roots will be rational provided ( 2p)  4 (p  q + 2qrr2) is a 2 But this expression reduces to 4 (q 2qr + r2), or 4:(qr) 2 perfect square. Hence the roots are rational.
The
  ,
114.
D Since
.
a=
+ Jb 2  Aac
'
?=
b Jb
 Aac
'
2a
2
we have by
addition

^ __M_b
2a
+ Jb 2  Aac
b Jb  Aac
0);
2a
85
J~r^
(_.
_ j,/r^c)
4ac
2
~4a
in the
c
(2).
form
'
a
these results
may
* qUadratiC
unity,
uation
**" **
is
coefficient
of
the first
term
is
its
4**5d?
(ii)
the roots
with
is
Since
__ =a+
 a; +  =
and
be written
may
x 2 (a + f])x + ap =
(1).
Hence any quadratic may also be expressed in the form 2 x  (sum of roots) x + product of roots =
Again, from
(1)
(2).
we have
(xa)(xp) = Q
We
(3).
may now
1.
easily
roots.
Example
Form
is
The equation
or
(*+ 2)=0,
* 6=0.
When
metnou.
it is
86
Example
2.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Form
the equation whose roots are 2
+ ^3 and
2 
^3.
We have
.
sum
is
of roots
= 4,
product of roots = 1
.
the equation
x(2) of
 Ax + 1 = 0,
by using formula
a method analogous to that used in Example 1 of the last article we can form an equation with three or more given
116.
roots.
7 o
By
Example
positions
1.
Form
2,
3,
and ^
#2=0,
therefore the equation
# + 3 = 0,
7  = ();
must be
(*2)(*+3)(*)=0j
that
is,
[x
or
5a;
2a; 2 37a; + 42 = 0.
0,
Example
2.
Form
, j
to be satisfied
by
x = 0, x = a.
therefore
it is
x=a, x=}
c b
;
x
that
or
is,
(x J a) (x
 a)
x
117.
The
results of Art.
generally sufficient In such questions the roots should never be roots of quadratics. considered singly, but use should be made of the relations obtained by writing down the sum of the roots, and their product, in terms of the coefficients of the equation.
are
114 are most important, and they to solve problems connected with the
Example
(l)a 2
,
1.
If
a and
.
/3
xpx + q = 0,
+ /3 2 (2)a s + /3 3
have
We
a + (2=p,
a(3
..
= q.
a2
87
+ ft = (a + /3)
(a 2
+ p" 2 
a/3)
=*(? 89).
Example
2.
If a,
p"
/.r''
mx + 7i = 0,
find the
a
of roots
"We have
sum
=
p

+
.
=
ap
^
,
a.
product of roots =
..
=1
p a
by Art. 115 the required equation
is
or
apx2 
(a
+ p~2 + 0/3 = 0.
)
As
.,
in the last
example o2 +j8B =
=
L
and
?i
a/3

.*.
the equation
,.
n
is
V
?ji
2wZ
=
v
x
x+
y
it
= 0,
or
n /x 2 
 2nZ) x + nl = 0,
Example
3.
When
it
.r
^
if
2x 3 + 2x 2 7x+l'2
x.
will
be unaltered
be substituted for
Form
the
sum
=3
17 =
2.r 2
;
is
6.r
+ 17 =
2x 2 6x + 17
is
, values
3*5^/"!
^
m
Now
2a* +
2.t
 Ix + 72 = x
(2.r 2
C>.c
17)
+4
(2.r
 Cx + 17) + 4
=xx0+4x0+4 = 4;
which
is
88
118.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To find
c
Vie condition
that
the
roots
of the equation
ax + bx +
in sign,
and
opposite
(2) reciprocals.
The roots will be equal in magnitude and opposite hence the required condition is their sum is zero
;
in sign
if
_=
a
0,
or b
= 0.
is
Again, the roots will he reciprocals when their product unity ; hence we must have
c
i = 1. or
= a.
these results is of frequent occurrence in Analytical Geometry, and the second is a particular case of a more general condition applicable to equations of any degree.
first of
The
Example. Find the condition that the roots of ax2 + bx + c = may be both positive, (2) opposite in sign, but the greater of them negative.
(1)
We
(1)
have
If the roots are
+ B=
a8=
c
.
both positive,
a/J is positive,
and therefore
and a
have
like signs.
Also, since a
signs.
+ fi
is positive,
is
is
ft
and
should be
like,
a have unlike
and therefore
negative,
and
and
there
and a have
is
like signs.
like,
EXAMPLES.
Form
.
IX.
a.
3
/
m
n
5.
m
6.
pq p+q
p+q
py
4.
72
N /5.
2/3~5.
p2s/Tq.
89
35l
3, , i.
Prove that
(
8.
aib.
,
0,
9.
i(a
2/3,
b).
10.
11.
.
12.
4.
13.
tlio
x2  2ax +a a  6a (a
 0,
6)
.v
(2)
 b + c) r +4 (a 
+ (a  b  c) = 0.
lias
14.
If the equation
x2  15 m(2x8) =
values of m.
15.
m will the
equation
(3
x2  2x (1 + 3//0 + 7
have equal roots
16.
?
+ 2m) =
x*
bx
axc
m 1 m+ 1
?
If
a, /3
ax2 + bx + c = 0,
20.
18.
,+.
19.
aW + aV.
= 1 + 2/.
3+ ?
(f)
a3 + s2  X + 22 when
.r
23.
= 1  J  3.
a
If o and /3 are the roots of 24. whose roots are (a ft) 2 and (a + /3) 2
.
x*+px+q=O
25.
26.
x%
= 0,
>f
(1)
(2)
(ax l
+ b) 2 + (x + b) 2
i
(ax^byt+iaxt+b)*.
90
27.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the condition that one root of ax2 + bx\c =
shall
be
If
a, (3
2
roots are a
29.
+ /3 and o~
+/3
2
the equation whose roots are the squares of the of the difference of the roots of
2x* + 2
30.
Form
sum and
(m + n) x + m2 + n 2 =0.
px2 + qx + r = 0.
The following example illustrates a useful application 119. of the results proved in Art. 113.
Example.
can have
all
If
is
x + 2x
11
.
between 2 and
6.
y, so that
a 2 + 2:r ll_
2(s3)
2
~ y;
+2.r(l?/)
+ 6f/ll = 0.
a quadratic equation, and in order that x may have real values 4(1 i/) 4(Gy 11) must be positive; or dividing by 4 and simplifying, 2 Hence 8*/ + 12 must be positive ; that is, (y  6) (y  2) must be positive. ?/ the factors of this product must be both positive, or both negative. In the former case y is greater than 6; in the latter y is less than 2. Therefore y cannot lie between 2 and 6, but may have any other value.
This
is
In this example it will be noticed that the quadratic expression y 8y + 12 is positive so long as y does not lie between the roots 2 of the corresponding quadratic equation y Sy + 12 = 0.
2
This is a particular case of the general proposition investigated in the next article.
120.
the
For
of x
tlie
expression ax 2
same sign as
are real
when the roots of the and unequal, and x has a value lying between
except
I.
Case
ax 2 + bx +
are real
;
=
let a
ft,
and
be the greater.
91
((.r
bx +
x* + 
X+
+
aj
= a {x2 = a (x 
(tt
ft)
X+
aft
a) (x
a,
 ft).
the factors x a, x ft are both if x is less than ft, the factors x a, x ft are both positive negative; therefore in each case the expression (x a)(x ft) is 2 But if x has a positive, and ax + bx + c lias the same sign as a. value lying between a and ft, the expression (./  a) (x  ft) is negative, and the sign of ax" + bx + c is opposite to that of a.
if
;
Now
x and
is
greater than
Case
II.
If a
and
ft
ax 2 + bx +
= a(x
a)
2
,
and
(x  a)
is
hence ax 2 + bx +
Case
III.
=Q
lias
ax 2 + bx +
alx* {
(/
x+
a\
b\
iaeb')
But iacb*
4a
2
b
.
4c
.
is
hence
is positive,
x + ^(
is
Aac
&)
+
x
;
\a 2
2
same sign as
121.
has the
the preceding article it follows that the expression ax + bx + c will always have the same sign whatever real value x may have, provided that b 2  Aac is negative or zero; and if this condition is satisfied the expression is positive or negative accord2
From
ing as a
is
positive or negative.
2
Conversely, in order that the expression ax + bx + c may be always positive, b 2 Aac must be negative or zero, and a must be 2 positive; and in order that ax + bx + c may be always negative 1 I  Aac must be negative or zero, and a must be negative.
92
Example.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
lie in
order that
may
be capable of
all values,
x being any
1
i
real quantity.
_ Put
then
expression
ax lx + 5
o
rr
=v;
(a5?/)a:2 7.r(l?/)
+ (5a?/):=0.
may
be real, the
(1
 y)'2  4 (a  5y)
2
2
(5
 ay) must be
positive,
 20a) y + 2 (2a + l)y + (49  20a) must be positive hence (2a 2 + 1) 2  (49  20a) 2 must be negative or zero, and 49  20a must be
(49
positive.
Now
that
is,
(2a2 +
1)
(49
 20a) 2
is
2 (a 2
 10a + 25) x 2
4 (a 
(a 2
+ 10a  24)
(a
is
according as
o) 2 (a
+ 12)
 2)
is
This expression is negative as long as a lies between 2 and  12, and for such values 49  20a is positive; the expression is zero when a = 5,  12, or 2, but 49 20a is negative when a = 5. Hence the limiting values are 2 and  12, and a may have any intermediate value.
EXAMPLES.
1.
IX.
b.
lie
in order that
the equation
may have
2.
real roots.
If
x x bx + 9
l
5
'
must
lie
between
and  r^
11
4
3.
Shew
If
9.
that =
x + x+\
lies
all real
values of x.
4.
x be
sb
real,
prove that x
and
5.
b
find the value of
6.
If
a, /3
x2 px+q=0,
(1) (2)
atitfpifl + ptfPaia),
(
p)* + (Pp)\
!>:{
nx+n=0 be in
the ratio of p
q prove that
t
8.
If
x be
real,
the expression
2)i
r n 2 (x  n)
.
admits of
all
values
except such as
9.
lie
between
y

and 2m.
and
(3,
and
+ 2Ux+C=0
~~a 2
and
fi
+ d,
prove that
b*ae_ B*AC
A2
'
10.
values
provided
between
and
7.
11.
12.
Shew
that
if
is real,
the expression
i
(x 2
bc)(2xbc)~
c.
ax2 + 2bx + c =
(a
+ c) (ax 2 + 2bx + c) = 2
vice versa.
b2 )
(.r
+ 1)
will
be impossible, and
14.
Shew that
the expression
values
when x
is real, if
a2  b 2
 fl
{)
(ox
*122. shall conclude this chapter with some miscellaneous It will be convenient here to introduce theorems and examples. a phraseology and notation which the student will frequently meet with in his mathematical reading.
We
Definition. Any expression which involves x, and whose value is dependent on that of x, is called a function of X. Functions of x are usually denoted by symbols of the form f(x),
F(x),<f>(x).
Thus the equation y =f(x) may be considered as equivalent to a statement that any change made in the value of as will produce a consequent change in and vice versd. The quantities x and y are called variables, and are further distinguished as the independent variable and the dependent variable.
;//,
94
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
independent variable is a quantity which may have any value we choose to assign to it, and the corresponding dependent variable has its value determined as soon as the value of the inde
An
pendent variable
%
is
known.
123.
An
pjs"
+ pjf
+ pn _ x + p n
t
lt
where n is a positive integer, and the coefficients p p lt p a ,...p n do not involve x, is called a rational and integral algebraical function of x. In the present chapter we shall confine our attention to
,
*124. function is said to be linear when it contains no higher power of the variable than the first ; thus ax + b is a linear function is said to be quadratic when it function of x. contains no higher power of the variable than the second ; thus ax2 + bx + c is a quadratic function of x. Functions of the third, fourth,... degrees are those in which the highest power of the Thus in the last variable is respectively the third, fourth, th degree. article the expression is a function of x of the n
The symbol fix, y) is used to denote a function of two 2 2 variables x and y thus ax + by + c, and ax + bxy + cy + dx + ey +f are respectively linear and quadratic functions of x, y.
*125.
;
are said to be linear, quadfix, y) according as the functions f(x), f(x, y) are linear, quad0,
ratic,....
have proved in Art. 120 that the expression ax + bx + c admits of being put in the form a (x a) (x fi), where a and j3 are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c 0.
*126.
2
We
Thus a quadratic expression ax 2 + bx\ c is capable of being resolved into two rational factors of the first degree, whenever 2 has rational roots ; that is, when the equation ax + bx + c = 2 b  iac is a perfect square.
*127.
To find
may
where
c.
95
it
powers of
y)
x,
and equate
c
to zero;
+ 2x (hy +
+ by 2 + 2fy +
we have
2fy
+
+
c)
,
<
>v
ax + hy + g =
Jy
(h*
ab)
+ 2y
(hy
a/)
(g
ac).
in order that J\.r, y) may be the product of two linear factors of the form px + qy + r, the quantity under the radical
Now
hence
(h
 a/) 2 =
a,
ab) {<f
 ac).
we obtain
2
af
by
ch
which
is
This proposition
*128.
of great
To
ax 2 + bx +
0, ax 2
f b'x
may have
common
root.
satisfied
0,
by x
then
+ ba +
= 0;
1
by cross multiplication
a"
a
b'c
be
ca c'a
ab'
ab
'
To eliminate
equate
it
square the second of these equal ratios and to the product of the other two ; thus
a,
a
(ca
.'.
a
2
(ca
c'a) ca) 2 =
(be
b'c)
'
(ab'
ab)
'
(be
b'c) (ab'
ab),
which
It
is
is
easy to prove that this is the condition that the two 2 quadratic functions ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 and a'x + b'xy + c'y' may have
a common linear
factor.
06
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
^EXAMPLES.
1.
IX.
c.
m will
the expression
2 y + 2xy + 2x + my  3
2.v
+ mxy + 3y 2  5y  2
3.
factors.
If the equations
x2 + px + q = 0,
have a
x2 + p'x + q' =
must be
either
common
root,
shew that
it
p'l'p'q nr
9q
qq
5.
pp
+ m'xy
f
may have
6.
common
linear factor.
If the expression
%a? +
2Pxy + 2y 2 + 2ax  4y +
can be resolved into linear factors, prove that roots of the equation P'2 + 4aP + 2d1 + 6 = 0.
7.
ax2 + 2hxy + by 2
a'x2
+ 2k'xy + b'y 2
may
mx, my + x.
Shew
x 2  Zxy + 2y 2  2x  3y  35 = 0,
for every real value of x there is a real value of y, value of y there is a real value of x.
9.
and
If
by the equation
 20y + 244 = 0,
1
lie
between 3 and
6,
and y between
and
10.
10.
may
If (ax2 + bx + c)y\a'x 2 + b'x + e' = 0, find the condition that be a rational function of y.
CHAPTER
X.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
In this chapter we propose to 129. consider some miscellaneous equations ; it will be seen that many of solved by the ordinary rules for quadratic equJtions, but others require some special artifice for their solution
the^l
Example
3_
I.
Solve
.r
8x 2n
8x~^=63.
Multiply by
2n
L
2n = 8,
(a?"8)(8x^+l) = 0;
or; 8'
2n
=(*)* (p)*;
..*=, or
Example
2.
A.
^
Solve
/+
/ =
6a 6
I
..%+! = * +
</
3a
9a 2
&2
4a
"l
'
&a
H. H. A.
98
Examples.
Solve
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
(*5)(a: 7)(
(x
2
+ 6)
(*
+ 4) = 504.
We have
 x  20) (x 2  x  42)
= 504
x, gives
 x) 2  62
(x2
(x2
 x) + 336 =
a:6)(x2 x56) =
f
..
X * X Q =
or a2 a;
8,
56 =
whence
130.
x = S, 2,
7.
Any
c
2
q
+ bx +
c,
may
be solved as follows.
Putting y =
J ax
we
obtain
Let a and
ft
J ax
"When no sign
+ bx +
= a,
Jax
+bx + c = ft
prefixed to a radical it is usually understood that it is to be taken as positive; hence, if a and ft are both positive, all the four values of x satisfy the original equation. If however a or ft is negative, the roots found from the resulting
ax2 + bx +
p J ax +
2
bx + c =
q,
Jx 2  5z + 3 = 12.
+ 2 N/^5a; + 3 = 15.
;
Add
3 to each side
then
2
rc
5a; + 3
Putting
whence y = 3 or 
5.
ing Squaring, and solving the resulting quadratics, we obtain from the
first
The
first
pair of values
satisfies
the equation
x2  5x 2
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
131.
99
Before clearing an equation of radicals it is advisable to examine whether any common factor can be removed by
division.
Example.
We
have
The
factor *J x  2a can
.'.
now
sjx
5a Jx + 3a = Jx  2a
(x
x  5a + x + 3a  2 *J(x  5a)
+ 3a) = x  2a
;
3ar8aa;60a 2 = 0;
{x
10a
obtain x = 2a.
:
Jx  2a, we
On
trial it will be
and
D
thus
The student may compare a similar question discussed in the Elementary Algebra, Art. 281.
132.
The following
Solve J'3x 
artifice is
sometimes useful.
11
Example.
4.x
+ 34 + JSx'2  4x 
=9
(1).
We
have identically
(3x4a; + 34)(3a; 2
4xll) = 45
(1);
(2).
Divide each
member
of (2)
thus
(3).
J'dx 
4.r
+ 34  JSx2  4x 
11
=5
Now (2) is an identical equation true for all values of x, whereas (1) is an equation which is true only for certain values of x hence also equation (3) is only true for these values of x.
;
From
(1)
and
(3)
by addition
2 v/3x 4a;
+ 34 = 7;
or
whence
as
= 3,
.
77
100
133.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
The
solution of an equation of the form
ax4 bx 3 ex 2 bx + a =
in
0,
which the coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and end are equal, can be made to depend on the solution of a
quadratic.
tions,
Equations of this type are known as reciprocal equaand are so named because they are not altered when x is
its
changed into
reciprocal 
For a more complete discussion of reciprocal equations the student is referred to Arts. 568 570.
Example.
Solve
12a; 4
 56x 3 +
89a; 2
56.x
+ 12 = 0.
12/W ) 56^+^+89 =
2
0.
Put
x + =z: then x
..
a;
+ = z 2 2;
x
12
(z 2
2)
56^ + 89 = 0;
=.
whence we obtain
=2
1
a;
or
5
13
6
By
we
find that x = 2, 
13 ,
25a; 3
+ 12a; 2 + 25a; + 6 = 0.
We have
whence
2 (^ +^i)  25 fx  \ + 12 = 0;
6(a;
a;
25
(a;
1+24 =
 
0;
..
(^^3 = 0,
= 2,  ,
or 3
fx ]80;
whence we obtain
3,
When one root of a quadratic equation is obvious by 135. inspection, the other root may often be readily obtained by making use of the properties of the roots of quadratic equations
proved in Art. 114.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
Example.
This
is
101
Solve
a) {x
+ a)  2a
is
ar)
= 0.
clearly a.
may
be written
(1
2ax + (1  a 2 ) x  a
+ a 2 ) = 0,
is
is
EXAMPLES.
Solve the following equations
1.
:
X.
a.
a 2 2x~ 1 = 8.
1
2.
+ a 4 = 10a'.
3
1
_J
*.
3.
2jx + 2x
2
=51
4.
6a?*~7**8a7
JL
5.
3"+6=5#.
6.
3.f 2n
.rri 2=0.
7

>/;+Vj"*
i
a
10. 12.
\/S + \/?'
1+8.^ +
5 (5*
2*.
9.
6 x/a=5a
13.
3*.
9^ =
0.
11. 13.
32*+ 9 10.
2 2* + 8 + 1
+ 5*) = 26.
= 32.2'.
14.
2 2* + 3 57 = 65(2*l).
15.
,/*+*
(x
16.
^.#=5A
17.
18.
19.
 3) {x + 5)
(.v
20.
21.
22.
+ 2 >/a + 6a = 24  6x.
2
23.
24.
7 + 3
2
(N
/3sa 16a? + 21
(x
= 16a;.
7a.
8+9
J(&v 1)
2)
= 3.c 2 
25
^ +s
/,,,_ 5 , +3=
^:.
102
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
26.
7.^hsi_cx x
\*j
.Y.
j
27.
>Jx2 3x=
Jx2  9.
J7x2 6xl = 0.
.
28.
29.
V 2^ + 5^7 + V3(a;
s/a
2
7a; + 6) 
30.
31.
32.
33. 34.
2o;
4 = 13.
1.
./2a;2
9a; + 4 =
 7^  30 
*/2o; 2
 7x 
a?
5
35.
o^ + a?4o;2
+ a;+l = 0.
37.
36.
x*
3*+l3(s +#)=2tf*.
38.
10(o7t +l)63a?(a;2
l) + 52a;2 = 0.
a + 2a; +
x+J\2ax _*Ja+\
x  <Jl2ax
.
J'a2  4x2 _ bx
a
'
sJctV
a;
a+2x J a 2  4a;2 ~
1
1
41.
a;
+ sjx 2  1
,
^/.r 2
x  sjx 2 
x + a/^ 2 . 2
= 8x jx 2  3x + 2.
./. ".+ V # l
2 a;
42.
>/^+#I = Jtfx
2
43.
44.
2*
2 2* = 8
1.
45.
a2 *(a 2 +
I)
= (a?* + a*)a.
46
^/a?5
3a;7
2
"
= V3a?7
xb
'
18 (7a;  3)
'
_ 250 V^+T
"
3n/7^3
2a;+l
48.
49.
(a + a;) 3 + 4 (a
>/a;2
 *) = 5
(a
3  a;2 )"
50.
^B+^El. ##+
V^'
1
8a
\/a'2
51.
.v
 2.v3 + a; = 380.
52.
27^ + 2U + 8 =
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
136.
108
of
We
1.
shall
now
discuss
two unknown
Example
quantities.
Solve
(z
Put x + 2 = m, and y + 3 = v
then
(1),
u+v + Juv = Sd
w + v + wv = 741
2 2
(2),
(2),
we obtain by
division,
(3)
u + v  Juv = 19
From
and
or
(1)
and
(3),
u+t?=29;
Juv = 10,
wv = 100;
whence
thus
w = 25,
or 4; v
= 4,
or 25
Example
Solve
.r
+ y*= 82
(1),
ary=2
Put
then from
(2)
(2).
# = w + t>, and y = u v;
we obtain
(1),
v
(w
..
= l.
Substituting in
whence
and
u= 2,
ysal, 3,
or
>/~ 10*
Thus
li^10.
10
(1),
JEa;ampZe3. e
Solve
f^  ^ = 2A Sxyx +
y 7x + 5y = 29
y*)
;
(2).
From
(1),
15
(2a;
129o;
29xy38?/
= 0;
..
{Sx2y)(iBx + 19y)=0.
Sx = 2y
(3),
Hence
or
43# = 19y
(1).
104
From
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
x
(3),
= y __7x + 5y =
3
29
= 1,
..
by equation
(2).
x = 2, y = 3.
y 7x + 5y  82
29
equation
(2),
Again, from
x
(4),
19 ~ ^43 ~
= gg, by
*'
X~
551
~ 82 82 ,V
_ 1247
"
Hence
Example
x = 2, y = 3; or
x
551
11
= ^
1247
4.
Solve
4# 3 + 3a; 2 f/ + ?/ 3 =8,
2z 3 2a; 2?/ + ?/ 2 = l.
Thus
(1).
(2).
4 + 3m + m z _
22m + m2 ~
'
m3 8i9 +19m
that
is,
12 = 0;
(/;il)(?/i3)
.*.
(m4) = 0;
3,
m=l,
or
or
4.
(2).
(i)
Take
(2),
m = l,
and substitute
# 3 = 1;
in either (1) or
.*.
From
and
(ii)
x = l;
y=mx=x=l.
Take
m = 3,
and substitute
5:r
3
in (2)
3
.*.
thus
= l;
x=
/l
k'>
\/
*/
3
and
(iii)
y = vix = 3x = 3
Take7?& = 4;
3/1
.
we obtain
10.r 3 =l;
..
/ x=^;
3
and
y = mx = 4x=4. /r^.
/I
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
Hence the complete solution
is
L05
* =1,
V5'
s
v
4
To*
"
=1
'
\/l>
\/^*
always be used when the
Note.
of solution
may
Example
5.
Solve
3 lx 2 y 2
7y 4  112^ + 64 =
(1),
('2).
x 2 7xy + 4y 2 + 8 =
From
(2)
and, substituting in
)
(1),
3\x2 y 2  7# 4 +
..
Uxy
{x 2
 Ixy + Ay 2 +
{x 2
 Ixy + 4 j/") =
)
31xy 2  7 j/ 4
..
that
is,
s*10sy+9y4 =0
.'.
(3).
(x2
y 2 )(x 2 9y 2 ) = 0;
ov
hence
x=y,
x=
3y.
(2),
we obtain
x=y= ^J
x=3, y=l\
3
>/17'^ =T \/
yj
Note. It should be observed that equation (3) is homogeneous. The method here employed by which one equation is made homogeneous by a suitable combination with the other is a valuable artifice. It is especially useful in Analytical Geometry.
Example
6.
Solve
(x+yft+2
{x
 ?/)* = 3
{x 2
y*fi
(1).
3x2y=13
i
(2).
i
(1)
by (x 2  y 2
i
or {x
+y)*
i
(x
y)
x +y\s
\xyj
+2 (~ \.v
+ gj
Y=3
106
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
i
This equation
is
a quadratic in
i
[x
(
+ v\ a
1 ,
find,
whence
^=8 xy
or 1
7x = 9y, or y = 0.
(2),
we obtain
13
x=9, y = 7;
or x = ^,y=0.
EXAMPLES.
Solve the following equations
1.
:
X.
b.
3x2y = 7,
xy = %).
2.
bx y = 3,
2 2 y  6# = 25.
3.
4^3^ = 1,
4.
a,
+ #y+2/ 4 = 931,
5.
x2 +
+3/
= 84,
x2 xy +y2 = 19.
6.
x  *Jxy+y =6.
7.
x + Jxy +y = 65, #2 + #y
+y 2 =2275.
9.
x +y = 7 + \A?y, x2 +y 2 = l33xy.
10.
3.r
8.
3#2 5y 2 = 7,
Zxy  4y 2 = 2.
5y 2 7^ = l7,
bxy  6x2 = 6.
12.
11.
#2 + y 2 3 = 3.zy,
2x2  6 + y2 = 0.
13.
.r
+y 4 =706, x+y = 8.
14.
xA +y* = 272,
15.
^y = 992,
5
xy = 2.
17.
xy = 2.
18.
16.
,r+i = l, y
e ?/+=25.
+, x 2 y
3
+t = 5. 2 5
2 5 5  +  = 7;
= 1.
21.
19.
11
^3
x +y = 1072,
20.
11 xy^+yx^=20,
33
+y
^ 2 2
11
6(.i?
+y = ie.
3
=65.
11 =
2
# +y2 = 5,
2
2
)
+y
5.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
22.
107
Jx+y+J7y = 4,
23.
y+
Jx 2  1 = 2,
+
24
JZ+JZ^,
tf*
25.
f~f
.
v^
7 = i_
26.
+ 5y=6+2Qay25ya + 2.v,
7#lly = 17.
,
at?
 ovy = 18.
(.v
 y) = 1 6a^,
(a4
 y4
(a3
 y 2 ) = 64Ga?y.
31
32.
2.v 2
 xy +y 2 =2y,
2
,
2x 2 + 4xy = 5^.
o8
5.v
y% + +
(.r
y)
(#y) 2
% =
 7y = 4.
4xy + 2x 2 ) + 8 = 0.
33. 34.
35. 36. 37. 38.
2 y(y 3.r#.r2 ) + 24 = 0,
x(j/ 2
3a3
 8ay2 + if + 2 1 = 0,
a2
(y
 x) = 1
108.
2x 2 + 9xy + y 2 =
6xi + x 2y 2 + l6 = 2x(\2x+y 3 ),
x2 + xyy 2 = 4.
.
x (a + x)=y(b+y),
xy + Z> = 2ax,
fir_
ax + by = (x + y) 2
.
xhf + a2 b 2 = 26 2y2
ya
39.
40.
a2
6.v3
+ .lzi = _J b2 xb
>
ab
=0
= 10a
\y
6.r
+ 3a3y,
ay 3 = 10ab 2y + 3b 3x.
i
41.
a*
Equations involving three or more unknown quantities can only be solved in special cases. We shall here consider some of the most useful methods of solution.
137.
Example
1.
Solve
(1),
(2),
(3).
From
Put u
(2)
and
(3),
;
+ yf + * 2 = 85.
u*+z*=85.
for
x+y
108
Also from
(1),
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
u +z =13;
z
whence we obtain u = l or 6;
=6
or
7,1
\
7.
Thus we have
Hence the
solutions are
x+y=
#?/ = 10
and
+ ?/ =
6,
acy = 10
x=5,
*
or
2,'
.r
= 3db\/l.,
y = 2, or
5,1
or
=6
y^W^T,
z=l.
Example
2.
Solve
(a;
{y
[z+x)(z+y) =18.
Write
m,
1;,
for
?/
+ 2,
viv
as,
a;
+y
respectively
thus
(1).
30,
tvu = 15,
mv = 18
we have
u = 3, v = 6, w = 5\ or w = 3, v = 6,
..
w=5;
whence
ce=4, y = l, 2
3.
= 2;
or
Example
Solve
2 2
+ ys + 2 2 = 49
2
+ z:r + a; = 19 x* + xy + y 2 =39
2
(3).
Subtracting
(2)
from
(1)
y
that
is,
(yx){x + y + z) = 30
(1)
Similarly from
and
(3)
[zx){x+y+z)*=10
Hence from
(4)
(5).
and
(5),
by division
y* 3 
whence
y
= 3z2x.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
Substituting in equation
(3),
10f)
we obtain
z*8xa+8zs =13.
From
(2),
x 2 + xz
z~
= 19.
4, Art. 130,
we obtain
a;=2,
or
jc= ts,
= 3 and
;
therefore y
= 5
2= t^
.t
and therefore
y^
a;
y= T ,
xy = c 2
; .
Example
4.
Solve
yz = a 2
zx = 6 2
z2
y, 2,
respectively
and add
then
(1).
+ 2 + & 2z =
//
z, x,
then
(2).
b2x
+ cy + a*z =
From
(1)
and
(2),
by cross multiplication,
2
~^c = V^W =
k 2 (a 6
^W =
2
Z>
k su PP se
'
then
+ b 6 + c 6  3a2
z
2
c 2)
=1
1
11
a 4_^2c 2
^4_ c
ft2
C 4_
a 7/j
*Ja*+b*+c*3a?tP<?
EXAMPLES.
Joh
X.
c.
110
9.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
x*y*zhi=\%
aPy*z=12
t
#VW=8,
3
x*yz2 u2 =
l,
3xy 2z2 u 2 = 4.
10.
11.
^
+y 3 + ^3 =a3 ^2 +y 2 + 22 = a2 # + # + s = a. ^2 +y 2 +22 =3/^ + 2^ + .y = 2 3.r# + 2 = a*/3. #2 +y2 M2 = 21a2 ys + ^.ry = 6a 2 3x+y2z = 3a.
3
,
,
Indeterminate Equations.
138.
solu
tion
person spends .461 in buying horses and cows; if each horse costs 23 and each cow 16, how many of each does he buy
1
Let
x,
y be the number
of horses
then
23a;
+ 16^ =
Here we have one equation involving two unknown quantities, and it is clear that by ascribing any value we please to x, we can obtain a corresponding value for y thus it would appear at first sight that the problem admits of an infinite number of solutions. But it is clear from the nature of the question that x and y must and with this restriction, as we shall see be positive integers later, the number of solutions is limited.
;
quantities is greater than the number of independent equations, there will be an unlimited number of solutions, and the equations are said to be indeterminate. In the present section we shall only discuss the simplest kinds of indeterminate equations, confining our attention to positive integral values of the unknown quantities ; it will be seen that this restriction enables us to express the solutions in a very
If the
number
of
unknown
simple form.
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS.
Example
1.
Ill
Solve 7# +
7,
12j/
= 220
in positive integers.
;
Divide throughout by
thus
x+
y+^ =31 + ;
x + y+^~
..
=31
...
(1)
we must have
5yS
7
= integer
integer
and therefore
that
l%9 =
is,
and therefore
..
integer
=p
suppose.
or
y2 = 7p, y = lp + 2
(1),
(2).
that
is,
.(3).
If in these results we give to p any integral value, we obtain corresponding integral values of x and y; but if p > 2, we see from (3) that x is negative and if p is a negative integer, y is negative. Thus the only positive integral values of x and y are obtained by putting p = 0, 1, 2.
The complete
solution
may
be exhibited as follows
p=
a:
0,
1,
2,
= 28, y= 2,
Note.
to
16,
9,
4,
16.
When we
obtained
5yS
integer,
we multiplied by
3 in order
make
artifice
the coefficient of y differ by unity from a multiple of 7. A similar should always be employed before introducing a symbol to denote
the integer.
Example
2.
14x 
11//
= 29.
(1).
x+
Sx
11
i/2 + ir
3x7
11
= 2  x + y = integer
112
hence
that
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
12  28
^
g*
= m teg er
.
*>
is,
x  2+
' ^
Qfc
^ = integer
..
=
y
.*.
X = \\p +
and, from
(1),
14p + 5 !
This
any and y
called the general solution of the equation, and by giving to p positive integral value or zero, we obtain positive integral values of x
is
;
thus we have
p = 0,
.t
1,
2,
3,
= 6, y = 5,
33, 47,
the
number
Example
In
then
x +y+\=
.
5 ;
.'
x 2 integer = 2^ suppose
.*.
x=4p,
y
and
= 505p.
Solutions are obtained by ascribing to p the values 1, 2, 3, ...9; and If, however, the sum may be paid either therefore the number of ways is 9. in halfcrowns or florins, p may also have the values and 10. If ^ = 0, then x = 0, and the sum is paid entirely in florins if p = 10, then y = 0, and the sum is paid entirely in halfcrowns. Thus if zero values of x and y are admissible the number of ways is 11.
;
Example
each
4.
The expenses
5s.,
man
each
woman
of a party numbering 43 were 5. 14s. Qd. if 2s. 6d., and each child Is., how many were
;
Let x, y, z denote the number of men, women, and children, respectively; then we have x + y + z= 43 (1),
10.r
Eliminating
z,
we obtain
The general
x=Sp + l, y = 458p;
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS.
Hence by substituting
in
(1),
113
we obtain z = 5p3.
zero, but
may have
4,
p= x
1,
2,
3,
5;
4,
7, 10, 13,
16;
5;
2=2,
EXAMPLES.
Solve in positive integers
1.
3.i
X.
d.
+ 8y = 103.
2.
5#+2y=53.
23a?+25y=915.
3.
6.
7.>;+
12y=152.
4.
l&P+lly=414
5.
4L>;
+ 47y = 2191.
least values
x and y which
7.
5.v7y = 3.
6a?13y=l.
19y23a?=7.
9.
8#2ty=33.
77y3Qa?=295.
;
10.
I7y13#=0.
11.
12.
buying horses and cows if each horse costs 37 and each cow 23, how many of each does he buy ?
13.
14.
in shillings
and sixpences,
may
be a multiple of 8
What
is
the simplest
way
for a person
to
pay
105. 6d. to
another
who has
only halfcrowns
Find a number which being divided by 39 gives a remainder 17. and by 56 a remainder 27. How many such numbers are there ?
18.
16,
the smallest number of florins that must be given to discharge a debt of 1. (5s. 6d., if the change is to be paid in halfcrowns
is
What
only?
Divide 136 into two parts one of which when divided by 5 leaves remainder 2, and the other divided by 8 leaves remainder 3.
19.
20.
I
:
at
17
if I
many
and oxen
have 27 coins, which are sovereigns, halfcrowns and the amount I have is 5. 05. 6d. how many coins of each sort have I ?
In 21. or shillings,
;
my
H. H. A.
CHAPTER XL
Permutations and Combinations.
Each of the arrangements which can be made by taking 139. some or all of a number of things is called a permutation.
Each of the groups or selections which can be made by taking some or all of a number of things is called a combination.
Thus the permutations which can be made by taking the letters a, b, c, d two at a time are twelve in number, namely,
ab,
ac,
ad,
da,
be, cb,
bd,
cd,
ba,
ca,
db,
dc
letters.
a,
The combinations which can be made by taking the namely, b, c, d two at a time are six in number
:
letters
ab,
ac,
ad,
be,
bd,
cd;
letters.
forming combinations we are only concerned with the number of things each selection contains whereas in forming permutations we have also to consider the order of the things which make up each arrangement; for instance, if from four letters a, b, c, d we make a selection of three, such as abc, this single combination admits of being arranged in the
From
following
ways
abc,
acb,
bca,
bac,
cab,
cba,
and
115
of
this
Before
discussing
the
general
propositions
chapter there is an important principle which we explain and illustrate by a few numerical examples.
proceed to
If one operation can be performed in m ivays, and (when it has been performed in any one of these ways) a second operation can then be performed in n tvays ; the number of ways of performing the two operations ivill be m x n.
performed in any one way, we can associate with this any of the n ways of performing the second operation and thus we shall have n ways of performing the two operations without considering more than one way of performing
If the first operation be
:
the
first;
and
so,
ways
of per
forming the first operation, we shall have n ways of performing the two; hence altogether the number of ways in which the two operations can be performed is represented by the product
m x n.
There are 10 steamers plying between Liverpool and Dublin; in how many ways can a man go from Liverpool to Dublin and return by a different steamer?
Example
1.
There are ten ways of making the first passage and with each of these there is a choice of nine ways of returning (since the man is not to come back by the same steamer) hence the number of ways of making the two journeys is 10 x 9, or 90.
;
extended to the case in which there are more than two operations each of which can be performed in a given number of ways.
This principle
easily be
may
Example
hotels;
2.
Three travellers arrive at a town where there are four many ways can they take up their quarters, each at a
The first traveller has choice of four hotels, and when he has made his selection in any one way, the second traveller has a choice of three ; therefore the first two can make their choice in 4 x 3 ways and with any one such choice the third traveller can select his hotel in 2 ways hence the required number of ways is 4 x 3 x 2, or 24.
; ;
141.
To find
the
number of permutations of
\\
dissimilar things
taken r at a time.
we
This is the same thing as finding the number of ways in which can fill up r places when we have n different things at our
disposal.
The
things
first
place
may
be
may be tilled up in n ways, for any one of the n taken when it has been filled up in any one of
;
82
116
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
these ways, the second place can then be filled up in n  1 ways ; and since each way of filling up the first place can be associated with each way of filling up the second, the number of ways in which the first two places can be filled up is given by the product n (n  1). And when the first two places have been filled up in any way, the third place can be filled up in h 2 ways. And reasoning as before, the number of ways in which three places can be filled up is n (n  1) (n  2).
Proceeding thus, and noticing that a with each new place filled up, and that of factors is the same as the number of have the number of ways in which r equal to
factor is introduced at any stage the number places filled up, we shall
new
up
n (n l)(n
and the r th factor
is
2)
to r factors
n (r
1),
or
n r+1.
n
1).
things taken r at
n{nCor. a time
is
1)
(n
2)
(nr +
The number
of permutations of
n things taken
all
at
or
It
is
to
factors,
3.2.1.
\n,
which
is
\n.
We
number
n
of permutations
n things taken
r at a time
by the symbol
so that
"Pr = w(wl)(w2)
also
(nr + 1);
"P =
\n.
In working numerical examples it is useful to notice that the n suffix in the symbol Pr always denotes the number of factors in the formula we are using.
143.
The number
also be
of permutations of
n things taken
r at
a time
may
117
1
Suppose we form all the permutations of n things t;iken r at a time ' the number of these will be "Prl
;
.
each of these put one of the remaining n r + 1 tilings. Each time we do this we shall get one permutation of u things r at a time; and therefore the whole number of the permutations n of n things r at a time is x (n  r + 1) that is, r_
With
By
writing
rl
we obtain
"P_ = '^
similarly,
_2
x(nrf2),
x (n
'P
= 'Pr _a
r+
3),
=7l.
Multiply together the vertical columns and cancel like factors from each side, and we obtain
n
= n(nl)(n2)
(nr+l).
in
Example
seats
;
in
Four persons enter a railway carriage how many ways can they take their places ?
1.
six
and then the second person seat himself in 6 ways in 5 ; the third in 4 and the fourth in 3 and since each of these ways may be associated with each of the others, the required answer is 6x5x4x3, or 360.
first
The
person
may
;
Example
2.
Here we have 9 different things and we have to find the number of permutations of them taken 6 at a time
;
=9x8x7x6x5x4
= 60480.
144.
tilings
To find taken r at a
the
number of combinations of n
dissimilar
time.
Then each
r
of these combinations
consists of
a group of r themselves in
ways.
[Art. 142.]
118
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
\r
Hence "C r x
things taken
is
equal to the
;
number
of arrangements of
rata
r

time
that
is,
*C x\r = "Pr
=n
_
Cor.
(n 1) (n
2)
(n  r + 1)
tt(wl)(w2)...(wr+l)
r
V
'"
n This formula for C r may also be written in a different form ; for if we multiply the numerator and the denominator by \n r we obtain
n (n 
1) (n
2)
\r
...
{n
r+
1) x
nr
\
nr
\n
.'.
"C r =
(2).
It will be convenient to remember both these expressions for C r using (1) in all cases where a numerical result is required, and (2) when it is sufficient to leave it in an algebraical shaj)e.
n
,
Note.
If in
formula
(2)
we put r = n, we have
\n n
i
~jn_0" 0'
is to
Example. From 12 books in how many ways can a selection of 5 be made, (1) when one specified book is always included, (2) when one specified book is always excluded ?
Since the specified book is to be included in every (1) have only to choose 4 out of the remaining 11.
selection,
we
of
ways = n C4
1 1x10 x9x8 ~ 1x2x3x4
= 330.
119
Since the specified book is always to be excluded, we have to select the 5 books out of the remaining 11.
of
ways = n C6
_ 11x10x9x8x7
1x2x3x4x5
= 462.
145.
equal
to
The number of combinations of n things r at a time the number of combinations of\\ things n r at a time.
is
In making all the possible combinations of n things, to each group of r things we select, there is left a corresponding group of
nr
things
r at a time is n r at a time
that is, the number of combinations of n things the same as the number of combinations of n things
..
"C r =
also be
proved as follows
\n =
_r
nr n
(n
 r)
[Art. 144.1
n
n
r
called complementary.
tt
C = n Cn =l.
just proved
is
The
we have
of 14
useful in enabling us to
Out
men
in
eleven be chosen?
14 x 13 x 12
1x2x3
= 364.
If
we had made
uC
au
120
146.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Tojind
the
number of ways in which m + n things can be divided into two groups containing in and n things respectively. This is clearly equivalent to finding the number of combinations of ra + n things ra at a time, for every time we select one group of ra things we leave a group of n things behind. Ira + n Thus the required number = h= 1
ra
\7b
Note.
different
If
number
is
of
ways
~ \2m
[9
for in
possible
new
distribution.
147.
m + n + p things can
severally.
p things
First divide ra + n + p things into two groups containing and n + p things respectively the number of ways in which this
:
\m +
can be done
is
r=
\m
n+p n+p
Then the number of ways in which the group of n+p things can be divided into two groups containing n and p things respec
\n+p
tively
is
of
n,
m + n+p
in
n+p
x
, ,
made is \m + n + ]>
Ira
,
5
or
\n \p
n+p
\n \p
J3wi
Note.
If
r=
as different all the possible orders in which ~th.e three groups can occur in any one mode of subdivision. And since there are 13 such orders cor
is
771
r^fm
771
r^ 3
The number
,
of

ways in which 15
;
115
of
121
In the examples which follow it is important to notice that the formula for 'permutations should not be used until the suitable selections required by the question have been made.
Example
1.
be formed; in
(1)
From 7 Englishmen and 4 Americans a committee of is to how many ways can this be done, (1) when the committee conAmericans ? choose 2 Americans and 4 Englishmen.
;
"We have to
The number of ways in which the Americans can be chosen is 4 C, and the number of ways in which the Englishmen can be chosen is 7 C4 Each of
.
the
first
hence
the required
number
of
ways = 4 C 2 x 7 C4
li
~2"[2
\1
TTJ3
17
'J^
= 210.
2, 3,
223
(2)
or 4 Americans.
"We shall exhaust all the suitable combinations by forming all the groups containing 2 Americans and 4 Englishmen then 3 Americans and 3 Englishmen; and lastly 4 Americans and 2 Englishmen.
;
X TTT^
[4
j_3
Example
made each
be
of ways of choosing the three consonants is 7 C3 and the of choosing the 2 vowels is *Ca and since each of the first groups can be associated with each of the second, the number of combined groups, each containing 3 consonants and 2 vowels, is 7 C 3 x 4 C2
; .
Further, each of these groups contains 5 letters, which among themselves in [5 ways. Hence
the required
may
be arranged
number
of words = 7 C 3 x
C2 x
Jo
~34
X [2]2
"
= 5x7
r
= 25200.
122
Example
3.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
How many
words can be formed out of the letters article, so the even places? that the vowels occupy
Here we have
the
first
Hence
number
of words
=3x[4
= 144.
In this Example the formula for permutations is immediately applicable, because by the statement of the question there is but one way of choosing the vowels, and one way of choosing the consonants.
EXAMPLES
XI.
a.
In how many ways can a consonant and a vowel be chosen out of 1. the letters of the word courage?
There are 8 candidates for a Classical, 7 for a Mathematical, and In how many ways can the 4 for a Natural Science Scholarship. Scholarships be awarded?
2.
3.
25
7,
24
5
,
<74
19
,
CU
4.
How many
different
word equation ?
If four times the number of permutations of n things 3 together is equal to five times the number of permutations of n 1 things 3 together, find n.
permutations can be made out of the letters of the word triangle? How many of these will begin with t and end with e ?
6.
How many
different selections can be made by taking four of many different numbers can be formed the digits 3, 4, 7, 5, 8, 1 ? with four of these digits ?
7.
How many
If 2n C3
How
3,
8.
n Oj
= 44
find n.
9.
10.
How many changes can be rung with a peal of 5 bells ? How many changes can be rung with a peal of 7 bells, the tenor
?
On how many nights may a watch of 4 men be drafted from a 11. crew of 24, so that no two watches are identical ? On how many of these would any one man be taken?
arrangements can be made out of the w ord draught, the vowels never being separated ?
12.
r
How many
letters of the
23
;
In a town council there are 25 councillors and 10 aldermen be formed each consisting of 5 councillors
of the letters A, B, C, p, q, r how many arrangements can (1) beginning with a capital, (2) beginning and ending with a
Out
]
be made
capital
15.
16.
17.
C12 = n Cs
find n C17 ,
22
<7n .
In
if
arranged,
18.
the letters of the word vowels be the letters oe can only occupy odd places
]
From
(1)
chosen
officer?
4 officers and 8 privates, in how many ways can 6 be to include exactly one officer, (2) to include at least one
In how 10 persons
19.
?
20.
If
Cr = ls Cr + 2
find'<75
Out of 25 consonants and 5 vowels how many words can be 21. formed each consisting of 2 consonants and 3 vowels ?
many ways
23.
In a library there are 20 Latin and 6 Greek books; in how can a group of 5 consisting of 3 Latin and 2 Greek books be placed on a shelf ?
22.
In how
?
many ways
persons
From 3 capitals, 5 consonants, and 4 vowels, how many words 24. can be made, each containing 3 consonants and 2 vowels, and beginning with a capital ?
election three districts are to be canvassed by 10, 15, and 20 men respectively. If 45 men volunteer, in how many ways can they be allotted to the different districts ?
25.
At an
4 Latin and 1 English book be placed on a shelf so that the English book is always in the middle, the selection being made from 7 Latin and 3 English books?
26. 27.
In how
boat
is
to be
manned by
eight men, of whom 2 can only rowon stroke side; in how many ways can
There are two works each of 3 volumes, and two works each of 2 volumes in how many ways can the 10 books be placed on a shelf so that volumes of the same work are not separated ?
;
29.
In
be arranged so
that the
befit
124
30.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
men,
not
An eightoared boat is to be manned by a crew chosen from 11 of whom 3 can steer but cannot row, and the rest can row but canif
steer.
men
In how many ways can the crew be arranged, can only row on bow side?
two of the
Prove that the number of ways in which p positive and n negative signs may be placed in a row so that no two negative signs shall be together is p + 1 Cn
31.
.
32. 33.
If
56
Pr +
54
6
:
Pr + = 30800
3
1,
find
r.
different signals can be made by hoisting 6 differently coloured flags one above the other, when any number of them may be hoisted at once ?
How many
34.
U^C
24
:
2r
C2r _ 4 = 225
11, find
r.
Hitherto, in the formulae we have proved, the things have been regarded as unlike. Before considering cases in which some one or more sets of things may be like, it is necessary to point out exactly in what sense the words like and unlike are When we speak of things being dissimilar, different, unused. like, we imply that the things are visibly unlike, so as to be On the other hand we easily distinguishable from each other. shall always use the term like things to denote such as are alike For to the eye and cannot be distinguished from each other. consonants and the vowels may instance, in Ex. 2, Art. 148, the be said each to consist of a group of things united by a common characteristic, and thus in a certain sense to be of the same kind; but they cannot be regarded as like things, because there is an individuality existing among the things of each group which makes them easily distinguishable from each other. Hence, in the final stage of the example we considered each group to consist of five dissimilar things and therefore capable of [5
149.
Suppose we have to find all the possible ways of arranging 12 books on a shelf, 5 of them being Latin, 4 English, and the remainder in different languages.
be regarded as belonging to one class, united by a common characteristic ; but if they were distinguishable from each other, the number of permutations would be )12, since for the purpose of arrangement among themin each language
selves they are essentially different.
The books
may
'
125
however, the books in the same language are not distinguishable from each other, we should have to find the number of ways in which 12 things can be arranged among themselves, when 5 of them are exactly alike of one kind, and 4 exactly alike, of a second kind a problem which is not directly included in any of the cases we have previously considered.
:
To find the number of ways in which n arranged among themselves, taking them all at a
151.
things
time,
may
be
when p
of
of one kind, q of them exactly alike of another kind, r of them exactly alike of a third kind, and
the things are exactly
alike
Let there be n letters suppose p of them to be to be b, r of them to be c, and the rest to be unlike.
;
a,
q of them
Let x be the required number of permutations ; then if in any one of these permutations the_p letters a were replaced by p unlike letters different from any of the rest, from this single permutation, without altering the position of any of the remaining letters, we could form p new permutations. Hence if this change were made in each of the x permutations we should obtain x x \p
I
permutations.
Similarly,
if
the
number
of permutations
would be
x \p x
<7.
x
In
like
letters c
\r
by
r unlike letters,
we
permutations.
of \n
But the things are now all different, and therefore admit permutations among themselves. Hence
x x
\p
\q
r
\n;
that
is,
x
the required
~.
r
p
\p \g
which
is
number
of permutations.
all
Any
different
may
be
treated similarly.
126
Example
letters
1.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
permutations can be made out of the of the word assassination taken all together ?
How many
different
We
have here 13
letters of
which 4 are
s,
3 are a, 2 are
i,
and 2 are
n.
~^[32j
How many
so
1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1,
numbers can be formed with the that the odd digits always occupy the odd places?
can be arranged in their four places in
digits
The odd
digits 1, 3, 3, 1
way s
(1) 
l^2
The even
digits 2, 4, 2
y^
ways
(2).
Each
of the
ways
in
(1)
(2).
= 6 x 3 = 18.
things r at a
To find the number of permutations of n time, when each thing may be repeated once, twice, times in any arrangement.
152.
up
to
Here we have
to consider the
number
of
ways in which r
up when we have n different things at our n things being used as often as we please in
any arrangement. The first place may be filled up in n ways, and, when it has been filled up in any one way, the second place may also be filled up in n ways, since we are not precluded from using the same thing again. Therefore the number of ways in which the first The third place can two places can be filled up iswxn or n2 also be filled up in n ways, and therefore the first three places in
.
n3 ways.
Proceeding in this manner, and noticing that at any stage the index of n is always the same as the number of places filled up, we shall have the number of ways in which the r places can be
filled
up equal to n r
127
Example. In how many ways can 5 prizes be given away to 4 boys, when each boy is eligible for all the prizes?
Any one of the prizes can be given in 4 ways; and then any one of the; remaining prizes can also be given in 4 ways, since it may be obtained by the boy who has already received a prize. Thus two prizes can be given away in 4a ways, three prizes in 4 ways, and so on. Hence the 5 prizes can be given away in 4 5 or 1024 ways.
:! ,
153.
to
To find
tiling
the total
it is
possible
make a
Each
selection by taking
of
\\
things.
be dealt with in two ways, for it may either be taken or left; and since either way of dealing with any one thing may be associated with either way of dealing with eacli one of the others, the number of selections is
may
2x2x2x2
But
This
of
this includes the case in
to
factors.
all
which
left,
number
ways
is
2"l.
number
of combinations"
things.
A man
in
invite one or
He
ways
is
1,
or 63.
The guests may be invited singly, in twos, threes, number of selections = 6 C1 + 6 C2 + 6 C3 + 6 C4 + 6 C5 + <>C6
therefore the
= 6 + 15 + 20 + 15 + 6 + 1 = 63.
154.
r the
number of combinations
of
n things
Since
a time
=
is greatest.
1
"C
^( ?l 
)( n
 2) 1.2.3
l)
n(nl)(n2)
1.
(wr +
(r1)
1
2)
2.3
r+
"C
= nC
r
factor
The multiplying
which shews that
it
may be
written
1,
decreases as r increases.
Hence
as r receives
128
the values
71 4 1
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
1, 2,
in succession,
1
is
continually increased
1.
until
becomes equal to
or less than
Now
r
so long as
i
1^1,
71+1
r
>z >
^
;
that
is,
r.
We
(1)
this inequality.
n+
2
?
2m +1
and
up to
,
than
r.
Hence by putting
combinations
(2)
is
r
.
m=
we
number
of
"Cn
2
=5
n+
1
2m +
1

