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Prepared for Date of Submission Prepared by Student Number E-mail : : : : : Dr Eric Ng 14th June 2011 Ashwinderdeep Kaur 0050097026

Ashwinder & consultants 61, Jalan Sepah Puteri Kota Damansara KUALA LUMPUR. 26th April 2011 Dr Eric Ng, Marketing manager of food investors, 34 Ipoh Road KUALA LUMPUR Dear Dr Eric, I hereby enclosed my report on the second part of the Background Information and Environmental Analysis of RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN. BHD. to be launched in Vietnam . This report will provide in-depth research identifying the target market for RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD and a detailed competitive analysis on RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD competitors in the Vietnamese retail market. Furthermore an illustration of RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD market entry strategy is analysed and recommended. Also in this report, I have provided recommendation on the appropriate marketing mix strategies for communicating to the target market in Vietnam. Description of RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD international product strategies, distribution and marketing logistic strategies, international promotion and communication strategies and international pricing strategies are provided and justified. My research will suggest that RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD has a good market potential in Vietnam due to the following reported facts. Vietnam has a huge potential of growth in the frozen food industry as there is a large market for frozen meat products as well as currently Vietnam is a large market for import of meat products. Therefore, I recommend your company to proceed with the launch in Vietnam. I have also included in this report possible issues that the company might encounter while launching in Vietnam as well as highlighted recommended solutions to these the challenges faced, thus enabling your company product launch to be rolled out successfully alike how it has been for both Singapore and Indonesia. Thank you for giving me this opportunity to cooperate with you on this project. Yours sincerely, .............................. Ashwinderdeep Kaur

Prepared for : Dr Eric Ng. Submitted : 14th JUNE 2011

Prepared by : Ashwinderdeep Kaur

Executive Summary This report delivers an international marketing proposal to RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD (RAMLY) to expand its businesses to Vietnam. In this report, firstly RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD background is explained besides a holistic view of Vietnam as a target market. In the second section, a comprehensive Political, Economical, Socio- cultural and trade analysis are undertaken to assess Vietnam. Following this analysis, Vietnam as an Asian country which can be a host for RAMLY, is evaluated as good destination which gives RAMLY the Opportunity to grow. Vietnam is a communist country in which "doi moi" program was launched by government so as to decrease trade barriers and

tariff, also joined WTO since 2007. This membership opens Vietnam's market to foreign investors. On the other hand, Vietnam is a country with almost 70% of population ranging from 18 to 50 years old that create a high potential target market segment for such industries as apparel. After external analysis, RAMLY will have an in-depth look at its target market in terms of demographic, psychographic, Geographic, and behavioural characteristics of Vietnamese. Since Vietnam is a young country and has a reasonable internet penetration, the youth would like to be more trend follower and fashion conscious. On the other hand, Vietnam and Malaysia have some cultural traits in common which make entry easier for RAMLY. Further, two main competitors of RAMLY in Vietnam, Farmland and Aqua Blue are analysed in order for RAMLY to know about their marketing mix strategies and their entry mode. The best entry mode which RAMLY can choose is indirect entry with advantages including ease of expansion, and high brand recognition. As for marketing mix strategy, RAMLY needs to identify the appropriate 4Ps strategies. RAMLY should increase brand awareness and consistently manage the quality of product. The best mode for transporting RAMLYs goods are through intermediary. Intermediaries will facilitate in storage, potential channel of packing and customers. The best method of promotion in Vietnam is through the medium of Print advertising. In Vietnam, RAMLY will use Penetration pricing strategy to attract consumers. Price are set below competitors to penetrate and quickly gain market share at the introduction stage of RAMLY's product lifecycle

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Table of content Introduction Background & Environment Analysis Target Market Competitive Analysis Market Entry strategy Recommendations on Marketing Mix Conclusion Referencing Appendix pg 6 pg 7-14 pg 15 pg 16 pg 17-18 pg 19-23 pg 24 pg25-27 pg 28-32

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

1. INTRODUCTION RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD (RAMLY) is a well-known food manufacturer, manufacturing meat products such as chicken, beef and marine produced based in Malaysia. The company produces 'halal' products which is the term used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law, clean and quality meat products available widely in local and international markets. Vietnam, ear marked as a strong competitor among the developing nations in the ASIA Pacific region, is committed to trade liberalization and integration with the world economies. Vietnam prides itself on being an open economy that complies with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Free Trade Area (AFTA) that is an international trade agreement between south Asian countries that includes both Malaysia and Vietnam. As a result shown further in this report, Vietnam has experienced rapid growth in its economy that ultimately brought about higher demand for meat imports to be consumed by its growing economy, hence a strong indicator to suggest that launching RAMLY products in Vietnam will be profitable venture. This report is subdivided into three sections; the first section will be covering the target market and its competitive analysis. The second section will be a focused RAMLY products market entry strategy on exporting RAMLY products into Vietnam. Third section provides recommendation on the marketing mix for RAMLY products launched in Vietnam. The limitation of my report was mainly due the usage of secondary data collection by government bodies of Vietnam to produce this report. Finally a conclusion will be provided at the end of this report.