then
2m +
+ li
is
and
but when r 
m+ 1 *C.= n Cm
mi+I
up to
that
is, '
"C n+ +
1
C7il
2
of combinations is greatest
when the
or
same
in the
two
cases.
The formula for the number of combinations of n things r at a time may be found without assuming the formula for the numbes of permutations.
155.
Let "C r denote the number of combinations of n things taken r at a time; and let the n things be denoted by the letters
a, b, c, d,
120
C
n
is
eaeli
of
remaining letters we cm form combinations of n 1 letters taken r  1 at a time. With of these write a; thus we see that of the combinations tilings r at a time, the number of those which contain
tin
1
w~ l
b is
n~
C
,
x
:
similarly
which
contain
Tlierefore
number
of combinations
b,
r at a time which contain a, together with those that contain those that contain c, and so on.
in this manner, each parFor instance, if r=3, the ticular one will be repeated r times. combination abc will be found anions; those containing a, amonir those containing b, and among those containing c. Hence
*c= n  cr x.
x
r
i 1
.,
By
writing
and r 1 instead
of
ni
n and
1
r respectively,
rl
Similarly,
V^ = ^G _ x 2
r
n r + 2/~1
2
_nr + \ri ^i
U
>.
T
2
o
;
and
finally,
n  r+1
C = r + 1.
1
Multiply together the vertical columns and cancel like factors from each side thus
;
"C
n (rcl)(n2)
(nr+
1
l)
r(rl)(r2)
the total
156.
to
To find
selection
make a
it is
possible
+r +
are alike of one kind, q alike of a second kind, r alike of a third kind; and so on.
tilings, ivJierenfp
The p things may be disposed of in p + 1 ways for wo may take 0, 1, 2, 3, p f thorn. Similarly the q things may be disposed of in q + \ ways; the r things in r+1 ways; and
;
so on.
H.
II.
A.
130
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Avays in which all the tilings
1) (r
may be
1)
which none
case,
the
total
number
of
ways
is
(jp
+ l)fe+l)(r +
.l)
1.
general formula expressing the number of permuta157. tions, or combinations, of n things taken r at a time, when the
things are not all different, may be somewhat complicated particular case may be solved in the following manner.
but a
Example. Find the number of ways in which (1) a selection, (2) an arrangement, of four letters can be made from the letters of the word
proportion.
There are 10
r,
r; t; i; n.
may
be classified as follows
Three
alike,
one
different.
Two Two
alike,
alike,
(4) (1)
The
n,
p,
r, t, is
The
made
r, r.
two out
This selection can be made in 3 x 10 ways 3 pairs, and then two from the remaining 5 letters.
(1)
for
we
select
one of the
letters
This selection can be made in 6 C4 ways, as we have to take 4 different This gives 15 selections. to choose from the six o, p, r, t, i, n.
total
Thus the
number
of selections
is
+ 3 + 30 + 15
that
is,
53.
all
In finding the different arrangements of 4 letters possible ways each of the foregoing groups.
gives rise to 5 x
we have
to
permute in
(1)
or 20 arrangements.
(2)
or 18 arrangements.
(3)
gives rise to 30 x
=,
or 360 arrangements.
or 3G0 arrangements.
(4)
gives rise to 15 x j4
Thus
the total
number
of arrangements is 20
+ 18 + 360 + 360;
that
is,
758.
131
EXAMPLES.
1.
XI.
b.
letters
Find the number of arrangements that can he made out of the of the words
(1)
independence,
(3)
(2)
superstitious,
institutions.
if
can 17 billiard balls be arranged, them are black, 6 red, and 4 white %
2.
In how
many ways
7 of
room is to be decorated with fourteen flags ; if 2 of them are 3. blue, 3 red, 2 white, 3 green, 2 yellow, and 2 purple, in how many ways
can they be hung?
4.
the digits
5.
3?
Find the number of arrangements which can be made out of the letters of the word algebra, without altering the relative positions of vowels and consonants.
On three different days a man has to drive to a railway station, 6. and he can choose from 5 conveyances in how many ways can he make
;
have counters of n different colours, red, white, blue, in I make an arrangement consisting of r counters, supposing that there are at least r of each different colour ?
I
;
In a steamer there are stalls for 12 animals, and there are 8. cows, horses, and calves (not less than 12 of each) ready to be shipped; in how many ways can the shipload be made?
9.
In
is
there
how many ways can n things be given to p persons, when no restriction as to the number of things each may receive ?
In how
10.
many ways
can
five
persons
11.
in the expression
length?
letter lock consists of three rings each marked with fifteen 12. different letters find in how many ways it is possible to make an unsuccessful attempt to open the lock.
;
13.
How many
numbers
7
less
?
eight digits
16.
1, 2, 3, 0, 4, 5, 6,
In how many ways can the following prizes be given away to a class of 20 boys: first and second Classical, first and second Mathematical, first Science, and first French ?
92
132
17.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
A telegraph has 5
arms and each arm is capable of 4 distinct what is the total number of
;
In how many ways can 7 persons form a ring? In how many ways can 7 Englishmen and 7 Americans sit down at a round table, no two Americans being together?
possible to draw a sum of money from a bag containing a sovereign, a halfsovereign, a crown, a florin, a shilling, a penny, and a farthing?
19.
In how
many ways
is it
3 cocoa nuts, 4 apples, and 2 oranges, how tions of fruit can be made, taking at least one of each kind
20.
From
many
?
selec
21.
mn
things into
n equal
How many signals can be made by hoisting 4 flags of different 22. colours one above the other, when any number of them may be hoisted at once ? How many with 5 flags ?
Find the number of permutations which 23. the letters of the word series taken three together ?
can be formed out of
There are p points in a plane, no three of which are in the same 24. straight line with the exception of q, which are all in the same straight line; find the number (1) of straight lines, (2) of triangles which result from joining them.
points in space, no four of which are in the same plane with the exception of q, which are all in the same plane; find how many planes there are each containing three of the points.
25.
There are
There are n different books, and p copies of each; find the number of ways in which a selection can be made from them.
26.
Find the number of selections and of arrangements that can be made by taking 4 letters from the word expression.
27.
How many
word examination ?
1, 3, 5, 7, 9,
numbers greater than 10000 formed by no digit being repeated in any number.
numbers greater than 10000 formed by using the digits 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, no digit being repeated in any number. If of p + q + r things p be alike, and q be alike, and the rest 31. different, shew that the total number of combinations is r (p + l)(q+l)2 l. Shew that the number of permutations which can be formed 32. from 2n letters which are either a's or 6's is greatest when the number of a's is equal to the number of Z>'s. If the n f 1 numbers a, b, c, d, 33. be all different, and each of them a prime number, prove that the number of different factors of the expression ambcd is (m + 1) 2 W 1.
all
CHAPTER
XIT.
Mathematical Induction.
important mathematical formula? are not easily demonstrated by a direct mode of proof; in such cases we frequently find it convenient to employ a method of proof known as mathematical induction, which we shall now illustrate.
158.
Many
Example
of the first
1.
Suppose
it
is
n natural numbers
equal to
<
sum
of the cubes
'J
We can easily see by trial that the statement is true in simple cases, such as when re=l, or 2, or 3 and from this we might be led to conjecture that the formula was true in all cases. Assume that it is true when n terms are taken that is, suppose
; ;
13
+ 2 3 + 33 +
term, that
is,
to
itteims=
1)
3
H ( ;t+1
)j
3
.
Add
13
the (+
l) th
(n+
n
to each side
^

then
+ 23 + 33 +
to
n + 1 terms =j
^ +1
2
\+(n+iy
= {n + iy('j+n + l\
(n+l) 8 (na +4n+4)
4
\
(n
+ l)(K + 2)
2
)\
'
\
which is of the same form as the result we assumed to be true for n terms, n + 1 taking the place of n in other words, if the result is true when we take a certain number of terms, whatever that number may be, it is true when we increase that number by one; but we see that it is true when 3 terms are taken therefore it is true when 4 terms are taken it is therefore true when Thus the result is true universally. 5 terms are taken; and so on.
;
;
134
Example
x + a.
2.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To determine
the product of n binomial factors of the form
By
actual multiplication
(x
we have
;
+ a)
(x
(x
+ b)
(x
(x
(x+a)
+ b)
+ c)
= x*+(a + b + c + d)x 3
+ (ab + ac+ ad + bc+ bd + cd) x~ + (abc + abd + acd + bed) x + abed.
The number
of terms
left.
on the right
is
2. The index of x in the first term is the same as the number of binomial factors and in each of the other terms the index is one less than that of the preceding term.
;
the coefficient of the second the coefficient of the third term is the sum of the letters a, b, c, ; term is the sum of the products of these letters taken two at a time; the coefficient of the fourth term is the sum of their products taken three at a time and so on the last term is the product of all the letters.
3.
The
term
is
unity
Assume that
these laws hold in the case of n  1 factors that is, suppose ' ~ ~ (x + a) (x+b)... (x + h) = x71 1 +p 1 x n 2 +p.2 x n 3 +p.i x n i + ... +p> n
;
where
p 1 = a + b + c+
p.2
...h;
;
p n_x = abc...h.
Multiply both sides by another factor x + k
(x
;
thus
+ a)
(x + b)
...
(x + h) (x + k)
n (p 3 + pJc) x
= x n + (p + k)
x
n~l
+ (p.2 +p x k)
.
n~* +
~3
+... +l^ n x k.
Now
^i
a, b, c,...k;
p.2
+p k=p.2 + k (a + b + ... + h)
= sum
n
p.A
letters a, b, c,
k;
.
.
all
the n letters
2? n _ 1 A*
a, b, c,
...
k;
b,
c,
...
= product
k.
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION.
135
If therefore the laws hold when ?tl factors are multiplied together they hold in the case of n factors. But we havo seen that they hold in the case of 4 factors; therefore they hold for 5 factors; therefore also for 6 factors and so on thus they hold universally. Therefore
;
;
[x + a) (x + b) {x
+c)
...
(x
+ 8n
where
b, c
...
Js;
S n =the product
159.
Theorems relating
Shew
u
.c
to divisibility
may
often be esta
blished by induction.
Example.
values of
n.
that
l
is
divisible
l1
by
x1
; *
By J
if
x
division
l
x1
1 is divisible
;
= xn ~
z'
l
l
x1
3
therefore x n
1
~l 
1 is
divisible by x 
1 is divisible by^r
also divisible by x  1. therefore x  1 is divisible by x  1 ; there1 1, and so on ; hence the proposition is established.
1,
by x 
then x*  1
is
will be
the foregoing examples it will be seen that the only theorems to which induction can be applied are those which admit of successive cases corresponding to the order of the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, n.
From
EXAMPLES.
Prove by Induction
1.
:
XII.
1+3 + 5+
l2
+ (2nl) = n 2
2.
+ 2 2 + 32 +
+ n 2 =i?i(n+l)(2tt+l). + 2 = 2(2'
l
3.
+ 22 + 23 +
l).
4.
ton terms =
.r
^ n+1
5.
yn
is
divisible
by
x+y when
is
even.
CHAPTER
Binomial Theorem.
161.
(x
XIII.
It
may be shewn by
bc
+ bd + cd) x*
(1).
We
may, however, write down this result by inspection ; for the complete product consists of the sum of a number "of partial products each of which is formed by multiplying together four If we letters, one being taken from each of the four factors. examine the way in which the various partial products are
formed, we see that
(1)
the term x
is
letter
x out
of each
of the factors.
(2) the terms involving of any three factors, in
6, c,
out
letters a,
(3)
x3 are formed by taking the letter x every way possible, and one of the d out of the remaining factor.
the terms involving x 2 are formed by taking the letter x out of any two factors, in every way possible, and two of the letters a, b, c, d out of the remaining factors. the terms involving x are formed by taking the letter x out of any one factor, and three of the letters a, b, c, d out of the remaining factors.
(4)
(5)
, b,
c,
is
the product of
all
the letters
Example
+ 3) (x  5) (x + 9) = x 4 + ( 2 + 3  5 + 9) z 3 + ( 6 + 10 18 15 + 27 45) a 2 + (30  54 + 90  135) x + 270 = x4 + 5a; 3  47.<c 2  69z + 270.
1.
(x
2) (x
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
Example
2.
137
The terms involving x* are formed by multiplying together the x in any three of the factors, and two of the numerical quantities out of the two remaining factors
;
of the quantities
hence the coefficient is equal to the sum of the products  3, 5, 1,2,  8 taken two at a time.
coefficient
we suppose
b=c=d=a, we
obtain
(x
a)
= x4 + iax* + 6a
V + 4a
as
+ a4
The method here exemplified of deducing a particular case from a more general result is one of frequent occurrence in Mathematics for it often happens that it is more easy to prove
;
it is
it.
next article employ the same method to prove a formula known as the Binomial Theorem, by which any binomial of the form x + a can be raised to any assigned positive integral power.
shall in the
We
163.
integer.
To find
the
n expansion of (x + a) ivhen n
is
a positive
+ a)
(x
+ b)
(x
c)
(x
k),
the
number
of factors being n.
The expansion of this expression is the continued product of the n factors, x + a, x + b, x + c, x + k, and every term in the expansion is, of n dimensions, being a product formed by multiplying together n letters, one taken from each of these n factors. The highest power of x is x n and is formed by taking the letter x from each of the n factors. ~ The terms involving xn are formed by taking the letter x from any n\ of the factors, and one of the letters a, b, c, ... k
, l
n in the from the remaining factor thus the coefficient of x final product *is the sum of the letters a, b, c, k; denote it
1
by^.
The terms involving x n 2 are formed by taking the letter x from any n 2 of. the factors, and two of the letters a, b, c, ... k n from the two remaining factors thus the coefficient of x ~ in the final product is the sum of the products of the letters a, b, c, ... k taken two at a time; denote it by S2
;
.
138
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
n~r
are formed by taking generally, the terms involving x r of the factors, and r of the letters the letter x from any n a, b, c, ... k from the r remaining factors ; thus the coefficient of
And,
r x"~ in the final product is the sum of the products of the letters a, b, c, ...k taken r at a time; denote it by Sr
.
The
last
is
abc
...
k; denote it
by
Sn
.
Hence
= x n + Sx
12
(x
n~l
is
in
S2
the
number of terms
is
the same as the number of combinations of n things 2 at a time n n that is, C2 ; in S3 the number of terms is C3 ; and so on.
Now
"Ca:
(x
suppose
a)
n
b,
c,
2
:
...
k,
S, becomes "C\a
S
1
= xn + n C ax n
l
C a xn
2
2
~2
+ "C^aV" 3 +
+ "Ca"
2,
...
we
obtain
_ J
il
n(nl)
 r^oV
n+
1
n(n \)(n2) /v v l
1
a 3x n
+...
+ an
terms.
is
the Binomial Theorem, and the expression on the right said to be the expansion of (x + a)*.
This
is
164.
the product of the n factors x + a, x + b, x + c, ...x + k as explained in Art. 158, Ex. 2; we n can then deduce the expansion of (x + a) as in Art. 163.
find
By
we can
165.
The
coefficients
in the expansion of (x
+
,
a)" are
n
,
very
n
.
We
C3 ... C n conveniently expressed by the symbols "C,, "C 2 shall, however, sometimes further abbreviate them by omitting With this notation we have n, and writing (7,, C 2 C 3 ... C n
,
, .
(x
If
+ a) n =
write
x"
+ C ax
x
n~
+ C 2 a2 x n
~2
+ C3 a 3x n
~3
...
+ Ca\
we
in the place of a,
l
we
n2
obtain
3
3 (a) 3 xn  +... + Cn (a) n
(x
(a) 2x
+C
= xn  C,axn
1
+ Ca 2xn 2
2
 C,a3xn ~ 3 + 3
1
...
+ ( IYG na\
\ /
n Thus the terms in the expansion of (x + a) and (x a) are numerically the same, but in (x  a)' they are alternately positive and negative, and the last term is positive or negative according as n is even or odd.
n
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
Example
1.
39
+ y) 6
By
the formula,
{x
+ yf = x + 8tfi xhj + 6 C^xY + C3 afy8 + B C 4 .r 2 4 + 8 <7e x,f + Ce ,/' = z? + 6.1V + loo; 4 2 + 20a; 3 3 + loxhf + Gxi/> + if',
fi
*/
?/
?/
G
,
C2
6
,
C3
Example
[a
2.
(a
2.r) 7 .
2x) 7
= a7  7C
a c (2x)
'
+ 7 C2 a 5 (2a;) 2  7 C3 a 4 (2a;) 3 +
,
to 8 terms.
Now remembering that n Cr = n Cn _ r after calculating C 3 the rest may be written down at once; for 7 GX = 7 C^
,
Hence
(a
 2x) 7 = a7  7a B
{2x)
+ jp a 5 (2xf 
\^\ 4 (2a;)
 21a 2
(2a;)
+ la
(2s) 6  (2.r)~
= a 7  Ua 6x + 84a5
Example
3.
a;
128a; 7 .
1)".
We have here the sum of two expansions whose terms are numerically the same ; but in the second expansion the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth terms are negative, and therefore destroy the corresponding terms of the first expansion. Hence the value
= 2 {a7 + 21a 5 (a2  1) + 35a 3 (a 2  l) 2 + la (a 2 = 2a (64a 6  112a 4 + 56a 2  7
).
l) 3 }
the coefficient of the second term is C of the third term is G 2 ; of the fourth term is "C3 ; and so on ; the suffix in each term being one less than the number of the term to which it applies hence "C r is the coth This is called the general term, terin. efficient of the (r + l) because by giving to r different numerical values any of the n coefficients may be found from C r ; and by giving to x and a their appropriate indices any assigned term may be obtained. Thus the (r + l) th term may be written
166.
of (x
a)
n
,
In the expansion
;
l
Cjrw,
or
(l)("2)(
t
+,,,,.
In applying this formula to any particular case, it should 1><> observed that the index of a is the same as the svffix of C, and that the sum of the indices ofx and a is n.
140
Example
1.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the
fifth
term of
(a
+ 2a; 3 ) 17
4
)
= 17 C4 a13 (2a; 3
17.16.15.14
1.2.3.4
xl6ft13 .T 12
= 38080a 13 x 12
Example
2.
(3
a) 15 .
[Art. 145.]
The simplest form of the binomial theorem is the expansion of (l+x) n This is obtained from the general formula of Art. 163, by writing 1 in the place of x, and x in the place of a. Thus
167.
(1
x)
= l+ H C x + "C2 x 2 + n(n\) 1 ^
i
+ nx +
1.2
zri ar
4 r" +
'
n(nl)(n2)
(nr+
1)
tb
The expansion of a binomial may always be made upon the case in which the first term is unity thus
;
to
depend
{x
+y
yJ(X (i + l)J
= xn (l + z) n where
,
=V
x
(as
Example
1.
Find the
coefficient of
2
a;
16
in the expansion of
20
2a;)
10
.
We have
and, since
a;
(a;
2a;)
10
a;
(1  
V
/
(
20
1 
2\ 10 we have in
,
coefficient
= 10 C4
10
.
2)
1.2.3.4
xl6
= 3360.
In some cases the following method
is
simpler.
BINOMIAL THEOEEM.
Example
2.
141

Find the
coefficient of
tlio
(p
+ l) ,h
The
(p
1)'
term
But
this
2n5p = r,
5
or
p=
2*1
Thus
g(2nr)
2n
i'
= (3n
?)
Unless
is
the expansion.
In Art. 163 we deduced the expansion of (x + )" from the product of n factors (x + a) (x + b) ... (x + k), and the method of proof there given is valuable in consequence of the wide gene1G8.
rality of the results obtained.
of
used
term
(a
of the expansion of
+ c+
)".
161).
To prove
the
Binomial Theorem.
1
The expansion of (x + a)' is the product of n factors, each equal to x + a, and every term in the expansion is of n dimensions, being a product formed by multiplying together n letters, Thus each term involving one taken from each of the n factors. r x"~ a is obtained by taking a out of any r of the factors, and x Therefore the number of out of the remaining n r factors. terms which involve x"~ a must be equal to the number of ways that is, the coellicient in which r things can be selected out of n n~ "6' and by giving to r the values 0, 1, 2, 3, ... n in cC is of x Hence succession we obtain the coefficients of all the terms.
r r r
;
(x
a)
=x
4
C X* a +
1 J
C,,x a
C x"a +
r r
...+
a",
since
to unity.
142
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES.
Expand the
1.
XIII.
a.
following binomials
.
(#3) 5
2. 5.
(3^ + 2y) 4
3.
{Zxyf.
(1^j/) 7
.
4.
(l3a 2 ) 6
{a?+x)\
6.
">
n
of
(a?
(H':
12

NT
of (1  2x) 12
.
5)
13
.
14.
.
The 10 th term
15.
The 12 th term
of (2#
 1) 13
16.
The 28 th term
of (5x + 8y) 30
17.
The
The The
4 th term of
(a U + 96\ J /
10
.
18.
th
term of (2a 
b\ 8
.
J
19.
V th
term of (^' 
^Y
5.
20.
The
5 th term of
V x
(x + s/2y +
(
(xj2)\
.
22. 24.
(V^^+^CV^3^^)
(2Vr^) 6 + (2 + v I^^) 6
/
.
5

23.
v/2
+ l) 6 ( N/2l) 6
25.
+\x a
1
cV\ 10
26.
 "
^
j
.
27.
coefficient of
coefficient of
a.
18 in L'V2
+

28.
x 18
in (axA
bx) 9
in
29.
Find the
coefficients of
x 32 and #~ 17
/
1\ 15 ( A x  g
J
30.
a3\ 9
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
31.
b3
x2
32.
Ux 
\\
33.
lx+\
/
34.
;/;
in
x .,
I
1 \
j
35.
....
,
If
.
prove that
its co
eihcient
is
1
\2n .
(4
j3
"^ \@n+p)
170. In the expansion of (1 4 x) u the coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and end are equal.
The
"C..
coefficient of the
(r
l)
th
is
Tlie
nr
therefore counting from the beginning it is the (n r + l) term, and its coefficient is "Cn _ r which has been Hence the proposition shewn to be equal to "Cr [Art. 145.]
terms before
follows.
171. (l + x)
To find
the
greatest
coefficient
in
the
expansion of
m
The
term of
(1
+x)"
is
and we
is
this is greatest.
By
Art. 154,
is
when n
it is
is
"C n
i
and when n
being equal.
172.
odd,
"C
2
or "C
these
two
coefficients
To find
have
the greatest
a)".
We
(x
a)"
= x" (l +
Y
therefore, since
in
( 1
+ j
it
will
be
144
Let
the r th
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
and (r+l) th be any two consecutive terms. term is obtained by multiplying the r th term by
is,
The (r+l) th
.
that
by
\
Vh
x
as
[Art. 166.1 L J
_
The
+
r
factor
is
1
decreases
increases
hence the
(r+l) th term
until
(
 becomes equal x
/n +
\
to
1,
or less than
1.
Now
,
1
1 1
J x
1
.,
>
1j
so long as
n+
>
x
a
;
that
..
n+
is,
>+
x a
1,
or
a
If
>r
( 1 ).
+ a
1
be an integer, denote
it
by
j>
then
if
])
the
multiplying factor becomes 1, and the (p + l) th term th and these are greater than any other term. /> ;
is
equal to the
71+1
If
its
integral part
by q
 +
a
then the greatest value of r consistent with (1) th term is the greatest. (q + 1 )
is
q\ hence the
Since we are only concerned with the numerically greatest term, the investigation will be the same for (xa)"; therefore in any numerical example it is unnecessary to consider the sign Also it will be found best of the second term of the binomial. to work each example independently of the general formula.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
Example
1.
to
If
(1+
Denote the
?"'
and
(/
+ l) tu terms by Tr and Tr 1
respectively; then
9r
hence
.
T7^. > Tr
l
so long as
9r
r
>1;
3
that
or
is
36  4r > 3r,
3G>7r.
The
is
is
value
3i4 243~
Example
2.
(3
2^ = 3^1
J;
(2rV 
1
J
Here
*r+i
= 9r+l
10  r
X
2*
~o~
Tr
;
numerically,
...
2 3
^r,.
,
iience
Tr+1 > Tr
10 ~ r
2
6
long as so i
x >
that
is,
20>5r.
for all values of r
Hence
up to
3,
these are the greatest terms. Thus the 4"' and 5 th terms are numerically equal and greater than any other term, and their value
but
if
r=4, then
=3"xC,x f
H. H. A.
146
173. To find of (I +x)".
the
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
sum of
+ a?)n =
1
the coefficients
in the
expansion
In the identity
put x =
1
;
(1
+ C x + G 2 x 2 + C3 x 3 +
x
. . .
+C
af,
t
thus
+C 12 + C +
g q 3
...
Cn =Tl;
'
number
of combinations of
n things"
is 2"
1.
174.
To prove
x)
n
,
the
sum of
the coefficients
equal
to the
sum of the
...
coefficients
x)
+ C x + C2x2 + C 3x3 +
x
+ C x\
...
+ 1+ c4 +
;.....
0
=
1
+'Ca + C.+
all
(sum of
nl
the coefficients)
175. The Binomial Theorem may also be applied to expressions which contain more than two terms.
:
expand
Example.
(x z
+ 2x l) 3
Regarding 2x 
l)
on reduction.
is
instructive.
,
Example.
and
(1),
(?).
The
series (l)
= {c + c + c 2 +
1
+ c n + (c x + 2c 2 + 3c3 +
)
+nc n
=2 w +
?i
Jl
+ (/tl) +
1
J_L
+ il
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
To
find the value of the series c x x + 2c2 x 2
IT
we proceed thus
+ 3c 3 x* +
8>
+ ncn x n
* +
+ *}
we have
&++!*+ X X' X
s
+ ^=!(i + i)*n
X
X \
xj
(s) .
W
;
Also
If
cQ
+ c 1 x + c.2 x 2 +
+ en z% =(l+z) n
(4).
we
series on the lefthand sides of (3) and (4), see that in the product the term independent of x is the series (2) hence n l\ u_1 f the series (2) = term independent of x in  (1 + x) n ( 1 + I
term independent of x in
)l
(l
+ x)'
'1
= coefficient
of x n in
(1
+ .r) 2>ll
= ?ix 2n 
1
<
i2nl
n1
In
EXAMPLES.
XIII.
b.
is
(x
2. 3.
4.
(3
+ 2x) lb when x ss
(1
+ x) n when x = 
n = 6.
6.
+ #)* when a= s
.r
= ,
??=9.
102
148
7.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Shew that the
sum
be the sum of the odd terms and n even terms in the expansion of (x + a) prove that
8.
If
the
sum
of the
n
)
.
9.
The
240, 720,
10.
11. 12.
+ 2x  x )\ (Zx 2 2ax + 3a
(1
2
2 3
)
.
(]\ xj
14.
2n +
In the expansion of (1 + #) 43 the coefficients of the (2r + th the (r + 2) terms are equal; find r.
l)
th
and
Find the relation between r and n in order that the 2n may th th be equal. of the 3r and (r + 2) terms of (l+x)
15.
16.
coefficients
in the expansion of (1
+x) 2n
is
.3.5...(2nl)
hi
sn
^
(1
If c
Cj, c 2 , ...
<?
+x) n
prove that
17.
^ + 2^ + 303 +
c
+ncn =n.2n  1
.
18.
 + +i 42
i
c,
c, 2  4
3
3c8
1
H +
l = 2 n+\ n+l
cn
1
n+
io iy.
c.2c
+~
,
ncn
x
cx
v
,
C2
Cl + c 2
N )
cn _
n{n+\
O A
.
20.
(co+ej
a 2c
(c n
. 1 + cn )
= 2n +
c,c, 1 2
cn
(n+l) H '1
M 21.
22.
+ i+ 2
2 2c,
1
2 3c2
3
+
2 4c,
?
+
2w
i
+p^ n
1
cn l
3' 1 +
1
n+l
=..
f+c +c2 +
j
+ c =
7i
]^
23.
c cr
+ CjC r + + c 2cr + 2 +
+cn _ r cn = 
\2n =~~
CHAPTER
Binomial Theorem.
177.
XIV.
Any
Index.
chapter we investigated the Binomial Theorem when the index was any positive integer; we shall now consider whether the formula? there obtained hold in the case of negative and fractional values of the index.
In the
last
Since,
common
attention
to
+x)
n
.
By
actual evolution,
we have
1
(1
+ xf = V 1 + X =
division,

+ ^ X   X2 +
yr.
x3 
and by actual
(1
 x)~ 2 =
7^
xa
+ 2x + 3x* + ix 3 +
[Compare Ex.
1,
Art. CO.]
and
number
of terms
is
unlimited.
expansion for each of the expressions (1 + x) and (1 + x)~~. We shall presently prove that they are only particular cases of the n general formula for the expansion of (1 + x) where it is any
2
,
rational quantity.
in ascending
mx+
m (m v

1 )
'x+
(m mx 
1 )
(m /x
2)
, 'a?+
(I
).
and
l+n.v +
g
l
>x+
]
K J 
a?
(2).
150
xx
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
of these
will be a series in as
The product
are functions of and n, in any particular and therefore the actual values of A, B, C, and n in that case. But case will depend upon the values of the way in which the coefficients of the powers of a; in (1) and (2) combine to give A, B, C, is quite independent of and n ; in other words, whatever values in and n may have, A, B, C, If therefore we can determine preserve the same invariable form. the form of A, B, C, for any value of and n, we conclude that A, B, C, will have the same form for all values of
clear that A, B, C,
and
n.
often referred to as an example ; of "the permanence of equivalent forms " in the present case we have only to recognise the fact that in any algebraical product the form of the result will be the same whether the quantities involved are whole numbers, or fractions ; positive, or negative.
principle here explained
is
The
use of this principle in the general proof of The proof which Ave the Binomial Theorem for any index. give is due to Euler.
shall
We
make
179.
To prove
the
the
index
is
positive fraction.
Wliatever be the value of m, positive or negative, integral or fractional, let the symbol f(m) stand for the series
,
+ mx +
m (m ^ 1) m (mY) (m 2) x
y
\
' v
s 3
'
...
+ nx +
n(n l) 2
'
x +
2)
'
....
multiply these two series together the product will be another series in ascending powers of x, whose coefficients loill be and n may be. unaltered inform whatever
If
we
To determine this invariable form of the product we may give to m and n any values that are most convenient for this purpose suppose that m and n are positive integers. In this casey(m) m andy*(?i) is the expanded form of is the expanded form of (1 + x) n and therefore (1 +x)
;
,
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
f(m) xf(n) but when
(1
ANY INDEX.
+ a?)" =
(1
1.51
x)
x (1
+ x) m+ \
+ x)"
,
and n are
,
"
(m +
n)
(m + n I
.
1)
the form of the product of f(m) x/(><) in o# cases, whatever tlie values of and n may be; and in agreement with our previous notation it may be denoted hyf(m + n) ; therefore for all values ofm and n
is
This then
x/( p)
similarly.
=f(m + n +p),
Proceeding in
tliis
that
+...to k terms).
f(m) xf(n)
x/(j;)...to k factors
=/( + n +p
?i,
j),
be equal to =
rC
but since h
is
a positive integer,
f (h) = (1 + x)
h
;
but
y*
(
k\k
,,
.*.
vi
a;)
h
T
x+
k \k x
J /
x
1.2
for
152
180.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To prove
the
the
index
is
any
negative quantity.
It has
and
n.
Replacing
in
by n
(wliere
is
we have
f(n) xf(n)=f(n + 7i)
=/(0)
=%
since all terms of the series except the first vanish
'
/hr
/(  n)
'
but/(w) = (l +
x)'\ for
of n;
or
(1
+ *)"" =/(*)
+ ( n) x +
^
1
.
'f,
= L
ar
+
*>
...
(1
.)
+ (_ W )
a.
which proves the Binomial Theorem for any negative index. Hence the theorem is completely established.
181.
in the
two preceding
articles
may
dif
not appear wholly satisfactory, and will probably present some ficulties to the student. There is only one point to which
shall
we
now
refer.
is finite
when
a positive integer, and unlimited in all other cases. See Art. 182. It is therefore necessary to enquire in what sense we
BINOMIAL T11EOUEM.
ANY INDEX.
153
are to regard the statement thaty(m) x/(n) =f(m + n). It a\ ill be seen in Chapter xxi., that when x< 1, each of the series/^/), /( n )i/( + n ) * s convergent, and/(m + ) is the true arithmetical equivalent of f(m) *f(n). But when sol, all these series are divergent, and we can only assert that if we multiply the series denoted by/(m) by the series denoted by f(u), the first r terms of the product will agree with the first r terms of f(m + n), whatever finite value r may have. [8ee Art. 308.]
Example
1.
Expand
(1
2  xf
to four terms.
Id 1 ),
,.J(H(S)
Example
2.
Expand
(2
+ 3a;) 4
to four terms.
4
(2
182.
formula
m(w1)(w2)
(nr +
l)
xr
written in full
for the
when n
is
fractional or negative.
coefficient of the general
its
Also the
zero; the series will thereterm, when n r + 1 is zero ; that is, when fore stop at the r r=oi+ l but since r is a positive integer this equality can never Thus the hold except when the index n is positive and integral. expansion by the Binomial Theorem extends to w+1 terms when n is a positive integer, and to an infinite number of terms in all other cases.
th
;
numerator
154
Example
1.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
1
of (1 +x)'\
L
r
5)
2 r lr
(2r + 3)
af.
The number
tive
;
of factors in the numerator is r, and r  1 of these are negatherefore, by taking  1 out of each of these negative factors, we may
(i)~
Example
<V
i
2.
(lnx) n .
The
(r
+ 1)' term =
V"
"
E
w
I
M
(1F^Un)
 )r
/
_
= !(!) (lar.)r
^
^
l(ln)(l2n)
(1rl.n)
_
(
i)r
(
i)ri
(nl)(2nl)
(rl.n1)
(n
1) (2
1)
....(^l.nl)
since
(_1)
(_
l)ri
= (_ i)2ri = _ 1#
 x)~ 3
Example
3.
(1
The(r + irterm=<
)^( 3 '+ 1
r
(r
,)r
(
= (1)r 3.4.5
~
1.2.3
+ 2)
(1)ffa,
X
r
~
by removing
(r+l)(r+2) . * 1.2
from the numerator and denominator.
like factors
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
ANY INDEX.
a.
155
EXAMPLES. XIV.
Expand
1.
1
(l+xf.
156
and,
if
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
not,
(1
x)
may
be used as
its
l; then
we have
x*
x)~ =
r
+ x + x2 + x 3 +
obtain
2
3
2 4
(1);
=
1
we then
+
2
(l)~
=l+2
is sufficient
to
n(nl) l+nx+ ~
\
'
x2 +
+ x) n
of
in all cases.
Now
gression,
series
(1) v '
we know
that the
sum
 xr
1
z
x
1
X
x 1  x
1,
and,
large
when x
is
by taking r
;
sufficiently
we can make
number
x
^
as small as
we
please
that
is,
by taking
sufficient
of terms the
^
r
.
to differ as
little
as
we
please from
numerically
greater than
1,
the value of
x ^ r increases with 1  x
of
JL
r.
and therefore
is
vC
obtained by taking
any number
+ X + Xs + X3
4
It will be seen in the chapter on Convergency and Divergency of Series that the expansion by the Binomial Theorem of
a?
is
always arithmetically
in
But
if
is
greater than
1,
the series
,
+ nx
n(n\)
H
.j
x"
.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
r
,
ANY INDEX.
157
contains x it can be made greater than any Unite quantity by taking r sufficiently large in which case there is no limit to the value of the above series; and therefore the expansion of (1 + x) n as an infinite series in ascending powers of x has no meaning arithmetically intelligible when x is greater than 1.
;
184.
We
may remark
;
that
for
('*!)'
'(ff.
first
and we obtain the expansion from the according as x is greater or less than y. To find in its expansion of (1 x) u
185.
.
or second of these
simplest
form
the
The
(r
l)
th
term
(
n)(n
I)
(71
2)...
(nr+1)
(*y
1)
+1 Hw + 2) (** + = ( iy (*
= (_ I)*
ttv*+l)(tt+2)...ytt +
rl )
xr
(n
1)
(n + 2)
...
(n + r
1)
From
(1
this it appears
is positive.
x)~*
Although the general term in the expansion of any binomial may always be found as explained in Art. 182, it will be found more expeditious in practice to use the above form of the general term in all cases where the index is negative, retaining the form n(n l)(n2) ... ( n  r + 1 ) , x
i
t
only in the case of positive indices.
158
Example.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the general term in the expansion
of

The
(r
= (l3x)
1 3
.
+ l) th term
1.4.7
(3r2) 3rrr
1.4.7
^H
:
(Sr2)
r
_i
If the given
formula for
we should have used the same the general term, replacing Sx by  3x.
expression had been
(1
3
+ Sx)
186.
(1
(1 (I
+ xr +
(r
+
(
1)
xr +
l
r+
J%K +
r
n when n is unrestricted in value, will be expansion of (1 + x) found in Art. 189 ; but the student will have no difficulty in applying to any numerical example the method explained in
,
Art. 172.
Example.
2 x=3
,
when
and n 20.
fi j_
<t'
We have
^V+i

,xxTr
?
'r
numerically,
19+r
'r+l >
"
so long as
2 (19 + r)
>
that
is,
38 >r.
for all values of r
Hence
,
up
to 37,
we have
these are the greatest terms. Thus the 38 th and 39 th terms are equal numerically and greater than any other term.
jrr+1
>Tr
but
if
r=38, then
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
188.
ANY INDEX.
159
Some
1.
Theorem are
Example
Find the
first
_i
3.
(l
+ 3*) (l2x)
we have
/3
2\
/8
=1 +
If in this
13
Q
X+
55 72
X "'
so that ar = 000004, we see that the third term is a decimal fraction beginning with 5 ciphers. If therefore we were required to find the numerical value of the given expression correct to 5 places
Example ^='002,
of decimals
it
would be
x in
x, neglect
J( + xJ*
Since x and the higher powers may be neglected, it will be sufficient to retain the first two terms in the expansion of each binomial. Therefore
i
the expression
_tll b(i+.)
KS).
the term involving x being neglected.
160
Example
3.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the value of rj=
x/47
_i 1 

1 /
^ = (47)
1/
*=(7*2)*=(ln)
1
:L_
75
7+ "" 2 *7
we proceed
as follows
1)1
7
7 7 7
)
)
=t,
'
= 73,
= ^;
.
and we can
5 ciphers.
term 
1 =
is
..
i\/47
= 14586,
and
this result is correct to at least four places of decimals.
Example
4.
(126)3
= (5 3 + l) a
1
~5
~
1
:J
V
1
3
'
3"5
1_
M
J.
'
9'5 + 81*5 9
_1
\ '")
1
9
1
"
~
_
1^1^
3*"l0
04
2
~ 5
2
55
+
5
81 *5 7
1
9'10 + 81
h
W_ " *10 7
= 51 ^
00032
9
...
0000128
81
...+...
=5f 013333
 000035
= 5 '01329,
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
ANY INDEX.
b.
101
EXAMPLES. XIV.
Find the (r+1)" term
1
(l+#) (l+#)
I 2
.
2.
5
.
3.
(l+3.e)
:]
.
4.
J 3
.
5.
(l+.r2 )3.
(i2.v)~*.
7.
(a+fo?)" 1
8.
(2.r)~ 2
*
9.
tt{rfx*)\
*
10
7=A=.
</T+2*
11.
f/ 3/
(l3.^
12.
V&Z^
,
:
in
+ .v)
when
4 x= lo
2
14.
+ a?) 2 when
74?)
11
a?= 5
1
15.
(1
wheu# = .
o
a?
16.
(2a?
+ 5J/) 12 when
4.v)
=8
25
and y = 3.
17.
(5
~7
when v=t
18.
(3r2
+ 4/)  n when x = 9, y = 2,
1 5.
Find to
19.
five places of
v98.
20.
21.
\ 1003.
3
3/
4/
22.
\ 2400.
23.
^=.
24.
(1^)3.
25.
(630)
*.
26.
tfilla
27.
(l7tf) s (l
+ 2a?)"*.
162
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
31.
V^+C+jj
Prove that the
'
'
32
^T^^1^
(1+5*)*+
(4+Y
*
33.
is
coefficient of sf in the
expansion of (l4r)
v2
31
35.
Prove that
(1
+*)*=2
l

1
^ (f^
Find the
first
'
(1
+ x) 2 Vl + 4x
36.
Find the
first
(! + #)* +
*Jl
+ bx
expansion of
(1
37.
Shew that
the
th
.
nth
coefficient in the
 x)~ n
is
of (1 + x)
To find the numerically greatest term in for any rational value of\\.
the expansion
Since we are only concerned with the numerical value of the greatest term, we shall consider x throughout as positive.
Case
I.
that
by
1
J
Or
that
.,
1 'n+ 1
1
,
) 1
'
(n+ l)x
is.
> 1 + x,
)
or
(n
* + 1 1+02
x >r.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
(ll 4 1
ANY INDEX.
it
103
If
be an integer, denote
by p; then
is
if
r=p,
the
multiplying factor is 1, and the (;>+l) th term th and these are greater than any other term. ^>
,
equal to the
If
( 71 4,
its
integral part by q
and the
(q
l) th
term
is
the
Case
II.
Let n be a positive
fraction.
is
As
rm
_.
before, the
,
(r+
t
th
term by
(1)
(n +
(
l)
term
)x.
x be greater than unity, by increasing r the above multiplier can be made as near as we please to  x so that after a certain term each term is nearly x times the preceding term numerically, and thus the terms increase continually, and there is no greatest term.
If
;
than unity we see that the multiplying factor continues positive, and decreases until r > n + 1 and from this point it becomes negative but always remains less than 1 numerically therefore there will be a greatest term.
(2)
If
x be
less
As
before,
the
multiplying factor
will
be greater than
so Ions: as
( Jl 4
^
1
\ X  be an
(n + l)x
1
+x
>
r.
If
integer, denote it
by p
then, as in Case
I.,
is
equal to the
th
>
^p
4
( 7t 4"
be not an integer,
is
let q
be
its integral
part; then
the (q
l)
th
term
the greatest.
Case
III.
Let n be negative.
in,
Let n 
so
that
is
positive
nil _L
is
that
is
ml
(
\
1
)
x.
112
164
(1)
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If
II.,
x be greater than unity we may shew, as in Case that there is no greatest term.
(2)
If
x be
1,
less
greater than
so long as
(m that
is,
x >
 x,
r
or
lyn.
(m\)x > r. I x
.
If
be x
1
)
CC
it
by p
tlien the
th
If
be x
)
'
gral part
then the
'
l)
th
term
is
the greatest.
If
be negative,
tlien
is less
than unity
and by
x,
J
we
hence each term is less than see that it is always less than 1 the preceding, and consequently the first term is the greatest.
190.
sions that
To find the number of homogeneous products of v dimenand their can be formed out of the n letters a, b, c,
by the Binomial Theorem, we have
powers.
By
division, or
= 1
ax
1
2 2 3 3 + ax + a x + a x +
bx
1
+ bx +
x2 +
x3 +
=
ex
+ ex +
x2 +
x3 +
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
Hence, by multiplication,
1
1
ANY INDEX.
KJ5
1
1
_ ax
...)
bx
b*x*
ex
(1
1 1
+ ax + + x (a +
t
aV +
b
(1
+ bx +
2
...) (1
b'
+ ex +
2
cx
+
.
.
...) ...
)
.
...)
+x
(a
+ ab + ac +
suppose
+ bcc 2
4
...
+ S x + Sjfx? + Saxa +
where
a,
b,
c,
Slt
>S'.,,
SaJ
three,
are the
sums
of the
equal to 1 values of
each ; 1, and the l9 S2 S so obtained give the number of the Sl9 homogeneous products of one, two, three, dimensions.
b, c,
To obtain
number
:i
each term in
,
,
JS
S2 S
,
:i
now becomes
1 1
Also
1
ax 
bx
or (1
a;)
ex
".
becomes
(1
x) of
Hence
S = coefficient
r
r x in the expansion
of (1
x)~
n(n+
l)(n + 2)
jr
(n+r
1)
n + r1
\r
\n
To find the number of terms in the expansion of any multinomial when the index is a positive integer.
191.
In the expansion of
(at
+ aB + aB +
+a )",
r
every term is of n dimensions; therefore the number of terms is the same as the number of homogeneous products of n dimensions and their ... a that can be formed out of the r quantities a,, a powers ; and therefore by the preceding article is equal to
,
r
,
I?'
+ n
r
166
192.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
From
may deduce
n
things.
a theorem
then if we were to write Consider n letters a, b, c, d, ; down all the homogeneous products of r dimensions which can be formed of these letters and their powers, every such product would represent one of the combinations, r at a time, of the n letters, when any one of the letters might occur once, twice,
thrice,
...
up
to r times.
Therefore the number of combinations of n things r at a time when repetitions are allowed is equal to the number of homogeneous products of r dimensions which can be formed out of n
\n
letters,
+r
,
1

n\
or
n+r
*CT
things r at a time when repetitions are allowed is equal to the number of combinations of n + r 1 things r at a time when repetitions are excluded.
is,
That
the
number
of combinations of
it
193.
We
shall
laneous examples.
(1
Example
1.
Find the
coefficient of
x r in the expansion of
...
 2a;) 2
(1
+PyC +p^xr +
+p rxr + ...)
,
suppose.
1,
The
coefficient of
4,4
respectively,
p r  x p r  by
,
+ 4p r _ 2
But
p r =( iy feafc9
coefficient
1)r . 1
.
(
1)
(r+lHr + 2) _ 4( _
rJ^ + 4( _ ira I ^r
(
BINOMIAL TIIEOltEM.
Example
2.
ANY INDEX.
Hi?
of the scries
5
.
_2.
3 5
.
5.7
3.3
2
5.7.!)
1
4
:J
mU The
expression v
=2+3
.
[2
1 1 + 3.5.7 + 3.5.7.9 _ +  1 3.
;!
14
34
5 2
~
1
5
'
7
'
5
'
7
'
1)
Q
Ll?
2
'3?*"
~3~
5
2 2J '3 :i+
3
5
'
24
]i~
7
*3 5+
'
3 z 2
1
3 z 2
*3
2' 2 2
"~J2~
/2\/2\
2*2*2 /2V 2 2 2
o.rffl"
= 35 =V3
Example 3. If ?t is any n (3 + Jl) is an odd number.
Suppose I

positive integer,
of
and/
.
Then
I+f=3 +C
n
is
S" s/7
a2 S
less
n~2
+ a/7)'
(1).
1
.
7+(78
1,
3*^7) 8
+
1
Now 3 N/7
../' = 3 n
positive
and
than
therefore
(S^)'
is
a proper
C
(1)
3' l
V7 + C'
(2)
;
3' l
2
2
(2).
Add
together
and
and we have
= an
But since/ and/' are proper
:\
even integer.
fractions their
sum must
be
I=an odd
integer.
EXAMPLES. XIV.
Find the
1.
c.
coeflicient of
xm
an
in the expansion of
2.
in the expansion of
 xf 4 + 2a  a 2
(1
'
3.
* in the expansion of
X "T" X
168
4.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the
coefficient of
xn
in the expansion of
2 4 x + X2
(
+ ^J
5.
Prove that
1
1
*
2
6.
1.3 + 271
1
'
1.3.5
2_
2*
2.4.6'2 3
13.5.7 1^ 2.4.6.8'2*
V 3'
Prove that
N/8
7.
Prove that
2n(2n + 2) (2n + 4)
3.6.9
3.6.9
~2
8.
V
?
+ 3 + _ 3T6~ +
+
J
Prove that
7'
n Ji
(2
.
j.
\
J
9.
is
very small,
"7!
2
1+
(
\2
256'
'
r 'V 6
+2
>JQ)
10.
integral part of (5
n is odd, if
n be a n be a
positive integer.
11.
Shew
is
odd,
if
positive integer.
12.
Find the
coefficient of
xn
in the expansion of
)*.
Shew
/
(
x+.
1\ 4 1
'
is
of
xn
in the expansion of (1
Ax)
^"
14.
 xf n + 3nx (1
the form
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
15.
ANY INDEX.
ill
L69
at*
the expansion
1,
1.
is
1,0,
according as n
is
3m (1)
or 3//<.+
(2)
the
number
of terms,
Prove that
l\
nl
,
111
if
\'S
n be an even
\b\
integer,
1
2"" 1
,1
rc
'
n
n5
u\
\
18.
(1
If c
u
,
(',,
+.f)
when n
a)
(2)
is
I//1
c
c l+ c 2 c3+
+(mv(i)'1/
,

;^r_ 1
^2^ + 3^4^+
c* c *+cc*+
is
+ (_i)n (/i4
1)t M
.
= 0>
(1)^,
(3)
+ (l)cn2 =0,
or
according as n
19.
odd or even.
If *
(1)
denote the
sum
(l;r) 3 = ^ + %^ + ^.^+
2 (*! *, B + 82*2, _j +
+V~
l)
+...
(2)
+ 8n8n +
= 
j2^ + 4
20.
T.
1.3.5.7
fr(!)
(2)il)
,
If
2 .4. 6
?2n +
l
2n
1
P*>
that
+ <Mj + Man  +
 ?1 y,
(l
+ 2n \<ln + 2 + ?? +1 = 5+
+  1)" (
1
(2)
2 { ?2n
+ g^a.
tj
n_
# + J
in
Find the sum of the products, two at a time, of the the expansion of (1 +x)n when n is a positive integer.
21.
,
coefficients
22.
+4
,
=p +
+ p) = l.
integers,
and
9
23.
(1
If c
<?!,
c^,
+#)*, where
?i
is
c2
c
.
(I) n_1 fn
n
,11
2
CHAPTER
XV.
Multinomial Theorem.
have already seen in Art. 175, how we may apply the Binomial Theorem to obtain the expansion of a multiIn the present chapter our object is not nomial expression. so much to obtain the complete expansion of a multinomial as to find the coefficient of any assigned term.
194.
We
Example.
Find the
coefficient of
(a
+ b + c + d) u
the product of 14 factors each equal to a+b + c + d, and every term in the expansion is of 14 dimensions, being a product formed by 5 4 2 taking one letter out of each of these factors. Thus to form the term a b c*d , we take a out of any four of the fourteen factors, b out of any hco of the remaining ten, c out of any three of the remaining eight. But the number of ways in which this can be done is clearly equal to the number of ways of arranging 14 letters when four of them must be a, two 6, three c, and five d that is, equal to
The expansion
is
114
412
This
is
TTralg 3 5
[Art. 151.] J L
therefore the number of times in which the term a 4 b 2c*d 5 appears in the final product, and consequently the coefficient required is 2522520.
To find pansion of (a + b +
195.
the coefficient of any assigned term in the exp where is a positive integer. c + cl +
.
..)
The expansion is the product of p factors each equal to a + + c + cZ + ..., and every term in the expansion is formed by taking one letter out of each of these p factors ; and therefore the number of ways in which any term a a b^cyd8 ... will appear in the final product is equal to the number of ways of arranging p letters when a of them must be a, (3 must be b, y must be c; and so on. That is,
ft
the coefficient of
aabPcyds
a+
j3
...
is
o ~f~^ p \y 6
\p
...
where
+ y+
...
=p.
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
Cok.
Jn the expansion of
(a
171
+ bx +
cx~
...
+ da? +
is
...
)'',
^L.a^^v^).
or
iT5Ht^t/3
aWcyd5
...
xfi+2y+M +
..
where a +
This
+y+
...
= p.
general term of the expansion.
expansion of
(a
may be
eallecl tlte
Example.
Find the
coefficient of * in the
+ i.c + ex 2
)'.
of the expansion is
iia
where a + p + y = \).
^V
+2?
(i),
We
which
have to obtain by trial all the positive integral values of /3 and 7 satisfy the equation fi + 2y = 5; the values of a can then be found from
a + /3 + 7 = 9.
/3
the equation
Putting 7 = 2, we have
The required
expression
(1).
To find
the general
(a
+ bx + ex 2 +
n
. .
.)
vjhere
is
any
rational quantity.
is
By
n(nl)(n2)...(np + l)
(
+ rf +
^+
where jp
is
a positive integer
172
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
195, the general term of the expansion of
(6a;
And, by Art.
ex'
+ dx 3 +
...)''
\P
\pjy_\o_
where
ft,
y, 8
sum
is p.
where
197.
/?
+y+
...
= /?.
Since (a + bx
+ ex 2 + dx 3 +
+
c
2
..)"
may
...
be written in the
form
A 6 ail +x
\
it will
x+ar+
3
a*
y
,
be sufficient to consider the case in which the hrst term of the multinomial is unity.
of
. .
3 + bx + ex 2 + dx +
.)"
is
n (nl)(n2). \p \v
(np +
8
\
l)
bpcyd8
^ +9f+u+
where
Example.
fi
+ y + &\...=p.
x 3 in the expansion of
Find the
coefficient of
The
general term
is
S(S0(t)...(* + o V
,.,
,,
iOsA^e) /^^
8
(i).
have to obtain by trial all the positive integral values of /3, 7, 5 which satisfy the equation j3 + Zy + 35 3 ; and then p is found from the equation 5. The required coefficient will be the sum of the corresponding 2>=/3 + 7 +
We
(1).
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
173
In finding /3, 7, 5, ... it will be best to commence by giving to 5 successive integral values beginning with the greatest admissible. In the present case the values are found to be
8=1,
= 0, 5 = 0,
5
(1)
3~3
it is
198.
Sometimes
more expeditious
Theorem.
Example.
Find the
coefficient of
x 4 in the expansion
of (1
 2x + 3.r 2 ) 3
found by picking out the coefficient of x x from the first few terms of the expansion of (1  2x  Sx 2 ) * by the Binomial Theorem that is, from
coefficient is
;
The required
+ 3 {2x  Sx 2 + 6
)
(2.r
 3x2 ) 2 + 10 {2x 
3.r) :J
+ 15
(2.r
3.r
2 4
)
;
we stop
than
x*.
at this
term
The
required coefficient = 6
+ 10
(2)
3)
+ 15
(2)
66.
EXAMPLES. XV.
Find the
1.
coefficient of
(ab c+d) w
.
2.
a 2 b d in the expansion of (a + b c d) s
a?b s c in the expansion of (2a + 6f 3c) r
.
3. 4.
5.
{cub
 by + cz)9
.
x3
in the expansion of
(l+3# 2a2 )3
(l
)
6.
7.
xA in the expansion of
.'"
in tlie
expansion of
(if
8.
A"
in the expansion
)'\
174
Find the
9.
.r
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
coefficient of
23
in the expansion of (1 
2x + 3x2  x4  .i/') 5
i
10.
in the expansion of (1
in the expansion of (1
2x + 3x
2
)
2
.
11.
 2x + 3x 2  4a3 ) 2  X + X*\)
'
12.
x8
in the expansion of
(
(
~2
.
13.
14. 15.
x* in the expansion of (2 
4x + 3x2 ) ~ 2
2
X in the expansion of x 12
+ Ax + 1 Ox + 20^G ) " *
4
in the expansion of (3
i
 15x* + 18^')  l x2
.
16.
Expand
(1
 2x  2x
2
)*
as far as
2
17.
Expand Expand
If
(1
+ 3x  6x*)
as far as
x5
18. 19.
(8
 9^ + 1 8a4 ) 3
"
as far as
x8
l
(l+x + x2 +
+xP) n = a
+ a x + a.^v +
2
a xn
llf>
r>,
prove that
(1)
+a1 +aa +
+a^=(p+l)n
(2)
a1 +2a2 +3a8 +
a
2
)
,
+p.ap=5i>(p+l)*.
20.
If
of
(1
+x+x
a
2
a 15 a2
>
ft 3
n
,
prove that
a 2 + a 2 a 2 +
If the
21.
expansion of
be
a
o + a 3 + a6
...
+a 2n x2n
8
shew that
...
=a + a + a+
l
...
= + a6 +a +
2
...
= 3 n_1
CHAPTER
XVI.
Logarithms.
The logarithm of any number to a given Definition. base is the index of the power to which the base must be raised Thus if a x = JV, x is called in order to equal the given number. the logarithm of to the base a.
199.
Examples.
(1)
is 4.
(2)
Since
lO^lO,
3,...
1, 2,
The logarithm of iV to base a is usually written log a jy, 200. so that the same meaning is expressed by the two equations
x a =
N; x = \og
N.
From
these equations
we deduce
an identity which
Example.
is
sometimes
useful.
to base 2 N/2.
by
definition,
(2
x/2) = 32 4/4
1
..
(2. 2*)*
3
..
=2
s
.
2*
2
2^ = 2 5 ^;
3 27  x = r
;
.'.
x=
= o
36.
176
201.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
understood that a particular system of logarithms is in use, the suffix denoting the base is omitted. Thus in arithmetical calculations in which 10 is the base, we instead of log 10 2, log l0 3, usually write log 2, log 3,
it
When
is
might be taken as the base of logarithms, and corresponding to any such base a system of logarithms of all numbers could be found. But before discussing the logarithmic systems commonly used, we shall prove some general propositions which are true for all logarithms independently of any particular
base.
Any number
202.
TJie
logarithm of
all
1 is 0.
For
the base
203.
values of a
therefore log
10, whatever
itself is 1.
For a = a
201.
therefore loga a
To find
the logarithm
let
of a product.
Let
suppose
MN be the product;
a:
log. J/,
y = \oga J\T;
a*
so that
a*
= M,
= N.
ay
MN==ax x
= ax+y ;
whence, by definition, log a
MN = x + y
= 100^1/"+
low
N.
= \oga M+
and so on
for
any number
of factors.
Example.
log 42 = log (2 x 3 x 7
To find
the logarithm
of a fraction.
Let
M be the
zz
fraction,
and suppose
so that
x= ax =
\oga
M
i
2/
= loga iT;
ay = N.
LOGARITHMS.
Thus the
fraction
whence',
by
definition,
loga
*=x y
'
178
Example
log
c.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
1.
a ^ m
terms of log
a, log b
and
Ja*
a2
=3 log(logc + logfc
3
2
)
Find
a;
sides,
we have
;
x log a  2x
..
lo 2 6
log a  2 log
 3 log
EXAMPLES. XVI.
Find the logarithms of
1.
a.
2.
4.
3.
256
'3
to base
9.
4. 5.
'0625 to base
and 1000
and i
2
to base 01.
to base 9^/3.
6.
kI gp
/~*r
,
3
,
*/
r~^
a
to base a.
a?
7.
^,
logfrgj,
log3 43 49
'
log(N^)
fi
9.
log{Va 2
xyb s
).
10.
logflcFW).
"
=
179
LOGARITHMS.
11.
log^o^x^oJR).
log
12.
log(^a
V63 jVP7a).
f
13.
14.
logj^J +
2
ffi
15.
Shew
that log f
'
^ = 1
VW7J2
72!)
logo   log2
5
log 3.
16.
Simplify
logV
9" 1 27 3
.
17.
75  2 log 5 + 
1<
>g
=
39
h .g
2.
o=c&*
19.
a2.63*=cs
'
90 U
*
^  "& &**
c
21
a 2* m6 3*.62 a =m10J
l
'
22.
If \og(x'2y 3 )
=a
and log = 6,
b 3x ,
find log*
and
log//.
23.
If
a3 " *
V> x
= ax + \
24.
 2a*b* + b*) x  1 = (a 
ft)
2*
(a + 6) 
'.
Common Logarithms.
Logarithms to the base 10 are called Common Logarithms; this system was first introduced, in 1615, by Briggs, a contemporary of Napier the inventor of logarithms.
208.
the equation 10  JV, it is evident that common logarithms "will not in general be integral, and that they will not
From
always be positive.
For instance
.*.
log
3151=3 + a
fraction. ion.
122
180
Again,
.*.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
06
log *06
=
+a
fraction.
The integral part of a logarithm is called Definition. 209. the characteristic, and the decimal part is called the mantissa.
characteristic of the logarithm of any number to the base 10 can be written down by inspection, as we shall now shew.
The
210.
To determine
the characteristic
number
Since
10  10,
1
10 =100, 10 1000,
3
number with two digits in its integral part lies 2 between 10' and 10 a number with three digits in its integral 3 2 Hence a number part lies between 10 and 10 ; and so on. 10" _I and 10". with n digits in its integral part lies between
it
follows that a
Let
then
N be
number whose
digits;
.*.
log
iV=
(n 1) + a fraction.
characteristic is n 1 \ that is, the characteristic of the logarithm of a number greater than unity is less by one than the number of digits in its integral part, and is positive.
Hence the
10=
1,
1(rs
=iJcr
01 '
108
=i=' 001
>
LOGARITHMS.
it
181
follows that a decimal with one cipher immediately after the decimal point, such as 0324, being greater than 01 and less 1 than 1, lies between 10~ 2 and 10 ; a number with two ciphers after the decimal point lies between 10 _:i and 10""; and so on. Hence a decimal fraction with n ciphers immediately after the decimal point lies between 10~ " + 1) and 10~".
(
Let
thou
f)~(w + l) +
fraction.
log J)
= (n +
is
l)
+n
fraction.
1)
;
Hence the
of
characteristic
 (n+
that
is,
the characteristic
of a decimal fraction is greater by unity titan the number of ciphers immediately after the decimal point, and is
the logarithm
negative.
212.
The logarithms
to
in
is
the results already proved it is evident that the characteristics can be written down by inspection, so that only the mantissse have to be registered in the Tables.
(1)
From
The mantissse are the same for the logarithms of all numbers which have the same significant digits; so that it is
(2)
Let be any number, then since multiplying or dividing by a power of 10 merely alters the position of the decimal point without changing the sequence of figures, it follows ~ 10 7 that x 10''. and where p and q are any integers, are numbers whose significant digits are the same as those of N.
213.
Now
Again,
log
(N x
10 p )
= log J\r +p
log (AT 1
9
(1
1
).
 log N  q log
= logiV7
an integer subtracted from log
(1)
(2).
In
is
;
added to
that
is,
logiV^,
and
in (2)
an integer
is
182
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
In this and the three preceding articles the mantissse have been supposed positive. In order to secure the advantages of
we arrange our work so as always to keep the mantissa positive, so that when the mantissa of any logarithm
Briggs' system,
has been taken from the Tables the characteristic is prefixed with its appropriate sign according to the rules already given.
In the case of a negative logarithm the minus sign is written over the characteristic, and not before it, to indicate that the characteristic alone is negative, and not the whole expression.
214.
Thus 430103, the logarithm of 0002, is equivalent to 4 + 30103, and must be distinguished from 4*30103, an expression in which both the integer and the decimal are negative. In working with negative logarithms an arithmetical artifice will sometimes be For instance, necessary in order to make the mantissa positive. a result such as  3*69897, in which the whole expression is negative, may be transformed by subtracting 1 from the Thus characteristic and adding 1 to the mantissa.
 369897   4 +
(1
 69897) = 430103.
In the Tables we find that 3859636 is the mantissa of log 2432 (the decimal point as well as the characteristic being omitted) and, by Art. 211, the characteristic of the logarithm of the given number is  4
;
..
Example
2.
then
I
= lg (00000165) 5 =
= log (00000165)
o
= i (62174839)
the mantissa of log 00000165 being the characteristic being prefixed by the rule.
165,
and the
Now
 (62174839)
=
(10
+ 42174839)
= 28434968
'
LOGARITHMS.
183
and 8434908 is the mantissa of log 007424; hence x is a number consisting of these same digits but with one cipher after the decimal point. [Art.
211.
Thus
215.
a:
= 0097424.
The method of calculating logarithms will be explained in the next chapter, and it will there be seen that they are first found to another base, and then transformed into common logarithms to base 10.
It will therefore be necessary to investigate a method for transforming a system of logarithms having a given base to a new system with a different base.
216.
Let
quired.
to
base
is
re
=N
= logJT;
log. (&")
that
is,
ylog = log,JV;
J log r X log N. 0u a6
1/
'
or
k&^wK*
1U Oa
10
^
log b are
all
1 )
and b are given, los: N and from the Tables, and thus log^V may be found.
Now
since
known
Hence
to base b
it
we have only J
them
by J
this
is
log b
it is
known
as the
Tn equation
.
put a for
N\
thus
i
On
,
Oa
log/t x log 8 /j
184
This result
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
may
also be
Let
x = log/?, so that
b,
=b
we have
x \og b a = \ogb b
..
loga 6xlog 4 a
l.
218.
will illustrate
the utility of
logarithms in facilitating arithmetical calculation ; but for information as to the use of Logarithmic Tables the reader is referred to works on Trigonometry.
4
Example
1.
Given
log 3 = 4771213,
The
required value
= 3 log j= +
27
4 81 5  log  log 90 1Q
=
= 3(l<^3l)+oog3*2)(log3*+l)
KM)"*aK +
= ^log35H
t)
= 46280766585
= 27780766.
notice that the logarithm of 5 powers can always be obtained from log 2 ; thus
log 5
and
its
= log
= log 10  log 2 =
digits in
log
2.
Example
2.
875 1C given
,
= 3010300,
log 7
= 8450980.
log (875 16 )
[Art. 210.]
LOGARITHMS.
Example 3. Given log 2 and log value of x from the equation
3,
185
two places of decimals the
find to
sides,
we have
(x
 4a) log G +
+ 5)
log 4 = log 8
(3
4.r)
(log 2
+ log 3) +
(x
2)
+ 5)
2 log 2
= 3 log 2
 10 log 2
..
.r (
= 10
log 2
2 log
_ 44416639 ~2al054a2
= 177...
EXAMPLES. XVI.
1.
b.
87, 875.
The mantissa of log 7623 is '8821259 2. of 7623, 7623, U07623, 762300, '000007623.
3.
write
down
the logarithms
How many
numbers
14771213,
369897,
56515
numbers
54871384.
7
= 8450980,
log 128.
find
the
log 64.
log 0125.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
log 4^.
4
11.
log^l2.
12.
logW
\
i
13.
logN/ 0l05.
:
14.
15.
186
16.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the product of 37203, 37203, 0037203, 372030, having
log 37203
given that
= 15705780,
3,
17.
find log
//3 2 5**\ /( y )
18.
f ^6).
19.
given log
20.
2,
log
3,
/294 x 125 \ 2
'
given log
2,
log 3, log 7
also
log 11
21.
= 10413927,
x 28
22.
Shew
that
/21\ 100
(
is
J
23.
in
2,
log 3,
55
and
log
.
7.
3*~ 2 = 5.
25.
1
5*
= 10l
28. 30.
26.
~ 3 *=2* + 2
1
27.
29.
2F = 2 2 * +
2x + y
.5 3
.
2*. 6* 2
=5 2 *. 7
\
"*.
= 6
'
"I
3l
~ x  y =4y ~l
3*
31.
32.
=3
22,
+ ij
2 2x
=3 3j/_a;J
Given log 10 2 =
.30103, log 10 7
= 84509,
and logV27.
CHAPTER
XVII.
SERIES.
In Chap. XVI. it was stated that the logarithms in common use were not found directly, but that logarithms .are first found to another base, and then transformed to base 10.
In the present chapter we shall prove certain formulae known as the Exponential and Logarithmic Series, and give a brief explanation of the way in which they are used in constructing a
table of logarithms.
220.
By
n>l,
K)"
=
1
+ nx  + n
.
nx(nx\) v
r
.
 n"
nx (nx *
1) (nx 2) J ~

1
.
s 6
x (x
I?
x (x
(x \
(i).
3
I
By
putting sb=1,
we
obtain
(')
188
hence the seizes
(1) is
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
the xih power of the series (2); that
is,
+ x+
rz
and
this is true
indefinitely
be.
If therefore
n be
1+ * +
The
is
x2
2
x3
]3
xA
_4
/'ill 1+
1
U+ ^ ^
+
series
+
e
++
1
usually denoted by
hence
5
,=
Write ex
++
x
X3
X4
for x, then
6** =
CX 4
cV
tjj
cV +
ry
;
Now
obtain
let
so that c
= log/*
by substituting
for c
we
a'
= l+x\og a +
e
Vo
If
lr
This
Cor.
is
When n
is infinite,
+
= e.
it
may
be shewn that
when n
is
indefinitely increased,
(, 1+
x\ n
n)
=1+X+
X2
Y2
x3
]3
x4
\i
180
when n
is infinite,
the limit of
+ nj V
1
)
T
.
x
l>y putting
1
,
we have
Now m
is
Hence the
221.
limit of
(1 (.')' = e~\
)
In the preceding
article
is less
no restriction
is
placed upon
[Art. 183.]
But there
deserves
is
notice.
We
nj
is
infinite
/
the limit or
1\7
\
2\
rV
n
J
.
xr
\r
is r
\r
for
all values
of r.
"3( ~3 {
a,
x
^r) by u
as
Then
Since n
H(*^)
z,
1 / = lx
r 1\ =
n
)
r \
nr
is infinite,
we have
. .
U = X u
,
that
is,
u ~ ur
r
a
is r^;
is
,x;
that of
uA
x
is .r;
of
ut
x
is .
.
190
222.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
The
series
ii
111
+
'
~@
which we have denoted by e, is very important as it is the base Logarithms to this to which logarithms are first calculated. base are known as the Napierian system, so named after Napier their inventor. They are also called natural logarithms from the fact that they are the first logarithms which naturally come into
consideration in algebraical investigations.
logarithms are used in theoretical work it is to be remembered that the base e is always understood, just as in arithmetical work the base 10 is invariably employed.
the series the approximate value of e can be determined to any required degree of accuracy ; to 1 places of decimals it is
When
From
found to be 27182818284.
Example
1.
infinite series
We
have
= l + l+

++
ex ,
rg
and by putting x = 
1 in
" 1=1 
1+
i2i3
n
hence the
sum
of the series is
 (e
+ e~
x ).
Example
1
2.
Find the
coefficient of
x r in the expansion of
ex
 ax x o
= (1  ax  x 2
e~x
n n fi = (la,^)l, + * + ^
...
+ L_L_ +
(l) rx r
j.
SERIES.
101
(!)>
r
(l)'ia
(1)'
r1
r2
l) r
{l + arr(rl)},
223.
7V>
expand
log, (1
tt) ira
ascending powers of
8 3
\.
From
Art. 220,
a"
=
+ y 1< >g
r6
/r (loge a)
^ y ^
(log. c v
L
+x
4+
'
'
lii
for a; thus
(1 +x)'J
+ y log,
(1
+ *) +
f {log, (1 2
+ *)} +
{log
1
(1
a;)}
...
(1).
we have
rf+
(2).
(i+yi+ +
Now
g^*+ y fry
is
1 >fr 8)
,+ 1.3* + 1.2J
.
+
rp&
\K/
1.2.3.4
>*
'
that
is,
 +
%K/
r**^
2i
Equate
y in
(1)
thus
we have
l0g t,(l
+Ct')
= 7J+
t
 +
in ascending powers of
(2),
.t.
This
is
known
If
Example.
x < 1, expand
+ x)} 9
equating the coefficients of y 2 in the series (1) and required expansion is double the coefficient of y'2 in
?/(!/!) ____.r2 + y (y x
.
By
we
1) (y
2)
1.2.8
+
,
y(yi)(y2)(y3)
1.2.3.4
1) (y  2) (y
^+
'
that
is,
* +
(y
3)
"1.2.3.4
+
}.
Thn8
{log.(l +
*)P=2{^i(l+l)^(l + l + l)*
192
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Except when x is very small the series for log e (l + x) 224. can, however, is of little use for numerical calculations. deduce from it other series by the aid of which Tables of Logar
We
ithms
may
be constructed.
By
writing
for x
we
obtain log.
1 1
hence
1
lo S.(
n+1 ) lo& w =
for
S"2? 3^"
n 1
;
(1)
By
writing
x we obtain log e
hence, by changing
log e (n
1)
=  + sa +
#7
3 +
(2).
From
(1)
and
(2)
by addition,
log.("
+ l)log,(nl) =
2(
+_+__+
...J
(3).
obtain log e 4 log e 2, that is log e 2 ; and by effecting the calculation we find that the value of log 6 2 69314718...; whence log e S is known.
From
this formula
by putting n =
we
Again by putting n =
we
obtain log e 10
log e 8; whence we
findloge 10 = 230258509....
we
multiply by
=j=
which
value
is
common
we
system, and
its
is
/x.
^' oOJjOoDk) J .
or '43429448...;
modulus by
In the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. xxvn. page 88, Professor J. 0. Adams has given the values of e, /x, log e 2, log e 3, loge 5 to more than 260 places of decimals.
225. If we multiply the above series throughout by /x, we obtain formulae adapted to the calculation of common logarithms.
Thus from
(1), /x
loge (ra
1)
 /* log
?i
= _
^ + JL
. ...
193
log I0 ( M + 1)
log,
n=
t
Jt.
m
(2)
.
Similarly from
l
(2),
^lo >l)^ + ^ + + ^
g]
From
ot one of
we
see that
if
two consecutive numbers be known, the logarithm of the other may be found, and thus a table of logarithms can be constructed.
only needed to J2 ; +^ calculate the logarithms of prime numbers, for the logarithm ot a compose number may be
Sl
the logarithm
" ld
*"**
logarithms of
its
component
factors.
In order to calculate the logarithm of any one of the smaller prime numbers, we do not usually substitute the number in either of the formula or (2), but we endeavour to find (1) some value ot n by which division may be easily performed, and such that
1
or
nl
log(n+l)
contains the given number as a factor. or log(w l) and deduce the logarithm of
We
By
putting n = 10 in
1
of log
10
log 9; thus
2 log 3
log 3 = 477121256.
Putting M = 80 in
4 log 3  3 log 2  1
(1),
we obtain
3 log 2
In
iog9
{7i
the
next
we
shall
give
another
+ l)\ ge n which is often useful in the construction of Logarithmic Tables. For further information on the subject the
series
for
>
194
226.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
In Art. 223 we have proved that
2
log e (l
x)
x~2
2
3"~"'
changing x into 
cc,
we have
3
log.(l )=*2 ~
J"
x5
By
subtraction,
.
+x
a /
x3
Put
lx
+
\) ;
n
log. &e
so that
x
Zn +
= 1
we thus
+
obtain
los* (n oeV
n = 2< 5
(2w +
777^
3(2?i
+ l) 3
va
5(2w +
jt=
^r. 5
...}.
J
l)
is
Note.
not always
227. chapter.
illustrate the
subject of the
Example
that
1.
If a,
Jx2 + a ^ x3 ...
.
ffi
Since a
+ 8=
a/3
=  we
,
have
a  bx + cx 2 =a {l
{a
+ B)x + aBx 2 )
(1
=a
..
(1
+ cur)
log (a
 bx + ex 2 = log a + log
)
B3x 3
= \oga + {a + B)xExample
log (1
2.
^^
+ *+^
of
is
...
xn in the expansion
3.
of
+ x + x2
is
or  according as
is
or
not a multiple of
log (1
+ x + x 2 = log)
1x 3
X6
=log
X9
(1
 x'3)  log
X 3r
(1
x)
X2
X3
xr
'
'
'
93
_I
is
a multiple of
first series,
3,
denote
it
by
3,;
j,
from the
together with
or _ ?
I
g
fr
om
^ J
therefore
coefficient is
 n
n
3,
If
is
not a multiple f
is .
first series,
228.
To prove
if
that e is incommensurable.
For
not, let e
= where m
1
then
^ui..
7i
1
1
If
(w
n+l
"
m ^irJ
But
= integer + i +
w+1
___J___
(n+l)(n+2)
(n+])(jw.2)(n+S)
1
+ "
n+
L + _____J_____
1
(n
l)(n+ 3)
it is
(n
+ 1 )~(^T2)^T3) +
*
'
is
greater than
and
less
than the
geometrical progression
_
n+\
that
is,
_i
(n+1)
2
'
i__
\3 (n+iy +
'j
less
is
a fraction, which
absurd; therefore
e is
incommensurable.
EXAMPLES. XVIL
1.
0 + 57 2^3
2.
+ 5~6 ? .+...
^3
23
i72 4
25
"
* '
15
o
.
19G
3.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Shew
that
a?
\
/>o
%A/
4.
if
y=*'2 +3 2
3
*t/
O"**
4 +
. . .
shew that
5.
x =y +^ +
that
^+
' )
Shew
a
+~ 2
(
V~^" /
+ )+^P 3 V
+...
= log alog
e
Z>.
6.
of decimals.
7.
Prove that
Prove that
e" 1
1 = 2 (/ . +
2
.=
+ nr +....)
8.
iog,d + xr ( i )''=
9.
( +
4
)
o
+
+)
H
10.
f
j2
('
#
i
^
//,m

Find the numerical values of the common logarithms of and 13; given ^ = 43429448, log 2 = '30103000.
11.
7, 1
Shew that
if
ax2 and
12.
Prove that
logc (l
+ 3a+2^2 = 3.r)
+
S5X3
+
65.iT4
...
and
term of the
series.
13.
Prove that
,
+ 3.?
5x2
and
term of the
series.
14.
Expand
x.
197
Express 25
(e ix
+ e~ ix
in ascending
powers of
.r,
where i'=
</
1.
16.
Shew that
17.
If a
and
/3
be the roots of
18.
Bum
2
of the series
,
19.
i
Shew that
i\ A + ) n =1 (1
,
log,
nj
2( + l)
2.3(>4l) 2
3.4(>t
+ l) 3
""
20.
If log,
^,^^,2^ l+.r + .^ +
., x
3 3
De expanded in
coefficient of
n is
a series of ascending
.t
powers of
the form
#,
o:
1
if
n be odd,
or of
4m + 2. and
Shew
that
n be
of the
form 4m.
21.
23
]2
+
,
33
J3
43
(4
+  =5e
22.
Prove that
2 log,
n  log,
1)
log, (
_ 1)=
+ _+
"
23.
Shew
that
ft
+1
2(?i+l) 2
1_
2?i
2
+
'
3(7i+I) 3
1
n
<)
3n 3
81
1()
'
24.
log,
If log,
= Yq
24
,
loge
=~ 25
=1
1
?;
go
= C sheW
'
that
2 = 7a  26 +
3c,
log, 3
a  36 + 5c,
log, 5
= 1 6a  Ah + Vc
and calculate
8 places of decimals.
CHAPTER
XVIII.
In this chapter we shall explain how the solution of 229. questions connected with Interest and Discount may be simplified by the use of algebraical formulae.
Value in their ordinary arithmetical sense ; but instead of taking as the rate of interest the interest on ,100 for one year, we shall find it more convenient to take the interest on 1 for one year.
shall use the
Interest, Discount, Present
"We
terms
Let
year,
P be
n
;
the principal in pounds, r the interest of 1 for one the amount. the number of years, I the interest, and
is
of
and therefore
for
n years
(1).
=Pnr
M = P + I;
M=P(l+nr)
(1)
r,
that
is,
(2).
r, 7,
From
or P,
?i,
and (2) we see that if of the quantities P, n, M, any three be given the fourth may be found.
the present value
231.
To find
and
discount of a given
sum
interest.
Let
P be
r the interest of
the discount, the present value, for one year, n the number of years.
'
199
Since V is the sum which put out to interest at the present time will in u years amount to P, we have
P=
V(\+nr);
+ nr
And
D=P1
P
+ nr
'
Pnr 1 + nr
The value of D given by this equation is called the true discount. But in practice when a sum of money is paid before it is due, it is customary to deduct the interest on the debt instead of the true discount, and the money so deducted is called the banker's discount; so that
Note.
Banker's Discount = Pnr.
True Discount =
Pnr
1
+ nr'
Example. The difference between the true discount and the banker's discount on 1900 paid 4 months before it is due is 6s. 8d.; find the rate per cent., simple interest being allowed.
Let r denote the interest on 1 for one year; then the banker's discount 1900r
1900

is
~~
,
^~
''
is
i*
1900r
""
~3~
1900r
~3~
1
;
7~T~3 l r
+i
1900r 2 =3
whence
*'
+ >;
3800
'
_ ~ 1 Jl + 22800 ~
3800
,
1151
152
t,
1 we nave faSui = o?
= 100r = 4.
To find the interest and amount of a given sum in a given time at compound interest.
232.
Let
P denote
the
number
the principal, 7? the amount of 1 in one year, the amount. of years, I the interest, and
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
the end of the first year is PR ; and, since this is the principal for the second year, the amount at the end of 2 x Similarly the amount at the or PR the second year is 3 end of the third year is PR and so on ; hence the amount in n years is PR" \ that is,
P at
PR R
.'.
Note.
on 1
for
R = l+r.
In business transactions when the time contains a 233. fraction of a year it is usual to allow simjyle interest for the Thus the amount of ,1 in ^ year is fraction of the year. v reckoned 1 +  ; and the amount of in 4f years at compound
interest
is
PR*
(1 + ^ r
Similarly
the
amount
of
in
n+
m/
more than once a year there is a distinction between the nominal annual rate of interest and that actually received, which may be called the true annual rate ; thus if the interest is payable twice a year, and if r is the nominal
If the interest is payable
annual rate of
interest, the
amount
of
in half a year
is 1
r +^
of <1 is (1
+ J,
is
2
;
so
that
the
true
annual
rate
of
interest
If the interest is payable q times a year, and if r is the nominal annual rate, the interest on .1 for each interval is
234.
r
,
of
in
years, or
qn
intervals, is
In
(f
times a year.
201
convertible into principal every moment, then q becomes infinitely great. To find the value of the amount, r 1 put  = so that q  rx thus x q
, :
the
amount =
(l
since
is infinite
when q
is infinite.
235.
To find
stun
be the given sum, V the present value, the discount, the amount of 1 for one year, n the number of years.
Let
Since
is
time, will in
the sum which, put out to interest at the present years amount to P, we have
P=VR
it
n
',
and
Example.
D = P(lR).
The present value of 672 due in a certain time is 126; interest at 4 per cent, be allowed, find the time; having given
log 2
if
compound
= 30103,
log 3 = 47712.
Here
then
672=126
.
y
;
25
'
?ll0g
672
g
i26'
24
.
or
..
100
96
?ilog
=logy
16
= log 16  log 3,
4 log 2  log 3
2  5 log 2
n=
 log 3
Veiy nea y
'
"
thus the time
is
72700
01773
'
202
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES.
When
log 2 = 3010300, log 7
1.
XVIII.
a.
may
be used,
= 8450980,
= 10413927.
cent,
compound
interest the interest on a certain sum of money is ,90, and the discount on the same sum for the same time and at the same rate is 80 ; find the sum.
2.
At simple
3.
In how
many
years will a
?
sum
of
money double
itself at 5
per
cent,
compound
interest
Find, correct to a farthing, the present value of 10000 due 4. years hence at 5 per cent, compound interest given 8 log 6768394 = 48304856.
;
5.
In
how many
interest
?
compound
6.
mean
7.
at simple interest the discount between the sum due and the interest on it.
Shew that
is
Shew that money will increase more than a hundredfold a century at 5 per cent, compound interest.
8.
in
What sum
to
amount
1000
compound
interest will
log 106
9.
= 20253059,
log 49697
= 46963292.
:
borrows 600 from a moneylender, and the bill is renewed every halfyear at an increase of 1 8 per cent. what time will elapse before it reaches 6000 1 Given log 1 18 = 2071882.
A man
"What
amount of a farthing in 200 years at 6 per cent, Given log 106 = 20253059, log 11 50270 = 20611800. compound interest?
10.
is
the
Annuities.
*
An annuity is a fixed sum paid periodically under 236. certain stated conditions ; the payment may be made either once Unless it is otherwise a year or at more frequent intervals.
stated
we
payments annual.
;
annuity certain is an annuity payable for a fixed term of a life annuity is an years independent of any contingency annuity which is payable during the lifetime of a person, or of the survivor of a number of persons.
An
203
deferred annuity, or reversion, is an annuity which does not begin until after the lapse of a certain number of years ; and when the annuity is deferred for n years, it is said to commence after n years, and the first payment is made at the end of n + 1
years.
If the annuity is to continue for ever it is called a perpetuity
if it
;
it is
annuity left unpaid for a certain number of years to be forborne for that number of years.
237.
An
said
To find
the
amount of an annuity
interest.
left
be the annuity, r the interest of 1 for one year, n the number of years, the amount.
the end of the first year A is due, and the amount of this sum in the remaining n  1 years is A + (n 1) rA ; at the end of the second year another A is due, and the amount of this sum in the remaining (a 2) years is A + (ii 2) rA and so on. Now is the sum of all these amounts
At
M
..
+ (A + rA) + A,
J/=Wil+(l +
= nA +
K
+ 3+
'
+nl)rA
rA.
238. To find the amount of an annuity left given number of years, allowing compound interest.
unpaid for a
one year, n
Let
the
be the annuity,
of years,
number
M the amount.
AR
the
amount
of <1 for
the end of the first year A is due, and the amount of this n~ sum in the remaining n 1 years is at the end of the ; second year another A is due, and the amount of this sum in the n~ 2 remaining n  2 years is and so on.
At
AR
..
M = AR
.
+ AR" +
2
+AR
to
AR + A
= A(l
+R + R
n terms)
Rm =A R^l
204
239.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
In finding the present value
of annuities it is always
customary to reckon compound interest; the results obtained when simple interest is reckoned being contradictory and untrustworthy. On this point and for further information on the subject of annuities the reader may consult Jones on the Value of Annuities and Reversionary Payments, and the article Annuities
in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 240.
(jiven
To find t/ie present value of an annuity to continue for number of years, allowing compound interest.
be the annuity, R the amount of >\ in one year, n the number of years, V the required present value.
Let
of
A due
in
year
is
is
AR~
AR~
A due
in 2 years
AR~'J
3
due in 3 years
is
and so
on.
[Art. 235.]
is
Now V
payments
..
the
sum
1
+ AK 3 +
tow terms
 R~"
1
lR
=A
Note.
This result
given in Art. 238, by
1R"
Rl
may
.
Rn
we
RV
mA
'
In the case
of a perpetual annuity
1
mA
hence
m=r
100
rate per cent.
INTEREST AND ANNUITIES.
205
is
that is, the number of years' purchase of a perpetual annuity obtained by dividing 100 by the rate per cent.
instances of perpetual annuities we may mention the income arising from investments in irredeemable Stocks such as
As
many Government
Debentures. nished by the number of years' purchase of its Stocks ; thus the 2 p. c. Consols at 96} are worth 35 years' purchase Egyptian 4 p. c. Stock at 96 is worth 24 years' purchase while Austrian 5 p. c. Stock at 80 is only worth 16 years' purchase.
;
Securities, Corporation Stocks, and Railway good test of the credit of a Government is fur
242.
To find
at the
the
present
value
to
commence
Let
be the annuity,
the
amount
at
of
1
end
in one year,
V the
present value.
The
first
payment
is
made
the
of
(;>
l) years.
[Art. 236.]
of the
first,
...
(1,+3
>+
ton terms
= AR~ (p+1)
7?~"
AR~ V
A R p "
Cor. The present value of a deferred perpetuity to commence after p years is given by the formula
V
~RV
is
243.
A freehold
estate
annuity called the rent ; and thus the value of the estate to the present value of a perpetuity equal to the rent.
equal
It follows from Art. 241 that if we know the number of years' purchase that a tenant pays in order to buy his farm, we obtain the rate per cent, at which interest is reckoned by dividing 100 by the number of years' purchase.
206
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Example. The reversion after 6 years of a freehold estate is bought for 20000; what rent ought the purchaser to receive, reckoning compound Given log 105 = 0211893, log 1340096 = 1271358. interest at 5 per cent. ?
The
years,
rent is equal to the annual value of the perpetuity, deferred which may be purchased for 20000.
'
for 6
Let
.R
= l05, we
have
20000^* ^ 5
0o
' 6
;
log
..
A = 31271358 = log
134009G.
is
A = 1310096, and
the rent
1340.
Is. lid.
Suppose that a tenant by paying down a certain sum lias obtained a lease of an estate for p + q years, and that when q years have elapsed he wishes to renew the lease for a term p + n years the sum that he must pay is called the fine for renewing n years of the lease.
244.
;
Let A be the annual value of the estate then since the tenant has paid for p of the p + n years, the fine must be equal to the present value of a deferred annuity A, to commence after
;
p years and
to continue for
.
n years
that
is,
the fine
AR* = = A1
AR p n A1
[Art. 242.1
EXAMPLES.
The
1.
XVIII.
b.
interest is supposed
compound
is stated.
person borrows ,672 to be repaid in 5 years by annual instalments of ,120; find the rate of interest, reckoning simple interest.
Find the amount of an annuity of ,100 in 20 years, allowing compound interest at 4 per cent. Given
2.
log24117 = 13823260.
at what rent should it on the purchase money ?
;
be
freehold estate is bought for 2750 3. let so that the owner receive 4 per cent,
A
A
may
120 a year
is
207
How many years' purchase should be interest being calculated at 3i per cent.? estate,
5.
6.
amount
7.
If a perpetual annuity is worth 25 years' purchase, find the of an annuity of 625 to continue for 2 years.
If a
perpetual annuity is worth 20 years' purchase, find the annuity to continue for 3 years which can be purchased for 2522.
the rate of interest is 4 per cent., find what sum must be paid now to receive a freehold estate of 400 a year 10 years hence; having given log 104 = 20170333, log 675565 8296670.
8.
When
9.
Find what
sum
will
at 2 per cent.,
If 25 years' purchase must be paid for an annuity to continue and 30 years' purchase for an annuity to continue 2?i years, find the rate per cent.
years,
man borrows 5000 at 4 per cent, compound interest if the 11. principal and interest are to be repaid by 10 equal annual instalments, find the amount of each instalment having given
; ;
has a capital of 20000 for which he receives interest at 5 per cent. if he spends 1800 every year, shew that he will be ruined before the end of the 17 th year; having given
;
A man
log 2
= '3010300,
log 3
= '4771213,
log 7 = '8450980.
;
of an estate is 500 if it is let on a lease of 20 years, calculate the fine to be paid to renew the lease when 7 years have elapsed allowing interest at 6 per cent. having given
13.
;
logl06 = 20253059,
14.
log4688385 = '6710233,
log3'118042 = '4938820.
If a,
b, c
tinue n,
2/i, 3?i
years' purchase must be paid for an annuity to conyears respectively; shew that
a2 ab + b 2 = ac.
What is the present worth of a perpetual annuity of 10 15. payable at the end of the first year, 20 at the end of the second, 30 at the end of the third, and so on, increasing 10 each year; interest being taken at 5 per cent, per annum ?
; ;
CHAPTER
XIX.
INEQUALITIES.
245.
Any
quantity a
quantity b when a b is because 2  ( 3), or 5 is positive. Also b is said to be less than a when b a is negative; thus 5 is less than 2, because 5 ( 2), or  3 is negative.
In accordance with this definition, zero must be regarded as greater than any negative quantity.
shall suppose (unless the contrary is directly stated) that the letters always denote real and positive quantities.
246.
If
a >
b,
then
it is
evident that
a+
a
c
b b
+c c
ac
be
b
will still hold after each side has been increased, diminished, multiplied, or divided by the same positive quantity.
that
is,
an inequality
247.
If
c to
aob,
each
side,
by adding
a>b+ c;
which shews that in an inequality any term
may
from one
If
be transposed
a >
then evidently
< a
that is, if the sides of an inequality be transposed, the sign of inequality must be reversed.
INEQUALITIES.
If a
is,
209
>
b,
then a  b
is positive,
and
ba
is
negative; that
b) is
negative,
and therefore
a < b
hence, if the signs of all the terms of the sign of inequality must be reversed.
an inequality
be changed,
Again,
if
a >
b,
then
< b, and
be
therefore
ac <
that is, if the sides of an inequality be multiplied by the same negative quantity, the sign of inequality must be reversed.
248.
If
a.>b,,
a.
>
boi
a^>b.,,
>b
...
it
is
clear
that
a + a 2 + a 3 +...+ am >
l
6,
+ b^+ba +
b r
,>
+ bm
and
249.
1
a a 2 a,' a ,n
:
>h AK'V
11
If
a>b, and
if
>
b'
that
is, a'
>
b'\
where n
is
any
Further,
<
=
that
is
n a~ <
b~".
The square of every real 250. Thus (a therefore greater than zero.
.
quantity
is
positive,
;
and
b)
is
positive
a
.
2ab +
b
2
>
a2 +
>
2ab.
Similarly
^
mean of
mean.
> Jxy
that
is,
the arithmetic
than
their geometric
The
equal.
when
251. The results of the preceding article will be found very useful, especially in the case of inequalities in which the letters
li
>
210
Example
1.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If a,
b, c
a 2 + b 2 +c 2 >bc + ca + ab;
and
For
2 (a 3 + b 3 + c 3 )>bc (b
+ c) + ca(c + a) + ab (a + b).
(1);
& 2 + c 2 >2bc
whence by addition
It
may
b, c.
Again, from
b2
bc + c 2 >bc
b3
(2);
(3).
..
+ c 3 >bc(b+c)
we obtain
By
writing
down
2 (a 3
+ b 3 + c3
if
be (b
+ c) + ca
[c
+ a) + ab{a+b).
(2)
It
(3) is
obtained from
by introducing the
and that
no
Example
.r
2.
If
which
is
the greater,
+l
or x 2 + x.
Now
[x
l) 2 is positive,
x3 + 1
according as x
If
>
or
<
x2 + x
is,
+1
is
according as x
>
or
<
1.
1,
252. Let a and b be two positive quantities, and their product ; then from the identity
their
sum
4a6 = (a + bf  (a  b)\
we have
iP = S  (a  b)
2
2
,
and S 2 =
is
P+(a b)
2
.
Hence,
given,
if
is
given,
greatest
when a b\ and
if
is
S is
least
when
a= b;
if the sum of two positive quantities is given, their product is greatest when they are equal ; and if the product of two positive quantities is given, their sum is least when they are equal.
that
is,
INEQUALITIES.
253.
211
To find
of a product the
sum of whose
factors is constant.
c,
...
k,
a, b
and suppose that a and b are we replace the two unequal factors a+b a+b ..
k,
,
the product
is
increased
while the sum remains unaltered ; hence so long as the product contains two unequal factors it can be increased tvithout altering the sum of the factors ; therefore the product is greatest when all In this case the value of each of the n the factors are equal. s /s\" factors is  and the greatest value of the product is (  ) or
\nj \n/
, '
/a + b + a
\
c+ c + n
...
+k\ +k\"
)
Cor.
If ,
b, c,
...
k are uneqiud,
c
/a + b +
(
+ n
...
+k\ n
)
> abc
...
that
is,
a + b + c+
...
+k
>
(abc
...
k)".
By an
extension of the meaning of the terms arithmetic this result is usually quoted as follows
mean
quantities is greater
Shew
that (l r + 2 r + S r +
+ nr n > nn ( \nY
)
any
real quantity.
lr
c Since
.
+ 2 r+Zr +
n
+nr
>(l r .2 r .3 r
r )'
1
;
.'.
>l r .2 r .3 r
n r that
,
is,
>()
r
;
result required.
142
212
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
m
.
254. To find the greatest value q/'a b"cp is constant; m, n, p, ... being positive integers.
. .
when a + b +
...
m + n +p +
or a
\pj
)
...
is
greatest. &
...
But
this last
is
factors
. .
whose sum
m )+ n () + *p \nj
(
\mj
) +
.. .,
.,
stant.
Hence am b n c p ...
\pj
will
a
ni
are
all equal,
that
is,
when
b
c
m
m
of
p
is
+ m+n+p +
b
c
a+
np
p
. . .
/a +
(
+ c+
...\
)
M4*4*+"
(a
+ x) s
(a a:) 4 for
any
real value
is
greatest
when
is
(
J
is
greatest
but
sum
^ J +
,
^
.
or 2a;
hence {a + x) 3
when ^ =
. *
or
x=

Thus the
63
84
greatest value is
a7
The determination of maximum and minimum values 255. may often be more simply effected by the solution of a quadratic equation than by the foregoing methods. Instances of this have already occurred in Chap. ix. ; we add a further
illustration.
Example.
is
maximum.
;
Denote the integer by 2/i + 1 ; the two parts by x and 2n + 1  x the product by y then (2n + 1) x  x* = y ; whence
;
and
2x = (2n +
1)
V^h + I) ^
2
but the quantity under the radical must be positive, and therefore y cannot
be greater than

11
(2/t
INEQUALITIES.
213
+ l) 2
in
or
n'
+n+
and since y
1,
is
value must be n
+ n\
which case x = n+
or n
and n+1.
256.
Example.
Put
..
of
'
'
+x
'
c+x=y
.
then
the expression
_ (a 
 c)
+y+ac+bc
~ C)
a~
Jy
is
Hence the expression is a minimum when the square term when y=J(a c)(b c).
Thus the minimum value
is
zero
that
ac + bc + 2
and the corresponding value of x
*J(a 
c) (b
c)
is */(
c) {b
c)
c.
EXAMPLES. XIX.
1.
a.
2.
3.
Prove that
(b
+ c) (c + a) (a + b) > 8abc.
sum
2.
Shew
is
that the
of
any
real
positive quantity
and
its
reciprocal
4. 5.
If
a 2 + b2 =
If 2 + 6 2 + c 2 =l,
ax + by + cz <
6.
1.
If
a>
b,
losr =
7.
8.
9.
^ + y 2 z + z2x) (xy 2 +yz 2 + zx2 ) > Find which is the greater 36 2 or aP+263
Shew that
(.r
D.''V  2.
64
10.
11.
Shew that
b 2 c
214
12.
13.
14.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Which
Shew
is
that x3 + lSa 2x
>
hax* + 9a3
if
x>
a.
in order that
7x2 + 11
may
be
Find the minimum value of x2  12#+40, and the value of 24?  8  9x2
.
maximum
16. 17.
6.
. .
2?i< (w +
l) n .
18.
19.
).
2,
shew that
>l+?iV2 ,7_1
21.
Shew
(1) (2)
that
22.
7
Find the
maximum value of
(7
 x) A
(2
+ #) 5 when # lies
between
and  2.
no
23.
f (5 of
*257.
am +bm
>
/a
(
To prove m + b\
that if a "
and b are
positive
and
unequal,
except
when
xs
We
since
L
have
is
m a" + 6 =
1
y +
^J
^
gJ
of
and
these
less
than
[Art. 184.]
'"~2~ =
a" + 6
m /a + b\
m (m  1) (a + b\" fa  b\*
1.2
v~2J
\~r)
"A
\~r)
4
4 fa  b\ + '" j
12
INEQUALITIES.
(1)
215
all
a positive integer, or any negative quantity, the terms on the right are positive, and therefore
If
is
a" +
=
b'
>
b fa + 6 V"
s
\2~)
less
'
(2)
If
is
positive
first
and
m
than
m
1,
all
the
terms on
a + 
b
b \
<
b\ fa + fr
(3)
If on
>
and
positive,
i
put
i
m=76
i
7l
where n <
then
fa +
m m
{2
'a
)
1
=
1
(2)
1
H fd" fa + b n \ n
;
+ bm \ m
(a*)
+
o
(b)
H
,
i
>
i
>
]j
/ox
2)
b'"\"
>
a+b
.*.
> fi7
=
is
Hence the
proposition
established.
If
m = 0,
or
1,
the
*25&.
unless
m&
rt
Suppose
on to
and
1.
m m Consider the expression a + b + c" + ... + k"\ and suppose that a and b are unequal ; if we replace a and b by the two equal
....
quantities
altered,
a+
_
i
a+
j
b
,
the value or a +
1
..
...
k'" is
diminished, since
216
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
so long as
any two of the quantities a, b, c,...&are unequal m m m the expression am + b + c + ... + k can be diminished without altering the value of a + b + c + ...+k; and therefore the value m n of a" + b' + c + + km will be least when all the quantities a, b, c,...k are equal. In this case each of the quantities is equal
1
Hence
. .
to
a+
...
+k
;
n
of
m a + b m + cm +
...
+km
c
then becomes
.
n
Hence when
fa +
{
+ k\ m
are unequal,
a, b, c,...k
am + b m + cn +...+le m
n
If ?n lies
between
and
we may
in a similar
manner prove
as follows
is
The arithmetic mean of the m th powers of n positive quantities greater than the m th power of their arithmetic mean in all cases
except
when
lies
between
and
1.
*259.
If a and h
'
INEQUALITIES.
X
217
*2G0.
if'x
To prove
that
/I + 'I^
ix'
>
/ lh V
iy
and y
For
y.
//g*
,.
according as
+a
lo<?n
lx
But
S^lzS" 2 ^ +? + ?+)
AAM ^
and
7
,
'
 log x *
1 4 a;
lx
>y
log
\+y

is
proved.
261.
To prove
that (1
,
x)
,+x
(1
if
x<l, and
to
777
i'
<
luce that
/a + b\ a+b k aa bD > ( _
J
Denote
(1 +jb)
1+ *
(1
a)
1 *
by P; then
(l
logP = (l+a)log(l + x) +
= x {log (1 +x)=
aj)log(la;)
log (1
 x)) +
\
log
(1
x)
+ log (lx)
\
2x^
r\
I
.
**s
+
3
JO
+
JC
_ / *C
i//
...)2^
Jit
SI/
...)
*/
Hence
that
is,
log
P is
positive,
(1
and therefore
1
P> 1
+*)
(l
*)''>!.
218
In this result
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
f9
then
sY + w/,
u)
{
'u
^i) %1
J
z
z\ ~u
l
+ z\
\
.'.
J
(u
y^Y >r>rl u
\
z)
u+
*(uz) u
>u 2u
Now
put u + z =
a,
u z = b,
so that
w =
(TJ
* EXAMPLES.
1.
XIX.
b.
Shew Shew
>
3
(a + b + c)\
2.
n (n + l) 3 < 8
(l
+ 2 3 + 3 3 + ... + n 3 ).
of the first
3.
bers
is
4.
n even numthat
If a
and
/3
SMjrthe value of
(
if
n>
+
lies
between 2 and
If a,
b, c
/a + c\ a
^.
fb + c\
\ac)
6.
\bcj
c
Shew
that (
'a a
v v + b + c+...+k\ a + b +
~
~

+ ,i
'
'
< a a b b<*.
+ a n ),
if
.>&*.
7.
Prove that
If
ii
 log (1 + am <
)
lib
 log
Ih
(1
m > n.
8.
is
?&
<
that
INEQUALITIES.
9.
219
.
If a,
b,
c are in
H.
P.
and
> 1,
10.
Find the
maximum
value of
x3 (4a  .r) 5
i
is
positive
and
less
maximum
value of
x*(\xf when x
< x and
a proper
11.
If
is positive,
shew that
log (1 +.r)
"
1+.?;
12.
If
(1
least value of 
\
hz
is
i)
and that
13. 14.
 x) (1  y)
that
(1
 z) > 8xyz.
(a 2 + 6* + c2 + cl2 f.
Shew
Shew
 b)
+ b 2 (bc){ba) + c2 (ca){cb)
<
n
Shew
that (xm + y m ) n
(.t'
+y n
b
.
MI
)
,
if
m > n.
16.
fa 4h\
(^p)
17.
6, c
a 2 (pq)(p r) + b 2 (q  r)
q, r
p) + c2
(r
p) (r  q)
cannot be negative; p,
(2)
x + y + z = 0.
18.
Shew that
j3 15
\2nl >
(\n)n
whose sum
r
is
equal
\a\bJ\ c
where q
is
P "r (g)
CHAPTER XX.
LIMITING VALUES
262.
If a be a constant
finite quantity,
the fraction

can
that
be made as small as
is,
we
please
by
sufficiently increasing
we can make
we
please
by saying,
when x
is infinite
the limit of
is
zero."
as large as
we
please
when x
is
when x
is
is infinite."
say that a quantity increases without limit or is infinite, we mean that we can suppose the quantity to become greater than any quantity we can name.
When we
when we say that a quantity decreases without limit, we mean that we can suppose the quantity to become smaller than any quantity we can name.
Similarly
used to denote the value of any quantity is used to which is indefinitely increased, and the symbol denote the value of any quantity which is indefinitely dimi
The symbol
go
is
nished.
LIMITING VALUES.
204.
221
of Art. 2G2
may now
be written
symbolically as follows
if
is co
then 
is
x
is
if
is
then
co
But in making use of such concise modes of expression, it must be remembered that they are only convenient abbreviations
of fuller verbal statements.
The student will have had no difficulty in understanding the use of the word limit, wherever we have already employed it; but as a clear conception of the ideas conveyed by the words limit and limiting value is necessary in the higher branches of Mathematics we proceed to explain more precisely their use and
26~>.
meaning.
If y =f(x), and if when x approaches a Definition. value a, the function f(x) can be made to differ by as little as we please from a fixed quantity b, then b is called the limit of
266.
y when x a.
For instance,
if
S
;
1+2 +
2~ J
'"
then
S'
~2^^
is,
,
Art 56 *1
Here S
as
is
a function of n, and
we
please
by increasing n
that
the limit of
is
when
is infinite.
shall often have occasion to deal with expressions 267. consisting of a series of terms arranged according to powers of some common letter, such as
We
a + a x + a ax" + a 3 x3 +
x
where the
unlimited.
coefficients
x,
a,,
a2
a3
...
are
finite
independent of
of terms
may
quantities be limited or
It will therefore be convenient to discuss some propositions connected with the limiting values of such expressions under
certain conditions.
222
268.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
The
limit of the series
a + a x + a 2 x 2 + a 3x 3 +
x
when x
is indefinitely
diminished
is
series consists of
an
infinite
number
of terms.
...
;
let
be the greatest of the coefficients alf asi o3 , us denote the given series by a + S ; then
Let
and
S<bx + bx + bx
2
...
and
if
x<
we have
is
;
S< 1 x
=
bx
Thus when x
small as
we
please
number
of terms,
is less
In
the series
+ a,x + a2 x + a 3 x,3 +
by taking x small enough ive may make any term as large as we please compared with the sum of all that follow it ; and by taking x large enough we may make any term as large as we please compared with the sum of all that precede it.
The
it is
ratio
of
the term an x
to the
sum
a
ax an+1 x
n+l
+a n+2x"
;
+2
'
or
'
...
When
is
that
is,
to the
sum
of all that
a xn
a nl ,cc
n
l
+an x
2
+...'
or
a a n ,y + a n2<J 2 +...' ay
lts
where u = y x
LIMITING VALUES.
223
;
indefinitely largo, y is indefinitely small hence, fraction can be made as large as as in the previous case, the
When
is
we
please.
270. position
of the
foregoing pro
very useful.
In the expression
a x + a H ,x
ii
Hi
+ a.x + a
1
consisting of a finite number of terms in descending powers of x, by taking x small enough the last term a can be made as large as we please compared with the sum of all the terms that precede it, and by taking x large enough the first term ax* can be made as large as we please compared with the sum of all that follow it.
Example 1. By taking n large enough we can make the first term of n 4  5/i3 7/i + 9 as large as we please compared with the sum of all the other terms that is, we may take the first term ?i 4 as the equivalent of the whole expression, with an error as small as we please provided n be taken large
;
enough.
3.t
3
Example
zero.
(1)
2.
2x'2
:
when
may
(1)
is infinite
(2)
is
disregard
all
terms but
the
first
is
^s
OXr
3 or ^
O
(2)
When
is
is 
4
,
or  2
Example
Let have
3.
/1 +x  when x V 1x
*
is
zero.
by taking logarithms we
log
P=i
{log (1+ x)
log (1x)}
[Art. 226.]
limit of log
is 2,
limit
224
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
VANISHING FRACTIONS.
271.
Suppose
it is
x 2  a2
when x = a.
If
we put x = a + h, then h
a. x,
2
will
Substituting a + h for
x +
ax 2a
2
a
3ah + h 2
2ah + h
2
3a + h
2a~+h'
this
and when h
.
is
expression
is
.
a
There
is
 a) (x + 2a) (x a)(x + a)
the
x + 2a x+a
of
'
and
^r
j
,
if
we now put x = a
value
the
expression
is
as before.
2
.
fi
x^ a
it
~ we
pat x = a before
,
simplification
it
will be
found that
the
value of which is indeterminate ; also Ave see that it has this form in consequence of the factor x a appearing in both numerator and denominator. Now we cannot divide by a zero factor, but as long as x is not absolutely equal to a the factor x  a may be removed, and we then find that the nearer x approaches to the value , the nearer does the value of the
3 fraction approximate to ^
,
Art. 266,
when x = a,
i
the limit of
x t ax
^
x~ ^a"
Jia
is
^
VANISHING FRACTIONS.
272.
If
225
f(x) and
<f>
(x) are
^~
<f)
(a)
called
Vanishing
Fraction.
Example
1.
If
When x = 3,
which
is
therefore the
required limit.
Example
2.
The
fraction
J'^aJx + a
xa
becomeg
when % _ a
To
jugate to
numerator and denominator by the surd conJ'dxa Jx + a; the fraction then becomes
(Sxa)(x + a)
^
2
or
,
J'6xa+
>Jx +
j=
Example
3.
The
fraction
21 x
(1
fe)*
l(l + /0i
l(l+J*^F+.)
1
3
1
1, ;<
9 2
7
5 +
/l
25
is
Now h = when
273.
Sometimes the roots of an equation assume an indeterminate form in consequence of some relation subsisting between the coefficients of the equation. lo H. H. A.
226
For example,
if
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
ax + b = ex +
(a
d,
c)x = d b,
x=
db
a
j
But
if
= a, then x becomes
is
or go
if
that
is,
the root of
is
a simple equation
indefinitely small.
indefinitely great
the coefficient of x
274.
The
ax + by + c =
be'
0,
a'x + b'y
ca'
1
+c =
'
0,
ab'
 b'e ab
c'a
ab'a'b
infinite.
a',
If ab'
a'b =
0,
In this case
the
== m
suppose
by substituting
c = 0.
for
b\
second
equation becomes ax + by +
c
If
m
ii
is
c'
not equal to
c,
and
ax + b J
differ
Ml
by any
finite values of
x and
y.
If
m is
equal to ^
c.
we have
==,
a
b
c
are
now
identical.
Here, since be
b'e
=
,
and
ca'
c'a
indeterminate.
In
the present case we have really only one equation involving two unknowns, and such an equation may be satisfied by an unlimited number of values. [Art. 138.]
in
acquainted with Analytical Geometry will have no difficulty in interpreting these results in connection with the geometry of the straight line.
is
VANISHING FHACTIONS.
shall now discuss some peculiarities 275. arise in the solution of a quadratic equation.
227
which may
We
ax 2 + bx +
If c
0.
= 0, then
2 ax + bx = 0;
whence
that
is,
x=
one of the roots
is
0,
or
a
is finite.
If 6
sign.
0,
[Art. 118.]
If
a=
in
that
and
only
it
namely
= .
roots,
and in
we
proceed as follows.
of fractions
Write
*J
for
thus
0.
Now
put a =
0,
and we have
cy
2
+ by = 0;
or
is
y J
0,
c>
b
;
that
is,
'
x=
oo,
or
T
b
infinite
ofx
becomes zero.
This is the form in which the result will be most frequently met with in other branches of higher Mathematics, but the student should notice that it is merely a convenient abbreviation of the following fuller statement
In the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, if a is very small one root is very large, and as a is indefinitely diminished this root becomes indefinitely great. In this case the finite root approximates
to
y
o
as its limit.
The
may
cases in which more than one of the coefficients vanish be discussed in a similar manner.
152
228
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES. XX.
Find the limits of the following expressions,
(1)

when #=oo,
3) 7#2

(2)
when x = 0.
(3r?I)*
(2s
(3
5*)
CHAPTER
XXI.
SERIES.
terms are formed expression in which the successive series if the series terminate at w ^ ! lr by some reguJ law is called a number q{ lb ca'iea a lt:
Ax
some
assigiMgl
is
t^
^ m
x
^e
terms
unfimitfd, it
is
called
an
B infinite series.
^J.
by
+u +
consisting of w terms. Suppose that we have a series function of n; if n increases The sum of the series will be a equal to a certain
tends to become indetinitely, the sum either becomes infinitely great. finite fcmi*, or else it
of
numerically the first n terms cannot quantity however great n may be.
An
infinite series
is
said to be convergent
when
the
sum
finite
exceed some
be divergent when the sum of numerically greater than any finite the first n terms can be made great. quantity by taking n sufficiently
An
978
series
of a given we can find the sum of the first n terms divergent or we may ascertain whether it is convergent becomes inIf series
remains
finite,
or
when n
is
indefinitely great.
of the first
...
n terms of 1*"
.
the series
2 + x + x + x* +
is
_a
T
230
If
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
x
is
numerically
less
than
1,
the
sum
appro.
,
the
finite limit
j
and the
series is therefore
converge,^!
sum
of
t first
If
is is
n terms
y
1,
1,
the
and by taking n
sufficiently great,
d e greater cUve?ge n t. d
""*
tk can
*>
is
&n * e
l""*^
thus
serie's
r i^entUm * ^ **
x= the series becomes
"
"
*" d
***
If
11+11+1 1+
The sum of an even number of terms is of an odd number of terms is 1 and thiw +\L between the values and 1. Thi t,fe Ac which may be called oiBo^ or
I
X A^c^
*
^ ^
5
S:
280.
are many 0ases in which we'haic , sum of the first n terms of a series. therefore to investigate rules by which we
f of
T
,
^
,.
f a
We
p"
h od
its
*Hout
4n
tra/mfe series
Let the
series
be denoted by
u,
M %+%where
6 giVe
+ u M +
5
w1 >^>^a >w,> M o * 4
"
SerfeS
....
may
for,
K,)+(,0 +(.,) +
^
(
.KJ(4 ,)Kr)From
2 ).
(1) we see that the sum of any number of terms is a positive quantity; and from (2) that the sum of any nnmber of terms is less than , ; hence the series is convergent.
231
11111
f1
series
2
is
4

5
1
6
in Art. 223,
convergent.
is
By
putting x
we
sum
log e
2.
T~2
each term
series is
is
23 +
i
_5 3"4 +
_7 + ~6
'
numerically less than the preceding term, and the therefore convergent. But the given series is the sum of
1
+
+
m
'
,
(1) '
(2).
and
11+11
Now
(1) is
11
equal to log e
of terms is
2,
and
(2) is equal to
or 1 according'
series
as the
is
number
even or odd.
convergent, and its sum continually approximates towards log,, 2 if an even number of terms is taken, and towards 1 + log 8 2 if an odd number is taken.
282. An infinite seizes in which all the terms are of the same sign is divergent \f each term is greater than some finite quantity
however small.
each term is greater than some finite quantity a, the sum of the first n terms is greater than na and this, by taking n sufficiently great, can be made to exceed any finite
For
if
quantity.
Before proceeding to investigate further tests of convergency and divergency, we shall lay down two important principles, which may almost be regarded as axioms.
283.
remain convergent, and if divergent it will remain divergent, when we add or remove any finite number of its terms for the sum of these terms is
I.
a finite quantity. the terms are positive is convergent, then the series is convergent when some or all of the terms are negative ; for the sum is clearly greatest when all the terms have the same sign.
II.
If a series in
which
all
We
contrary
stated.
232
284.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
infinite series is convergent if from and after some the ratio of each term to the preceding term is numerically
An
is itself
numerically
less
than unity.
Let the
series
+u 12 +
c>
u^ 3
+ u^ + 4
r
and
U
let
<
U
:
r,
U1 * < r, UA < Us U2
+
where
<
1.
Then
u,
+u 12 + u+u
r,
A 4
/_.
1
u9
u.
<f a
V
(1
^
+
1.
ua u
x
n u u u 3 u 2 Ul
)
<
tliat
is,
it,
+ r2 + r 3 +
<
1
u. ~1
r
since r
<
series is convergent.
In the enunciation
should notice the significance of the words " from and after a fixed term."
Consider the
1
CONVERGENCY AND DIVERGENCY OF
SERIES.
'2Xi
infinite series in which all the terms are of the same 286. sign is diverge) it if from and after some fixed term the ratio of ea<li
An
term
to the 'preceding
term
is
Let the fixed term be denoted by t* If the ratio is equal to of the succeeding terms is equal to u unity, each and the sum is equal to nu of n terms hence the series is divergent.
, l
than unity, each of the terms after the and the sum of n terms is greater fixed term is greater than u than nu hence the series is divergent.
If the ratio is greater
x
In the practical application of these tests, to avoid having to ascertain the particular term after which each term is greater or less than the preceding term, it is convenient to find
287.
the limit of
when n
is
be denoted by
If If If
n\ A.
is
X< \>
1,
1,
the series
convergent.
divergent.
[Art. 284.]
[Art. 286.]
the series
is
the series may be either convergent or divergent, and a further test will be required ; for it may happen that
X=l,
<
n
1
as
its
limit ivhen
is
indefinitely increased.
quantity r which
is
In this case we cannot name any finite itself less than 1 and yet greater than X.
Hence the
test of Art.
284
1
fails.
If,
however,
uH
is
u >
I
but con
divergent by
We
shall
un
"
1
,
as
an abbreviation
of the
words
"the limit
Example 1
of
U when n un
.
is infinite."
1.
series
whose n lh term
is
.,
is
con
di
vergent or divergent.
?/
(n
+ l)a: n
n
2
ru^1
{h
(n
2
+ l)(nl)n*
('_!
1)
him
"n
I
x\
; ;
234
hence
if
if
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
x < 1 the x > 1 the
series is convergent series is divergent.
If
x = l, then Lim
u =1, and
a further test
is
required.
Example
2.
Is the series
l2
+ 2 2x + 3 2 x 2 + 4?xs +
u n
7jL
convergent or divergent?
_ Here
Hence
x = 1 the
3.
if
if
T Lim
.
uni
=Lim.
~ n2 x n l . n (nl)x
is
9 2
=x.
convergent
divergent.
. . .
x> 1
the series
l2
is
If
series
becomes
+ 2 2 + 32 + 4 2 +
and
is
obviously divergent.
Example
In the series
.
...,
, Lim
.
*i
t
1)
r;
thus
if
r< 1
the series
is
sum
is finite.
two infinite series in each of which all the terms are ])Ositive, and if the ratio of the corresponding terms in the two series is always finite, the two series are both convergent,
288.
If
there are
or both divergent.
infinite series
x
be denoted by
,
u + ua + ua + w4 +
and
v,
+ 12 +
v,
v, 3
v.
The value
of the fraction
u + u , + ua^
i
+n
lies
\
and
is
*,
,
[Art. 14.1
therefore
a,
finite quantity,
say
Hence
if
one
one
the
series is infinite
in value, so
is
the other;
which proves
proposition.
SERIES.
235
The application
by means of it we series whose convergency or divergency has been already established. The series discussed in the next article will frequently be found useful as an auxiliary series.
290.
of this principle is very important, for can compare a given series with an auxiliary
The
infinite series
1111 y
T
2P
3P
4.1'
is
is positive
and
greater than
1.
Case I. Let;? > 1. The first term is 1 the next two terms together are
;
less
than
fol
2 j; Z
the
4
less
than
8
and so
on.
Hence
2
is less
than
+ t^+th+ttt, P 4'
2 o
1
+;
less
common
ratio
~j
is less
than
II.
since
p>
is
convergent.
Case
The
Let_p=l.
series
now becomes
+^ +
2
^
+  + =;+
4
5
...
The
4 1 the following four terms together are greater thau ^ or the o 2 8 1 following eight terms together are greater than and so or ;
on.
Hence the
series is greater
1111
+ + +
2
than
2
'"'
and
is
therefore divergent.
[Art. 2^6.]
Case III. Let p<\, or negative. Each term is now greater than the corresponding term
Case
II.,
in
is
divergent.
Hence the
is
always divergent except in the case when positive and greater than unity.
236
Example.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Prove that the series
2 3
n+1
is
divergent.
series
with 1 +
+ +v
"^
"
Thus
if
we have
n
2
un
i'
_n + l
1
re
_ w+ 1
?i
'
7/
hence
Zim,
=1,
series are
divergent. But the auxiliary series is divergent, therefore also the given series is divergent.
1.
Art. 287.
291.
limit of
In the application
of Art.
288
it is
should be finite
we
find our
way
Take u
u
 is finite
the
nth term
highest powers of n.
Denote the
result
by v n
th
term of
Example r
divergent.
1.
Shew that
the series
whose n th term
Z/S?vi +
2n+5
=
1
is
As n
increases,
un approximates
to the value
l/w
Hence,
if
or
'
4/3
n 12
v=r ,we ~ n1
have
Lim
= ^r, 3 v
u
/2
which
is
a finite quantity;
v/
is
may
;
series.
But
divergent.
SERIES.
237
series in
:}
which
^/;<
+l n
is
convergent or divergent.
Here
"=
\\/ * + tf ~
1
*J
1
//
 + ;"
5
~3n 2
If
9><
we take v n =
we have
vM N
Luti
9n'J
=x. v
n
series
JL
Jl JL P + 22 + 3 2+
'"
is
l " 1+
is
convergent.
+ x) n by
the
Binomial
?* th
of the ex
u wr
.
nr+1
r
is
negative; that is, from this point the terms are alternately positive and negative when x is positive, and always of the same sign when x is negative.
this
When r>?6+l,
ratio
Now when
since
is
infinite,
Lim
7/
=x
numerically
therefore
the series is convergent if all the terms are of the same sign; and therefore a fortiori it is convergent when some of [Art. 283.] the terms are positive and some negative.
1
x <
To shew that the expansio?i of a x in ascending 293. of x is convergent for every value of x.
p owers
1
Here
*
^
1#

7
=
<
11 whatever
1
be
*__,
is
convergent.
238
294.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To shew that the expansion of log (1 + x) in ascending powers of x is convergent when x is numerically less than 1.
= u
ni
,
i
n't
x.
equal to x
If
a5
than
is
1.
= l,
1 k + 77t+> 4 3 2
1
an ^
con "
vergent.
If
[Art. 280.]
q a 4: O This shews that the logarithm of zero is divergent. [Art. 290.] infinite and negative, as is otherwise evident from the equation
x~ 1,
the
series
becomes
t"
>
an(^
*s
e=0.
295.
The
results of the
and
Example
of
x 2 when x
is infinite.
y
yi
y
\2
y'
y
also
+"
is
when x
is infinite
is infinite
zero.
Example
Let
2.
Shew
that
when n
the limit of nx n = 0,
when x<l.
x=if
so that
y>l;
n\ogy = logz; then
y
and
logz
.
is infinite z is infinite,
s_ = 0;
z
also
logy
is finite;
Lim nx n = 0.
It
is
296.
or not.
Suppose the product to consist of n factors and to be denoted by io uMAia then if as n increases indefinitely u <<1, the product will ultimately be zero, and if u n > 1 the product will be infinite ; hence in order that the product may be finite, u must tend to the limit 1
;
SERIES.
239
+ vn
for
(l+* )(l+*,)(l+*8)
1
(l+Oj
P and
take logarithms
then
(1),
may
be
must be
convergent.
Choose as an auxiliary
series
v,+v 2 + v3 +
/
+v n
(2).
_1
Now
r Lim2l
.
log(l +
vn
is
t;)
^ = Lim\
_.
r\
2** +
vn
"
/==1,
I
when
the limit of
is
un
is 1
Hence
product
if
(2) is
convergent, (1)
finite.
Example.
Shew
when n
7
is infinite,
of
13
2'
is finite.
'4*1*6' 6
2nl 2n + l ~JT~'~2ir
successive pairs by
Uj,
The product consists of 2n factors; denoting the m 2 Ug,... and the product by P, we have
,
P=u
where
but
**
v 2 u3
u n>
,
s n = 2m
2nl 2+l
5
2n
 t?; 4(1),
and we have
shew that
Now
log n = log (l
2,
^)=
~^
''
32/i1
therefore as in Ex.
is finite.
In mathematical investigations infinite series occur so 297. frequently that the necessity of determining their convergency or divergency is very important ; and unless we take care that the series we use are convergent, we may be led to absurd conclusions. [See Art. 183.]
240
For example,
if
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
we expand (lx)~ 2 by
1
we
find
(
 a;) 2 =
3 + 2x + 3ar + 4a +
obtain the sum of n terms of this series as explained in Art. 60, it appears that
But
if
we
in +
1
2.*;
3ar
...
+ nx
nl
*
t=
(1
 x)
ra
^^ 1  x
whence
(lx) 2
...
+ nx 
4
7z
(1a?)9
i
^+
1*
By making n J
infinite,
we
see that z
(lx) 2
infinite series
+ 2x + 3x2 + ix3 +
when
If
rz
(1
infinite,
this quantity
becomes
infinite
when x=l,
295], so
or aj>l,
that
it is
and diminishes indefinitely when a,*<l, [Art. only when x < 1 that we can assert that
Ta =* 1
+ 2x + 3x2 + 4#3 +
to
inf.
if we were to use  x)~ 2 by the Binomial Theorem as if it were the expansion of (1 In other words, we can introduce the true for all values of x. 2 infinite series 1 + 2x + 3x + ... into our reasoning without error
and we should be
if
the series
divergent.
is
convergent, but
we cannot do
so
when the
series
is
divergent series have compelled a distinction For to be made between a series and its algebraical equivalent. 2 example, if we divide 1 by (1  x) we can always obtain as many terms as we please of the series
difficulties of
,
The
2 + 2a;+3 +4a;3 +
whatever x
may
be,
and
so in a certain sense
;
p.
niay be
equi
yet, as
con
SERIES.
241
therefore
more appropriate
to speak of
(l
X)
+2a,
+ 3a 2 +
alge
being that function which Avhen developed by ordinary braical rules will give the series in question.
term generating function will be more fully explained in the chapter on Recurring Series.
of the
The use
EXAMPLES. XXI.
Find whether the following
.
a.
Ill
1
series are
1
convergent or divergent.:
x+a
x^2a
.v
+ 3a
1
_ 4.
x and a
_1_
xy
(*+i)(y+i) >+a)(y+*)
x2
1
(*+3)(y+3)
'
x and y
4
x3
1 1
x*
h
.
1.2^2.3^3.4^4.5
tf
/>
/)2
\Mj
\Mj
oo
%A/
o***
1+
I+ I + I+
2
22
32
42
8.
y
*
"i^
1 i. + 2/' + 3p + A + 4p
+
2
.,
ia
+
5
Ib
+  + ,^TT +
11.
x+
3 2 8 , 15 A  x + x* + x + 5 10 17
n 2 \
.,..
nl +
xn + 16
H. H. A.
242
.n
,
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
l
12.
+ g * +5 * +I ^P + . +
,
14
2' l
2*pi+
1
14.
2.r+ +  +
8 27
..+
,
?t
+
4\_4\ 3
=" 3^
1C 15
'
/2 2
2\!
(pl)
2
/3 3
3 (2
3\ 2
2)
4
+= \3
4
/4 /4_
16.

4 2 3 + +  ++
17.
Jn*+ln.
(2)
jtF+l Jnt^i.
18.
/on (2)
A
11
A+l
a+2
1
x+3
1
1
series
1+
is
2"
I I E
3^
4"
convergent for
20.
all
values of p.
infinite series
ux + 2i 2 + u 3 + u +
is
iti
<1, or >1.
Shew
4
'
3' 3' 5
6 5
is finite
when n
is infinite.
22.
infinite,
Shew
that when x=\, no term in the expansion of (1 +#)" is except when n is negative and numerically greater than unity.
SERIES.
243
tests of convergency and divenrencV & cxltv Art* 9x7 ogi 11 . proved in the next article enables of
The
wp nave we i.
b
n/^T ^ ST^
+
1
.1 I+ +
l
3?
,7

venter
"
ddit0U,a
**
wUch
"
fad
con
^
<
Case
I.
tergent
when
;
onrf
Me **
> _n V.,
'
,< J,
AWjori
divergent if
5
U ni
Wj
and
* < Ei &<!
2
then
w,
w + u3 +
fl
2t
**
w,
that
is,
<
if
(v. f
y
+v +
Hence,
vergent.
is
also con
Case
II.
Let
 > 3
2
^^
tt,
a
**,
v,
i
then
M + ^9 +
i
U,
V,
Va
27,
162
244
that
is,
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
>
if
(v
+ v2 + v 3 +
is
...).
Hence,
vergent.
the ^series
divergent the
itseries
is
also di
*300. have seen in Art. 287 that a series is convergent th or divergent according as the limit of the ratio of the ?i term In the to the 'preceding term is less than 1, or greater than 1. remainder of the chapter we shall find it more convenient to use this test in the equivalent form
:
We
convergent or divergent according as the limit of th the ratio of the n term to the succeeding term is greater than 1,
is
A series
that
is,
according as
of
Lim
>
1,
or
<
1.
the
theorem
the
preceding
article
may be
enunciated
The
when the
;
vseries is
convergent
provided that
Lim
u v > Lim
is
and the
itseries will
be
di
Lim
*301.
^^ Lim ^.
is
1,
(
The
series
vergent according as
Lim \ n
un
is
convergent or di
1 \
>>
or
< 1.
series
is
"When p >
is
un Un +
thatis,if
(n+iy
,
or (l
+ iy.
n?
l
JS
u n+i
> l + g + J CPlV+
>
2n~
n
that
is, if
,\
l
KCr
I
r
(
p+

p (pl)
^
)
Lim \n
Wh
>)>.
J)
'
'
SERIES.
245
the auxiliary series is divergent, and by proceeding as before we may prove the second part of the proposition.
1
When p<
Example.
series
l
is
1 2* 3
^ + L3
if
x=
5
2.4*
2~i.d'T + '"
1.3 .5
x[
convergent or divergent.
Here Lim
the series
If
is
u n+l
1 =;
it
x"
hence
x<l
the series
is
convergent, and
if
x>l
divergent.
x= 1, Lim
u = u
n+l
1.
In this case

1 M" _
3 4
5 6
......
(2w(2n 
3)
~2
2) ' 2~/T=T
and
wn un+1
'
2n(2n+l)
(2n  1) (2n
1)
"Urn
J"
(2nl)2
'
hence when
a;
=1
the series
is
convergent.
is
1,
*302.
T/ie series
un
or
is
convergent or di
vergent, according as
Lim ( n
log
>
<
1.
Let us compare the given series with the series whose general
term
is
When
p>
is
convergent
if
usn+
I
>
/
1
lv + ij
[Art. 300.]
that
is, if
log
> p log (1
or
if
log
**
" 71+
'u
.,
1
>P
'
^5 + 2
7J
2n
"3
246
that
is, if
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Lim In log
>p.
Hence the first part of the proposition is established. When p < 1 we proceed in a similar manner in this
;
case the
auxiliary series
Example.
is
divergent.
series
3 s x3
4*r 4
5 5 x5
is
convergent or divergent.
Here
wn+l
u n = n x *
n n
n_
'
' v
(n + l) n+l /pW+1
.
7^
[n
+l
(n+l)**
H)'
[Art.
A lyV
220 Cor.l.
..
Lim
wn+1
3l = 1
<?*
Hence
if
a?< the
series is convergent, if
#>
the series
is
divergent.
If:r=,then
e
^St
u n+l
n = logewlog( 1
.log
+
_1
~2n
.
3n8+ "
1
J_
'
un
Lim [ n log
is
=
divergent.
*303.
If
also
Liminf^  l)) =
i
1,
the
J)
To
series
we
shall
make
.
is
(log n) p
r
In order to establish
we need
the theorem
SERIES.
247
*304. If $ (n) is positive for all positive integral values of n and continually diminishes as n increases, and if a be any posit ive integer, then the two infinite series
</>(l)
<(2)
</>(3)
</>
+
)
...
</>(n)
...,
.
.
and
a< (a)
3 2 + a <(a 2 ) + a
(a
. .
+ a n < (a n ) +
In the
2),
<f>(a
S),
</>(*).
i+1
<M
0)
of
The number of these terms is ak+l  ak or ak (a 1), and each them is greater than <(a* +1 ); hence their sum is greater than
,
ak (a
k+1
1) <f>(a
);
that
is,
greater than
ak+l
cf>
(a
k+1
).
By
0, 1, 2, 3,...
we have
+ 4>(3)f<M4) + +
2)
++W>^x*W;
Co
<]>(a
1)
<(
<f>(a+
3)+
+ <(*)>
a 2<f>(a 2 )
therefore,
by addition,
$!
<(1)
>
ct
denote the sums of the first and second series respectively; therefore if the second series is divergent so also is the
,
,
where
first.
Again, each term of (1) is less than <(*), and therefore the sum of the series is less than (a 1) x ak <j>(ak ).
By
0, 1, 2, 3...
we have
<j>{2)
<f>(a
<(3)
<f>(a
+ +
4>(4)
+
<f>(a
<()
< (a
1) x <(1);
2
I)
2)
3)
+<f>(a
)<(a
1) x a<f>(a);
therefore,
by addition
4+(l)<(l){4 + *(l)};
hence
if
is
is
the
first.
Note. To obtain the general term of the second series we take </>() the general term of the first series, write a n instead of n and multiply by a n
.
248
*305.
if p
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
The
series
is
^ r n(logn)
p
is
convergent u
>
1,
and
divergent if p
1,
or p
<
1.
the preceding article the series will be convergent or divergent for the same values of p as the series whose general
By
term
is
1
ft" \l
1
c\y
(\V
11
X
'
a"(loga") p
'
(n\oga) p
'
(log a)'
np
;
The constant
factor
7=
r_
is
common
to every term
there
same
is
Hence the
[Art. 290.]
The
series
is
un
1
>
is
convergent or di
vergent according as
Lim
\\\
log
>
1,
or
<
1.
series
term
is
j)
.
n (log ny
>
1
When
un M,+i
(w + l){log(n+l)}'
{log n) v
(!)
Now when n
log (n
is
very large,
1
l)
= log n + log
(1)
log
n+
nearly;
becomes
un +
.
VN
nj
'
V N
log O
, '
thatis,
u H+l
'
that
is,
u  > u
n+l
.,
1 + +
?i
wlogw o
SERIES.
240
>
P
.
l0g?4
or
<n
CSr
) 1 } 10*"^
Hence the
second part
Example.
first
may
part of the proposition is established. The be proved in the manner indicated in Art. 301.
Is the series
22
2 2 .4 2
2 2 .4 2 .6 2
^3 2 ^3 2 .5 2 ^3 2
convergent or divergent?
.5 2 .7 2
Here
ti
A. = ** . 1 + I +
*
(1).
..
Lti
test.
Fromfl),
fel)=l+5
1  1)1=1, and we
pass to the next
test.
<
2>
..
Lim In
*
since Lt/u
ffe[Art. 295];
) 1 } 108
1
^'^
1
^"[ffe^ =
n
)
108
"] 30
is
'
divergent.
Art. 183 that the use of divergent series in mathematical reasoning may lead to erroneous results. But even when the infinite series are convergent it is necessary to exercise caution in using them.
*307.
We have shewn in
series
JC
%)C
Ou
Jb
4/2~J/3
is
474~^5
'"
convergent
when x=l.
1
series
1
by
itself,
1
'
250
Denote
this
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
by a2n
;
then since
1
J^
when n
is infinite.
a 2
>
"
Jn
;
, '
and
is
therefore infinite
If
...,
._ and since the terms ol, a2/i+ 1' a2;i+2 .,. 2h' no arithmetical meaning.
...
This leads us to enquire under what conditions the product of two infinite convergent series is also convergent.
*308.
infinite series
. . .
a + a x 4 a 2 x + a 3x +
bQ
+ a2 x
+
b 2n x
2n
.,
b^x
b 2x
b3 x
by
A
If
and
respectively.
we multiply
a <A + ( a
we
obtain a result of
the form
A + a(A) x +
a J>o + a fii +
afiz)
x2 +
...
Suppose this series to be continued to infinity and let us denote it by G ; then we have to examine under what conditions C may be regarded as the true arithmetical equivalent of the product AB.
First suppose that all the terms in
2/1
, ,
A and B
are positive.
JO
first
multiply together the two series A 2ai B2ni the coefficient of each power of x in their product is equal to the coefficient of the like power of x in C as far as the term x 2 " ; but in A 2n B, n 2n there are terms containing powers of x higher than x whilst 2n x is the highest power of x in C0n ; hence
we
^o B* >
2/i
2/1
2 2/1
If
we form
the product A B the last term is a b x 2n but the terms in the product and some other terms
;
C. %n
>A B
ii
ii
SERIES.
251
,
Thus
Let
2"
is
/.
A B B B and A B
2/
2/i'
4
and
be convergent series
put
Y.
A = AX, B
=B
where and Y are the remainders after n terms of the series have been taken; then when n is infinite and Y are both
X
..
indefinitely small.
therefore
A n B H = (AX)(BY) = ABBXAY+XY' the limit of A B is AB. since A and B are botli finite.
}
A 2n B a
is
AB.
Therefore
since
it lies
AB
2;
in
A and B
are not
all of
the same
the inequalities A 2n B n > C > A b B b are n I 2b 2b necessarily true, and we cannot reason as in the former case.
In
this
case
not
Let us denote the aggregates of the positive terms in the two series by P P' respectively, and the aggregates of the negative terms by iV, N'; so that
t
A = PN, B^FN'.
each of the expressions P, vergent series, the equation
if
Then
P\
JV,
Hence
that the
the
sum
if
product of two series will be convergent provided of all the terms of the same sign in each is a con
vergent series.
each of the expressions P, P', N' represents a divergent series (as in the preceding article, where also = = N), then all the expressions PF, NF, PN\ NN' are and N' divergent series. When this is the case, a careful investigation is necessary in each particular example in order to ascertain whether the product is convergent or not.
y
But
F P
252
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
^EXAMPLES. XXI.
Find whether the following
1
.r
b.
1.
1.3.5
#*
1.3.5.7.9
12
3.6
2.
+ ^+7.
22
2
3.
^+374^+3.4.5.6^+3.4.5.6.7.8*+
2 2 42 6 2
.
.
4 *'
n 2# ^ 3
1
.?
43
^
1
54
2
3
^h
4
,5
12
13
14
+ 2 2 .4 2 r + 2 2 .4 2 .6 2 ^ 2 + 22
'
l2
12
.3 2
12
.3 2 .5 2
g(la)
,
'
X "T
"*"
+ a)(lg)(2 g)
l2
.
12
22
I2
(2
+ q)(l+a)q(la)(2,a)(3q)
.
22 32
.
a being a proper
8
fraction.
a+x
*
IT*
1+ 1
+
.
(a + 2#) 2 12~
(a + 3ai) 3 + "13"" +
^ ^MM,
y
1
.
1.2.3.y(y+l)(y + 2)
10.
"*"
'
(log 4)*
+ +
where *
is is
11.
+a+
__^+_^
=
1
12
If

^;
integer,
^_a_i
'^r^w^S^' + + +
?^
a positive
\
A a 1
is
if
CHAPTER
XXII.
Undetermined Coefficients.
309. In Art. 230 of the Elementary Algebra, it Avas proved that if any rational integral function of x vanishes when x = a, it is divisible by x a. Cor.] [See also Art. 514.
Let
n n p x +p x
x
"
'
+ pjf
"2
+pn
be a rational integral function of x of n dimensions, which vanishes when x is equal to each of the unequal quantities
!>
*,
%i
tlien
since
f(x)
is
divisible
the
),
by x a,
7 ,
we have
)
2W
n~X
= (xaj(pjf +
2 dimensions; and
we
di
f(x)
310.
=p
(x
 a) (xa}(xaa)
(x aH).
If a rational integral function of\\ dimensions vanishes for more than n values of the variable, the coefficient of each power of the variable must be zero.
Let the function be denoted hyf(x), where
f(x)
!>x"
+p x"~
)
+p,c'' +
+p
~
254
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
is
f( x) =Po (x  a i) ( x ~ a 2 ) ( x ~ 0
Let
c
x ~ a ,);
then
~ a i)
a*)
~ a s)
(cJ = 0;
of
and therefore p = 0,
factors
is
since,
by hypothesis, none
the other
equal to zero.
2\x
n
By
of x,
n values
2>o,
In a similar manner we may shew that each of the P3 Vn mus t be equal to zero.
,
coefficients
This result
may
also
be enunciated as follows
If a rational integral function of n dimensions vanishes for more than n values of the variable, it must vanish for every value
of the variable.
If the function f(x) vanishes for more than Cor. has more than n roots. (x) of x, the equation
values
Hence
roots
it is
also,
if
an
an
identity.
Example.
Prove that
(x
(a
b) (x
c) c)
(x
{b
 c)
c)
(x
(6
b) (a
 a)  a)
(x
a) (x
b) _
(ca) (cb)~
This equation is of tivo dimensions, and it is evidently satisfied by each of the three values a, 6, c ; hence it is an identity.
If two rational integral functions of n dimensions are equal for more than n values of the variable, they are equal for
311. every value of the variable.
xn
+p x
1
n1
+2> 2 x" +
+pH
n 2 qox + q^" + q 2 x +
1
+ qmt
2
of
 %) x +
(Pi
?i)
"~ l
(p
"~  ad x +
+ (p* 
?.)
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
vanishes for more than preceding article,
255
n values
of x;
that
is,
2\
= %>
Pi=9li>
Pi^Vv
l> n
*
<l n
>
identical,
Thus
if two rational integral functions are identically equal, we equate the coefficients of the like powers of the variable.
may
we assumed
in the
Elementary Algebra,
This proposition still holds if one of the functions Cor. For instance, if of lower dimensions than the other.
is
p
we have
q =
0,
x"
+pn
,
only to suppose that in the above investigation q o = and then Ave obtain
0,
>
p,,
q
312.
The theorem
The application to as the Principle of Undetermined Coefficients. of this principle is illustrated in the following examples.
Example,
1.
+n(n+l).
Assume
that
1.2 + 2. 3 + 3. 4 + ... + n(n + l)=A + Bn+Cn 2 + Dn3 + Eni +..., where A, B, C, D, E,... are quantities independent of n, whose values have
to be determined.
Change n
1. 2
into
n+
then
(?t
+ 2.3+...+?i(;i + l) +
+D
(3}v>
+ 3}i + l) + E
;
{n*
+ 6ri + n + l)+
..
This equation being true for all integral values of n, the coefficients of the respective powers of n on each side must be equal thus E and all succeeding
coefficients
must be equal
to zero,
and
3D = 1;
whence
1)
3D + 2C = 3;
D + C + B = 2;
B=
2

=
1
,
(7=1,
256
Hence the sum
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
=A + + n2 +  n3 o
o
To
find A, put
n = l; the
series
then reduces to
its first
term, and
2=A
+ 2,
or
A = 0.
(n
Hence
Note.
1 .2
+2
+ 3.
+ ... + n(;i + l) =  n
+ 1)
(n + 2).
be seen from this example that when the n lh term is a rational integral function of n, it is sufficient to assume for the sum a function of n which is of one dimension higher than the w th term of the
It will
series.
Example
2.
divisible
by
Assume
Equating the
+ ax + 6).
x,
powers of
we have
k + a=p, ak + b = q, kb = r.
From
r
that
is,
n + a=p, and
=b
EXAMPLES.
l 2 +3*
XXII.
a.
+ 5*+7*+...to n
2 2
terms.
..
2. 3.
1.2. 3 + 2. 3. 4 + 3. 4. 5 +
1. 2 2
2
.ton terms.
terms.
4.
5.
Find the condition that x3 3px + 2q may be factor of the form a?+%ax + a2
6.
.
divisible
by a
7.
8.
Find the conditions that ax3 + hv2 \cx + d may be a perfect cube.
Find the conditions that a2 AA + bx3 +cx2 + dx+f 2 may be a
Prove that ax2 + 2bxy + cif + 2tlv + 2ey +/
d = a/, e2
is
perfect square.
9.
if b'
1
a perfect square,
= ac,
= cf.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
10. 11.
12.
257
<id
If
a.<
:i
+ bx2 + cx + d is
is
divisible
by x2 + h 2 prove that
,
= bc.
If
3tP
f>qx+4r
divisible
:
by
(x
c) 2 shew
,
that g*=r*,
+ ~Jc^aJ(cb)
c2 (x
 a) (x  b) _ "
w
/
(rt6)(ac)(aJ)" (bc)(bd)(ba)
+
13.
(x  d) (x  a) (x
+ \da){db)\dc)** {cd){ca)(cb)
~b)
(x
 a)
(x
 b) (x  c)
'
may
+ ^'y + r'.
l~,
77,
14.
If
= lx + my + nz,
t
r)
and
if
the
same equations are true for all values of x, changed with x y, 2 respectively, shew that
l
when
are inter
+2mn = l,
3
,
m 2 + 2ln = 0,
n 2 + 2lm=0.
//
15.
of the products
together of the n
quantities a, a
a
y
,..a n is
l)(tt* + a
l)...(al)
1)
(a
1)
(a 2
1).. .(a*'
i(r)(r+l).
313. is equal If the infinite series a + a x + a.,x + a 3 x + to zero for every finite value of x for which the series is convergent, tit en each, coefficient must be equal to zero identically.
2
Let the series be denoted by S, and let S\ stand for the ex2 pression a + a 2 x + a x + then S = a + xS and therefore, = for all finite values of x. But since S l>y hypothesis, a + xS is convergent, #, cannot exceed some finite limit; tlierefore by taking x small enough xS may be made as small as we please. In this case the limit of & is a but S is always zero, therefore a Q must be equal to zero identically.
;
l
:i
x;
Removing the term a we have xS = for all finite values 2 that is, a + a 2x + ajc + vanishes for all finite values of
, x x
of
x.
Similarly,
coefficients a n
we may prove
a.,,
is
of
the
H. ir.A.
17
258
. .
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
314. If tivo infinite series are equal to one another for every finite value of the variable for which both series are convergent, the coefficients of like powers of the variable in the two series are equal.
series are
denoted by
3 2 a + ax x + a x + a 3 x +
and
A +A
" Ao +
"A
x+
A x + Aj? +
2 2
x + (a2 
2 2)
+ (  A a)
+
;
vanishes for all values of x within the assigned limits by the last article
therefore
a
that
is,
A = O a.A^Q,
t
aB A a = 0, a3
a2 =
A a = 0,
,
>
i^n
2,
a.
= A3
Expand
.
2
=
+ x2
Let
r
,
+ X2
'
=a
2
+ a x x + a 2 x'2 + a.jx? +
whose values
...,
where a
fl
a. 2
:i
,...
are constants
)
+ x 2 (1 + x  x 2
(a Q
+ Oj a; + a 2 ar + o a
. .
.
In this equation we may equate the coefficients of like powers of x on n each side. On the righthand side the coefficient of x is a n + a u _ 1  a n _ 2 2 and therefore, since x is the highest power of x on the left, for all values of ?t>2 we have
,
this will suffice to find the successive coefficients after the first three
have
been obtained.
To determine
a
these
= 2,
a
a1
+ a = 0,
+ a1 a = l;
a 2 =5.
a 3 = 7;
;
whence
Also
a3
= 2, ^=2,
+ a 2 a 1 = 0, whence
~~
a4 + a 3
a 2 = 0, whence a 4 = 12
and
2
a 5 + aa 3 = 0, whence a 5 =  19
,
thus
l + ica;
+ X~ = 2 2x + 5x 2 2
7.t 3
+ 12x 4  19a 5 +
. .
Example
2.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
Prove that
if
250
n and
~+
is
equal to
if r
w if r
=n
We
have
= x n + terms containing
Again, by the Binomial Theorem,
higher powers of x.
.(1).
2 ).
By expanding each
of
of the terms
nx
,
e (n
~ l)X
y
...
we
xr in
(2) is
nr
r
(l) r
[r
n(nl) (n2) r
j2
r
w(m1)(w2) (n3)*
3
coefficients of
x r in
(1)
and
(2)
Example
3.
If
Assume
and substitute
y = a{py
x=py + qy 2 + ry 3 +
in the given series
;
thus
t
+....
Equating
powers of
;
y,
we have
.
an = 1
whence p = whence q =
aq
+ bp =
a6
ar
+ 2bpq + cp 3
V &'V" # = '4
whence
= = 5
m,
Thus
This
Cor.
is
(2&

ac) y
an example of Reversion of
If
Series.
?/
y= k
+ ax + bx 2 + ex? + ...
put
then
z
yk = z;
ax + bx + ex3 +
.
from which x
may
z,
that
is
of y  k.
172
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
'
260
EXAMPLES.
Expand the
XXII.
b.
x as
far
1+2^; 1_^_^.24
3+*
'
l&g
"'
i_#_6#21
*
.
xx
+ ax ax2 .r3
l 
a
7
4
bv
,
(l.r)
may
be (Sn2)xn
7.
1
.
Find
2
3
a, b, c
,
xn
in the expansion of
a + bx + cx
(l.r)^ may be J
8.
n +
(3/
l.
If y 2 +
% =#
+ 1),
.r
of
y
i
is
+ s .rjs S A +
e?/
9.
If cxz
+ ax y = 0,
y a
3c2;/5
12c3;/ 7
'
a4
a7
solution of the
decimals
is
the
result correct
10.
the In the expansion of ( 1 + x) ( 1 + ax) ( 1 + a\c) ( 1 + a\v) factors being infinite, and a < 1, shew that the coefficient of number of
,
Xr
1S
I
2 3
11.
(lO
of
hr(rl)
xn
in the expansion of
 ax)
(1
a 2x) (1 dAx)
n ^~ 1 '
K
to inf.
12.
If
is
(1)
nn+1 n(nl)n+1 +
n n (n+l)(nl) n +
(n2)* +1 
=jn\ n+.l
=1;
(2)
^
(n2)
n terms
\n;
and
l"2+
7t
^~ 1
<
3a 
=(l)w
(4)
(n+p) n n(n+pl) n
+ ^
l
'
(n+p2) n 
= ' \n;
n + 1 terms.
CHAPTER
XXIII.
Partial Fractions.
In elementary Algebra, a group of fractions connected by the signs of addition and subtraction is reduced to a more simple form by being collected into one single fraction whose denominator is the lowest common denominator of the given
315.
process of separating a fraction into a group of simpler, or jwtial, fractions is often required. For 5a; 3 ^ in a series of ascendexample, if we wish to expand 1 iX r OXT ing powers of x, we might use the method of Art. 314, Ex. 1, and so obtain as many terms as we please. But if we wish to find the general term of the series this method is inapplicable, and it is simpler to express the given fraction in the equivalent form 1 2 1 and (1 3aj) 1 Each of the expressions (1 a;)
fractions.
1
term obtained.
316. In the present chapter we shall give some examples illustrating the decomposition of a rational fraction into partial fractions. For a fuller discussion of the subject the reader is referred to Serret's Cours d'Algebre Superieure, or to treatises on In these works it is proved that any the Integral Calculus. rational fraction may be resolved into a series of partial fractions;
linear factor
xa
in the
denominator there
cor
x
b occurring twice in
If
x
7?
j
and
.
(x
7?
*__
by
.
x b occurs
so
three
an additional fraction
hnl au d (xb)"
on
To
262
any
quadratic
factor
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
+px + q Px + Q if
x2
:
there
corresponds
partial
x' +])x
+q
is
P x + QL
+
and so
on.
q)
Here the
Av B
lt
P B
2
,
3,
P, Q,
Pv Q
are
x
all
independent of
We
follow.
shall
make
Example
1.
where A and
determined.
to be
Clearing of fractions,
is identically true,
we may equate
coefficients of like
2A+B = 5,
whence
'"'
~SA + 2B=U;
A = 3,
5.rll
2x
2
B= 1.
3
1
+ x6~ x + 2
r~.
2xB'
Example
2.
Resolve
.
(x
 a)
z.
(x
+ b)
r,
Assume
.'
(1).
We
is
simpler to
Since
of
A and
B, but
it
A and B
put
In
(1)
xa = 0,
ma + n A= ra+b
putting x + b
t
n = 0,
or
b,
B nibn
r,
CI "T*
mx + n (x  a) (x + b)
/ma + n
mbii\
x+
b
~ a b + \
xa
23
v
PARTIAL FRACTIONS.
Example
3.
203
Resolve
7^7.rrx ^ mto yx I) (J x
j
 11
2 r'
Assume
. .
(2.cl)
(3
^^
23xll.r 2
rm r= n r+ 5 + x 3 2.cl (3 + x)(3.r)
(3
ABC
H 5
partial fractions.
3x
1) (3
w
i
1)
23x  lLc2 = .1
+ x)
x)+B
(2x  1) (3  x)
+ G (2x 
+ x).
By
putting in succession
2^1 = 0,
+ x 0,
1.
4
3 #
= 0, we
find that
4 = 1, B = i, C=
'
1_
3 a:'
3+x
Example
4.
Resolve
Assume
.
.
3s 2
z^n (x  2) (1
^ ^ + s2 3.t
'
.
[x
+x2
'
&)"
(J.
&x\
s7
2x)
(x
"
~k
k~ H 2x
(1
B + x2
2x) {x
G
(x
2)
2)
'
%x
+ x2 = A
2)
+ C (1  2x).
Let
let
a;
 2x = 0, then
then
A= o
2 = 0,
C=4.
;
To
thus
= A  2B whence B =  ^
;
3.r' '
+xa
(x
2)
(1
 2x)
3(1 2x)
19a;
r,
3 {x
 2)
(x
2)
'
Example 1
5.
Resolve
[x
r
Assume
..
4219.C
73
(.^
+ 1)^4)
19.r
tt,
r;
Ax + B 3 + x+l
C
.i4'
42 
= (Ax +B)
(x
4)
+ C (x* + l).
Let x = 4, then
equating coefficients of
x'
2
,
C=2;
= A + C, and .4=2; 42 =  4Z? + C, and B =  11,
2s 11
2
42  19a
p+l)(x4)"^TT *4*
employed in the following example
will
317.
The
artifice
2G4
Example. r
Resolve
;
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
9x* 24rc2 + 48# (a:2) 4 (a:+l)
7^t~.
=rr
Assume
where A
is
n + x+1
f(x)
{x2) 4
of x
'
to
he determined.
Let
x=  1,
(x
then
^4
A=
1.
Substituting for
and transposing,
9a3  24s3 + 48x = x4 + x* + 16* + 16
+ 1) / (a) = [x  2) 4 +
.'./(*)
= 3 + 16.
r
To determine
.r
\x2)
+
3
16
put
x2 = 2;
+16
(2
+ 2) 3 + 16
Z*
23
+ 6^ 2 +122 + 24
z*
then
(x2) 4
1
~z
+
1
6
z^
12
~z^
24
~z
6
'
12
24
"
318.
24j; 2 + 48*
(x
(x2) 4
+ l)
= "
x+1
i
1,1,+
\
x2
+ (x2)"
/
12
TZ
Svi
(x2f
^J
24
(x2) 4
the preceding examples the numerator has been of lower dimensions than the denominator ; if this is not the case, we divide the numerator by the denominator until a remainder is obtained which is of lower dimensions than the denominator.
In
all
Example. *
Resolve
zr=
By
division,
3a:
8a;
2.x
v
= 2x + 3 +
5
3.c
Sx 2  2x 1
and
4 = 3x 2xl
^=
2
pr
= l
x1'
'*
319. fractions
We
shall
now
explain
how
resolution
into
partial
may be
PARTIAL FRACTIONS.
Example
1.
265
when expanded l
in a
 _ 2
;;
,'

series of ascending
By Ex.
4,
Art. 316,
we have
3.r 2
+ .r2
2
(*2) (l2*)
3(12*)
3(12*)
15 15
+
1
3(*2)
3(2*)
(*2) 2
4
(2a?) a
of the expansion
is
r+6
3
r+l\
sr
2r
y
and
find
Example
2.
Expand
(1
+*
.
r^r *) (I + *~)
in ascending powers of *
Assume
.\
(1
+ *
7
=J
+ 1+x
.4
JB*
+C 1 + *2
Lctl + *=:0,
equating the absolute terms,
equating the coefficients of *
2
,
then
7
A = 3;
whence C = i
whence
;
= A + C, = A + B,
43*
1
B  3.
+* _ 2 (1 + *)(1+* )
7
+ 1 + *^ 1+* 2
3*) (1
+ x 2 )~l
...j
+ (_l)P;C P +
{l.r 2 + *
+ (1)p*'^+...}.
r
is
4(l) 2
rl
+4 (
1)
2
.
second series
is
3(
1)
'
coefficient is 3
1)
3.
EXAMPLES.
Resolve into partial fractions
,
:
XXIII.
46+13.r
'
l+3. r + 2 .r 2
(1 2.r) (1
.//')'
12.t 2
lU15'
266
.y
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
+13 2 (xl)(x 5x+6)'
2
10a;
'
9 6
*
(a;l)(^ + 2) 2
'
26^2 + 208o;
+ 2^'
5)
,,
5^ + 6.r 2 + 5.r
(^
2
(071)*
l)(^+l) 3
Find the general term of the following expressions when expanded in ascending powers of x.
12#
5a;
'
+6
(2+a?)(l#)'
.
16.
u
(
#2 + 7;f + 3
tf
+ 7a + uy
15.
(1
2  x5tt^ ) (1
^ 
4 + 3^+2a'2
(1
2.r)
 x)
+ x  2x 2
'
17.
7,
w ttx* (l+a?)(l4a?) 2
.
+ 2xx2
,
no 18.
4 + 7x
(2
19
*"*
(^1)(^2 +1)"
+ 3a;)(l+.r) 2 1 * +i *
(1tf) 3
20.
21
cw?) (1
1
(1
 te)
(1
 co;)
22
.
'

(2
 3.r + a2) 2
'
23.
(l)
[
series
(i+^)(i+^2 )
(1
x (1  ax)
+x)
a?
ax
(1
 a2x)
(1
'
(l
+ ax) (1 + a%)
find the
+ ax)
(1
+a%)
xA
+ a 3.r)
24.
When
< 1,
sum
x2
(lx)
25.
+ (lx3
)
(1
a?)
(1
.r5 )
(1tf5 )
(1
^) +
Sum
to
n terms the
series
whose p th term
is
xp(1+xp + 1 )
CHAPTER XXIV.
Recurring Series.
320.
in
A series
u + u + u 2 + u3 +
l
which from and after a certain term each term is equal to the sum of a fixed number of the preceding terms multiplied respectively by certain constants is called a recurring series.
321.
In the
series
1
+ 2x +
3ar
+ 4a? +
5a;
each term after the second is equal to the sum of the two preceding terms multiplied respectively by the constants 2x, and  x 2 j these quantities being called constants because they are Thus the same for all values of n.
5x4
that
is,
= 2x
4a;
+ ( x2 )
;
3a;
2
;
u4 = 2xn3 x2u 2
and generally when n is greater than with the two that immediately precede
1,
it
.
uh
or
2xiin 1
,
,
x 2 u n2*
ii
u H 2xu n + x 2 u
1
0.
,
In this equation the coefficients of u n *,_,, and l*,_ a taken with their proper signs, form what is called the scale of relation.
,
Thus the
is
series
1
a recurring series
is
322.
number
of the preceding
268
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
As the method of procedure is the same terms are known. however many terms the scale of relation may consist of, the following illustration will be sufficient.
If
is
1
 px  qx2  rx 3
a + a<x + a a x 2 + ajc3 +
we have
3 2 + rx3 a n  3x + x " a n  2x am =pan_, + &. +  3 or thus any coefficient can be found when the coefficients
anx*=px a n i x

"~ 1
'l
'l
<l
of the
Conversely, if a sufficient number of the terms of a series be given, the scale of relation may be found.
323.
Find the scale of relation of the recurring series 2 + 5x + 13x2 + 35x 3 + Let the scale of relation be 1 px  qx*, then to obtain p and q we have 13  5p  2q = 0, and 35  13p  5q = the equations
Example.
;
whence p = 5, and q= 
6,
is
 5x + 6a;2
If the scale of relation consists of 3 terms it involves 324. 2 constants, p and q ; and we must have 2 equations to deTo obtain the first of these we must know termine p and q. at least 3 terms of the series, and to obtain the second we Thus to obtain a scale of must have one more term given. relation involving two constants we must have at least 4 terms 'O
given.
2 3 to find the the scale of relation be 1 px qx  rx To obtain the first of 3 constants we must have 3 equations. these we must know at least 4 terms of the series, and to obtain the other two we must have two more terms given hence to find a scale of relation involving 3 constants, at least G terms of the
If
series
must be
given.
we
Generally, to find a scale of relation involving must know at least 2m consecutive terms.
constants,
Conversely,
if
2m consecutive
may assume
~ l\ x ~ l\ x * ~ lhx* ~
PJ**
RECURRING
325.
SERIES.
series.
2G9
To find
the
sum ofn
terms of a recurring
of finding the sum is the same whatever be the scale of relation ; for simplicity we shall suppose it to contain only two constants.
The method
Let the
series
be
a u + axx + a 2 x 2 + aj +
the sum be S ; let the scale of relation be so that for every value of n greater than 1, we have
(1)
1
and
let
px qx*
,x"~\
1 '
2^>ci
H_2
n~ l
pa
i
x*t
u
_ 3x*x
qa H _ x n qa H _ x
l
\
1
...
(i
 px _
qtf)
S
a + {a
is
zero in consequence
'
s_
is
% + (, P<Q x
1
(P a
,t
,
px qx
whose de
32G. If the second fraction in the result of the last article decreases indefinitely as n increases indefinitely, the sum of an
infinite
number
of terms reduces to
this fraction in
\
1
px qx"
!
ascending powers of x as many terms of the series as we please; for this reason the expression original
If
we develop
we
shall obtain as
px qx
is
327.
,
From
,
we
...
obtain
an + ( a v 1
P a X % = a px
'
qx'
lt
+ a.x + ax + 2
'
+a
" 1
n+ x.xi
 px qx
270
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
px
qx 2
may
it
be used to obtain as many terms of the series as we please, can be regarded as the true equivalent of the infinite series
a + a x + a 2x 2 +
l
only
if
the remainder
( I**,.,
+qan1
xn
2)
+ (2 a n^" +l
;
poj qx 2
in other
n
is
is
indefinitely increased
v
words only
convergent. o
When the generating function can be expressed as a 328. group of partial fractions the general term of a recurring series may be easily found. Thus, suppose the generating function can be decomposed into the partial fractions
1 ax
Then the & general term
r
ABC
h
+ bx
r
(I ex) 2
r
'
is
l)
M+
(r
1)
Cc } x\
using
Example. Find the generating function, the general term, and the sum to n terms of the recurring series
1
 Ix  x 2 1
43.C
whence p = l,
5 = 6;
and the
scale of relation is 1
x;
6.r 2 .
series
then
S = llx x 2 4Sx s 
xS= Qx S=
2
..
 x + 7x 2 +
x*+
6x 2 + 42.r 3 +
which
is
'
RECURRING SERIES.
If
271
we obtain

we separate
l)
8.r
1xU.rtU
+
2
2a;
1305'
or general term
{(lyw^v ].<>.
Putting
the
r
?i
= 0,
1, 2,...n
1,
sum
to
terms
 2 x + 2%2 ...
2
1"1
+ (1
"1
}
(1
+ 3a + 3%* +
+ 3" xn~
1
_ ~ 2 +  I)'
(
2 n+1
xn
_ 1_ 3* xn  3x~
l+lte
term and sum of n terms of the we have only to find the recurring series a + a + a_,+ general term and sum of the series a + a l x + a2x2 + and put x 1 in the results.
329.
To
Example.
series
+ 6 + 24 + 84+
The
+ 24x 2 + 84x3 +
is 1
 ox + Ooj2
OX + OX"
1 If these expressions
 Sx
3r
 2a;
2 r ) xr.
.
term
of
is
3r
3.
2r ;
may remind the student that in the preceding 330. article the generating function cannot be taken as the sum of
the series
1
We
except
when x has such a value as to make the series convergent. Hence when x = 1 (in which case the series is obviously divergent)
is
series.
+ 24 + 84 +
is
may
have
it will
always
+ Gx + 24* 2 + 84a 3 +
its
therefore treat this as a convergent series and find general term in the usual way, and then put x = 1.
We
272
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES. XXIV.
Find the generating function and the general term of the following
series
1.
l
2.
3.
5.
4.
3+
2 2
1
7.
l+6.v2 + 30.v 3 +
10.
^ + 2 + + 8+
Shew that the
series
1
2
11.
+ 2 2 + 3 2 + 42 +
+ n2
13
+ 23 + 3 + 4 +
3
+n
3
,
Shew how
to
deduce the
sum
of the first
n terms
of the re
curring series
+ a x + a2 x2 + a^v3 +
x
infinity.
1
The
is
l
(<x n
+6 n )^"
is
(p
15.
If a series be
of
n terms
of a given recurring series, shew that it will also form a recurring series whose scale of relation will consist of one more term than that of the given series.
CHAPTER XXV.
CONTINUED
FllACTIONS.
331.
All expression of
the form a +
c
is
+ e
called
...
continued fraction here the letters a, b, quantities whatever, but for the present
;
c,
we
a3 +
1
...
integers.
a,
a2 + a3 +
of quotients a
332.
When
the
number
3 ,...
is finite
the
continued fraction is said to be terminating ; if the number of quotients is unlimited the fraction is called an infinite contirmed
fraction.
It is possible to reduce every terminating continued fraction to an ordinary fraction by simplifying the fractions in succession
Let
divide in by n, let a
be the
quotient and
the remainder
thus
m a. +p
n
si.
=a, + n n
P
H.
18
274
divide
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
n by ^,
thus
n V
divide
on.
1  = a . + q = as +  ;
'
'
P
9.
p by
q, let a.6
and
.so
Tims
= a.
rn,
+
o
a.
a2 + a3 + and we put
a3 +.
first
7)1
If
m is less
than
?t,
the
quotient
1
ti
is zero,
n
and proceed as
before.
m
It will be observed that the above process is the same as that and n ; hence if of finding the greatest common measure of and n are commensurable we shall at length arrive at a stage
where the division is exact and the process terminates. Thus every fraction whose numerator and denominator are positive
integers can be converted into a terminating continued fraction.
251
to a continued fraction.
Example.
Reduce
^^
process,
common measure
5
of 251
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
335. To shew that the convergents ewe alternately greater than the continued fraction.
less
275
and
a 2 + a3 +
too small because the part
is
The
aa +a3 +
first
convergent
omitted.
is ,,
and
is
is
a
l
i
a
\
and
is
too small.
The
third
is
convergent
great
;
is a,
\
a 2+
so on.
and
is
CC
and
too
the given fraction is a proper fraction a = ; if in this case we agree to consider zero as the first convergent, we may enunciate the above results as follows
t
When
all less,
and
the convergents
To
establish the
law of formation of
a +
x
a 2 + a3 + a 4 +
then the
first
a x a3 + a2
o, (a, a,
!)
+ ,
1
a3
a2 +
and we see that the numerator of the third convergent may be formed by multiplying the numerator of the second convergent by the third quotient, and adding the numerator of the first convergent also that the denominator may be formed in a similar manner.
;
Suppose that the successive convergents are formed, in a similar way; let the numerators be denoted by^,^.,, p 3 ,..., and the denominators by q lt q q 3 ,...
,
Assume
that
is,
tt

convergent;
suppose
1\
= J.i +Pi
In
<*
?.,
Q 2
182
27g
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
l)
th
The (*+
the quotient a n +
convergent
differs
from the
ft*
only in having
in the place of
aj hence
the ( + 1)
vergent
^nn ^
n+1
+ ^i by + ?_!' ?
?
supposition.
If therefore
we put
th
denominator of the ( + l) conco. tht the numerator and we case of which was supposed to hold in the P f
^^ ^ tttVs
^ ^*
337.
conhold in the case of the third so on; therefore * holds for the fourth, and
at this stage being a n + a 4 the complete quotient +1 + +2 quotient at'any stage by usually denote the complete
ft.
&
by m ; then x differs from continued fraction be denoted let the quotient ft instead of the partial only in taking the complete
quotient a
;
thus
X_
ft
j^il
n_x
~kq
+ ff2 + qn 2
to
'
338
// Eb
Q
6e
tfl6
n th convergent
111
a Q + a 3 + a4 +
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
then
277
= ("
2 )
(P.
9a
iV,
^2)1 similarly,
But
hence
p 2 q ]\
x
q,
/>
(<h
% + 1)  x
g,
a,
= 1 = (
l)
2
J
g^, #,_,
(
1)".
When the
still
hold
if
is less
0,
than unity, this result will and that the first convergent
is zero.
are calculating the numerical value of the successive convergents, the above theorem furnishes an easy test of the accuracy of the
Note.
When we
work.
Cor. q n had a
Each convergent is in its lowest terms for iipn and common divisor it would divide pn q nl pn_ l q ni or unity
1.
;
which
is
impossible.
2.
Cor.
The
difference
is
unity
for
?_i
q n qn ^
q,,q n i'
EXAMPLES. XXV.
Calculate the successive convergents to
1.
a.
2.
2+ 2+ 3+ 1+
3+
3.
1111111 111111
2
l *
l '
6+ 1+ 1+ 11+
44
2+
3+ 1+ 2+ 2+ 1+
9"
Express the following quantities as continued fractions and find the fourth convergent to each.
729
4.
278
12.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
39*37079 inches, shew by the theory of continued fractions that 32 metres is nearly equal to 35 yards.
is
A metre
Find a
13.
days
series of fractions converging to "24226, the excess in of the true tropical year over 365 days.
14.
A,
.
A kilometre
..
is
18
the fractions ,
very nearly equal to "62138 miles; shew that 23 64 the == , ^z are successive approximations to .
.
**
scales of equal length are divided into 162 and 209 equal parts respectively; if their zero points be coincident shew that the th 31 st division of one nearly coincides with the 40 division of the other.
15.
Two
16.
If
n3 + n u + n + l
is
n 1 and n+l
and
Shew that
Pn + \~Pn  1
(!)
_ Pn
9.n
2n + 1
(2)
9.n
1
(^O^fHvrPn Pn U
\
/ \
+
1
,
gl
\ c Jn
18.
If
is
339.
Each convergent
is
nearer
to the
any of the
'preceding convergents.
fraction,
and
"
^*J
"2
9*
? + !
^+2
denote
by
k:
thus
x=
? n+l +Pn
and
^^ ~
Pn +
1
a;
= Pn^l^nPn^l
? +
,
1
"
&+
(% +l +
7.)
y. + ,
(% + +
,
?)
Now
botli
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
k
is
270
than q
;
is less
"
'
lience
on
'
and x
is less
than the
is
difference
between
" and
x: that
is,
every convergent
nearer
to tlie continued fraction than the next preceding convergent, and therefore a fortiori than any preceding convergent.
Combining the
follows that
tli^
.>3.>,
it
convergent of an odd order continually increase, hat are always less than the continued fraction ;
covrergents of an even order continually decrease, hut are always greater than the continued fraction.
tin'
340.
To find
p
for
the
continued fraction.
Let
Y
,
p ^
p r_n2
]
)0
then
x=
p
<ln
^^
>+ n J
..
k
<ln( k <ln +
'.(*
+9 i)
i
Now
p.. is
k
.
is
greater than
1,
less
than
i
,
Again, since
less
<7, 1
><7,
is
than
341.
?.
v. +
From the
p qm
article it
taking
or
(I
is
less
than
?.?.+,
a (a / V
II
., +1 ill
+q 2
that
is,
less
than
,) Ft 1/
11+ .7 ili
.
3 "
a i+l
is,
'
280
therefore,
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
any convergent which immediately precedes a a near approximation to the continued fraction.
is less
large
quotient is
than
it
by
less
we have only
is
to calculate the
successive convergents
up to
where q n 2
greater than
a.
properties of continued fractions enable us to find two small integers whose ratio closely approximates to that of two incommensurable quantities, or to that of two quantities whose exact ratio can only be expressed by large integers.
342.
The
Example. Find a series of fractions approximating to 3* 14159. In the process of finding the greatest common measure of 14159 and
100000, the successive quotients are
7, 15, 1, 25, 1, 7, 4.
Thus
4
314159 =
3+1
22
'
111
7+ 15+ 1+ 25+ 1+ 7+
333
'
The
106
'
355 113
is
a very near
less
^
and therefore
than
25TP5)
00004
343. Any convergent is nearer to the continued fraction than any other fraction whose denominator is less than that of the
convergent.
n
8
than q
r
.
"
v r  be nearer to x than
then  must be
s
?
;
nearer to x than
5=?
it
Ji
^1 [Art. 339]
and since x
lies
between
'
P I"
and
In  J
follows that S
must
lie
between
and
%
9.X
?!
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
Hence
r
281
P*P.
Pn i fWi<5 ^
<
.'.
rqn _ x ~ spn _ x
that
is,
Therefore
an integer p
&
must
than a fraction
which
is
344.
P If 
P'
be
to
a continued
 is
fraction x, then
is
x 2 according as
,
q"
,
then x f.
lcq '
'
'
''
5
,
"*=
WW^YY w
(tfp'q
,
{hq
+ qY " "'
w
q'
pY]
=
The
lience
pq)(pq'2>'q)
qq'(kq'
+ q) 2
>p,
>q, and
factor ky'q'
 pq
is
k>
>
pp'
or
< x 2 according
,
as
]iq'
p'q
is
positive or negative
that
is,
according as  > or
<
from the above investigation that the ex2  q 2 M 2 q' 2 x 2 p' 2 have the same pressions ]iq'2 q VP ~ c c L L^> p
Cor.
It follows
)/
i
sign.
EXAMPLES. XXV.
1.
b.
222
in taking
yards as equivalent to
282
2.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find an approximation to
JL J_ J JL JL + 3+ 5+ 7+ 9+ 11+
which
3.
differs
less
than 0001.
99
4.
Express
1
Shew
first
and n th convergent
numerically ecpial to
1
1
Mi Ms Wh
6.
(l)n
...+
9nl2n
s5
,
Shew
that
if
an
is
a
^
'
Pn1~
"
nl+ u 2 + 03+
'"
3+
a2+
'
(2 )
L_
tt
...
J_
3+
1.
2
,
anl+ 2+
7.
1111 a+ + + +
>
n3+
shew that
Pn
2)
is
8.
If
111111 a+ a+ +
b+
b+
6
+

shew that
9.
q 2n =p 2n + u
#.. q2n  1 = r r  n b
1111 a+ 6+ + 6+
9n + 2
'
shew that
Pn + 2~ ( ah + 2 ) P n +Pn2 = i
~ ( ab + 2 )
?u + ?* 2 = 
''
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
10.
283
Shew that
/ a[a\x + \
111
ar
a.v.j,+
+
+
oa;4
to 2/i quotients
x.
\
/
= .v,H
:r.,+
to 2/i quotients.
oa?3
.v,+
11.
If
r;
 are the n tU (n
,
iV
l)
th
.
(^
A3
continued fractions
111
((
111
'
111
'
a i+
2+ a S+
tt
*+ a B +
T
W 4+
':5+
"4+ a 5+
'
respectively,
shew that
J/= OjP + 5,
12.
iV
= (a^ + 1) P + aJL
If
pn
is
the n th convergent to
j.
i
i_
a+ + a+ shew that
expansions of
"
'
coefficients of
xn
in the
#
1
ax x 2
and
1
.#
+ x2
'
r x 2
>
a pn <Ini =
_ Qn
i
where
a, /3
at
= 0.
13.
If
9n
is
the n th convergent to
_l
1
1
1_
bt
a+
b\
a+
"
'
shew that
pn
coefficients of
xn
in the
expansions of
'
where
a, /3
l(ab + 2)x2 + xA = 0.
CHAPTER XXVI.
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE.
345. In Chap. X. we have shewn how to obtain the positive integral solutions of indeterminate equations with numerical coefficients; we shall now apply the properties of continued fractions
of
equation of the first degree involving two unknowns x and y can be reduced to the form axby = c, where a, 6, c are positive integers. This equation admits of an unlimited number of solutions but if the conditions of the problem require x and y to be positive integers, the number of solutions may be
;
Any
limited.
It is clear that the equation ax + by = c has no positive integral solution ; and that the equation ax by = c is equivalent
ax ax by c.
to by
If a
have a factor m which does not divide c, neither of the equations axby = c can be satisfied by integral values of x and y for ax by is divisible by m, whereas c is not.
and
If a,
b, c
so that
we
that a and
347. equation
To find
ax by
c.
let
denote
q
then
aqbp = l.
[Art. 338.]
285
If aq
bj)
1,
may
;
le
written
ax by c (aq
..
b]j)
a(x
b
cq)
b
(y
c/>).
Now
divisible
since a
by
and
x cq
b
y cP.
a
that
is,
x=
bt
cq,
at
cj)
be obtained by giving any positive integral value, or any negative integral value
en
j,
may
cd
may
If
is
unlimited.
II.
aq bp
1,
we have
c
ax by
.'.
(aq
bji)
',
a(x +
x + cq =
cq)
b (y
cj))
. .
+ cp = t, an = y
a
integer
lience
x=
bt
cq, y at
cp;
from which positive integral solutions may be obtained by giving to t any positive integral value which exceeds the greater of the
CO
CD
of solutions
is
unlimited.
III.
j
cannot be con
verted into a continued fraction with unit numerators, and the investigation fails. In these cases, however, the solutions may be written down by inspection; thus if 6 = 1, the equation becomes ax y = c; whence y = axc, and the solutions may be found by
ascribing to x any positive integral value greater than Note. It should be observed that the two arithmetical progressions in which the
respectively.
series of values for x
a
and y form are b and a
common
differences
286
Example.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Find the general solution in positive integers of
29.r
42*/
= 5.
In converting
13
is jr
;
we have
therefore
..
=42(# + 45);
u
x + 65
*
j =
+ 45
29"
= *
an mte 8 er
is
a:
= 4265,
ij
= 20t~4o.
the equation
Let
h,
k be a solution of
.'.
axby = c;
then ah bk =
;
c.
ax by = ah  bk
.'.
a (x h) b(y k);
.'.
xh = yk = a
z
t.
an integer
.'.
x=h+
bt,
yk+
at
which
is
349.
To Jind
of
the
equation
ax + by =
c.
fraction,
and
let
be the
q
then aq bp =
1.
If aq
bp=l, we have
ax +by =
.'.
(aq
bp);
c2));
a(cq x) = b(y +
cq
x
b
.'
==
= y +acp = L an integer
'
'
. ' .
x = cq bt, y at  cp
; ;
;;
287
may be
CI)
obtained by giving
and
less
is
than j
CO
and
if
there
no integer
no solution.
II.
If aq
bp = 
1,
we have
ax + by =
..
(aq
bp)
JL
en = y=
t. '
an integer 7
;
x=bt cq,
= cj)
at
may be
obtained by giving
and
less
than
cP
As
no
number
a or
of solutions
is
limited,
solution.
III.
If either
may
be
Let
A,
k be a solution of ax
'
f
by
then ah + bk =
c.
ax + by ah + bk
a (x h) b (k y)
.'.
x
.'.
7 =  hky o a
bt,
t,
an integer
.'.
x=h +
yk
at
which
is
351.
To find
the
equation
integers
of the
let
 be the
q
then aq bp
= at 1.
288
I.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Let aq bp
is
x = cqbt, y = at
[Art. 349.]
t
values
not
greater
than f
o
and
not
less
than
a
Suppose that  and T are not integers.
c c
(i)
Let
= m+f. J
a

b
=n+
a. y
'
where m, n are positive integers and J\ g proper fractions then the least value t can have is m+ 1, and the greatest value is n;
;
therefore the
number
of solutions is
nvi = b
cq
cp
+f J c J J g=+fg. J
.
j.
ab
Now
r a
this is
an
integer,
+ a fraction,
ab
or
than
g.
Thus the
number
of solutions
is
greater or less
according
(ii)
as/ or g
is
the greater.
z
Suppose that
this case
is
an
integer.
of
In
this,
g
0,
is zero.
If
we
include
in
the
number
C
of solutions is
ao
teger.
C
of solutions
^7+1
(iii)
according as
c
we
an
Suppose that cc
is
integer.
In
this,
case/=0, and one value of y is zero. If we include the least value of t is m and the greatest is n; hence
this of solutions is
71
the
number
m+
l.
or r
ab
q+
1.
Thus the
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS OF
number
TJIE FIRST
c
DEGREE.
289
c
cording as
we
+1
or =. ae
ab
(iv)
Suppose that
and
7 are
both integers.
In this case
value.
and y = 0, and both x and y have a zero If we include these, the least value t can have is m, and
f
;
the greatest
is
is
11111+
1,
or
y + ab
1.
If
we exclude
number
of solutions is
ab
4i.
II.
If
aq
bp= 
1,
is
x=
cq
y cp at,
and similar
352. To find the solutions in positive integers of the equation ax + by + cz d, we may proceed as follows.
transposition ax + by = d cz ; from which by giving to z we obtain equations of in succession the values 0, 1, 2, 3, the form ax + by = c, which may be solved as already explained.
By
we have two simultaneous equations ax + by + cz=d, ax + b'y + cz = d\ by eliminating one of the unknowns, z say, we obtain an equation of the form Ax + By = C. Suppose that x f, y g is a solution,
353.
If
x=f+Bs, y = gAs,
where
s is
an
integer.
Substituting these values of x and y in either of the given equations, we obtain an equation of the form Fs + Gz = II, of which the general solution is
8
=h +
we
Gt,
= k  Ft
say.
Substituting for
s,
obtain
x=f+Bh + BGt,
and the values
integral values.
H. H. A.
y = gAhAGt; by giving to
t
of x, y, z are obtained
suitable
19
290
354.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If one solution in positive integers of the equations
ax + by +
cz
d,
then
af+ bg +
ch
d,
a'f+
b'g
+ ch = d'.
By
subtraction,
xf
be
b'c
yg _ zh _
ca
c'a
ab'
a'b
'
where
be
b'c,
an integer and k is the H.C.F. of the denominators Thus the general solution is ca c'a, ab' a'b.
is (be'
=f+
b'c)
j
/c
yg+
(ca'
c'a)
= ,
=h+
(ab'
 a'b) ?.
fc
fc
EXAMPLES. XXVI.
j
775.r711y =
In how
?
l.
2.
455#519y=l.
,1. 19s. 6d.
436#393y = 5.
4.
many ways
can
crowns
5.
lLe+15y=1031.
6.
and
sum
is 1
.
and 8
8.
is
24
of
y pounds x
pounds y
shillings,
and
it is
half
10.
'
1 2x 12.rlly 1 \y
4z = 221 + 4^=22
291
12.
'
13^ + 1 Is =103)
7z
 by=
"
4J
13.
15.
+ 4y + 19^ = 84.
3, 2,
14.
23.r+17.y +
lU = 130.
all positive
by
5, 7,
5 respectively.
3, 7, 11
16.
leave
remainders
17.
6, 5 respectively.
of three digits in the septenary scale is represented in the nonary scale by the same three digits in reverse order if the middle digit in each case is zero, find the value of the number in the
;
number
denary
scale.
all
the
rods of equal length are divided into 250 and 243 equal parts respectively if their ends be coincident, find the divisions which are the nearest together.
;
Two
to toll at the same time, and tolled at intervals of 23, 29, 34 seconds respectively. The second and third bells tolled 39 and 40 seconds respectively longer than the first ; how many times did each bell toll if they all ceased in less than 20 minutes?
20.
Three
bells
commenced
21.
7.r
+ 9y = c may
22.
Find the greatest value of c in order that the equation have exactly six solutions in positive integers.
Find the greatest value of c in order that the equation 14r + lly=c may have exactly five solutions in positive integers. Find the limits within which c must lie in order that the equation 19x + 14y = c may have six solutions, zero solutions being
23.
excluded.
greatest value of c in order that the equation ax + by = c may have exactly n solutions in positive integers is (n + l)abab, and that the least value of c is (nl)ab + a + b } zero solutions being excluded.
24.
in
CHAPTER
XXVII.
We
example.
Example. Express ^19 as a continued fractions approximating to its value.
x/19 = 4 v/19
3
N /19
fraction,
and find a
series of
+ ( v/194) = 4+ Tl9  ; v +
,x/19 z _2_ +
3
+ 4_ 2
,
'
V19 + 2
.
+ 2_ 1j ^193 = , 1 +
=1+^
_
\/19 + 3'
5
.
,/19 + S 2
^98
2
\/19 + 3'
v/19
+ 3_ 1
+V
1
92_ 1
1
~ + N/
,
/L9 + 2
n iN/194
2
3
(
0i
\/19 + 4'
N /19
+4=8+
N/194)
=8+
hence
1
V 19  4 + 2+ 1+ 3+ 1+ 2+8+
It will
Jl_
2.
be noticed that the quotients recur as soon as we come to a quotient which is double of the first. In Art. 361 we shall prove that this is always the case.
293
[Explanation. In each of the lines above we perform the same series of operations. For example, consider the second line we first find the
:
greatest integer in is

o
this is 2,
is
2,
that
^ ^
We
conjugate to
^192,
we begin a
new
The
9 2
'
13
3
'
48
11
'
61
170
'
1421
'
'
14
39
326
,
'
The
less
is less
than
and
is
therefore
than
or
and
a fortiori
less
than 00001.
Thus the
356.
roots
Every periodic continued fraction is equal to one of the of a quadratic equation of which the coefficients are rational.
fraction,
part,
x=
a+
1
z
1
,
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
+ {s r) y r = 0, which gives the value of if the positive value of y, has its roots real and of opposite signs v'y + p on rationalising the denominator be substituted in x = ,
;
ii
qy+q
the value of x
is of
the form
~G
where A, B,
C are integers,
is real.
,1111 ~
+s
5
^
...
as a surd.
then x  1 = =
>
O + +
1
\X
1)
whence 2x + 2x 2
The
is
and
therefore equal to
^
EXAMPLES. XXVII.
a.
Express the following surds as continued fractions, and hnd the sixth convergent to each
1. 5. 9.
v/3.
v/11.
2.
6.
^5.
x/13.
3. 7.
y/6.
4.
8.
s/8.
x/14.
V22.
4 N/10.
2^3.
10.
4 v/2.
11.
3^5.
12.
13
j&
14

15
V33
\/s
16 
\/n
17.
268
65
is
is
18.
19.
taken for
is
v/23.
Find the
first
of decimals.
20.
Find the
first
VI 5
that
is
of decimals.
Express as a continued fraction the positive root of each of the following equations
21.
24. 25.
x* +
2xl = 0.
22.
a8 4*? 3=0.
23.
Ill

as a continued fraction.
6+ 6+
6+
26.
1+ 3+ 1+
3+
295
3+
28.
29.
111111 1+ 3+ 1+ + 1111 1+ 1+
2
1+
10 +
Shew that
*+
i+6+ i+ e+""~*\ 1+ a+ 2+ 3+ 2+
infinite
30.
1+
*357.
111111 3+ 3+ 5+
5+ 1+
111111 3+ 3+ 5+
1+ 5+
continued fractions
1+
""
Let
and
let
a positive integer which is not an exact square, a be the greatest integer contained in then
x
N be
JN
=
N/iV = ,
+ (Jff a,) =
j
if r,
W ,\
'
Let
then
JM+a
where
JNb r
x

+a
x
JNa
,
^h +
.
2 = b r
i
a and
x
r r2
x
= N a 2
Similarly
2
r2
JN + a./
where
3 = bf2 as and r 2 r 3 on
;
N a
.
,
and
so
and generally
JN+as=i = 
b Ml
,
JNa v
'
"
= b "' +
=
H 1
(11
jy + a
,
"
'
it
>
where
an =
&_,/_,
a_
Hence
and thus
"We
*JN= a, +
1111
1
and
?_,*
N  a/.
curring periods ; it is evident that the period will begin whenever any complete quotient is first repeated.
296
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
shall call the series of quotients
We
JA
the
first,
T
.
JAr + a,
r
x
JN + a
r2
JJST+ a 3
r3
)
complete quotients.
the preceding article it appears that the quantities a v rv b v b b are positive integers; we shall now prove 3 that the quantities a2 a 3 a4 are also positive inr8 r 3 r 4
, , , ,
,
*358.
From
, .
tegers.
p p Let , ..
q
p
r.
P" let
be the convergent
at this stage
hence
v^=
we have
p +p
,t
=P
JW+aP+r p
v
y + rnP = ^Y>
+ rn q =p
whence a n ( pq  pq) =pp* ~ <Z<7 '^j rn {ptf p<i) = ATq' 2 p' 2 But pq' p'qssdslf and pq pq, pp' qq'N, Nq 2 p 2 have the same sign [Art. 344] hence a n and rn are positive integers.
.
r*
n greater than
1.
*359.
To prove
and partial
l
quotients recur.
.
In Art. 357 we have proved that rn r n _ = Na 2 Also r n and r n _ are positive integers ; hence a n must be less than ^/JV, thus an cannot be greater than a v and therefore it cannot have any
l
3, ...a x }
'
that
is,
the
Again, a n+1 =rv b u a that is rn b n = a n + a n+v and therefore r n b n cannot be greater than 2a also b n is a positive integer hence rn cannot be greater than 2a v Thus rn cannot have any values except 1, 2, 3,...2a ; that is, the number of different values ofi\ cannot exceed 2a r
h
, l
' ;
297
rn
that
Also
quotients
rn
hence
the partial
must
also recur,
and
the
number of partial
2
']
quotients in
*3G0.
To prove
that a,
,_,
< au +
rn
We
have
+ an = bH _ rn _
1
_i
+ a = or >?, ,i
t
since 6_ l
is
But
N"a;=rnrn _
a ~ a n < rn
i
l i
seen in Art. 359, a recurrence must take place, let us suppose that the (n+ l) th complete quotient recurs at the (*+ l) th ; then
Since, as
a.
we have
=a
r,
=r
and
b.
we
shall
prove that
a, 1 4
.
=a n
1'
rm
=r
ii
, 1'
,
b, *
b
ii
We
have
r. *
,
i
r* =
N a,
2
'
iV
a = r H ,r r
2
it
i
ii
. l
r, *
=r
Again,
a
..
"
,
'
_a
n1
b
om = zero,
7 .
or an integer.
298
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
l
a
n_
<.r _
ii
,
x
and a
.
a _ <r _
s
l
that
is
a.
<r
' ,
therefore a
 aa
<r
zero.
fl
hence
^
n
is less
Thus
,_!
if
= _!, and
also 6#_1
th
=6
_i.
th the (n + l) complete quotient recurs, the ?^ comth plete quotient must also recur; therefore the (n l) complete quotient must also recur; and so on.
Hence
This proof holds as long as n is not less than 2 [Art. 358], hence the complete quotients recur, beginning with the second
It follows therefore that the recurrence rx begins with the second partial quotient b ; we shall now shew that it terminates with a partial quotient 2a
quotient 1
Let
when
it
recurs
then
ancj
v
",
ar e
therefore
but
N a* =
Again, a
y
r,
hence rn =
?',
1.
aH <
that
is
<
hence a  an x
0,
that
is
= ,
bn
Also an + a
proposition.
= rn bn bn
hence
= 2a
*362.
distant
To shew
the
from
any period the partial quotients equibeginning and end are equal, the last partial
that in
Let the
last
r.
then
=a
x
bn
=2a r
^.2= & 2^
299
We
have
rx
r*
rH_t
=N a,;
+ a H = rm_,
?,&,;
N  a; &_,
r,
Also
_,
+a =
x
_,
r, &_,
and
,+., =
=i
= 0,
is
o M1
= zero,
1 ,
or an integer,
But
unity
;
"' I
<
CT
i
~ a "~
l ,
that
<
a '~ a ',
which
is less
than
thus a 2  an_x =
rn _ 2
hence
,
a,,.!
= 2 and
,
o,,^
b
l
Similarly
= r2
_ 2
= 3
6_ 2
b2
and
so on.
*363. From the results of Arts. 3G1, 362, it appears that when a quadratic surd v/iVr is converted into a continued fraction, it must take the following form
J_ J_ J_ + & +6 + &i
3
J_ J_ J
3
1_
&2
+2a,+
of
the recurring
*364.
periods.
To obtain
Let n be the number of partial quotients in the recurring period then the penultimate convergents of the recurring periods are the ?iih 2n th 3n th convergents ; let these be denoted by
;
, ,
,
V \ ^=,
xt
^,
b3
respectively.
Now
/v JiV = a + v
l
111 + + +
j
i
b2
b _
7l
11 + +

2a
7)
+1
is
2a
t
hence
SWl
'
same stage
:
2,+T
bi
r
6 i
300
and
is
HIGHER ALGEBRA,
therefore equal to a +
x
J'N
hence
(!)
Again
quotient
^
by taking
for the
+
.
V?V^
Thus
C
1
which
is
equal to
rtj
in
&=1
**
2^
U+%)qn + q^
.
& P + %.qn
from
(1);
l(A + *&)
if
(2)>
?2
In
like
is
the penultimate
icn
convergent in the
recurring period,
i ^c
+Fcni
= Nqmi
a, q cn
+ qm_l =#*,
,
suc
thus
Ol
In Art. 356, we have seen that a periodic continued fraction can be expressed as the root of a quadratic equation with rational coefficients.
*365.
301
we might prove by
tt~~
where
<4>
B,
are positive
not a perfect square, can be converted into a recurring continued fraction. In this case the periodic part will not usually begin with the second partial quotient, nor will the last partial quotient be double the first.
and
of recurring continued
Cours cVAlgebre Superieure, and to a pamphlet on The Expression of a Quadratic Surd as a Continued Fraction, by Thomas Muir, M.A., F.R.S.E.
we
^EXAMPLES. XXVII.
:
b.
Express the following surds as continued fractious, and find the fourth convergent to each
1.
N/a
+ l.
2.
Ja* a.
3.
N /l.
4.
V/T7T.
Prove that
y"^f
i
^l
r
7.
J9a* + 3 = 3a+
and
find the fifth convergent.
8.
2a + 6a + 2a + 6a +
Shew
that
2
p
9.
i+
p+
1111 i+
p
\ /
Ct
V
10.
/111
Shew
that
a \\
\
If
P9
Cl
+
1
tt
3 + P9 4 +
=P a + aCL
\
111
PaZ +
OCl \
Ja'2 +
2(a*+l)q n =p n _ 1 +p n + 1
11 11.
Tf If
.%'=
a x + 2 + a i+ a 2 +
1111
1
2p n = q n _ l + q n + l
...,
?/
~2a +
~3tf 1
1111 1111
+~3a 2 +
)
2 2 + 2a x + 2a 2 +
""'
shew that
'"'
1
)
= 0.
302
12.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Prove that
(
13.
JL J_ Jl J_ ^ =+ a+ b + a+ '")\b+ a+ b+ a+ '")"b
X ~ a+
V
'
'
2
J_ J_ J_ b+ b+ a+ a+
shew that
14.
(ab 2
If
be the n
P2
2
convergent to
Ja 2 + l.
shew that
15.
Shew that
( \a+ + a+
v
c+
'
\ /
+ bc
"/ \
ih
^+
a+
+
2
l+ctb'
16.
If
denote the r
qr
convergent to ^ &
shew that
1
Pi+Pi>+ >~+P.nl=P2np<L,
17.
? 3 + ?5 + infinite
i
+ &  = ?8 ~ ft.
continued fractions
''
_i_j_2_
a+ b+ c+
is
'
b+ a+ c+
equal to
1
+ ao
18.
number
If s/JV is converted into a continued fraction, of quotients in the period, shew that
and
if
is
the
De converted into a continued fraction, and if the penultimate convergents in the first, second, ...kth recurring periods be denoted by n lt n2i ...nk respectively, shew that
19.
If
\/^
*CHAPTER
XXVIII.
obtain the positive integral values of x arid y which satisfy the equation
to
*367.
To shew Iww
0,
h being
integers.
x,
as in Art. 127,
we
have
ax +
hy+g = J(h
ab) y 2 +
2 (hg
 af)y+(g 2 ac)...(l).
x and y may be positive integers, the expression under the radical, which we may denote kv py 2 + 2gy + r, must be a perfect square that is
in order that the values of
;
Now
2 py + 2qy + r =
2
,
suppose.
we have
and, as before, the expression under the radical square ; suppose that it is equal to t 2 ; then
2
must be a perfect
 pz 2 = q 2  pr^
and
j\ q, r are constants.
where
and
z are variables,
304
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Unless this equation can be solved in positive integers, the original equation does not admit of a positive integral solution.
We
h are
all
number
of
limited, because for large values of x and y the sign 2 2 of the expression on the left depends upon that of ax + 2hxy + by [Art. 2G9], and thus cannot be zero for large positive integral
solutions
is
values of x and
y.
Again,
negative, solutions
is
if
h*
and
negative, the coefficient of y in (1) is by similar reasoning we see that the number of
ab
is
limited.
Solve in positive integers the equation
a;
Example.
 4xy + &y*  2x 
20*/
= 29.
But 30 + 24?/  2j/ 2 = 102  2 (y  G) 2 hence (y  6) 2 cannot be greater than By trial we find that the expression under the radical becomes a 51. 8 perfect square when (y6) =l or 49; thus the positive integral values of y
;
are
5, 7, 13.
When
?/
= 5,
x = 21
or
1;
when y = 7, x = 25
or
5;
when y = 13,
x = 29 or 25.
have seen that the solution in positive integers *3G8. of the equation
2 ax 2 + 2hxy + by + 2gx + 2fy +
We
x2
where
iV*
Ny = a,
2
integers.
The equation x 2 + Ny* = a has no real roots, whilst the 2 2 equation x + Ny = a has a limited number of solutions, which
we shall therefore confine our attention be found by trial 2 2 to equations of the form x  Ny = a.
may
Ny =l
2
can always
be
Let
2_
JN
9
let
l
17"
a,/
is
,n
the complete quotient corresponding to
*. (/"/
V'q)
W
1 ]} (
then
[Art. 358].
P"
But
/
at the end of
..
]>
.'3(51]
JVq
)(
number
P
;
i.s
an even
convergent, and
greater than
is
therefore
greater
than
v/iV,
and therefore
thus
pq pq = 1.
is
Jn
N"q' a = J,
=
1.
is
the
period, the
If the
number
of solutions
unlimited.
is
number
convergent in the tirst period is an odd convergent, but the penultimate convergent in the second period is an even convergent. Thus integral solutions will be obtained by putting x=p', y q\
where
sixth,
is
Hence
number
*370.
To obtain a
of the equation
As
we have
'
I
v Jq =pqpq>
'2
If
the
number
and
>
if
<1
is
and therefore
In this equation x 2
will
is the penultimate convergent in the first, third, q recurring periods. nappeu i.H.10 we can discover ,,
11.
where
fifth...
n. A.
irv
2fc
1:0
306
Example.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Solve in positive integers x 2  13y 2 = 1.
We
^133 +
Here the number
vergent in the
first
1+
11111 1+ITl+
hence
a;
6+
odd
is
;
18
period
is =;
= 18,
y=o
a solution of
x 2 13y 2 =l.
By
2U
hence # = 649, y = 180
is
/ 18
io\ Xl3
649 ,u * thatlS
By forming
periods
1,
and x 2  lSy 2 = + 1.
one solution in positive integers of x 2 Nif = 1 lias been found, we may obtain as many as w e please by th following method.
*371.
When
Suppose that x = h, y = k is a solution, h and k being positive n 2 integers; then (A Nk 2 ) = 1 where n is any positive integer.
,
Thus
.
x2
.
(x
+ yjN)
(x
(h
kJN)
=
(h (h
 k s !X)\
 kJN)"
;
Put x +
2x = (h +
Tlie values of
as
many
solutions as
we
please
Similarly
if
x
2
Xy =
2
1,
x=h and if n
equation
x*
 Ntf =
1, 3,
(h
 Nk 2 )\
of
is
By putting x = ax', y = ay the equations x Ny a 3 become of 2 IFyf* = d= 1, which we have already shewn how to
*372.
solve.
307
We
if
Hence
occurs in converting
JX
i
and
if
is
convergent obtained by stopping short of this complete 2 quotient, one of the equations x~ Xy a is satisfied by the
the
values
than
if
JN, and
<2
,
the
all
greater than
is
JX
hence
is
an even
t
x=p, y = q
a solution of x*
,
Xif a: and
'
if .
an odd convergent, x
*374.
Tlie
=p
yq
is
a solution of Xs
Xy = a.
2
method explained
us to find a solution of one of the equations x 2 Xy 2 only when a is one of the denominators which occurs in the process of into a continued fraction. converting For example, if Ave convert J7 into a continued fraction, we shall find that
JX
3, 1.
The
5 2'
37
45
17'
1'
1'
3'
IT
2
CI
82 31'
127
18
'
and
if
we take the
I"
cycle of equations
ar
2
x 2  ty 2 =
O
3,
Iff = 2,
*"
ar
f o 7^ = 3,
o
cc
 y2 =
h'
/
we
for
by taking
x the values
2, 3, 5, 8,
1,
1,
may,
a
trial
202
308
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
2 2
positive integral solution of the equations x Ny = =*= a, when a is not one of the above mentioned denominators ; thus we easily
find that the equation
When
# 2 7?/ 2 = 53
satisfied
solutions
may be
article.
Suppose that x =f, y = g is a solution of the equation x _ Ny = a and let x = h, y  k be any solution of the equation x2  JSfy 2 = 1 then
*376.
2
2
;
x*
~ Ny 2 = (f 2  Kg ) (h 2  Nk ) = (fhNgk) 2 N{fkgh)\
2 2
By
putting
and ascribing
we may
to h, k their values found as explained in Art. 371, obtain any number of solutions.
form x  n y =
2 2
a,
is not a perfect has been supposed that is a perfect square the equation takes the which may be readily solved as follows. it
are
two
positive integers,
(x
+ ny) (x ny) =
c
;
be.
the values of x and y found from these equations are integers we have obtained one solution of the equation ; the remaining solutions may be obtained by ascribing to b and c all their possible values.
b,
Put x + ny =
x  ny =
if
Example.
equal to 60.
of
whose squares
is
Let
x,
then
,xr
 y 2 = 60
that
is,
(as
+ y)
(x
y)
= 60.
Now
60
1,60;
2,30; 3,20;
+ y = 30,
2;
# + y = 10,
xy=
Thus the numbers
xy=
6;
;.
309
In like manner we
ax'
may
integers of
+ 2hxy + by 1 + %jx +
= k,
two
rational linear
if
the lefthand
member can be
resolved into
factors.
*378. If in the general equation a, or b, or both, are zero, instead of employing the method explained in Art. 3G7 it is simpler to proceed as in the following example.
Example.
Solve in positive integers
2.ry
 4a 2 + V2x  5y = 11
Expressing y in terms of
4a; 2
x,
we have
5
;
+ V= ^rr
In order that y
 12* 11 6 , =2tfl+; 2x  5 2x n
may be an
or
integer
2iX
must be an integer
hence
2.r
5
must be equal
1,
of
.x
are
3, 2, 4, 1.
in succession
we obtain the
?/
solutions
= 9;
ar=l,
y=
1;
*379.
The
were first investigated by the Greek mathematician Diophantus about the middle of the fourth century.
Example 1. Find the general expressions for two positive integers which are such that if their product is taken from the sum of their squares the difference is a perfect square.
Denote the integers by x and y
x..
;
then
;
y.
This equation
is satisfied
by the suppositions
n (x y)
mx= n {z + y),
where
= m (z
y),
and n are
positive integers.
310
Hence
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
mx  ny  nz = 0,
these equations
nx + (m n)y mz  0.
From
we
x
_
2
2mn  ri
solution
m
is
V  n2
2
.
 mn + ri1
'
y=m
n 2
= m 2 vin + n 2
Here m and n are any two positive integers, i being the greater; thus ?n = 7, n = 4, we have x = 0, y = SS, 3 = 37.
if
Find the general expression for three positive integers in arithmetic progression, and such that the sum of every two is a perfect
Example
2.
square.
x,
,
x + y; and
,
let
;
2xy=p 2
then
or
2x = q 2 2x + y = r 2
,
2 2 2 p + r = 2q
i*q*=q*p>.
This equation
is satisfied
by the suppositions,
n
(r
m (r  q) = n (q  j>),
where
+ q) = m (q +p),
and n are
positive integers.
From
these equations
we obtain by
2
cross multiplication
V
w2 + 2mnm
Hence we may take
<l
m +n
2
_
2
m + 2mn n
2
'
p=n* + 2mnm*,
whence
= m2 + n 2
,
= )u 2 + 2mnu 2
x = = {m 2 + w 2 ) 2 y = inin (m 2  w2)
From
odd
;
x it is clear that m and n are either both even or both must be such that x is greater than y, that is,
(m 2 + n 2 ) 2 >8mn{m 2
n 2 ),
;
or
mz (m  Sn) + 2inn
is satisfied if
+ 8m n* + n 4 >
which condition
m>Sn.
= 9, w=l, then a = 3362, y =2880, and the numbers are 482, 33G2, If 6242. The sums of these taken in pairs are 3844, 6724, 9604, which are the squares of 62, 82, 98 respectively.
*EXAMPLES.
Solve in positive integers
1. 3.
XXVIII.
5.
7?/
2.
7^2^+3y2 =27.
xy  2.v  y = S.
4^ 2 y 2 =315.
4.
6.
10.
8.
^19^=1.
11.
9.
2
.t
= 4iy
l.
x 2 7y 2 9 = 0.
in positive integers of
3/=l.
13.
x 2 5y 2 =l.
14.
.v
 17y 2 = 
1.
Find the general values of x and y which make each of the following
expressions a perfect square
15.
18.
:
x2 3xy + 3y 2
16.
afi+2xy + 2f.
17.
5^+y2
Find two positive integers such that the square of one exceeds the square of the other by 105.
19.
Find a general formula to express two positive integers which are such that the result obtained by adding their product to the sum
20.
of their squares
is
a perfect square.
" There came three Dutchmen of acquaintance to see me, 21. being lately married they brought their wives with them. The men's
;
my
Claas, and Cornelius; the women's Geertruij, Catriin, and Anna but I forgot the name of each man's wife. They told me they had been at market to buy hogs each person bought as many hogs as they gave shillings for one hog; Hendriek bought 23 hogs more than Catriin; and Claas bought 11 more than Geertruij likewise, each man laid out 3 guineas more than his wife. I desire to know the name of each man's wife." (Miscellany of Mathematical Problems, 1743.)
22.
Shew
that the sum of the first n natural numbers is a perfect equal to k 2 or k' 2  1, where k is the numerator of an odd,
CHAPTER XXIX.
SUMMATION OF
Examples
summation
SERIES.
380.
in
of
of certain series
have occurred
previous chapters ; it will be convenient here to give a synopsis of the methods of summation which have already been explained.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Sums
allied
Series, Arts.
(v)
68 to 75.
Summation
Recurring
by
means
Chap.
of
Undetermined
Coefficients,
Art. 312.
(vi)
Series,
XXIY.
proceed to discuss methods of greater generality ; but in the course of the present chapter it will be seen that some of the foregoing methods may still be usefully employed.
We
now
th If the r term of a series can be expressed as the dif381. ference of two quantities one of which is the same function of r that the other is of r  1 the sum of the series may be readily
,
found.
For
let
and
its
sum by S
1 ;
the form v r v r _
then
!
SUMMATION OF
Example.
SERIES.
313
Sum
1
to n
If
we denote the
series
by
*(\ + + 3*/'

a;\l
2x
Ws
_!/
a;\l
\
'
+ 3#
+ 4*,/
x\l + nx
b}'
i+ n+ i.x/
l
addition,
SL=
ar\l
+ a;
n
+w + l.a?/
..r)
(1
+ x)
(1
+n+ l
Sometimes a suitable transformation may be obtained by separating u into partial fractions by the methods explained
382.
in Chap.
XXIII.
Find the sum
of
1
Example.
(l
+ x)(l + ax)
th term= n ft*
(l
n,
a2
t,
(1
+ ax)
.,
>
,,
(1
+ a 3 x)
to n terms.
nu, The
{l
n_1
+
.'.
n, a n 1 x)(l
.
an
~x
suppose:
**
By
putting 1
" _1 .r, 1
+ a u x equal
to zero in succession,
we obtain
A=Hence
similarly,
u, 1
a nl
1
a'
B= 1 a'
a
1
nn
=
1
1/1
1
 a \1 + a:
/
,
+ ax J
2
....
t**=;
a 5
\
5
.
a" 1
1
aw
Wn
~la Vl+a*"
an
j/
'"
*~lo\l + *
+ a n x)'
314
383.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To jind
the
of\\ terms of a series each term of which is composed of r factors in arithmetical progression, the first factors of the several terms being in the same arithmetical progression.
sum
series
be denoted by u x + u2 + us +
+ un
(a
(a
+ nb)
(a
+n+
b) (a
+n+2
b)
...
+n+r
b).
Replacing n by
k i
!
n
.
1,
we have
+ nb) (a + n +
(a
1
.
=
.'.
(a
+n
+
?i
&) (a
.
6)
.
..
(a
+n+r 2
b)
b)
un =
1
+n+
b)
?.._!
vn
say.
Replacing n by n +
we have
+ r.
6)tf =
(a + w
therefore,
Il+1 j
by subtraction,
Similarly,
(7+1)6. wB_, =
/(
/<_,,
SUMMATION OF
Example.
SERIES.
series
315
1.3.5+3.5.7+5.7.9+
The n th term
is
{2n  1) (2
1) (2n
+ 3)
^
C
;
To determine
we have
C, put n
=1
j
its first
term, and
15
=

f
whence C
=
8
'
S *~
(2nl)(2n+l)(2n+3)(2n+5)
8
15
8"
= n (2n3 + 82 + In  2),
384.
also be
after reduction.
The sum
may
found either by the method of Undetermined Coefficients [Art. 312] or in the following manner.
We
have u n = (2w .
1)
(2w +
3
1)
(2w +
2
3)
= $n 3 +
3m,
12>i
 2m 
3;
\S
= 2m 2
(m + l) + 2m (n
2
1)
(2n + 1)  n (n +
1)
 3m
= w(2m 3 + 8m + 7?i2).
It should be noticed that the rule given in Art. 383 is 385. only applicable to cases in which the factors of each term form an arithmetical progression, and the first factors of the several terms are in the same arithmetical progression.
of the series
+ 2.4.
+ 3.5.
to
n terms,
be found by either of the methods suggested in the preceding article, but not directly by the rule of Art. 383. Here
may
un = n
(m
2) (m
4)
2)
n
(m
+1 +
\)
1)
(m
+2+
2)
= n{n+ l)( + = n (m +
The
rule can
1)
+ 2n(n+
+ u(a + + 3m.
;
'2)
2/4
(m
2)
+ 3m (n +
1)
now be
thus
2)
Sn = \n (m+
\
)>
1)
(m + 2)(m + 3)
+n (n+
1) (m
+  (+
1)
+C
(r
l)(/rl) ( +
5),
316
386.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To find
the
of\\ terms of a series each term of which is composed of the reciprocal of the product of r factors in arithmetical progression, the first factors of the several terms being in tlie same arithmetical progression.
sum
series
be denoted by u +
x
it,
+u +
:i
+ un
Un
= (a + nb) (a + n + 1
Replacing n by n 
b) (a
+n+2
b)
(a
+ n + rl
.b).
1,
=
M_i nl
l
(a
(a
+n+n+
b) (a
+ nb)
(a
+n+
b) ...(a
+ n + r2
say.
b)
.'.
rl
b)
1,
un =
(a
+n
b)
un _ x = vni
Replacing n by n +
we have
;
(a+nb)un = vn+1
therefore,
by subtraction,
(rl)b. un = vn vn+1
Similarly
(r
(r
1) b
un _ x =
.
v _l
ll
vn
l)b
1) b
u.2
v.2
vSt
v.2
.
(r
Wj
=v
x
By
tnatis
, ,
,
addition,
(r
1) b Sn = v v n+1
.
^i
*"(rl)6~
?W _ r U
a + nb) un
(rl)6
n,
'
where
is
a quantity independent of
Thus
Sn = C ,
*
.
(rl)6
(a
+ n+L.b)... (a + n +
rl.
rule
:
b)
The value
of
C= (r Vv~7 o
,
1)
(r
tti
'>
but
**
is
advisable in
1) 6
C by
ascribing to
n some
particular value.
SUMMATION OF
Example
1.
SERIES.
317
re
1.2.3.4
The
1
+ 2.3.4.5 + 3.4.5.6 +
1
re'
'
term
is
we have
3(n+l)(w + 2)( + 3)
rut =1, then
^=03^;
X
whence (7=1;
*
3(re
"
18
+ l)(re + 2)(re + 3)
fi^
By making n
Example
2.
indefinitely great,
we obtain
Here the rule is not directly applicable, because although 1,2,3, , the first factors of the several denominators, are in arithmetical progression, In this example we may the factors of any one denominator are not. proceed as follows
n+2
"
re(re+l)(re
re (re
:
(n+2) 2
+ 3)
n{n+l)
(n
+ 2)
(re
+ 3)
41)
+ 3re + 4
3
(re
re(re
(re
+ 2)(w + 3)
l)(re
+ 2)(re + 3)
Each
to
which
now
3
be taken as the
th
term of a
series
c
n+S
2(re
2)(re
+ 3)
3 (re+ 1)
(re
+ 2)
(re
+ 3)
'
17271=
_29
n
313
C
1
re
29
;
4 3
(re
36
+3
+ 2) (re + 3)
+ 1)
(re
+ 2)
(re
+ 3)'
318
387.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
In cases where the methods
of Arts. 383,
386 are directly applicable, instead of quoting the rules we may always effect the summation in the following way, which is sometimes called the
'
Method
of Subtraction.'
Example.
of the series
In each term of the given series introduce as a new factor the next term of the arithmetical progression denote this series by &", and the given series by S; then
;
S'
..
= 2.
5. 8
+ 5. 8.
11
+ 8.
11.
14+
+(3wl)(3n+2)(3+5);
to
'2.5.8 = 5.8.11 +
8. 11.14
+ 11. 14.17+...
(u1) terms.
By
subtraction,
8 = 9 [S  2
(3/i
5]
(3/i
1)
(3n+2) (3n+5),
8
9S =
1) (3/i
+ 2)
(3/i
+ 5) 2. 5.
+ 2, 5.0,
fif=n(3n3 +6n+l).
When the nth term of a series is a rational integral 388. function of n it can be expressed in a form which will enable us readily to apply the method given in Art. 383.
(n) is a rational integral function For suppose dimensions, and assume
<j>
of
of
cf)(n)
=A
JB,
+Bn+
C,
Cti(n +
1)
where A, number.
D,
p+
in
values of n, we may equate the coefficients of like powers of n; we thus obtain ^> + 1 simple equations to determine the p + 1 constants.
all
Example.
of the series
.
is
n*+6n3 + 5w2
Assume
7i
[n + 1)
+ Dn [n +
1) (n
;
+ 2) + En (n + 1) (n + 2) (w + 3)
2,
it is
E=1
Thus
and by putting n = 
n= 3
4 + 6 3 + 5/< 2 =//(n +
l)
(n+2)
(?i
+ 3)6/t(/i + l).
SUMMATION OF
Hence
SERIES.
310
Sn = s n
o
(/t
l)(
= \n(n+l)(n+2){n' + 7n + 2).
o
n+ \n(n l)b, which is the sum arithmetical progression whose first term is 1 of n terms of an and common difference b, we give to b the values 0, 1, 2, 3, > we get u, \n (n + 1), n* \n (Bn 1) n
389.
If in the expression
s
j
of the Polygonal
Numbers
of the second,
each term
is
fourth, fifth,
orders; the first order being that in which unity. The polygonal numbers of the second, third, orders are sometimes called linear, triangular
)
square, pentagonal
sum of the
first
n terms of
th the r order
of
The n ih term
..
i
n + \n (n 
1) (r
2);
1) [Art.
383]
391.
If the
sum
th
of
n terms
1,
of the series
,
1,
1,
1,1,
series,
be taken as the
?*
term of a new
we
obtain
1,2,3,4,5,
If again
we take
?t
n in +
j
1
,
which
is
the
sum
of
n terms
of the
th
term of a new
1, 3, 6,
series,
we
obtain
10, 15,
proceeding in this way, we obtain a succession of series such that in any one, the nih term is the sum of n terms of the preceding series. The successive series thus formed are known as Figurate Numbers of the first, second, third, ... orders.
By
320
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
and
the
sum of n
terms of
ilie
rth
th term of the of the first order is 1; the n th n; the n term of the third order is Hn, that is
tYl
\n

xl
(n
1); the
term
tIl
2 "V
1
.
.
>
tnat
is
n(n+l)(n+2) L 1.2.3
.
..
'
the
u th term
,
^5
.
that
is
w(w+l)(n + 2)(M +
2
^n 4
3)
;
and
so on.
of the r th order is
Tims
it is
n th term
.
rc+r2
01
i
r1
Arain, the
sum of n terms n (n + 1) (n +
of tlie (r
of the r th order is
2)
. . .
(w
1)
which
is
the
w th term
l) th order.
In applying the rule of Art. 383 to find the sum of n terms of order of figurate numbers, it will be found that the constant is always any
Note.
zero.
The properties of figurate numbers are historically 393. interesting on account of the use made of them by Pascal in his Traite du triangle arithmetique, published in 1665.
The following
simplest form
1 1
1
...
SUMMATION OF
SERIES.
321
Each number
immediately
thus
15
is the
sum of
it
and
that
to the left
the mode of construction, it follows that the numbers in the successive horizontal rows, or vertical columns, are the hgurate numbers of the first, second, third, orders.
. . .
From
drawn so as to cut off an equal number of units from the top row and the lefthand column is called a base, and the bases are numbered beginning from the top lefthand corner. Thus the 6th base is a line drawn through the numbers 1, 5, 10, and it will be observed that there are six of these num10, 5, 1 bers, and that they are the coefficients of the terms in the expansion of (1 + x) 5
line
;
.
The properties
:
of these
with great skill in particular he used his Arithmetical Trianyle to develop the theory of Combinations, and to establish some
interesting propositions in Probability. The subject treated in Todhunter's History of Probability, Chapter n.
is
fully
"Where no ambiguity exists as to the number of terms in a series, we have used the symbol % to indicate summation but in some cases the following modified notation, which indicates the limits between which the summation is to be effected, will be found more convenient.
304.
Let
cf>
(x)
be any function of
x,
then 2
x=l
<f>
(x)
denotes the
sum
of the series of
1
terms obtained from <f> (x) by giving to x inclusive. tive integral values from I to 'a
all posi
required to find the terms of the series obtained from the expression
it is
sum
of all the
(pl)(p2)...(pr)
by giving to p
H.H.
A.
all
to
j>
inclusive.
21
322
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
*=*  r)  r + (p sum = 2 (p
the required
1)
...
(p
1)
= i{1.2.3.. ..r+2.SA....(r+l)+...+(pr)(pr+l)...(pl)}
=l
\r
(pr)(pr + l) (pl)p
r
[Art. 383.] L J
y~(l)(y2)...(^r) jr+1
i
Since the given expression is zero for all values of r inclusive, we may write the result in the form
p from
to
(pl) ( p2)
\r
(p r) _ p(pl)
ff2) ...(pr)
r

v\
EXAMPLES. XXIX.
Sum
1.
a.
2.
3.
4. 5.
+
to infinity
:
Sum
n terms and
1.2^2.3
7
'
174
1
II +
4.
1
3.4^
+ 77l0 +
1
1.4.7
4
1_ 1 + 4.7.10 + 7.10.13 +
5
1
10
6
1
1.2.3^2.3.4
*
4
.3.4.5^
*""' 7
i
11
3.4.5
1
io \9,
1.2.3
2.3.4
3.4.5
4.5.6
SUMMATION OF
Find the sum of n terms of the
13.
1
SERIES.
:
323
series
14.
(?i
l 2 + 2<> 2 2 2 ) + 3(> 2 3 2 ) +
)
Find the
15.
sum
2
of
n terms of the
16.
series
(n*
?*
whose na term
2
is
*(*?i
1).
(?i'
l)
17.
A i 2 4w 9 l
*&
v,
/i
1Q iy.
21.
n*+3n?+2n+2
n* +
.,
7i*+n 2 + l
.
_ 2)i
zu.
iv
th
+n
order of figurate numbers
is
Shew
If the
that the
th
equal to the r
22. the (n
th
+ 2)
th
n th term of the r th order of figurate numbers term of the (>2) th order, shew that r=n+%
is
equal to
23.
of the first n of all the sets of polygonal linear to that of the ? ,th order inclusive is
{r\)n(n + \),
oN
Let un denote some rational integral function of , and w 3 tt4 ,... denote the values of u n when for n the values
,
. .
2, 3, 4,
proceed to investigate a method of finding un certain number of the terms u u.2 w3 u4 ,... are given.
x ,
, ,
We
when
From
by
follows
the series u x u 2 u 3 u A u 5 ,... obtain a second series subtracting each term from the term which immediately
,
it.
The
series
u.2
w,, u s u.
u4 u3
u 5 u 4 ,...
thus found is called the series of the first order of differences, and may be conveniently denoted by
Aw,,
&u~
&u A
At*4 ,...
subtracting each term of this series from the term that immediately follows it, wr e have
By
Am., A?*,,
Attg Awg,
series
Aw4 Awj,...
of
differences,
of
A../',,
A.,?'.,,
AjWg,...
324
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
this series
From
we may proceed
of
,
differences,
?t r) ...
respectively.
From
u.2 ,
u3
Au.2
,
,
u,
u5
u6
Attj,
Au3
2,
Aw4
,
Au
2
i
,
A.y^
.
A2w
A.m3
3
Au
A u3
3
,
Wj,
A u,,
appears that any term in any series is equal to the term immediately preceding it added to the term below it on the left.
it
Thus
u.2
= j
4
Au ly and
Ait.2
= Au +
i
A.m^
By
+ Au.2 = u 3 we have
ii.j
= t^ + 2Au +
A.2 u x
In an exactly similar manner by using the second, third, and fourth series in place of the first, second, and third, we obtain
Au3 = Au +
x
2A.2u 1
A^.
By
addition, since
?f 4
 u + ZAu +
x
SA^ + A^
So far as we have proceeded, the numerical coefficients follow the same law as those of the Binomial theorem. We shall now prove by induction that this will always be the case. For suppose that
un+i = i + mAmj +
J
A,u +
l
...
+ "CVA^j +
AnWj
then by using the second to the (n + 2) th series in the place of the th first to the (n + l) series, we have
it (11
jrf
A 3Wj +
+ B C r_ 1 A^w1 +
f
A n ^u
By
M+a
addition, since
Mj
+ fa +
1)
Awj +
n
(
Cr + *Gr _j) A ru
+ ...+ A +1,
SUMMATION OF
But
*Cr + HJr i 
SERIES.
32.",
(
(n +
+ l)
C r _ x = ?ii
x "C,,.,
Hence
f n+8 ,
if tlie
hut
w4
therefore
it
holds for
u rn and
"
Ui
, + (n 
1X 1)
A?^ +
(wl)(w2) *_ *
?^
...
+ An.iWi.
39G.
To
find the
sum
of
w terms
of the series
ul
Suppose the
of the series
u 3 ,...
v3
,
is
the
first
order of differences
v. 2)
v4 ,...,
...
 vn) +
^+l
(v n
 vn _ t) +
(v2
v) +
x
v x identically
'
= u a + u nl +
va1
1
+ u 2 + u\ + v
v5
4
J
Hence
in the series
0,
v3i
2 3
v4
J
Aw1? Aw 2
the law of formation
'
Aw
is
+i
+ Wi + 4
...
s Aw
+ A?^
that
is,
Wj
+ w3 + u z +
y
+ un
>
 nu +
x
A?f
The formula)
of
this
article
:
may be
ex
term of a given series, (I x d2 d3 ,... cessive orders of differences, the n th obtained from the formula
,
a is the first the first terms of the sucterm of the given series is
if
'
326
and the sum of n
HIGHER ALGEBRA,
terras is
^i"^" 2
Example.
)^
(l )(" 2
,
n(l)(tta)(n3)
f/
j3
of
?*
The
= ,c + ,(re  ,x + 12 28 1)
=
?i
22(rel)(re2) K

~P
l
'
6 (re 1) (re 2) v
(re
3)

II
+ 5re2 + 6>t.
2re
The sum of n terms may now be found by writing down the value of + 52re2 + 62re. Or we may use the formula of the present article and
obtain
S^ia^ 28"'" 1
'
method
of
when the series is such that in forming the orders of differences we eventually come to a series in which all the terms This will always be the case if the n th term of the are equal.
succeed
series is a rational integral function of n. ^
j
For simplicity we will consider a function of three dimensions; the method of proof, however, is perfectly general.
Let the
u.1
series
be
+ ua + u a + 2 3
+ u +u n + .,+u n+2 + u u + + 3
.
,
ii
where
u " = An 3 + Bn 2 + Cn + D.
,
and
let v n'
, ii*
%
ii
denote the
?i
th
term of the
first, *
second, third
*
orders of differences;
SUMMATION OF
then
that
is,
SERIES.
l)
327
1)
;
vh
+ 2?(2 +
+C:
Similarly
and
zH
. =w ti iv
=64.
ii
in the third order of differences are equal; the n ih term of the given series is of p dimensions,
th
Conversely, if the terms in the ]j th order of differences are equal, the u tu term of the series is a rational integral function of ii of p dimensions.
Example.
series
1, 
3, 3,
The
2,
20,20,
6,
0,
;
6,
hence we
may
= A+Bn+Cn + Dn
2
3
,
D have
2,
to be determined.
four simultaneous
D\
series is 3
 3n  2n 2
+ n9
398.
If a
is
ri
in
n, the series
ax + ajx
12
+
{a,
...
...
+ a xn
i
is
a recurring
Let
of relation
;
is (I
x) p+1
then
.
S (1
x)
a o + (a  a )x
x
 ajx* +

..
(a,
 a ,_>"  ax" +
n.
=a +
here b n
b
t
,
x + bjc2 +
"
=a a
h
it
, '
so that 6 n is of x p
1
dimensions in
x,
we have
+l
S(ixy
=s+(^a)*+(^^K+..+(6n6iK( ,+6>"
J
+X
+a
y^+
,
a
i
,+
:c
% say;
here cn b n
b u u
so that cn
is
of
p
2 dimensions in n.
328
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
it
follows that after the successive multiplications by n products 1 x, the coefficients of x in the first, second, third, orders of differences are general terms in the first, second, third,
Hence
of the coefficients.
hypothesis a n is a rational integral function of n of p dimensions ; therefore after p multiplications by 1  x we shall arrive at a series the terms of which, with the exception of p terms at the beginning, and p terms at the end of the series, form a geometrical progression, each of whose coefficients is the same.
By
[Art. 397.]
Thus
where k
is
S (1  xf = k(xp + x>' +1 +
(x) stands for the a constant, and the beginning and p terms at the end of the product.
p terms
at
r.Silxy
that
is,
J^l^K/ix);
^
a=
is
kx(lx"^) + (lx)f(x)
(1
x)
p+l
'
is
(lx) p+1
[Art. 325.]
not given, the dimensions of an are readily found by the method explained in Art. 397.
If the general
term
is
Example.
series
we have
4,
10,
;
2,
2,
2,
thus the terms in the second order of differences are equal hence a n is a rational integral function of n of two dimensions ; and therefore the scale We have of relation is (1  a;) 3
;
+ 15.r 3 + 23a; 4 + 33a; 5 +  SxS =  9.r  15a; 2  27.x 3  45a; 4  69^ 5 4 2 3 9a; + 15a; + 27.r + 45a; + Sx 2 S =  3^ 5a;4  9a; 5 xs S=
9a;
2
S = 3 + 5x +
By
addition,
 a;) 3 S = 3 b
4a;
+ 3a; 2
2
*
34.r +
3a;
(1a;) 3
SUMMATION OF
399.
SERIES.
329
have seen in Chap, xxiv. that the generating function of a recurring series is a rational fraction whose denomiSuppose that this denominator can nator is the scale of relation. then the be resolved into the factors (1 ax) (1 bx) (1 ex) generating function can be separated into partial fractions of the
to rm
,
We
 ax
ABC
1
bx
 ex
can be expanded by the Binomial Theorem in the form of a geometrical series; hence in this case the recurring series can be expressed as the sum of a number of geometrical series.
Each
of these fractions
however the scale of relation contains any factor more than once, corresponding to this repeated factor there
If
 ax
be
will
which r=,  ax) when expanded by the Binomial Theorem do not form geometrical series; hence in this case the recurring series cannot be expressed
partial
fractions
of
the form
^
(1
axy
7,
...
(1
as the
sum
of a
number
of geometrical series.
ar,
ar
2
,
ar
3
,
ar\ ar
,
n
,
are
common
401.
series in
which
where </>(rc) is a rational integral function of n of p dimensions, and from this series let us form the successive orders of differences. Each term in any of these orders is the sum of two parts, one arising from terms of the form ar n ~\ and the other from terms of the form <(?i) in the original series. Now since <f>(n) is of ;; dimensions, the part arising from <f>(n) will be zero in the (p + l) th and succeeding orders of differences, and therefore these series will be geometrical progressions whose common ratio is r.
[Art. 400.]
330
Hence
if
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
the
first
few terms
and
if
the
order of differences of these terms form a geometrical progression whose common ratio is r, then we may assume that the general term of the given series is ar"" +f(n), where f(n) is a rational integral function of n of p  1 dimensions.
th
1
Example.
of the series
60, 169, 494,
23,
The
24, 72,
216,
of differences
common
ratio is 3
hence we
may
.
un a
S n ^
b, c,
+ bn + c.
make n equal
to
1, 2,
To determine
then
the constants a,
3 successively;
whence
= S.
.
Thus
3' 1
"1
+n+3=2
3 + n +
3.
In each of the examples on recurring series that we 402. have just given, on forming the successive orders of differences we have obtained a series the law of which is obvious on inspection,
for
and we have thus been enabled to the ?4 th term of the original series.
If,
however, the recurring series is equal to the sum of a number of geometrical progressions whose common ratios are n~ + Cc n ~\ , b, c, ..., its general term is of the form Aa"' + Bb and therefore the general term in the successive orders of differences is of the same form ; that is, all the orders of differIn this case to ences follow the same law as the original series. find the general term of the series we must have recourse to the more general method explained in Chap. xxiv. But when the coefficients are large the scale of relation is not found without considerable arithmetical labour ; hence it is generally worth while to write down a few of the orders of differences to see whether we shall arrive at a series the law of whose terms is
1
l
evident.
403.
We
illustration of the
preceding principles.
SUMMATION OF
Example
1.
SERIES.
33]
*3^
"
2 + 3
1l(ll
+ l)
.4
3"
7?
Assuming
=+ n(u+l) n
=
.
2n +3
n+
1.

we
find
tt Hence
A =3,
t/,.
B=
.
"
/3 \n
(
\
)
n + 1)
#,, n
1 =1 3"
3" 1
1
.
11
.
n +
3"'
and therefore
=1
n+1
3' 1
Example
2.
series
+ _3_ +
3. 7
_5
3. 7. 11
3. 7. 11. 15
The
.
ri h
term
is
.,,., 3.7 11
.
ssume
3 7
..
2nl
(4n _
5) (4 n
_i)
~3
>
A
.
(n
+ 1) + B
"
An + B
3.7
(4  5)
'
7 ......4l
On equating coefficients we have three equations involving the two unknowns A and B, and our assumption will be correct if values of A and B
can be found to satisfy
all three.
,
Equating
coefficients of n 2
we obtain ^1=0.
it
Equating the absolute terms, 1 = 2B; that is B = %; and found that these values of A and B satisfy the third equation.
1
""'
will
be
V,l
~2 *3.7
S
"
(45)
2'3.7
(45)(4l)
(4l)
hence
=
2 2
3.7.11
series
Example
3.
Sum
G. 9
to
n terms the
21
+ 12.
+ 20.
37
+ 30.
57 + 42. 81
+
find that the
;t
By
the
method
we
th
terra
of the series
is
?r
+ 3 + 2,
and the
th
term of the
9,
series
is2n*+6n+l.
3.32
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
=( + 1)
Hence
'
S=ln(+l)(+2)(n+3)(n+4)+(n+i)(n+2)(n+8)2.
4.
Example
of
??.
the
?i
th
term
is
n2 +
hence
un = {n +
(rc
n) 2 n .
Assume
{A (nl) 2 + B
(n
1)
+ C\
n,
2" 1
;
dividing out by
2' 1_1
and equating
2=A
t
coefficients of like
powers of
we have
2 = 2A+B,
0=CA + B;
0=4.
l) 2
whence
..
A=2,
wn = (2?i2  2n + 4)
2n
B=
{
2,
and
S n = (2m2  2m + 4)
+ 4 2"2 n  4 = (na  n + 2) 2*  4.
 2 (n  2 (n 1)
}
1
j
EXAMPLES.
4,
8,
XXIX.
b.
series
114,
2. 3.
198,
2,
8,
150, 252,
4.
5.
30,
8.
9.
10.
+ 3x + 7x2 +13.^ + 21a4 + 31a6 + 2 3 1 + 2a + 9a + 20a + 35a4 + 54a 3 + 2 + 5a + 10a2 + 1 7a3 + 26a4 + 37a5 +  3a + 5a2  7 Xs + 9a4  11a6 + I 4 + 2% + 3 4 a 2 + 4 4^ + 5 4 a 4 +
1
infinite series
+
2
32
33
+
2
g4
+
"
12 1Z>
i2
*
_?5
+ ??_iV _ + + 5 5* 53 52
62
SUMMATION OF
SERIES.
:
333
Find the general term and the sum of n terms of the series
13.
9,
103,
3, 1,
2,
1,
167,
5, 0,
12,
1,
31,
8,
8(i,
29, 80,
193,
Tr5
4,
series
+ 8* + 3.>/ +
4./,' ;
+
5
5.t
onJLi + 1.2*2
21
'
2.3
"2
'
:2
6 3.4'2 + 4.5'2 4 +
5
1 1
!
2T3
4+
ii11
4S+
4^
5 4 ' +
0 44+
+ +
4
4
22.
3.4 + 8.
+ 15.20 + 24.31+35.44+
23.
24.
oC 25
2
1
3
A
'
1.3^1.3.5
1.2
2.2'
1.3.5.7
4.2 4
1.3.5.7.9
nn 26
'
3.23
27.
28.
rtr
.
+3
32
+ 5 3 3 + 7 34 +9.
. .
3>
...
1
'
1.3
1.3.5
1.3.5.7
2.
^ 30
32
1.2.3*3
4
5
+A + H + ^ + (3^
6
33
'
19
1
.
I
.
'
+2 4
28
.
1
.
"
_39_
3
.
J_
*
16
52
4
.
1
.
'
32
334
404.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
There are many series the summation of which can be brought under no general rule. In some cases a skilful modification of the foregoing methods may be necessary ; in others it properties of Avill be found that the summation depends on the
certain
as those obtained
by the Binomial,
infinite series
12
2
28
3_
50
I
78
5
+
..
term of the
is 3n
+ n 2; hence
3h 2 +j2
a "
]n
3h(h1)+42
n
;i2
n1
In"
Put n equal
to 1, 2, 3, 4,... in succession
then we have
3
",
= 4;
2 = 3
4 + ri i
2
;
r2
3 =j
+ ^  gj i
and so
on.
,Sf
Whence
Example
= Se + 4e  2 {e If (1
1)
= 5e + 2.
.
2.
+ a;) n = c + c rr + c 2 .r 2 +
lc 1
+ c nx n
+ 2 2 c 2 + 3 2 c 3 +... + n\v
shew that
. .
.
As
in Art. 398
l2
we may
easily
=
.
Also cn + c n _ x x +
.c. 2
2
+ c^
11
'1
+c
xn =
(1
+ .r) n
the coefficient of x 11
in
n+1 .r)
.
,
,.,
(1
 x) A
jc
that
is
equal to
is,
in
J=
(1
x) 3
(n
l 1) 2> (1
(i
_ ^l.
..
l
)
2 hi
n(w+l)2 !
Example
IP _ (n _
3.
335
is
1) ,,.
+
= a + l, and >(>
)i
rfj.
_ C3)(4)(5)
\6
2
By
we
see that
(n8) (n2)
are the coefficients of x n
12
,
(n5)(n4)(3)
1
,
.r'
.r
n_4
*
.r'
in the expansions of (1
x)
',
(1.t) 2
e<pial
Hence the respectively. (1x)*, (l.r) 4 to the coefficient of x* in the expansion of the scries
,
,
sum
required
is
ax*
1bx
this series
{1bx)
+ 3
'
ax 4
a*x 6
(1
(1fcc) 8
 bx)*
finite
'
number
of terms,
may
,
;
1bx
1
( 1
\
i
1bx J
,
1bx + ax"
(a
+ l)x + ax
since b
a+1.
series
= coefficient = coefficient
a H+l
of x n in
(lx)(lax)
a=
(
of
xn in
\1
ax
~ 1x)

a1
Example
,
4.
If the series
x3
J3
xe
JG
X*
]5
'
X7
7
+
'
x'
X5
5
X8
8_
2_
are denoted by a,
If
b, c
respectively,
is
a3 + b 3 +
 Sabc = {a + b + c)
+ wb + w'c
xz
\3
(a
wb
+ ojc)
Now
'
lA ~ h
+ c = 1+x +
.t
~\9
.t
Tl
Xs
~\5
+
w'.r'
w.r
and
>/
lob
+ OJC1+ C0X+
+
\
ur\r
r^\
+ T +
\
w 4 .c 4
r=~
\
=e
similarly
+
.
,
io'b
,
.,
,
+ wc = c
,
0)=X
bc
X
1,
uX
since l
co
(l+u> + w ! )x
+ w + ur = 0.
'
336
405.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To find
the
sum of
the r th
powers of
the first
n natural
numbers.
Sn
then
r
SH =V+2 +
Assume that
Sn =A nr+i +An + A n where A A^ A A 3 ...
r
...
+n
r
.
+An ~
r
...
+An + A
r
+1
1
(1), / \
determined.
Write n +
(n + l)
r
in the place of
n and
{{n
x
subtract; thus
=A
{(n
l)
1
r+1
 n r+1 ] + A
1
1)'
 nr ]
2
}
+ +
A
n.
3
r
{(n
r + iy~ 2 n
...
+A
r ...(2).
Expand (?i+l) r+ \
efficients of like
(n
l)
(n+l) r_1
...
co,
powers of
By
we have
l=A.
(r
1),
so that
A =
a
!
By
n
;
we have
1
x
A (r+
l)r + A
r
x
whence A = ^
substitute for
Equate the
coefficients of
p
,
A and A Jf and
r(rl)(r2)
we thus obtain
i
...
{r 2)+
1)
~p
In
r
+
l
+A
2
'r
+A
'r(rl)
^ r(r n and
r
1)
(r2)
"^
1
(1) write
in the place of
r
subtract; thus
n =A
{n
r+l
(niy +i }+A
{?i
l
(nl) } + A 2
r
{n
'
(niy } +
for
...
Equate the
coefficients of
~p
,
and substitute
4
A A
,
thus
p+
'4
1
^^gzi) +i /^;);^) 2
....
(?
(?
1) (r
2)
337
and
(4),
by .addition
.and subtraction,
p+
"r
r(rl)(r2)
o^/_^)^/ 0'i)(pg(^3) + 3
r (r
1)
(?
1) (r
2) (r
3)
w
. . .
(6).
ascribing to }> i n succession the values 2, 4, 6, from (G) that each of the coefficients A.^ A 5> A.,... to zero; and from (5) we obtain
1
By
we
see
is
equal
r
J
___1_
'
(rl)(r2)
,
6 " 1^
30
.
li
By
we
obtain
\=A^A
and by putting
l
+ A% + AZ +
+A
r
thus
406.
"
article is
most conveniently
_3
n r+x
r
l
_ r(rl)(r2)
3
r+1
r(rl)(r2)(r3)(r4)
'6
w lprp
}
7?
7?
7?
7?
7?
quantities 2? ... are known as Bernoulli's Numbers; , 3 5 for examples of their application to the summation of other series the advanced student may consult Boole's Finite Differences.
The
B B
x
Example.
ttt
l5
+ 25 +
.
35
f
+ n5
.
.
We
have
n6
+ ^ + ^ ^ n*  Ba
n5
"2
n5
^,5
5?i 4
_5 4 3 n* + C, j _
~6 +
the constant being zero.
II. ii.
_?t6
n2
l2~r2'
22
A.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES. XXIX.
the following Find the sum of
series:
c.
JL + ^
A ^
5.
+ ^+\T'T
r
1
2 3
ii
r/3
p
6.
ri
+ f^l.2 +
12
to r
terms.
*rz
(1
7
TX^" 1+tm;
+2 ^ "(1+^)"
X
_
?i(?il)( 2 )
1+3a?
to n terms.
2n + l
2/i + K /
Y+
12
...
to
terms.
o,2
( 7l
12)
7i
2 (ft2
)^
1
9.
ij[i+ii7?
.2*.3
2
)
to
w + 1 terms.
+ 23
1L
12.
ji
3^6 +
]
[3
11
4
18
5
+
121s 6 _
16
2a 8
is.
1
^+W
23s 5
"[7'r
+J23
14
Without
fuming
sum
of the series:
!+*+*+
17
+ 2; + 3? +
+ "
SUMMATION OF
15.
SERIES.
53
I*
339
l3
+ 23 +  +
33
43
+ _+
I*
B
16.
Shew
"' 1
/
(lX) 2 r.r
)
.,
is
fl
+
1
("
l)( 2 4)
if"
If
n
)(' t
c+ (n*lKn*4)(n*9) * +
,
1
[7
}'
17.
is
8 .
i)^ + e g 2
\
 8)
^ ( 8 )( 4 ) 6
\o
^+
and
if
11
is
a multiple of
3,
shew that
=( _ 1)n
18.
If
is
3,
shew that
(
...
y+ "(i)<)( *) ,l 4y +
??.
=*( + 3)
19.
SP*" 4.
W
(2)
1
i
+ i2 +
+
i"4
+2
+ 2 4+ l+3 2 + 3 4 +
17
_5__J_+JL__L+i3 _JLL+
2.3 3.4
4.5
5.6
6.7
is
7.8
(l) n + xn ?i(n+l)(n + 2)
1
20.
Sum
whose n th term
+ c^v 2 + CyV3 +
+ cn#n n
,
being a positive
(n
22.
 \)\ + (n  3) 2 c3 + (?i  5) 2 c5 +
series
:
16
32
1.5
5.7
7.17
17
17.31
31
31.65
49
^
23.
1.2.3
+ 2.3.4 3.4.5
if
4.5.6
1
_71_ 5.6.7
Prove that,
a < 1,
'
+ or)
+ A) ( 1 + a?x) ....
aPx3
' !
ax
a*x2 =5wi 2
"
222
340
24.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If
is
+ ,f(i +
2/ (i
2
2 *A2
^.\2
)
+
,
)
v
(i
+ 2~ J
;
'
prove that
^l r
2^

2s
,,
(^4 r i
+ ^r
2)
>
j and ^4 =
,
1072
"3^5
25.
If
is
a multiple of
^~\i
[3
6,
of the series
3+
[5
1
,
"

w(wl)(w2)
11
*3 +
n(nl)(n2)(nS)(n4)
5
1 ""'32
is
equal to zero.
26.
If
is
pti
+1
_ qn + 1
.
is
equal to
27.
If
P =(wr)(r+l)(nr+2)
r
(nr+^1),
&=r(r+l)(r+2)
shew that
(r+^1),
P&
28.
,
+ P2Q2 + P3Q3+
?i
+ P i^i =
3,
ho
k \nl+p + q
+ g +ln2
>
If
is
a multiple of
shew that
"^"
3
+ "~
(m4)(w5)
3
(w5)(w6)(w7)
+ (!)
is
H
(nrl)(wr2)...(tt2r + l)
u.
"'"'
,
3 equal to  or u
n x
according as n
is
odd or even.
29.
If
is
x 1_^2
xz T l_#6
x5
l_a?io
1
x3
'
Xs
l+.r10
+.v2^1+^
CHAPTER XXX.
Theory of Numbers.
In this chapter we shall use the word number as equivalent in meaning to positive integer.
407.
not exactly divisible by any number except itself and unity is called a prime number, or a prime; a number which is divisible by other numbers besides itself and unity is called a composite number \ thus 53 is a prime number, and 35 is a composite number. Two numbers which have no common factor except unity are said to be prime to each other thus 24 is prime to 77.
is
number which
408. propositions,
We shall
some
which arise so naturally out of the definition of a prime that they may be regarded as axioms.
of
(i)
If a
b, it
factor
be
and
is
prime to one
For since a divides be, every factor of a is found in be; but since a is prime to b, no factor of a is found in b; therefore all the factors of a are found in c that is, a divides c.
;
prime number a divides a product bed..., it must divide one of the factors of that product ; and therefore if a prime number a divides b", where n is any positive integer, it must divide b.
(ii)
If a
a is prime to each of the numbers b and c, it is prime to the product be. For no factor of a can divide b or c therefore the product be is not divisible by any factor of a, that is, a is prime to be. Conversely if a is prime to be, it is prime to eacli
(iii)
If
of the
and c. Also if a is prime to each of the numbers b, c, d, ..., it is prime to the product bed... and conversely if a is prime to any number, it is prime to every factor of that number.
b
;
numbers
342
a and integral power of a
(iv)
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If
b are
prime to each other, every positive is prime to every positive integral power of b. This follows at once from (iii).
(v)
If
is
prime to
b,
the fractions
bo
=
lowest terms,
n and
Also
if
j and
and
of a
is
and
is infinite.
p be the greatest prime number; then the product 2 3 5 7 11 .p, in which each factor is a prime numand therefore ber, is divisible by each of the factors 2, 3, 5, .p the number formed by adding unity to their product is not hence it is either a prime divisible by any of these factors number itself or is divisible by some prime number greater than p in either case p is not the greatest prime number, and thereFor
not,
.
let
. .
fore the
number
410.
No
only.
rational
algebraical
formula can
2
represent
prime
numbers
the formula a + bx + ex + dx + ... represent the value of prime numbers only, and suppose that when x = the expression is ]), so that
If possible,
let
3 2 p a + bm + cm + dm +
when x = m + np
a +
that
or
is,
b (m
+ np) +
3 {m + np) 2 + d (m + np) +
...,
a+
bm + cm 2 + dm3 +
. .
+ a multiple
of p,
p+
is
a multiple of p,
divisible
by
>,
and
is
number.
411.
A number
can
the
be resolved into
way.
Let
N
/3,
denote
number; suppose
N = abed...,
where
a, b, c, d, ...
where
a,
Suppose also that are prime numbers. Then y, 8, ... are other prime numbers.
abed...
JV = a/3yS...,
a/3yS...
THEORY OF NUMHEHS.
;
343
hence a must divide; abed... but eacli of the factors of this product is a prime, therefore a must divide one of them, a suppose. But a and a are both prime therefore a must be equal to a. Hence bed. =/3yS. and as before, /? must be equal to one of the
;
. .
.
factors of bed... J and so on. Hence the factors in a/3y<$... are equal to those in abed..., and therefore iV can only be resolved into prime factors in one way.
412.
Let
a, b,
c, ...
integers.
number of divisors of a composite number. denote the number, and suppose N"=apbg<f..., where are different prime numbers and p, q, r, ... are positive Then it is clear that each term of the product
To find
the
(l+a + a' +
is
;
...+a'')(l+b +
...
+ V)
(I
+ ...+c r )...
a divisor of the given number, and that no other number is a divisor hence the number of divisors is the number of terms in the product, that is,
This includes as
413.
itself.
To find
Let N" denote the number, and suppose a, b, c... are different prime numbers and ]), integers. Then each term of the product
(I
is
N=
c
a'tyc'
. .
where
q, r...
are positive
+ a + a2 +
...
of) (1
. . .
+ b' )
1
(1
+c+
a divisor of iV; but there are two divisors corresponding to each way in which iV can be resolved into two factors hence the required number is
;
}(!>+l)& + l)(r + l)
This supposes quantities^, q,
If
N not
r, ...
an odd number.
a perfect square, one way of resolution into factors is x/iVx JNj and to this way there corresponds only one divisor JX. If we exclude this, the number of ways of resolution is
is
the one
way
JN x
/iV; thus
we obtain
l) +
lj
344
414.
other.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To find
the
number can
be resolved into
each
= av b qc .... Of the two factors before, let the number one must contain ap for otherwise there would be some power of a in one factor and some power of a in the other factor, and thus
As
Similarly b q the two factors would not be prime to each other. must occur in one of the factors only ; and so on. Hence the required number is equal to the number of ways in which the product abc... can be resolved into two factors; that is, the
number
the
of
ways
is
1)...
or 2""
1 ,
where n
is
number
415.
of different
the
prime factors in N.
divisors of a number.
r
To find
sum of the
...,
as before.
Then each
r
+a +
2 a + ...+ar )(l+b + b +
...
b'
(1
+ ...+c
)...
sum
sum
required
_
a
i
*
&+'_!
c
"
r+1
1
bl
33
l c1
52 = 2 3
(2
Example
Since
1.
21600 = 6 3
102 = 2 3
(5
22
(3
33
5 2,
+ 1)
.
+ 1)
1
+ 1) = 72
1
the
sum
of the divisors = ? 2 1
.
...
,.
261
3*l
5
l
53
.
= 63x40x31 = 78120.
Also 21600 can be resolved into two factors prime to each other in 2 3_1 or 4 ways.
,
Example
2.
If
is
(n2
1) is divisible
by
24.
We have
Since n
is
n(n2 odd, n  1
is divisible
l)
= {n7i
1)
(n+1).
;
one of them
and n+1 are two consecutive even numbers by 2 and the other by 4.
;
hence
is divisible
3,
Again n  1, n, n + 1 are three consecutive numbers hence one of them by 3. Thus the given expression is divisible by the product of 2, and 4, that is, by 24.
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
Example
3.
34".
is
contained in
J
100.
Of the first 100 integers, as many are divisible by 3 as the number of times that 3 is contained in 100, that is, 33 and the integers are 3, G, 9,... 99.
;
Of these, some contain the factor 3 again, namely 9, 18, 27,... 99, and their number is the quotient of 100 divided by 9. Some again of these last integers contain the factor 3 a third time, namely 27, 54, 81, the number of
of 100 by 27.
One number
416.
To find
In.
is
contained in
n 2
iii
n
tJ
...
respectively
Ct
CL
be denoted by /
1,2, 3,
...
]
/(,], /(),...
n. there are
/ (  which
j
the numbers
a,
...
I[A
which
which contain 3 at
least once;
is
and so
on.
of a contained in \n
'')*'6) + ~
In the remainder of this chapter we shall find venient to express a multiple of n by the symbol Jl(n).
417.
it
con
418.
divisible
To prove
by
r.
of
r consecutive
integers is
Let
least of
which
Pn = n(n+l)(n + 2)
and
...
(u + rl),
...(n+r);
;
..
1>
p P =lsxr
= r times the product
of r
346
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
if
Hence
\r
the product of r
1
m
consecutive integers
is
divisible
by
1,
we have
Pm+1 P
Now
also P.
,
= rM(\rl)
= M(\r).
P, =
?',
and therefore
P
(r.
is
a multiple of
\r
therefore
if
are multiples of
We
the product of
r 1
consecutive integers
divisible
by
\r
;
1,
the
product of r consecutive integers is divisible by \r but the product of every two consecutive integers is divisible by 2
1
is
divisible
This proposition
may
is
By means
This
419.
we can shew
we
If p
a prime number,
the coefficient
b) p
and
last,
and
last,
p(pl)(p2)...(pr +
'
l)
where r may have any integral value not exceeding p 1. Now this expression is an integer; also since p is prime no factor of r is a divisor of it, and since p is greater than r it cannot divide any factor of \r that is, (p 1) (p 2)... (p  r + 1) must be Hence every coefficient except the first and divisible by r. the last is divisible by p.
\
420.
(a
If p
is
a prime number,
...)p
;
to
1'
prove that
cp
+b+c+ d+
= a5 +
b +
+ dp +
+ M(p).
Write
ft
for b
+c+
p
. .
Again
J3
= bp + y + M{p).
By
proceeding in this
way we may
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
421 prime to
[Fermat'a Theorem.]
p, then
1
347
is
We
let
d+
...
(p);
'
But
,V
is
1 is
a multiple of p.
Hence
that
is
either
2^ +
= 7^
or
S^ K
a multiple of ft
integer.
.V
1,
where
is
some positive
422.
it
tins result is
Example
Since 7 a 1S
T Now
1.
divisible
by
42.
is
a prime,
n? 
n7  n
M
;
(7)
n:=n
l) =
3
>i(n
+ l)(nl)(n* + nS + l).
is divisible
(n
1)
n (n +
1) is divisible
by
hence n?  n
by 6 x 7, or
42.
Dowfra
Let
thatls
mXpleof^
.r,
iS pHme DU ber of^J; tSL* mimbeiS GXCeedS thGshew that the difference of the p" ^ 7 dlfference of the numbers
'
b/a
>
result.
Example
Tf
3.
is
of the form Sn or on
1.
V

iS

UOt
m t0 ? L lG
r
x'J
have
iS
i*
AT2
= 5;i
;
where
is,
w some
n ultipIe 0f 5
that
positive integer
;
thus
348
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES.
1.
XXX.
a.
18375,
74088
perfect squares.
respectively,
2.
which
will
Find the
numbers
7623,
respectively,
3.
109350,
539539
which
will
make
a?y 2
4. is
is
aud
if
xy
is
even,
shew that
square
difference
its
even.
5.
ixy
is
a multiple of
3,
is divisible
by
9. 6.
7.
the
number 7056 be
by
15.
6.
resolved into
two factors
8. 9.
1 is divisible is
+ 1) (n + 5)
a multiple of
its
number and
If
is
even,
is divisible
by
48.
is divisible
by
24.
is
is
greater than
divisible
by
120.
14. 15.
Prove that 3 2n + 7
If
is
a multiple of
8.
is
a prime
number
greater than
3,
shew that
?i
is
a multiple of
16.
24.
is divisible
Shew that n5 n
n
is
by 30
and by
240
if
odd.
difference of the squares of
is divisible
17.
by
24.
is
of the form
3?i
1.
or
19.
is
of the form
9?i
9nL
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
20.
is 0, 1
349
7,
Shew that
or
6.
if
a cube
number
is
divided by
the remainder
21.
form 7n
22.
23.
it is
of the
Shew
If 2
that no triangular
4 1
number can be
of the form 3u
l
2
,
1.
2 2 , 3 2 ,...n 2
when
Shew
that ax
+ a and
is
of the
form 8r + l.
26.
is
or 13ft+l.
27.
is
or
I7nl.
prime number greater than
5,
shew that n 4
is
n
G
number
greater than
3,
except
7,
shew that
30.
Show
that
?i
36
1 is divisible
by 33744
if
is
prime to
2, 3,
19
and
37.
2p+h
If 32. divisible by
33.
is r .
is
If
is
a, b
two numbers
less
than m,
prove that
am
is
2
+ am ~ 3 b + am  4 b'i +
+ bm ~ 2
a multiple of m.
any number, then any other number may be expressed in the form = aq + r, where q is the integral quotient when is divided by a, and r is a remainder less than a. The number a, to which the other is referred, is sometimes called the modulus ; and to any given modulus a there are a different
423.
If
is
350
forms
of a
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
number iV, each form corresponding to a different value of r. Thus to modulus 3, we have numbers of the form 3q + 2; or, more simply, 3q, 3ql, since 3q + 2 is 3<7, 3q + l, In like manner to modulus 5 any numbe^ equal to 3 (q+ 1)  1.
will be
one of the
five
forms
5q,
5q
1,
5q
2.
424. If 6, c are two integers, which when divided by a leave the same remainder, they are said to be congruent with respect to the modulus a. In this case b c is a multiple of a, and following the notation of Gauss we shall sometimes express this as follows b = c (mod. a), or b  c=0 (mod. a).
is
called a congruence.
pb and
If
b, c
to
modulus
a,
then
For, by supposition, b  c = ?za, where w is some therefore ])b pc pna ; which proves the proposition.
426.
integer
If a
is
prime
a,
to
b,
and
the quantities
2a, 3a,
(b
For
if
ma when
then
divided by b
ma = qb + r,
(m  7/1') a = (qq')b
m', since therefore b divides (m m') a ; hence it must divide it is prime to a ; but this is impossible since and m' are each
less
than
b.
all different,
b,
exactly divisible by
1, 2, 3,
1,
Cor. of the a.
If
p.
is
prime to
c
b,
and
c is
terms
c,
a,
2a,
1) a,
THEORY OP NUMBERS.
when
351
of the series
c+
1,
c+
2,
+ (b;
1),
this
order
1.
re
b
are respectively congruent to c n c, c wn7A regard to modulus a, /te?i //te products b,baba ..., ^c.c.^ (otf also congruent.
,
b3
...
...
...
For by supposition,
b
1
c = n
l
a,
b2
c = u
2
a,
c
:i
u./i,
...
where n lt n 2
.
n3
...
are integers;
=(<?!
bx baba
...
+
2
,) (ca
...
c,c c
rc ) 2
(ca
+w
a)
:j
(a),
We
be
can
now
If p
prime
to p,
then
'
1
is
a multiple of p.
Since JV and
if,
(pl)iV
(p1)
(1),
when divided by p
2,
3,
(2),
though not necessarily in this order. Therefore the product of all the terms in (1) is congruent to the product of all the terms
in (2),
\p
leave the
but i^l
is
prime to p
therefore
1
it
follows that
JP" 429.
(j>).
denote the number of integers less than a number a and prime to it by the symbol <f> (a) ; thus <f>(2) = 1 ; <(13) = 12; </>(18) = G; the integers less than 18 and prime to It will be seen that we here it being 1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17. consider unity as prime to all numbers.
shall
We
,;
352
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
a,
b,
c,
d,
...
are prime to
(abccl
.)
= < (a)
;
</>
(b)
< (c)
Consider the product ab then the first ab numbers can be written in b lines, each line containing a numbers ; thus
1,
2,
k,
a,
a+l,
2a +1,
a+
2, 2,
a+
k, k,
a+
2a +
(b
a, a,
2a +
2a +
(&_
\)
a+
1,
(6
1)
a+
2,
...
(bl)a +
k,
...
1)
a+
a.
Let us consider the vertical column which begins with h ; if k is prime to a all the terms of this column will be prime to a but if k and a have a common divisor, no number in the column Now the first row contains < (a) numbers will be prime to a. prime to a \ therefore there are < (a) vertical columns in each let us suppose that the of which every term is prime to a vertical column which begins with k is one of these. This column is an A. p., the terms of which when divided by b leave remainders 0, 1, 2, 3, ... 6 1 [Art. 426 Cor.]; hence the column contains to b. < (b) integers prime
;
</>
<
table there are <f> (a) cj> (b) also to by and therefore to ab
<
columns in which every hence in the (b) integers prime to b integers which are prime to a and
(a) vertical
; ;
that
(a) (a)
(a)
.
is
(ab)
...)
=
=
<
< (6).
Therefore
cf>
(abed
<f>
<j>
(bed
.
. .
.)
cj>
(f)(b)
<j>
(cd
...)
<f>(a).<t>(b).<t>(c).<}>(d)....
of positive integers
less
than a
r
Let JV denote the number, and suppose that JV = ap bq c ... where a, b, c, ... are different prime numbers, and p, q, r ... Consider the factor a ; of the natural numpositive integers. p p the only ones not prime to a are bers 1, 2, 3, ... a 1, a
1
'
a,
2a,
3a,
...
(a*
I) a,
(a1
"
a,
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
and the number
of these
(av )
i
353
is a''~
hence
4>
= a" ,
a'' c\
=a?(l
^
Now
.
all
</>
the factors ap
(a)Vc
r
.
b'\
...
.)
<j>
(a
')
</>
(b
(c
H)H)H)^K)H)H)that
is,
^
to
it is
= iir(ii)(iJ)(iI)....
of all the integers
Example.
and prime
which are
then
less
than
N
an
If x is any integer less than integer less than and prime to it.
to
it,
Nx
is also
1,
p, q,
r, ...
their
sum by
S; then
(N) terms.
by addition,
2S = N + N + N+
..
...
to
<p
(N) terms;
S = $N<p(N).
From the last article it follows that the 432. integers which are less than J and not prime to it is
:
number
of
''(.4>(>i)( 3("i)'
tli at is,
N N N N N _++_+..._ ao ac N a be b
c
. . .
N+
abc
....
gives the
number
...
of the integers
a,
la, da,
.a
(t
which contain
H.
II.
A.
23
354
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
j ab, which contain ab as a factor, ao and so on. Further, every integer is reckoned once, and once only ; thus, each multiple of ab will appear once among the multiples of a, once among the multiples of b, and once negatively among the multiples of ab, and is thus reckoned once only. iV Again, each multiple of abc will appear among the j ,
...
,
N N a o c
;
terms which are multiples of a, b, c respectively; among the iV JV = terms which are multiples of ab, ac, be respectively r r J
&
,
ab'
ac'
be
'
'
of abc; that
is,
since
33+1
1,
each multiple of abc occurs once, and once only. cases may be discussed.
Similarly, other
433.
[Wilson's Theorem.]
If p
be
a prime number,
+ \p 
is divisible
by
2,
p.
By
Ijp1
Ex.
Art. 314
i)""
1
we have
i)
= (P~
 (P 
(P 
2r
'
+ _
^z^ipD (p  $y>
irl+
tlie
1
Jpl)(p
2)(p3)
{p
top _ lterms
(j)
expressions
l) p
+M(p), thus
2)
)(P~
...top
terms!
=M(p) + {(iiy>(iy>}
1,
since
1
p
=
1 is
even.
+ pI
(p).
This theorem is only true when p is prime. For suppose p has a factor q; then q is less than p and must divide \p 1 hence
;
\p
1 is
not a multiple of
q,
of p.
Wilson's Theorem may also be proved without using the result quoted from Art. 314, as in the following article.
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
434.
,'}:>5
[Wilson's Theorem.]
If p
be
a prime number,
+ lp
is divisible
by
p.
2,
3,
if
...
(p1)
(^;
(1),
then a
are
is
prime to p, and
the products
3. a,
\.a, 2. a,
1 )
a
leaves
the re
ma; then we can shew that the numbers m and a are different unless a=j)~ 1 or 1 For if a were to give remainder 1 on division by^>, we should have (mod. p), a~  1 =
Let
this be the product
2
and since p is prime, this can only be the case when a + or a 1 0; that is, when a=p 1 or 1.
;
 p,
Hence one and only one of the products 2a, 3a, ... (p 2) a gives remainder 1 when divided by p that is, for any one of the series of numbers in (1), excluding the first and last, it is
possible to find one other, such that the product of the pair
the form
is
of
(p)
Therefore the integers 2, 3, 4, ... (p2), the number of which is even, can be associated in pairs such that the product of each pair is of the form (j?) + 1
Therefore by multiplying
all
we have
2.3.4
thatis,
...
(p2) = M(p) + l;
1.2.3.4
\p
...
whence
or
1
l} ;
1^
is
a multiple of p.
Cor.
If 2p
l.
is
a prime
number
is
/jp\
(
iy
is
divisible
by 2p +
divisible
by 2p +
Put
\2p
= 1.2.3.4 p(p+l)(p + 2) (n1) = 1 (w1) 2(n2) 3(3) ... p (np) = a multiple of n + ( iy (\p) 2
.
Therefore
1
2
l) p (\p)
is
is
divisible
by n or 2p +
1,
and
therefore (^)
+ ( l/
divisible
by 2;;+l.
232
356
435.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Many
1
.
is
a prime number, x p  x
;
is divisible
by p.
then
J.
=a
..
multiple of p,
if
is
prime
[Art. 419.]
If
therefore/^)
is divisible
+ l);
but
/(2) =
~ 2 = (1 + 1)^2,
[Art. 419]
;
and this
is
a multiple of p
is
when p is prime
therefore / (3)
is divisible is
by p, therefore /(4)
universally.
divisible
true
it
~ follows that x p J
is
prime to
p,
1 is a multiple of p.
24/i
Example
2.
 25
is
divisible
by 576.
Let 5 2n+2 
 25 be denoted by f(n)
/(?i+l) = 5 2n+4 24(w + l)25
then
= 5 2 .5 2w+2 24n49;
..
= 576 (n + 1).
Therefore if f(n) is divisible by 576, so also is /(u + 1); but by trial we see that the theorem is true when n = l, therefore it is true when n=2, therefore it is true when ?i = 3, and so on; thus it is true universally.
The above
result
may
52n+2
_ 2in  25 = 25 M+ 1 
 25 = 25 (1 + 24)" 24rc25
24;i
 24n  25
= i)/(576).
EXAMPLES.
1.
XXX.
divisible
b.
Shew that 10 n + 3
4" +
.
+5
is is
by
9.
2. 3.
Shew
Shew
that 2
.
7n
+3
5H
5
a multiple of 24.
9.
that 4 6 n 8
.
4.
Shew that
7n
+ 4" + 2
is
1).
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
5.
357
If
is
\p3 + l
is
a multiple of p.
6.
Shew Shew
that a v, +
a
is
7.
contained in
2r
is
2'';l.
8.
Shew
9.
Shew that
3** +6 +160a
 56n 243
is divisible ly
512.
Prove that the sum of the coefficients of the odd powers of x 10. 2 in the expansion of (l+ # 3 + .r 4 ) n "" 1 , when n is a prime number other than 5, is divisible by n.
<
r+# +
7,
is
If
is
?i*
+ 3>i 4 + 7>i 2  11
is
multiple of 128.
a prime number, shew that the coefficients of the terms of (Ha?)** are alternately greater and less by unity than some multiple of p.
13.
If
is
a prime, shew that the sum of the (pl) th powers of any p numbers in arithmetical progression, wherein the common difference is not divisible by p, is less by 1 than a multiple of p.
14.
If
is
15.
Shew
that a 12 
12
is divisible
by
91, if
a and
b are
both prime
to 91.
16.
If
is
2r
1
2r
1
is divisible
by p.
both prime numbers greater than 5, shew by 120, and ?i 2 (>i 2 + 16) by 720. Also shew
Shew
.
is
contained in \nr ~
is
equal to
n r nr + r
1
.
n 1
p
19.
If
c2
1 is
number
l(pD
is a prime number, and a prime to ]), and if a square can be found such that c 2 a is divisible by pt shew that
a2
20.
divisible
by p.
1=0
(mod. 139).
358
21.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Shew that the sum of the squares and prime to it is a given number
of all the
numbers
less
than
?(i30J)09 + ?ci.a.)a*.
and the sum of the cubes
is
?(i3(x])(t9 + ?a^cia*.,
a,b,c... being the different prime factors of
22.
iV.
If
divisible
integers,
is
23.
given by
are also triangular are the squares of the coefficients of the powers of x in the exL
pansion of
an<^ ^hat the square numbers which are also r \)X f" X2> pentagonal by the coefficients of the powers of x in the expansion of
1_
Shew that the sum of the fourth 24. and prime to it is less than
powers of
all
the numbers
gg(l<*)(li)(l *)...,
a, 6, c,...
A".
25.
(f>
the
is
number
prime to
of integers
JV,
1
which are
less
than JV and
prime to
it,
and
shew that
(mod.
JV).
^^26.
If
dv d2 ds
,
...
JV,
then
(f>
(dj
(c? ) 2
Shew
<t>
also that
(!)
r
9~0( 3 r + 0( 5 )T^
1
)
;
fi

odinf. = ?
~kJ.
l
.;
CHAPTER XXXI.
,+
%+
where a2 a 3
,
'
, . . '
are positive integers, and a^ is either a positive integer or zero. shall now consider continued fractions of a more general
We
type.
*i37.
of
a continued fraction
is
~' a
1
=*=
* rZl 2 "i a3
=*=
> *,
KK
represent
The
fractions
a,
shall confine our attention to two cases; continued fraction. (i) that in which the sign before each component is positive (ii) that in which the sign is negative.
We
a2
a3
*438.
To
investigate the
law of formation of
the successive
b
i
b2
b3
The
first
6,
a2 b
a 3 .a 2 b
+b 3 .b
AVe see that the numerator of the third convergent may be formed by multiplying the numerator of the second convergent by a 3 and the numerator of the first by b 3 and adding the results also that the denominator may be formed in like together manner.
,
360
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Suppose that the successive convergents are formed in a similar way; let the numerators be denoted by p it p 2 p 3 ..., and the denominators by q lt q 2 q3 ...
,
, ,
Assume
vergent
;
of
p In
anlp
n\
,
b nl n 2> p ,
differs
;
q
J
=a q
nLn
bq _. hIh2
only in having
from the
wth
a
n+
\
in the place of a
hence
If therefore
?>
we put
^,=a
nP +b
,,p
,,
=a
+,q
+b
,,q
,,
numerator and denominator of the (u + l) th convergent follow the law which was supposed to hold in case of the th But the law does hold in the case of the third convergent ?t hence it holds for the fourth and so on therefore it holds
we
universally.
*439.
b2
b3
CC
a2 ~
~
3
we may prove
Vn
that
= anPnl ~ kPn*
.
Qn
?!
k<ln2
',
a result which may be deduced from that of the preceding article by changing the sign of b n
*440.
h
a +
1
K
a2 +
K
3 +
we have
seen that
J
p n =a nl p
ii
,+bp
nL
, n 2'
q Jn
a.
Ml
? + ,
\9n
QnJ'
but
and
less
is
"
ft
is
numerically
&.+1
than
In
and
is
of opposite sign.
In}
reasoning as in Art. 335, we may shew that every convergent of an odd order is greater than the continued fraction, and every convergent of an even order is less than the continued fraction ; hence every convergent of an odd order is greater than every convergent of an even order.
By
^
9an
1
is
positive
and
1
2/1
less
" ;
hence
2*2/1
2 2
2/1
2/1
2 2/11
2  is
22/1
positive
and
2
2/1
less
than
^=*  &=s
22/1 1
hence
22/12
2 2
2/1
2
2
all
2/1
2/1
greater than the continued fraction but continually decrease, and the convergents of an even order are all less than the continued fraction but continually increase.
of
Suppose now that the number of components is infinite, then the convergents of an odd order must tend to some finite limit, and the convergents of an even order must also tend to some
these limits are equal the continued fraction tends to one definite limit ; if they are not equal, the odd convergents tend to one limit, and the even convergents tend to a different limit, and the continued fraction may be said to be oscillating; in this case the continued fraction is the symbolical representation of two quantities, one of which is the limit of the odd, and the other that of the even convergents.
finite limit
;
if
362
*441.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
To shew
that the continued fraction
n+I
a +
x
a 2 + a3
+
is
rf""
when n
is infinite
The continued
when n
is
^
9n+l
and
is equal to zero.
?
Now
whence we obtain
Pjt+X
<2n+l
n+lffnl
fPn
_ Pn1
!>
?+!
_ =
(_
But
k.i?
k.M? n+lin1
li+1 !7u
^B+lS'nl
an+l Qn
k^g
an(
an+l q n
"n+lSnl
a.
^n+A^2 b^ q
x
if
the limit of
;
n+1
is
the limit of
1
"+
in
which
a
J**^
Qn+i
is
less
m
than
t
qn
number
that
is,
of proper fractions,
^
?+:
and
 tend to
qn
V
a.
1
T
3
n~
3+5
Lim f^ = Lim*+i
.
2n+l +
\, (n+iy
7 2
'
=4
definite limit.
3G3
In
the
continued fraction
c\i,
1
cl
H; A
if the denominator of every component exceeds the numerator by unity at least, the convergents are positive fractions in ascending order of magnitude.
in
By
supposition
'
*
3
,
.
. .
unity at
least.
is
and since a
a
exceeds
tliat ,

ft
t
by unity at
2
least,
and
ft,;
* is
a proper fraction,
is,
it
follows
is
greater than
that
is
In like manner
;
may be shewn
it
is
denote
by f, then
is
ft,
.
and
is
Similarly
;
we may shew
that
K
a,
is
a positive
proper fraction
K
CV
2
1
is
%~
2
ii
and
so on.
Again, O
'
ii
anl p
^
2
ii
ft
2' / n .,
qaa
iuii
ft
q 2 niii
'
hence ^sJ 
^
<?i
and
  ^=*
n
1
have
h
tl ie
same
sign.
But P ~
^=
,
\
2
,
  =
r 'i
^
2
and
is
therefore positive
92
<V* 2 ft 2
(
<M
?3
;
hence ^ 2
9jt
^>^
<74
7,
proposition.
364
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If the number of the components is infinite, the conCor. vergents form an infinite series of proper fractions in ascending order of magnitude ; and in this case the continued fraction must tend to a definite limit which cannot exceed unity.
*443.
From
Pn =
the formula
<*nPni
+ hPnt*
9n
= a&n, +
&.&_>
we may always determine in succession as many of the convergent^ as we please. In certain cases, however, a general
expression can be found for the
Example.
11
th
convergent.
c c
To
find the
w th convergent
2
;
to 
5 5 5series
We have p n = Sp,^  6p n _
any three consecutive terms
of
hence the numerators form a recurring which are connected by the relation
~ +p nx n 1 +
5Pl)
2
S= Pl1+(P2~ 5x
,
+ 6a;
But the
first
=^
18
12
1
 hx + Qx.
l3x
.
 2x
'
whence
Similarly
if
p n = 18
S'
x
3" 1  12
2' 1
"1 =
6 (3"  2").
. .
.
we
find
^=
gn
___ = ___ _
i
;J
whence
=9
3* 1  4
2* 1
= S'^ 1  2' +
l
'
]
.
w y w _ 6(3"2 )
"""
ffn
~ 3n+1  2?l+1
This method will only succeed when a and b n are constant Thus in the case of the continued fraction for all values of n.
a+
a+ a+
...
we may shew
that the
numerators of the
x in
the expansion of
72
ti /Y*
1 ~~ OjX
72 ox
305
*444. For the investigation of the general values of pn and qn the student is referred to works on Finite Differences ; it is only The in special cases that these values can be found by Algebra.
of
3  = 5 o 1 z
12
+
The same law of formation holds for p n and u n = nun _ x + nu n _ 2 either of them then
; ,
qn
let
us
tal<e
i*
n to denote
or
Similarly,
un 
(n
+ 1) _! = tt
(uB_, 
?w n _ 2 ).
i^j  RU _s =  ( u _ 2 ra 1 n_ 3 ).
(iy^(u 2 3u
;
).
The
first
2
,
T A
hence
qn
n p n (n + l) Pn ^=(l) \
Tims
^n
7i
Pn1
(" !)
?ll
+l
m
nl
2 (~ I)""
lra+1
l)" 8
In
iw+l
ffn1
+l
'
At! _ Art = (~
In
In
92 n 
In
Ps_Pi
13
2'
?3
<h
1
[3'
1
2
3i
'2
2'
2'
whence, by addition
n
+l
7a
+
12
3
+
4
Lit n+1
j
1
. '
n+1
By making n
infinite,
= 17^+1i "77 +
2
3
( l) n
~a
1
n+1
we obtain
e)
2n
eV
which
is
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
*445.
366
If every component of
a + a + +
3j
j
...
is
a proper
and denominator,
the continued
For
if
com
where A and
=
...
;
*m
where
f,
^
hence
f=
,
=^
suppose.
Now
infinite
A, B, x 6 X
,
C=
a2
is positive,
therefore
is
a positive integer.
continued
+f
. .
*=
fraction
* *a3 + a +
.
S^
,
=
;
7*
suppose
on.
and as
D
,
is
a positive integer
are
and so
,
;
Again,
B
7
,
C =
D
,
jy
...
proper tractions
..
tor j is less
than
less
ax
than
which
is
a proper fraction
so on.
is
less
than * as
^
is
and
form an infinite series of positive integers which is absurd. Hence the in descending order of magnitude given fraction cannot be commensurable.
Thus A, B, C, D,
...
holds if some of the components are not proper fractions, provided that from and after a fixed component all the others are proper fractions.
The above
result
still
and
all
thus, as
we have
an
incommensurable
denote
7)
by
k,
n
in
k
is
^
.
^^
9nl
/ hn2 +
"~ 2
3G7
this
V n_1
tfnl
P ^^ =l
?
and
condition cannot hold unless ?2=a = *=2 , Pn= B ?na ?n3 Qnz
finally
= P^*
9n4
;
;ultl
P H= P
that
is
>6
0,
which
is
impossible
hence the
?,
//* eirary
component of
K  a a a
1
1
*""
...
?'s
""
a proper
fraction with integral numerator and denominator, and if the value of the infinite continued fraction beginning with any component is less than unity, the fraction is incommensurable.
The demonstration
is
*
1.
EXAMPLES. XXXI.
a.
Shew that
\
ax
h_  a2  a 3 J
_h
'
Pn = a nPn  1 ~ ^nPn  2
2.
Convert
rators.
"
m
'^
Qn = a n9.n \~
"?i?n
2
nume
3.
Shew
that
V*+6=+^
(2 )
^
r.
.......
V^=
2 _
4.
1~ a%~ a3~
.... if
the denominator
least,
of every
shew that
p n and qn
5.
^"2^
an
2^
2~="
2^
SJ'
368
6.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Shew that
cc+
V

2a+ 2a +
:
 )
...
+
J
[a V
1
2a 2a1
...
= 2a
J
2
,
and
7.
... \/ a +s 2+ 2a+"7\
(
7T2a
,
~
2a2 
2a'2
a+ a+ a+
shew that
8.
pn + = 6an
x
bq n + 1  apn +
ax
=
1
n_
Shew that
a+
b
b

a+ a+
= 6.^7 ^n x+ x+
a
1
8P
.v
being the
number
of components,
and
a, /3
k2 ak b = 0.
9.
J_ L _L A_ 6+ c+ d+ a+
is
'"'
,7
_1_ c +
6+ a+
J_
J_
0?+
_x _
'"'
equal to
Shew that
1
64
(?i
l) 2
(n
+ l)(w + 2)(2/i + 3)
6
10.
1 5 13 25
2 +(+l) 2
11.
L JL __ 1 5 7
^2 ~1 _ ?*fo+ 3 ) 2 + l~ 2
'
12.
 3 ji24
13
i !> * 1 3 4 54
6
?i
2=1 w+l2/i
=.1.
2(e2 l)
e2
14.
1+ 2+ 3+
3.3
+2 n+
3(n + 2)
+l
_'6(2 e3+l)
"
3.4 3.5
15.
1+
If u, 1
2+
3+
Ucy
a
n+
a+
f
,
5e 3
2
a + 26 bein formed by taking the denominator and the sum of the numerator and denominator of the preceding fraction for its numerator and denomi,
16.
v,
Uo
e>
)'
y'H
+1
y.
'
is
* +1 l
cij
+ l
a.,+
%l
a 3 +l
'
a19 a2 a 3v being
>
19.
to

is
equal to
the (2m v
convergent to 6
 2 + 1+2+1+ 
n
20.
1111111
1
to
n
is
3>i
5 2 1 5 2 1 521.
+l
Shew that
2+ 3+ 4+
3d e2
.
'
e lies
form
u2
+
1
u3
1 +..
Put
370
Similarly,
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
11111 =
u
+
x
u2
u3
us + x2 u u UQ2 u  u + u2 u2 + u3
x x
12
+
x
u + + x u u
2
y
'
and
so
on
1
hence generally
1 1
.',71
putting
=
V,l=
1
,
we obtain
"n x
a n+l  a nx
;
hence we have
X
<l
.T
rt
.T
(l
XA
(J
X
(
(IfX
'l
a 2~ a l X +
x a3~ U,2 X +
<i
<i.."x
a ,~ a i x
..
log (!
+ *) =
Vx
2x
3 2 .r
In certain cases we may simplify the components of the continued fraction by the help of the following proposition
*44S.
:
The continued
fraction
&.
K
a2 +
h
a3 +
K
a4 +
ax +
is
A
+
,
5 CA
c 2a
2
^3
c
C 3C
cxa x
a + 3 3
A
+
...
c/c4
where
cn
c2 ,
3,
Let
/"
denote
=
i
tlien
+/i
...
cii
c i/i
Let
denote
then
+/2
;
C 2<\.
C X2
'
Similarly, c
is
Q Q

'^~
G
C 3 rt 3
and
so on;
established.
242
a
372
HIGHER ALGEBBA..
^EXAMPLES.
Shew that
1.
XXXI.
b.
1111
+
Wj
UQ
u2
m3
+
1
+ (l) u n
,
,.
Jl
ic
2.
+
+
J.
Mj
 UQ +
U. 2
u t2 
u2n _ n1
?<<!
Un ~ u nl
lv
1 +
&n
ClfiCCt
+
X
r
X2
Cl^QztCto
+
Ctry.0
a?
CIqCC iCtv
&JI
iXxJu
^n
*^
r\
3.
?
4.
2
~~
r+1 ~ r + 1,
+2 r + 2?'
,
.
5.
+s + 3 + 2
'
11
22
+
+
?i+l
6.
l2
x
11 i+oa+
x
(n + 1) 2
111
1l
2
1114
4
to
n quotients.
9
...
n2
1 3 5 7
2n+l
?i
+ 22 
n*+(n+Yf'
7.
8.
1111
a
,
= l + 1x + 2 x + S x+4ab
1
r
2x
3x
abc
1
i
la
1
9.
r3
rn1 +
r
73
,5 r5 +
,
r5
yrr r+1
a x + a2 +
a3 +
'
an
1+
'
x +
c q
2 f
3 +
'
'
<(_ Hl
u.
if
p=4 a+
9i
,4 4b+ c+
b+ c+ d+
'
shew that
12.
P (a+ 1 + Q) = + Q.
o
1
Shew that
9*
\
tinued fraction
M2 Ms Mt
/> />
...
is
equal to the
q,
a*.
...
con
....
where
#.,
are
the
'
CHAPTER
XXXII.
PROBABILITY.
Definition. If an event can happen in a ways and fail in b ways, and each of these ways is equally likely, the probability,
449.
or the chance, of
its
happening rr
is
a+
and that
of its failing G
is
a+
For instance,
if
and 25 blanks,
prize
is
ticket will
win a
and
winning
for the
25
is
Oa
450. bability
If
clear
an event can happen in a ways and fail to happen in b ways, and all these ways are equally likely, we can assert that the chance of its happening is to the chance of its failing as a to b. Thus if the chance of its happening is represented by ka, where k is an undetermined constant, then the chance of its failing will be represented by kb. .. chance of happening + chance of failing = k (a + b) Now the event is certain to happen or to fail therefore the sum of the chances of happening and failing must represent certainty. If therefore we agree to take certainty as our unit, we have
;
= k (a +
v
b),
'
or
a+
T b
..
is
a+
is
b b
will not
happen
a+b
the probability of the happening of an event, the probability of its not happening is 1 p.
is
374
451.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Instead of saying that the chance of the happening of
is
,
it is sometimes stated that the odds are a T a+o in favour of the event or b to a against the event.
an event
to
The definition of probability in Art. 449 may be given 452. in a slightly different form which is sometimes Useful. If c is the total number of cases, each being equally likely to occur, and of these a are favourable to the event, then the probability that the
event will happen
is
it
will not
happen
is
Example 1. What is the chance of throwing a number greater than 4 with an ordinary die whose faces are numbered from 1 to 6? There are 6 possible ways in which the die can fall, and of these two
are favourable to the event required
== 
Example 2. From a bag containing 4 white and 5 black balls a man draws 3 at random what are the odds against these being all black ?
;
The total number of ways in which 3 balls can be drawn is 9 <73 and the number of ways of drawing 3 black balls is 5 C 3 therefore the chance
, ;
~*C% ~ 9.8.7
Thus the odds against the event
Example
3.
=
42
5.
'
are 37 to
at least
The
possible
number
of cases is 6 x 6, or 36.
on one die may be associated with any of the 6 numbers on the other die, and the remaining 5 numbers on the first die may each be associated with the ace on the second die thus the number of favourable cases
An
ace
is 11.
is
3b
:
Or we may reason
as follows
There are 5 ways in which each die can be thrown so as not to give an That is, the chance ace ; hence 25 throws of the two dice will exclude aces. 25 of not throwing one or more aces is so that the chance of throwing one ; 36
ace at least
is 1
^ do
or
^, oo
PROBABILITY.
Example
3 dice.
4.
375
of
throw amounting to 18 must be made up of 6, G, G, and this can occur in 1 way; 17 can be made up of G, G, 5 which can occur in 3 ways; 16 may be made up of G, G, 4 and 6, 5, 5, each of which arrangements can occur in
3 ways.
is
+ 3 + 3 + 3,
,
or
10.
And
the total
number
of cases is 6 3 or 21G;
=^ = 108 21G
:
has 3 shares in a lottery in which there are 3 prizes and share in a lottery in which there is 1 prize and 2 blanks 6 blanks B has 1 shew that A's chance of success is to ZJ's as 1G to 7.
Example
;
5.
A may draw
he
3 prizes in 1 2 prizes
way
1
and
blank in ^ x 6 ways m
JL
.
he
the
1 prize
and
6 2 blanks in 3 x r^r JL m
ways
sum
of these
numbers
is 64,
which
is
the
win a
prize.
number 9.8.7
'
of
ways
in
which A can
'
or 84 ways
4's
84
r = 21
Z"s
is
clearly o
C
:
therefore
A 's
chance
B's
chancer
O
7.
= 16
6.5.4
will get all blanks in
* '
or
20
is .
,
84
or
5 21
 = .
1
ZL
Suppose that there are a number of events A, B, C,..., of which one must, and only one can, occur ; also suppose that a, b, c, ... are the numbers of ways respectively in which these events can happen, and that each of these ways is equally likely to occur it is required to find the chance of eacli event.
453.
;
The
and
total
of these
number of equally possible ways is a + b + c+ ..., the number favourable to A is a; hence the chance
376
that
will
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
will
happen rr
is
.
is
a+
c
+ c+
:
...
happen ri
a+
and
so on.
...
From the examples we have given it will be seen that 454. the solution of the easier kinds of questions in Probability requires nothing more than a knowledge of the definition of Probability,
and the application
tions.
of the laws of
EXAMPLES.
1.
XXXII.
a.
a pack of 52 cards two are drawn at random chance that one is a knave and the other a queen.
2.
Prom
find the
bag contains 5 white, 7 black, and 4 red chance that three balls drawn at random are all white.
3. 4.
balls:
find the
If four coins are tossed, find the chance that there should be
tails.
one
is
of two events must happen given that the chance of the twothirds that of the other, find the odds in favour of the other.
:
One
If
will
from a pack four cards are drawn, find the chance that they be the four honours of the same suit.
6.
7.
it is
Thirteen persons take their places at a round table, shew that five to one against two particular persons sitting together.
There are three events A, B, C, one of which must, and only 8. one can, happen; the odds are 8 to 3 against A, 5 to 2 against B: find the odds against C.
9.
dice,
In shuffling a pack of cards, four are accidentally dropped the chance that the missing cards should be one from each suit.
10. 11.
find
has 3 shares in a lottery containing 3 prizes and 9 blanks B has 2 shares in a lottery containing 2 prizes and 6 blanks compare their chances of success.
:
12. Shew that the chances of throwing six with 4, respectively are as 1 6 18,
;
3,
or 2 dice
'
PROBABILITY.
13.
377
There are three works, one consisting of 3 volumes, one of 4, and the other of 1 volume. They are placed on a shelf at random prove that the chance that volumes of the same works are all together
;
3
18
140
14.
1
and
if
throws
9,
find
i>'s
chance
a row
The what
letters
is
forming the word Clifton are placed at random in the chance that the two vowels come together ?
is
There are 4 shillings and 3 halfcrowns placed at random in shew that the chance of the extreme coins being both halfis .
crowns
shillings
and
n halfcrowns.
455. have hitherto considered only those occurrences which in the language of Probability are called Single events. When two or more of these occur in connection with each other, the joint occurrence is called a Confound event.
We
For example, suppose we have a bag containing 5 white and 8 black balls, and two drawings, each of three balls, are made from it successively. If we wish to estimate the chance of chawing first 3 white and then 3 black balls, w^e should be
dealing with a
compound
event.
In such a case the result of the second drawing might or might not be dependent on the result of the first. If the balls are not replaced after being drawn, then if the first drawing gives 3 white balls, the ratio of the black to the white balls remaining is greater than if the first drawing had not given three white; thus the chance of drawing 3 black balls at the second trial
the balls are replaced after being drawn, it is clear that the result of the second drawing is not in any way affected by the result of the first.
is
affected
by the
result of
the
first.
But
if
We are thus
Events are said to be dependent or independent according as the occurrence of one does or does not affect the occurrence of the others. Dependent events are sometimes said to be contingent.
378
456.
babilities
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
If there are two independent
of which are known,
first
to
find
happen.
event may happen in a ways and fail in b ways, all these cases being equally likely ; and suppose that the second event may happen in a' ways and fail in b' ways, Each of the a + b cases may all these ways being equally likely. be associated with each of the a + b' cases, to form (a + b) (a! + b')
compound
In aa' of these both events happen, in bb' of them both fail, in ab' of them the first happens and the second fails, and in a'b Thus of them the first fails and the second happens.
aa
is
(a
+ b){a'+b')
bb'
is
fail
(a
+ b)(a+b')
ab'
is
first
(a
+ b)(a'+b')
a'b
is
(a
+ b)(a'+b')
first
fails
reasoning will apply in Hence it is easy to see that if p lf p 2 p 3 ... are the events. respective chances that a number of independent events will separately happen, the chance that they will all happen is p p 2 p 3 ... ; the chance that the two first will happen and the rest fail is 2\Po (1 P ) (1 pj' > an d similarly for any other par3
,
,
two independent events are will happen is pp'. Similar the case of any number of independent
of
ticular case.
the chance that an event will happen in one trial, the chance that it will happen in any assigned succession of r trials is p ; this follows from the preceding article by supposing
457.
If
is
'
P =P 2 =P 3 =
1
To
some one at
the chance that all the events fail is (1 p (1 ]).,) (1 p 3 ) .j and except in this case some one x) of the events must happen ; hence the required chance is
=
PROBABILITY.
'
379
Example 1. Two drawings, each of 3 balls, arc made from a bag containing 5 wbitc and 8 black balls, the balls being replaced before tbe second find the chance that the first drawing will give 3 white, and the second trial 3 black balls.
:
The number
of
ways
in
which 3
balls
may
be drawn
is 13
C3
3white
3black
Therefore the chance of 3 white at the
first trial
5C.,;
*C Z
= ^f1.2" 1.2.3
13. 12. 11 _
:
143
=
8.7.6 1.2.3
x
1.2.3
28 143*
j
>
"143
14o
<
20449
Example 2. In tossing a coin, find the chance of throwing alternately in 3 successive trials.
Here the
first
head and
tail
tail
first is
compound
event = x = 2 2
j
Example 3. Supposing that it is 9 to 7 against a person A who is now 35 years of age living till he is 65, and 3 to 2 against a person B now 45 find the chance that one at least of these persons will be living till he is 75 alive 30 years hence.
;
The chance
the chance that
that
30 years
3
is
9 ^x3 lb o
',
or
27
8U
is
..
be alive,
27
>sl8o>
53 or.
By a slight modification of the meaning of the symbols 458. in Art. 45G, we are enabled to estimate the probability of the concurrence of two dependent events. For suppose that when the first event has happened^ a denotes the number of ways in which the second event can follow, and b' the number of ways in which it will not follow then the number of ways in which the two
;
'
380
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
is
aa
concurrence
is
.
o) (a
tr +
o
)
the probability of the first event, and p' the contingent probability that the second will follow, the probability of the concurrence of the two events is pp
Thus
if
is
Example 1. In a hand at whist find the chance that a specified player holds both the king and queen of trumps.
Denote the player by
13
is clearly
^;
fall
to A.
The chance
12 ol
:
that,
then
for the
to A.
m * Therefore the
x 12 = 17 ^ ol 52
1
:
13
Or we might reason
as follows
The number of ways in which the king and the queen can be dealt to A is equal to the number of permutations of 13 things 2 at a time, or 13 12. And similarly the total number of ways in which the king and queen can be
.
dealt is 52
51.
13
12
52.51
=
1
as before.
17
Example 2. Two drawings, each of 3 balls, are made from a bag containing 5 white and 8 black balls, the balls not being replaced before the second trial: find the chance that the first drawing will give 3 white and the second 3 black balls.
At the first trial, 3 balls may be drawn in and 3 white balls may be drawn in 5 C3 ways;
therefore the chance of 3 white at first trial
13
C3 ways
13
.
5.4 1.2"
12
11
1.2.3
143
When
2 white
and 8 black
balls
and 3 black
may
be drawn in
C 3 ways
8.7.6
"1.2.3
therefore the chance of the
5
'
10.9.8 1.2.3
7
==
.
1_
15
compound event
143
15
429 Ex.
1,
Art. 457.
. . .
PROBABILITY.
381
459. If an event can happen in ttvo or more different ways which are mutually exclusive, the chance that it wilt happen is the sum of the chances of its happening in these different ways.
This is sometimes regarded as a selfevident proposition arising It may, howimmediately out of the definition of probability. ever, be proved as follows
:
and
let
=*
event in these two ways respectively. Then out of bfi 2 cases there are a b 2 in which the event may happen in the first way, and a b ways in which the event may happen in the second; and tliese ivays cannot concur. Therefore in all, out of b l b 2 cases there are a,b + a ,b, cases favourable to the event: hence the chance that the event will happen in one or other of the two
x
J
k
ways
is
a b 2 + a2 b
x
a_
x
x
a,
bh 12
6,
bf
number
of ex
Similar reasoning will apply whatever be the clusive ways in which the event can happen.
an event can happen in n ways which are mutually exclusive, and if plt p p^ Pn are the probabilities that the a event will happen in these different ways respectively, the probability that it will happen in some one of these ways is
Hence
if
Pi+Pl+Pa*
Example
with two
9 can be
1.
throw
4
,
dice.
made up
in 4 ways,
of throwing 9 is
10 can be
made up
in 3 ways,
of throwing 10 is
^
2
11 can be
made up made up
in 2 ways,
and thus the chance of throwing 11 isand thus the chance of throwing 12
less
is
12 can be
in 1 way,
^
Now the
than 9
is
the
sum
of these
ou
<V/ .
lb
382
Example
2.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
One purse contains
1 sovereign
and 3 shillings, a second purse contains 2 sovereigns and 4 shillings, and a third contains 3 sovereigns and 1 shilling. If a coin is taken out of one of the purses selected at random, find the chance that it is a sovereign.
Since each purse
the
first is
is
hence the
purse
is
it
first
is
12 13  x 
 x 3 6
or 9
1
or 
..
++ y
x*5
.
=o
tc
In the preceding article we have seen that the pro460. bability of an event may sometimes be considered as the sum of the probabilities of two or more separate events ; but it is very important to notice that the probability of one or other of a series of events is the sum of the probabilities of the separate events only when the events are mutually exclusive, that is, when the occurrence of one is incompatible with the occurrence of any
of the others.
Example.
From
:
drawn
at
random
20 tickets marked with the first 20 numerals, one find the chance that it is a multiple of 3 or of 7.
is
is
a multiple of 3
is
a multiple of 7
.
is
and
required chance
is
6 2 + ^
2 or 
But if the question had been: find the chance that the number multiple of 3 or of 5, it would have been incorrect to reason as follows
Because the chance that the number
chance that the number
it is
is
is
a multiple of 3
is
is
and the
is
a multiple of 5
is
a multiple of 3 or 5
^+^
or 5,
so that the
should be observed that the distinction between simple and compound events is in many cases a purely artificial
PROBABILITY.
;
383
one in fact it often amounts to nothing more than a distinction between two different modes of viewing the same occurrence.
Example. A bag contains 5 white and 7 black balls; if two drawn what is the chance that one is white and the other black?
(i)
balls arc
= (5*7H.=C 2 = (ii)
66
as the
ball,
r 132 12 * 11
(2)
ball,
is
i2
ir
0r
35 132'
And
EXAMPLES. XXXII.
1.
b.
the chance of throwing an ace in the successive throws with an ordinary die ?
is
What
first
only of two
Three cards are drawn at random from an ordinary pack 2. the chance that they will consist of a knave, a queen, and a king.
find
The odds against a certain event are 5 to 2, and the odds in 3. favour of another event independent of the former are 6 to 5 find the chance that one at least of the events will happen.
;
The odds against A solving a certain problem are 4 to 3, and 4. the odds in favour of B solving the same problem are 7 to 5 what is the chance that the problem will be solved if they both try 1
:
the chance of drawing a sovereign from a purse one compartment of which contains 3 shillings and 2 sovereigns, and the other 2 sovereigns and 1 shilling ?
5.
is
What
bag contains 17 counters marked with the numbers 1 to 17. 6. counter is drawn and replaced; a second drawing is then made: what is the chance that the first number drawn is even and the second
odd?
384
7.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Four persons draw each a card from an ordinary pack: find the chance (1) that a card is of each suit, (2) that no two cards are of
equal value.
8.
six
in five trials.
be favourably reviewed by three independent critics are 5 to 2, 4 to 3, and 3 to 4 respectively what is the probability that of the three reviews a majority will be favourable ?
9.
will
bag contains 5 white and 3 black balls, and 4 are successively drawn out and not replaced what is the chance that they are alternately
10.
;
of different colours
11.
If 4 whole
product
is 1, 3, 7,
or 9
16
1S
625'
In a purse are 10 coins, all shillings except one which is a 13. Nine coins are taken sovereign in another are ten coins all shillings. from the former purse and put into the latter, and then nine coins are taken from the latter and put into the former find the chance that the sovereign is still in the first purse.
;
:
14.
will
is
what
is
order cut a pack of cards, replacing them after each cut, on condition that the first who cuts a spade shall win a prize find their respective chances.
A, B,
C in
A and B draw from a purse containing 3 sovereigns and 17. 4 shillings find their respective chances of first drawing a sovereign, the coins when drawn not being replaced.
:
of n ^persons sit at a round table, find the odds against two specified individuals sitting next to each other.
18.
A party
A
is
one of 6 horses entered for a race, and is to be ridden by one of two jockeys B and C. It is 2 to 1 that B rides A, in which case all the horses are equally likely to win if C rides A, his chance what are the odds against his winning ? is trebled
19.
;
:
If on an average 1 vessel in every 10 is wrecked, find the chance that out of 5 vessels expected 4 at least will arrive safely.
20.
PROBABILITY.
462.
trial
385
The probability of the happening of an event in one being known, required the probability of its happening once,
...
exactly in
trials.
Let p be the probability of the happening of the event in a single trial, and let q = 1 p\ then the probability that the event will happen exactly r times in n trials is the (r + l) th term in the expansion of (q + p)*.
set of r trials out of the total number n, the chance that the event will happen in every one of r q"~ [Art. 456], and as these r trials and fail in all the rest is
if
For
we
select
any particular
a set of r
ways, all of which are equally applicable to the case in point, the required chance is
trials
can be selected in
Cr
C rp q
If
we expand
2f
(/;
q)"
+ "C 2) n
1
+ n C jS' 2 q 2 +
+"C n _ p
r
q" r
...
+ qn
thus the terms of this series will represent respectively the probabilities of the happening of the event exactly n times, n 1
times,
2 times,
...
inn
trials.
463.
twice,
...
If
times,
or
fails
(n r) times, it happens r times or more ; chance that it happens at least r times in n trials is
n n P + "Cy*q + "C aP Y+
...
tv^r.
what
the chanco of
or
the
sum
of
the
first
nr+
dice,
is
i
,
^ do
or ^ o
and
the chance of
if
throw doublets
is
5 ^
Now
doublets
the
sum
/l 5\ h+d
4
.
19 1 (1 + 4.5 + 6.5)= ^
25
386
Example
:
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
2.
bag contains a certain number of balls, some of which are replaced, another is then drawn and replaced; on if p is the chance of drawing a white ball in a single trial, find and so the number of white balls that is most likely to have been drawn in n trials.
white; a ball
is
drawn and
The chance
find for
what
r
,
and we have
to
Now
so long as
n r
> n Cr  l p r  l q n  (r ~
l)p>(p + q)r.
(nr + l)p>rq,
(n +
or
r is
is
such that pn
failures.
is
an
integer,
is
that of
pn
successes
and qn
Suppose that there are n tickets in a lottery for a prize of x; then since each ticket is equally likely to win the prize, and a person who possessed all the tickets must win, the money value of
464.
each ticket
is
x
:
in other
words
this
would be a
fair
sum
to
pay
who
reasonably expect
TX
by
he would estimate
in
 x
n
It
is
convenient then to
represents a person's chance of success in any venture and the sum of money which he will receive in case of success, the sum of money denoted by is called his expectation.
pM
In the same way that expectation is used in reference 465. to a person, we may conveniently use the phrase probable value applied to things.
Example 1. One purse contains 5 shillings and 1 sovereign a second purse contains 6 shillings. Two coins are taken from the first and placed in the second then 2 are taken from the second and placed in the first find the probable value of the contents of each purse.
: ;
The chance that the sovereign is in the first purse is equal to the the chances that it has moved twice and that it has not moved at all
sum
of
8
PROBABILITY.
that
is,
,387
8
the chance
6
.*.
is
=T
4
.*.
of 25*.
1
.
of 6*.=1.
O.s.
3r/.
=31*.2Q.=10*.
<></.
solved as follows
of the coins
removed
=s
of 25s.
= 8^s.;
=^of
(Gs.+S V>\)=3 r
:
W,
= (2581 + 3^)
shillings
= 1.
Ck
3d., as before.
Example 2. A and B throw with one be won by the player who first throws 6.
their respective expectations?
1
A has
the
first
In his
first
is
in his second
it is
^
x  x o 6
because
;
each player must have failed once before A can have a second throw in his 1 /5\ 4 third throw his chance is x ^ because each player must have failed
(
is
the
sum
5MKi
Similarly #'s chance
is
4+
}
the
sum
WM
..
,+
G)
*
J
A' a chance
is

6 and 5
respectively.
26
388
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
We
to useful
Example 1. Two players A and B want respectively m and n points of winning a set of games their chances of winning a single game are p and q respectively, where the sum of p and q is unity the stake is to belong to the player who first makes up his set determine the probabilities in favour
; ; :
of each player.
Suppose that A wins in exactly m + r games; to do this he must win the The chance of last game and m1 out of the preceding m + r1 games. +^ 1 p 1 q r 2h or m^~1 Cm1 pm qr . this is m_ 1
the set will necessarily be decided in m + n  1 games, and A may 1 games, ... or + n  1 games; win his m games in exactly m games, or therefore we shall obtain the chance that A wins the set by giving to r the Thus A s chance is values 0, 1, 2, ... n  1 in the expression m+r 1 Cm _ 1 p m q r
Now
m+
n(nAl\
1.2
+ n2 jm1
\m
ii
This question is known as the " Problem of Points," and has engaged the attention of many of the most eminent mathematicians since the time of Pascal. It was originally proposed to Pascal by the Chevalier de Mere in 1654, and was discussed by Pascal and Fermat, but they confined themselves to the case in which the players were supposed to be of equal skill their results were also The formulae we have given are exhibited in a different form. assigned to Montmort, as they appear for the first time in a work The same result was afterwards obof his published in 1714. tained in different ways by Lagrange and Laplace, and by the latter the problem was treated very fully under various modi:
fications.
Example 2. There are n dice with / faces marked from 1 to /; if these are thrown at random, what is the chance that the sum of the numbers exhibited shall be equal to p?
Since any one of the
the
number
be exposed on any one of the n dice, of ways in which the dice may fall is / n
faces
may
their
Also the number of ways in which the numbers thrown will have sum is equal to the coefficient of x p in the expansion of
{x l
for
+ x* + x 3 + ... + xf
n
)
\
for this coefficient arises out of the different ways in 1, 2, 3, .../can be taken so as to form p by addition.
PROBABILITY.
3S!)
Now
=x
11
(l
+ x + x2 +
...
+ xf
')"
(?)"
We
have therefore to find the
(I
.
coefficient of
x p ~ n in the expansion of
.
x') n (I
 x)~ n
n(nl) (n+l)
*
.,.
n(nl)(n2)
.,,
and
<1
.r)
" = , 1
+ nx +
' a;
?t(+l)(w + 2) _ x3 +... 1 ^ 3
.
~ Multiply these series together and pick out the coefficient of x p n in the product we thus obtain
;
n(n+l)...{pl)
\
P n
it
n(n+l)...(pfl) p  n f
\
(n
1)
M(;t
+ l)...(j>2/l)
\
1.2
"
pn2f
The
.
where the series is to continue so long as no negative factors appear. required probability is obtained by dividing this series by/ n
This problem
in 1730
j
is
due to
published by him
it illustrates
a method of frequent
utility.
Laplace afterwards obtained the same formula, but in a much more laborious manner he applied it in an attempt to demonstrate the existence of a primitive cause which has made the planets to move in orbits close to the ecliptic, and in the same direction as the earth round the sun. On this point the reader may consult Todhunter's History of Probability, Art. 987.
;
EXAMPLES. XXXII.
1.
c.
of
.1
2>'s
as 3 to 2
is
2,
is
thrown 5 times
what
In each of a set of games it is 2 to 1 in favour of the winner 3. the previous game what is the chance that the player who wins of the first game shall win three at least of the next four ?
:
There are 9 coins in a bag, 5 of which are sovereigns and 4. the rest are unknown coins of equal value find what they must be if the probable value of a draw is 12 shillings.
;
390
5.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
A coin
present itself
tossed
is
is
From a bag containing 2 sovereigns and 3 shillings a person 6. allowed to draw 2 coins indiscriminately; find the value of his ex7.
pectation.
Six persons throw for a stake, which is to be won by the one who first throws head with a penny ; if they throw in succession, find the chance of the fourth person.
3 are placed in a bag, and one is withdrawn and replaced. The operation being repeated three times, what is the chance of obtaining a total of 6 ?
8.
1, 2,
Counters marked
9.
is
tossed 4 times
less
what
than 15?
3 dice.
players of equal skill, A and B, are playing a set of games they leave off playing when A wants 3 points and wants 2. If the stake is 16, what share ought each to take \
11.
Two
12.
and
B throw with
number
3 dice
?
if
throws
8,
what
is Z?'s
chance
of throwing a higher
A had in his pocket a sovereign and four shillings taking out 13. two coins at random he promises to give them to B and C. What is the worth of (7's expectation ?
;
14.
(1)
In
five
is
B of 5s. to 2s. that in a single throw with two dice he .will throw seven before B throws four. Each has a pair of dice and they throw simultaneously until one of them wins find B's
makes a bet with
:
expectation.
one the common cube, and the other a regular tetrahedron, the number on the lowest face being taken in the case of the tetrahedron; what is the chance that the sum of the numbers thrown is not less than 5 ?
16.
A person
throws two
dice,
bag contains a coin of value J/, and a number of other coins whose aggregate value is m. A person draws one at a time till he draws the coin 31 find the value of his expectation.
17.
:
6n tickets numbered 0, 1, 2, 6n 1 are placed in a bag, and three are drawn out, shew that the chance that the sum of the numbers on them is equal to 6?i is
18.
If
3?&
(6nl)(6n2)'
PROBABILITY.
3Dl
*Inverse Probability.
all the cases we have hitherto considered it lias been supposed that our knowledge of the causes which may produce a certain event is sucli as to enable us to determine the chance of the happening of the event. have now to consider problems of a different character. For example, if it is known that an event has happened in consequence of some one of a certain number of causes, it may be required to estimate the probability of each cause being the true one, and thence to deduce the probability of future events occurring under the operation of the
*467.
In
We
same
causes.
*468.
we
shall
give a
numerical illustration.
Suppose there are two purses, one containing 5 sovereigns and 3 shillings, the other containing 3 sovereigns and 1 shilling, and suppose that a sovereign lias been drawn it is required to find the chance that it came from the first or second purse.
:
Consider a very large number iV of trials ; then, since before the event eacli of the purses is equally likely to be taken, we may
first
trials,
and
5 in  of these a sovereign
would be drawn
thus a sovereign
first
would be drawn
5

x ~iV, or
1
purse.
of the trials,
and
in
of these a sovereign
would be drawn
Now
392
times.
first
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Hence the
is
purse
There
;
is
no reason
why one
hence in the long run the number of times that each of the six faces will have appeared will be approximately equal.
another
The above instance is a particular case which is due to James Bernoulli, and was
of a general
first
Conjectandi, published in 1713, eight years after the author's Bernoulli's theorem may be enunciated as follows death.
event happens in a single trial, then if the number of trials is indefinitely increased, it becomes a certainty that the limit of the ratio of the number of successes to the number of trials is equal to p ; in other words, if the number of
If p
is the
probability that
an
trials is
N,
the
be taken to be
pN.
proof See Todhunter's History of Probability, Chapter vn. of Bernoulli's theorem is given in the article Probability in the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
observed event has Jiappened through, some one of a number of mutually exclusive causes : required to find the probability of any assigned cause being the true one.
*470.
An
suppose that the probability of the existence of these causes was estimated Let p r denote the probability that when the at P P2 P3 ... Pn r* cause exists the event will follow after the event has occurred th cause was the it is required to find the probability that the r true one.
the event took place
'
1*
PROBABILITY.
;
393
Consider a \ cry great number JV of trials then the first cause of these, and out of this number the event follows exists in P similarly there are p^^N trials in which the event in p Px j follows from the second cause; and so on for each of the other causes. Hence the number of trials in which the event follows is
x
;md the number in which the event was due to the r th cause
'P,.I\N
',
is
th
cause
pJPjr+NUpP);
is,
r"'
cause
is
Mvn
It
is
PrK
necessary to distinguish clearly between the probability of the existence of the several causes estimated before the event, and the probability after the event has happened of any The former are usually called assigned cause being the true one. P a priori probabilities and are represented by ... n \ probabilities, and if we denote the latter are called a posteriori them by Q t1 Q, Q 3 ... Q Hf we have proved that
*471.
Qr
2 ( P P)
'
which is otherwise evident as the event has happened from one and only one
this result it appears that
From
(Q)
lj
of the causes.
give another proof of the theorem of the preceding article which does not depend on the principle enunciated in Art. 469.
shall
We
now
observed event has happened through some one of a member of mutually exclusive causes : required to find the probability of any assigned cause being the true one.
*472.
An
suppose that the probability of the existence of these causes was estimated at P P2 Pz , ... P n Let p r denote the probability that when the ? th cause exists the event will follow ; then the antecedent probability that the event would follow from the r th cause is p r P r
the event took place
t
394
Let
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
be the a posteriori probability that the r cause was the th true one; then the probability that the r cause was the true one
th
is
if
"
pA pA
A._JL =
'"
<?
s(<?)
_
)
i
.
p. p ,
Pr pr
Hp p
s(P P)'
<?,=
2 (pP)
appears that in the present class of problems the product Prp r will have to be correctly estimated as a first step; in many cases, however, it will be found that P lt P 2 P3 ... are all equal, and the work is thereby much simplified.
Hence
it
Example. There are 3 bags each containing 5 white balls and 2 black and 2 bags each containing 1 white ball and 4 black balls a black ball having been drawn, find the chance that it came from the first group.
balls,
:
Of the
five bags, 3
belong to the
first
hence
If
a bag
2
;
is
selected
from the
first
ball is 7
if
4 o
thus
px = /
2
,
p.2
4
o
;
"
Hence the chance
lh
p 1_
3o'
lh
~~25'
of the first
group
is
25/
an event has been observed, we are able by the method of Art. 472 to estimate the probability of any particular cause being the true one ; we may then estimate the probability of the event happening in a second trial, or we may find the probability of the occurrence of some other
*473.
event.
When
For example, pr is the chance that the event will happen from the rth cause if in existence, and the chance that the r th cause is the true one is Qr hence on a second trial the chance Therefore that the event will happen from the rth cause is p r Qr the chance that the event will happen from some one of the causes on a second trial is 2 (2} Q)'
;
.
PROBABILITY.
Example.
395
what
is
purse contains 4 coins which arc either sovereigns or drawn and found to be shillings: if these are replaced the chance that another drawing will give a sovereign?
This question
separately.
may
If we consider that all numbers of shillings are a priori equally likely, shall have three hypotheses; for (i) all the coins may be shillings, (ii) three of them may be shillings, (iii) only two of them may be shillings.
I.
we
Here
also
P^P.^P.^;
^=
iirst
1,
J>a
=g, P=q
Hence probability of
hypothesis
= 15 (1 + o
o
+ r) +
f )
tTv^ Qi>
^ (*+2
f
To
~ ^'
J'
+~ +
.
=T7\=Qy
3_
~4
II.
*10
1_
5^
'To~40
1 8*
If
each coin
is
/l .
IV
,
we
see that
the
chance of four
6
4
,
shillings is
r^
lb
of
two shillings
is
.
10
10
thus

~1G'
P _A. ^16'
Psr'
= l>
Pi a*
Qi +
Hence
Qi_Q2_Q*_
6
'
Q2+Q*
24
12
'
1 24'
= (<2ix0)+(q,x^ +
~
((?
:j
x)
16
396
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
shall now shew how the theory of probability may *474. be applied to estimate the truth of statements attested by witshall nesses whose credibility is assumed to be known. be the truth, suppose that each witness states what he believes to whether his statement is the result of observation, or deduction, or experiment; so that any mistake or falsehood must be attributed to errors of judgment and not to wilful deceit.
We
We
problems we shall discuss furnishes a useful intellectual exercise, and although the results cannot be regarded as of any practical importance, it will be found that they confirm
The
class
of
the verdict of
common
it is is
sense.
ments made by him of those which are true to the whole number.
*476.
asserted that the probability that a person p, it is meant that a large number of statehas been examined, and that p is the ratio
independent witnesses, A and B, whose probabilities of speaking the truth are p and p' respectively, agree in making a certain statement what is the probability that the statement is true %
Two
Here the observed event is the fact that A and B make the same statement. Before the event there are four hypotheses for A and B may both speak truly or A may speak truly, B falsely; or A may speak falsely, B truly or A and B may both speak The probabilities of these four hypotheses are falsely.
; ; ;
PP\
p( l ~P\
P'QP)*
P)( 1 ~P')
which
respectively.
Hence
A and B make
;
the
same statement, the probability that the statement is true is to that the probability that it is false as pp to (1  p) (1 p')
is,
is
true
is
pp' + (lp)(lp')'
Similarly if a third person, whose probability of speaking the truth is p", makes the same statement, the probability that the statement is true is
ppp
and so on
for
.///
}
ppY + {1p){ip')(ip")
any number
of persons.
PROBABILITY.
*477.
;
397
In the preceding article it lias been supposed that we have no knowledge of the event except the statement made by A and B if we have information from other sources as to the probability of the truth or falsity of the statement, this must be taken into account in estimating the probability of the various
hypotheses.
For instance, if A and B agree in stating a fact, of which the a priori probability is P, then we should estimate the probability of the truth and falsity of the statement by Ppp* and (1  P) (1 p>) (1 p') respectively.
Example. There is a raffle with 12 tickets and two prizes of 9 and 3. A, B, C, whose probabilities of speaking the truth are ^, , f respectively, A and B assert that he has report the result to D, who holds one ticket. won the 9 prize, and C asserts that he has won the 3 prize; what is D's expectation?
Three cases are possible; D may have won C may all have spoken falsely. Now with the notation of Art. 472, we have
9, 3, or nothing, for A, B,
the a priori probabilities
3
Pi~2
12 X 24 X
3
530>
**~~2 X 3 X 5
1133 ~
3
30
'
A_ 2 * 3
2_ 2
5~3()
;
"
hence D's expectation
20
27'
4 3 = of 9 + of 3
=1.
13s. id.
*478. With respect to the results proved in Art. 47G, it should be noticed that it was assumed that the statement can be made in two ways only, so that if all the witnesses tell falsehoods they agree in telling the same falsehood.
not the case, let us suppose that c is the chance that the two witnesses A and B will agree in telling the same falsehood then the probability that the statement is true is to the probability that it is false as pp' to c (1 p) (1 p').
If this
is
;
general rule, it is extremely improbable that two independent witnesses will tell the same falsehood, so that c is usually very small; also it is obvious that the quantity c becomes These consmaller as the number of witnesses becomes greater. siderations increase the probability that a statement asserted by two or more independent witnesses is true, even though the credibility of each witness is small.
As
398
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Example. A speaks truth 3 times out of 4, and B 7 times out of 10; they both assert that a white ball has been drawn from a bag containing 6 balls
all of different
colours
(i)
(ii) it
is
Here
Px =1 ~ 6'
,
P2 ~6' P 5
^ 1 4 X
10'
P2 ~25 X
10
for in estimating p.2 we must take into account the chance that A and both select the white ball when it has not been drawn ; this chance is
will
11 X
5
25
Now
P^
to
P po,
2
and
is
35
*479. The cases we have considered relate to the probability of the truth of concurrent testimony; the following is a case of traditionary testimony.
states that a certain event took place, having received an account of its occurrence or nonoccurrence from B, what is the
If
(1) if
they both spoke the truth, (2) if and the event did not happen if only
Let p, p denote the probabilities that A and B speak the truth ; then the probability that the event did take place is
pp' +
(lp)(lp)
it
is
p(l 2))+p'(lp).
*480. The solution of the preceding article is that which has usually been given in textbooks; but it is" open to serious objections, for the assertion that the given event happened if both A and B spoke falsely is not correct except on the supposition that Moreover, the statement can be made only in two ways. although it is expressly stated that A receives his account from B, this cannot generally be taken for granted as it rests on
A'& testimony.
:;
PROBABILITY.
399
the different ways of interpreting the question, and of the different solutions to which they lead, will be found in the Educational Times Reprint, Yols. XXVII. and XXXII.
full discussion of
^EXAMPLES. XXXII.
d.
There are four balls in a bag, but it is not known of what 1. colours they are one ball is drawn and found to be white find the chance that all the balls are white.
;
:
In a bag there are six balls of unknown colours; three balls are drawn and found to be black; find the chance that no black ball
2. is left in
the bag.
A letter is known to have come either from London or Clifton 3. on the postmark only the two consecutive letters ON are legible what is the chance that it came from London ?
;
Before a race the chances of three runners, A, B, C, were estimated to be proportional to 5, 3, 2 but during the race A meets with an accident which reduces his chance to onethird. What are now the respective chances of B and C ?
4.
;
purse contains n coins of unknown value a coin drawn at random is found to be a sovereign; what is the chance that it is the only sovereign in the bag ?
5.
;
has 10 shillings and one of them is fcnown to have two heads. He takes one at random and tosses it 5 times and it always what is the chance that it is the shilling with two heads ? falls head
6.
:
A man
bag contains 5 balls of unknown colour; a ball is drawn and replaced twice, and in each case is found to be red if two balls are now drawn simultaneously find the chance that both are red.
7.
:
A
A
purse contains five coins, each of which may be a shilling 8. or a sixpence two are drawn and found to be shillings find the probable value of the remaining coins.
;
:
9.
A die
is
is
thrown
10.
15
thrown three times, and the sum of the three numbers find the chance that the first throw was a four.
speaks the truth 3 out of 4 times, and B 5 out of 6 times will contradict each other in .stating
; :
400
11.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
speaks the truth 2 out of 3 times, and B 4 times out of 5 they agree in the assertion that from a bag containing 6 balls of different colours a red ball has been drawn find the probability that the state
ment
is true.
One of a pack of 52 cards has been lost ; from the remainder 12. of the pack two cards are drawn and are found to be spades ; find the chance that the missing card is a spade.
with 10 tickets and two prizes of value 5 holds one ticket and is informed by that he has won the b prize, while C asserts that he has won the ,1 prize is denoted by , and what is A's expectation, if the credibility of that of C by f ?
13.
There
is
raffle
and 1
respectively.
purse contains four coins two coins having been drawn are found to be sovereigns find the chance (1) that all the coins are sovereigns, (2) that if the coins are replaced another drawing will give a sovereign.
14.
;
:
makes a bet with Q of ,8 to 120 that three races will be the three horses A, B, C, against which the betting is 3 to 2, 4 to 1, and 2 to 1 respectively. The first race having been won by A, and it being known that the second race was won either by B, or by a horse against which the betting was 2 to 1, find the value of P's
15.
won by
expectation.
a bag containing n balls, all either white or black, all numbers of each being equally likely, a ball is drawn which turns out to be white; this is replaced, and another ball is drawn, which also turns out to be white. If this ball is replaced, prove that the chance
16.
From
of the next
ball is  (n
1)
(2n + l)~ l
purses, n into each, coins have been distributed into coins will be found in the same find (1) the chance that two specified
17.
If
mn
(2) what the chance becomes when r purses have been and found not to contain either of the specified coins. examined
purse; and
A, B are two inaccurate arithmeticians whose chance of solving a given question correctly are  and y1^ respectively if they obtain the same result, and if it is 1000 to 1 against their making the same mistake, find the chance that the result is correct.
18.
;
witnesses, each of whom makes but one false statement in six, agree in asserting that a certain event took place ; shew that the odds are five to one in favour of the truth of their statement, even
19.
Ten
although the a
event
is
as small as ^9
1 :
PRoUAl'.ILITY.
41
Local Probability.
*481.
Geometrical Methods.
of
questions of Probability requires, in general, the aid of the Integral Calculus; there are, however, many easy questions which can be solved by
The application
Geometry
to
Elementary Geometry.
Example 1. From each of two equal lines of length I a portion is cut random, and removed what is the chance that the sum of the
:
off at
remainders
is less
than
I?
Place the lines parallel to one another, and suppose that after cutting, the righthand portions are removed. Then the question is equivalent to asking what is the chance that the sum of the righthand portions is greater than the sum of the lefthand portions. It is clear that the first sum is equally likely to be greater or less than the second; thus the required
probability
is
Cor.
Each
of two lines
is
is
known
I:
the
is
Example 2. If three lines are chosen at random, prove that they are just as likely as not to denote the sides of a possible triangle.
one must be equal to or greater than each of the other two denote its length by I. Then all we know of the other two lines is that the length of each lies between and /. But if each of two lines is known to be of random length between and 1, it is an even chance that their sum is greater than /. [Ex. 1, Cor.]
lines
;
Of three
result follows.
Example 3. Three tangents are drawn at random to a given circle shew that the odds are 3 to 1 against the circle being inscribed in the triangle formed by them.
P
O
Draw
draw
three random lines P, (), 11, in the same plane as the circle, to the circle the six tangents parallel to these lines.
and
H. H.A.
2G
402
Then
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
of the 8 triangles so formed it is evident that the circle will be escribed to 6 and inscribed in 2 and as this is true whatever be the original directions of P, Q, R, the required result follows.
;
Questions in Probability may sometimes veniently solved by the aid of coordinate Geometry.
*4:82.
be con
Example.
random:
coincide.
a rod of length a + b+c, lengths a, b are measured at find the probability that no point of the measured lines will
On
Let AB be the line, and suppose AP = x and PQ = a; also let a be measured from P towards B, so that x must be less than b + c. Again let AP' = y, P'Q' = b, and suppose P'Q' measured from P' towards B, then y must be less than a + c. Now in favourable cases we must have AP'>AQ, or else AP>AQ\
y>a + x,
all
or
x>b + y
(1).
we must have
x>0, and
2/>0, and
<& + c) <a + c)
make OX
equal to
b
+ c, and
and the
OY
line
Draw
x = b + y represented by KB.
the line y
= a + x,
represented by
TML
in the figure;
Q
A
P'
f
031,
0.Q
K
a.
Then YM,
OT are
each equal to
conditions (1) are only satisfied by points in the triangles and ItXR, while the conditions (2) are satisfied by any points within the rectangle OX, OY;
.*.
The
MYL
c2
{a + c)(b
+ c)
with some Miscellaneous
*483.
We
A
Examples.
balls are
Example 1. thrown
box
is
at
random
partments each containing a balls, q compartments each containing r compartments each containing c balls, and so on, where
divided into equal compartments into which n find the probability that there will be p com;
b balls,
Z>a+qb + rc +
=n.
PROBABILITY.
403
Since each of the n halls can fall into any one of the m compartments n and these are the total number of cases which can occur is all equally , likely. To determine the number of favourable cases we must find the number of ways in which the n balls can be divided into p, <1, r, ... parcels containing a, b, c, ... balls respectively.
First choose
any
of the compartments,
this can be
where
is
.
the
number
of
ways in which
done
\s
\ms
stands for \m
p + q + r + ...
v
(1).
'
Next subdivide the s compartments into groups containing p q, severally; by Art. 147, the number of ways in which this can be done is
t
r, ...
\\1
(2).
..
Lastly, distribute the n balls into the compartments, putting a into each of the group of p, then b into each of the group of q, c into each of the group of r, and so on. The number of ways in which this can be done is
In
(\a)*(\b)(\c_)
(3).
of ways in which the balls can be arranged to satisfy the required conditions is given by the product of the expressions (1), (2), (3). Therefore the required probability is
\m
t
\
m"
(\a)>>
(\b)i ([)
pjr.
mpqrmade in succession, find the chance that the the balls are replaced after
:
Example 2. A bag contains n balls and the ball on each occasion is found
;
k drawings are
to be white
next drawing will give a white ball'; (i) when each drawing (ii) when they are not replaced.
(i)
Before the observed event there are n + 1 hypotheses, equally likely; bag may contain 0, 1, 2, 3, ... n white balls. Hence following the notation of Art. 471,
for the
1
= Pj P2 = P 3 =
= Pn
Hence
7*
Now
the chance that the next drawing will giv< a white ball xt give
=2  Qr
=
n
p + 2* + 3* + ...+n*
Art. 405.
262
404
'
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
= <*=
4
3 (n + 1)
~2(2n+l)'
If
is
is
when n
is in
V^
'
2
'
*+!
fc
finite, of
n
is
+2
fe
+ 1.'
+1
&+2*
not replaced,
r r
"
(ii)
1
'
r 2
"
'
A;
n n 1 n 2
k+1
and
Q r =i it
p,
r
(rk + l)(rk + 2)
r=K
r=0
(rl)r
(rl)r
y (>+l)(rifc + 2)
(uifc
+ l)(nJfe + 2)
(nl)n (n+1)
The chance
2
r =0
Qr
Ii
(;i
A) (u
/c
+ 1)
fc
?i
(n + 1) r=0
*
s"(rfc)(rfc+l)
(/iA)(n/v
(rl)r
n(i
+1
n(n +
l)
(nk)(nk + l)
+ l) 2~ k~+
+ l)
Jfc+1
~k + 2'
which
is
first.
Example 3. person writes n letters and addresses n envelopes ; if the letters are placed in the envelopes at random, what is the probability that every letter goes wrong ?
Let un denote the number of ways in which all the letters go wrong, and represent that arrangement in which all the letters are in their let abed own envelopes. Now if a in any other arrangement occupies the place of an assigned letter b, this letter must either occupy a's place or some other.
.
. .
Suppose b occupies a's place. Then the number of ways in which all the remaining n  2 letters can be displaced is u n _ 2 and therefore the numbers of ways in which a may be displaced by interchange with some one of the other n 1 letters, and the rest be all displaced is (n  1) _ 2
(i)
,
.
PROBABILITY.
405
(ii) Suppose a occupies i>'s place, and b does not occupy a's. Then in arrangements satisfying the required conditions, since a is fixed in &'s place, the letters b, c, d, ... must be all displaced, which can be done in h__j ways; therefore the number of ways in which a occupies the place of another letter but not by interchange with that letter is (n  1) u n  l ;
..
v n = (nl)
444,
(M n _!
+ _);
we
find u n  nu n _ 1
l) n (ttj
Uj).
= 0,
tig
=1
( 1 )'
the total number of ways in which the n things can be put in n therefore the required chance is places is In
;
Now
11 +
[2
1
4
'
( 1)"
in
'
and in lias maintained a permanent place some of its many It was first discussed in works on the Theory of Probability. by Montmort, and it was generalised by De Moivre, Euler, and
Tlie
problem
liere
involved modifications
is
of considerable interest,
Laplace.
*484. The subject of Probability is so extensive that it is impossible here to give more than a sketch of the principal algebraical methods. An admirable collection of problems, illustrating every algebraical process, will be found in "NVliitworth's Choice and Chance; and the reader who is acquainted with the Integral Calculus may consult Professor Crofton's article Probability in the Encyclopcedia JJritannica. complete account of the origin and development of the subject is given in Todhunter's History of the Theory of Probability from the time of Pascal to that of Laplace.
the theory of Probability to commercial transactions are beyond the scope of an elementary treatise ; for these we may refer to the articles Annuities and Insurance in the JEncyclopcedia Britannica.
The
practical applications of
^EXAMPLES. XXXII.
L
What
e.
lea.st 7 in
a single
In a purse there are 5 sovereigns and 4 shillings. If they are drawn out one by one, what is the chance that they come out sovereigns und shillings alternately, beginning with ;t sovereign?
406
3.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
what
is
If on an average 9 ships out of 10 return safe to port, the chance that out of 5 ships expected at least 3 will arrive 1
4.
the tickets are blanks but one; each person draws a ticket, and retains it shew that each person has an equal chance of drawing the prize.
In a lottery
all
One bag contains 5 white and 3 red balls, and a second bag 5. contains 4 white and 5 red balls. From one of them, chosen at random, two balls are drawn find the chance that they are of different colours.
:
throw a die in the order named Five persons A, B, C, B, until one of them throws an ace find their relative chances of winning, supposing the throws to continue till an ace appears.
6.
:
is
Three squares of a chess board being chosen at random, what the chance that two are of one colour and one of another 1
7.
8.
one the common cube, and the other a regular tetrahedron, the number on the lowest face being taken in the case of the tetrahedron find the average value of the throw, and compare the chances of throwing 5, 6, 7.
A person throws
two
;
dice,
A's skill is to 2?'s as 1 3 9. 3 ; to Cs as 3 2 ; and to Z)'s as 4 find the chance that in three trials, one with each person, will succeed twice at least.
: : :
10.
certain stake is to be
:
won by
if
who throws
what
is
the
Two
players A,
wants 2 games
of equal skill are playing a set of games ; A to complete the set, and wants 3 games: compare
purse contains 3 sovereigns and two shillings a person draws one coin in each hand and looks at one of them, which proves to be a sovereign shew that the other is equally likely to be a sovereign or a shilling.
12.
:
A and B play for a prize A is to throw a die first, and is to he throws 6. If he fails B is to throw, and to win if he throws If he fails, A is to throw again and to win with 6 or 5 or 4, 6 or 5. and so on find the chance of each player.
13.
if
;
win
Seven persons draw lots for the occupancy of the six seats in 14. a first class railway compartment find the chance (1) that two specified persons obtain opposite seats, (2) that they obtain adjacent seats on
:
the
same
15.
side.
number
consists of 7 digits
is
chance of
16.
its
being divisible by 11
.4
whose sum
.
is
59
dice.
PROBABILITY.
17.
407
0, 1, 2, ...G
bag contains
7 tickets
ticket is drawn and replaced find the chance that respectively. after 4 drawings the sum of the numbers drawn is 8.
There are 10 tickets, 5 of w hich are blanks, and the others are marked with the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 what is the probability of drawing 10 in three trials, (1) when the tickets are replaced at every
18.
T
:
trial, (2) if
19.
If
integers taken at
random
or 9
is
o
.pi
the chance of
its
being
is
2, 4, 6,
or 8 is
9>i
;
Kn
of its being 5 is
and of
20.
its beinc:
10 H 8'l 5 n + 4 n 10*
purse contains two sovereigns, two shillings and a metal dummy of the same form and size ; a person is allowed to draw out one at a time till he draws the dummy find the value of his expectation.
:
sum of money persons A, B, C who first throws to throw in the order named until
21.
certain
be given to the one of three 10 with three dice; supposing them the event happens, prove that their
is to
.
/8\ 2
(ja)'
22.
56
W>
and
/7\ 2 [&)'
Two
5
2 
and 
drawn out
what
is
23.
bag contains
is
marked
1,
two are marked 4, three are marked 9, and so on a person puts in his hand and draws out a counter at random, and is to receive as many
shillings as the
it
pectation.
24.
among
....
If a rod is marked at random in n points and divided at those points, the chance that none of the parts shall be greater than
25.
th n
of the rod
is
an
; ;
408
26. shilling,
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
There are two purses, one containing three sovereigns and a and the other containing three shillings and a sovereign. A coin is taken from one (it is not known which) and dropped into the other and then on drawing a coin from each purse, they are found to be two shillings. What are the odds against this happening again if two more are drawn, one from each purse 1
If a triangle is formed by joining three points taken at random in the circumference of a circle, prove that the odds are 3 to 1 against its being acuteangled.
27.
Three points are taken at random on the circumference of a what is the chance that the sum of any two of the arcs so determined is greater than the third ?
28. circle:
into three parts, that they form the sides of a possible triangle ?
29.
line is divided at
random
what
is
the chance
Of two purses one originally contained 25 sovereigns, and the other 10 sovereigns and 15 shillings. One purse is taken by chance and 4 coins drawn out, which prove to be all sovereigns what is the chance that this purse contains only sovereigns, and what is the probable value of the next draw from it?
30.
:
a straight line of length a two points are taken at random chance that the distance between them is greater than b.
On
A straight
If
line of length
;
points taken at
33.
random
a is divided into three parts by two find the chance that no part is greater than b.
on a straight line of length a + b two lengths a, b are measured at random, the chance that the common part of these lengths
shall not exceed c is
c r
2
,
ab
where
c is less
than a or b
lies entirely
is
(Jj
on a straight line of length a + b + c two lengths a, b are measured at random, the chance of their having a common part which
34.
If
is
T
(c
+ a)(c+6)'
where d
is less
than either a or
b.
Four passengers, A, B, C, D, entire strangers to each other, are 35. travelling in a railway train which contains I firstclass, secondclass, and n thirdclass compartments. and are gentlemen whose respective a priori chances of travelling first, second, or third class are represented in each instance by X, fi, v, C and are ladies whose similar a priori chances are each represented by I, m, n. Prove that, for all values of X, fi, v (except in the particular case when
v=l.
oi),
and
are
company
of the
more
CHAPTER
XXXIII.
Determinants.
devoted to a brief discussion of determinants and their more elementary properties. The slight introductory sketch here given will enable a student to avail himself of the advantages of determinant notation in Analytical Geometry, and in some other parts of Higher Mathematics fuller information on this branch of Analysis may be obtained from Dr Salmon's Lessons Introductory to the Modern Higher Algebra, and Muir's Theory of Determinants.
485.
The
present chapter
is
48G.
a x+
]
b
l
y=
0,
a 2 x + b 2 y = 0;
multiplying the first equation by bsi the second tracting and dividing by x, we obtain
by 6
sub
This result
is
sometimes written
a
x
b
x
0,
and the expression on the left is called a determinant. It consists of two rows and two columns, and in its expanded form each term is the product of two quantities; it is therefore said to be
of the second order.
determinant, and
letters
The
tile
aa b 2 are called the constituents of the terms ,/>,,, ab. are called the elements,
,
410
487.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Since
a.
A  A =
a.
a.
follows that the value of the determinant is not altered by changing the rows into columns, and the columns into rows.
it
488.
Again,
it is
DETERMINANTS.
hence
*i
(I.
411
.,
ft..
*,
K
C is
2
\
C3
a
that
is,
^3
C3
<\
the value
of
the
determinant
From
=,
c2
a.,
6.
412
492.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
The determinant
a
x
bl
h2 b3
<**
C2 C3
%
= , (K C3 ~ K C 2) +
="
hence
,
h l ( C 23
b l(a2CB
C )
~ Cl
>
K
b2
c.
bx
ax
a
(i
a2
appears that if two adjacent columns, or rows, of the determinant are interchanged, the sign of the determinant is changed, but its value remains unaltered.
Thus
it
we denote
b
t
the determinant
a
(l
cx
C
2
h K
by
we have
just obtained
s)
may be
written
(VsO =  (Ac
Similarly
we may shew
(
that
iA) =  ( a
Ab
3)
= + (A C 3 )of
tlie
determinant are
For let D be the value of the determinant, then by interchanging two rows or two columns we obtain a determinant whose value is D; but the determinant is unaltered; hence J) = D, that is D = 0. Thus we have the following equations,
a A,
1 1
aA
2
+ aJL m = D. 3 3
494. If each constituent in any row, or in any column, is multiplied by the same factor, then the determinant is multiplied
by that factor.
DETERMINANTS.
For
tna
x
413
by
ma ma
414
These results
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
be generalised; thus if the constituents of the three columns consist of m, n, p terms respectively, the determinant can be expressed as the sum of mnp
easily
may
determinants.
Example
1.
Shew
that
b
c
+c
+a
+b
a b bc
c
a
b
c
Babe a 3  b 3 c 3
DETERMINANTS.
415
and the last two of these determinants vanish [Art. 494 Cor.]. Tims we see that the given determinant is equal to a new one whose constituents of first column is obtained by subtracting from the the first column of the original determinant equimultiples of the
corresponding constituents of the other columns, while the second
a + j)b + qc
{ x
b
}
{
C2
a + PK +
.,
<7 C 2
^2
c
c.
and what has been here proved with reference to the first column hence it appears is equally true for any of the columns or rows that in reducing a determinant we may replace any one of the rows or columns by a new row or column formed in the following
;
way
of the row or column to be replaced, and increase or diminish them by any equimidtij)les of the corresponding constituents of one or more of the other rows or columns.
Take
the constituents
After a little practice it will be found that determinants may often be quickly simplified by replacing two or more rows or columns simultaneously for example, it is easy to see
:
that
a +2
i
 qc
c,
% + Ph
1 K ~ CC
Ct
b2
b
c.,
a3 +2 jb 3
KQ c
a..
3
but in any modification of the rule as above enunciated, care must be taken to leave one row or column unaltered.
on the lefthand side of the last identity the constituents of the third column were replaced by c l +rali c 2 + ra^ respectively, we should have the former value inc, + ra creased by
Thus,
if
a + 2>b
x
qc
ra
x
x
ra
a + i'K
K  vc
ra..
i
416
and
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
of the four determinants into
is
there
which this may be resolved one which does not vanish, namely
ra,
pbs
qc 2
ra 9
.
Example
1,
29 25
26
31
22
27 46
63
54
264l = 3x4x
31
6
9
54
4 8
DETERMINANTS.
417
[Explanation. In the first new determinant the first row is the sum of the constituents of the three rows of the original determinant, the second and third rows being unaltered. In the third of the new determinants the first column remains unaltered, while the second and third columns are obtained by subtracting the constituents of the first column from those of the second and third respectively. The remaining transformations are sufficiently obvious.]
Before shewing how to express the product of two determinants as a determinant, we shall investigate the value of
497.
&
A + ^7,
a a3 + b
i
A+
r
i7s
2 <* 3 +
3 a 3
A+
a
3
ya
3
&A + c y
Art. 495, we know that the above determinant can be expressed as the sum of 27 determinants, of which it will be sufficient to give the following specimens
:
From
*1<S
a a
x
{
2 ft 3
a3a 2
3 a 3
418
where
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
l
.(2).
(1),
(a^ + 6^)
(at a
x,
+
x
b2 P
+ (a^+bfij x 2 = 0\ x + (a 2 a, + bfi 2 ) x2 = Oj
x
(3).
a^
But equations
hold for
(4).
(3) will
hold
if
aa
or
if
b2
=
l
and
= 0;
.(6).
which
ft
=o
a.
ft
Hence if equations (5) and (6) hold, equation (4) must also hold and therefore the determinant in (4) must contain as
;
factors the determinants in (5) and (6) ; and a consideration of the dimensions of the determinants shews that the remaining
factor of (4)
must be numerical
hence
i
al
a
i
&
i a,
the numerical factor, by comparing the coefficients of afyafl, on the two sides of the equations, being seen to be unity.
DETERMINANTS.
419
420
12.
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
Without expanding the determinants, prove that x y z b a b c 1
x
z
a
c
P
r
P
a
b
r
c
P
13.
1)
14.
15.
a
b
c
1
a" b2
i
= (bc)(c a)
(a
b).
1 1
16.
1 c c3
(b
 c)
(c
 a)
(a
 b)
(a
+ b + c).
a
a?
17.
x
x2
yz
6
*2
zx
xy
a+b
18.
la b+a
c
a+c
b
+a
26 c+b
+c
2c
a
19.
(b+cY
62
^2 {c
2dbc{a+b+cf.
+ af
62
(a+bf
f
c
c
20.
Express as a determinant
DETERMINANTS.
22.
421
Fi
422
HIGHER ALGEBRA.
usefully em
The properties of determinants may be 499. ployed in solving simultaneous linear equations.
Let the equations be
h xy
multiply them by A lt A s A.A respectively and add the results, A , A A 3 being minors of alt a2i aa in the determinant
, j
D=
a,
*,
^3
The
coefficients of
in Art. 493,<