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

2. Background and Situational Analysis 2.1 Company Profile RAMLY was founded in 1984 by Dato' Haji Ramly Bin Mokni and Datin Hajjah Shala Siah Binti Abdul Manap. RAMLY came about due to the need of producing halal, clean and quality meat-based products for the local communities in Malaysia. Aside from their core business of manufacturing fast food items like burger patties, frankfurters and minced meat, RAMLY also produces many related products such as chicken nuggets and drummets, burger and hotdog buns as well as various condiments to go with the burgers (Ramly 2010). Currently, the company owns a processing plant, located in SME Industrial Park, Mukim Batu, Kuala Lumpur specializing in management, production, marketing and distribution of RAMLY products. RAMLY is now a household name in Malaysian and in international markets. In terms of exports, Ramly Food Processing is supplying their products to Singapore, Indonesia and Bangladesh. (Kamarul Aznam 2008) The decision to venture into the neighboring countries (Singapore and Indonesia) as well as Bangladesh had paid well for RAMLY to test their products ability to stand on its own among other international brands. Thus now with strong growth being displayed in Vietnam, I would highly recommend RAMLY makes Vietnam their next frontier to be concurred. The global market analysis suggest that RAMLY should tap into Vietnams consumer base market (Hans,Helmuth&Lee,2006). One on the main reasons RAMLY should move in to the international market as it has limited growth in the domestic market. By taping into Vietnam, RAMLY is taking opportunity of the ready and available market of Vietnam. Vietnam has a good accessibility of the local product market. RAMLY produces a various range of frozen meat products and its condiments. The details of its products, ingredients and the pack size specifications are listed in Appendix 1.The benefits and nutrient contents for some of RAMLY products are listed in Appendix 2. The recommendation is to import all RAMLY products in different sizes that are available into Vietnam. Launching RAMLY products into the Vietnamese market will be a challenge if the local frozen food distributes were to be selected as the distribution channel. In Vietnam, the frozen chains are weak at many levels in the supply chain, with "holes" occurring all along the chain from producer/port of entry to retailers and the end users. Vietnam's hot and humid climate also adds to the challenges for handling fresh/chilled and frozen foods. This is a major risk area to the integrity of perishable foods (VietnamNews, 2009). Thus to overcome this challenge I will recommend that RAMLY products be distributed by National Trade Union Congress NTUC Fair price (Mustafar Shafawi, 2010). RAMLY should tie up with this leading hypermarket chain and grow along with them and their chain of distribution. 2.2 Background on Vietnam Vietnam a developing country sharing its borders with Cambodia, Laos and China, has emerged as a large recipient of foreign investments in the world providing its attractiveness to foreigners. Vietnam has a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) real growth rate of about 5.3 % in

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

2009 and 6.8% in 2010(Ben, 2011). Thus, Vietnam provides a stable growing economy. Vietnam has a population of 85,789,573 (Hanoi times,2009) and Vietnam currently produces the following quantities of the meats and poultry. beef, from cattle only 206,000 tonnes; pork 2.55 million tonnes; and chicken 359,000 tonnes Figure 1: The Domestic Production of Meat and Poultry in Vietnam from (2003 to 2007)

Source: Government of Vietnam Figure 1 shows the year on year total percentage annual growth increase of meat and poultry meat production in Vietnam, whereby in 2007 the total growth was 3.7% over 2006. This indicates that the domestic demand for meat and poultry meat products has a constant positive growth. In the next chart below (Figure 2) portrays the breakdown percentages of meat and poultry meat products import to Vietnam. Imports of the products covered by this study were valued at around $ 820 million in 2008. Figure 2 : The structure of imports chart of Vietnam in 2008 total of $820 million

Source: Official Trade Data (FOB Pricing) From the chart above, it displays that 77% of imports are from frozen beef, frozen chicken as

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

well as frozen chicken offal Both the charts above clearly indicate the following The domestic demand for meat and poultry meat products has been on an increase. Two thirds of the meat and poultry meat products imported into Vietnam is Beef and Chicken frozen products. From the charts above, one can conclude that demand for frozen meat is much more than the supply of frozen meats. This shortage of frozen meat would require imports to meet the demand. Thus this is a leading indicating for a potential growth in the market for frozen meat products. The supply of RAMLY meat products will succeed in Vietnam as there is a demand for the meat products which have not been meet by the local suppliers. 3. Environmental Analysis Economic and Trade Analysis The economy of Vietnam is a developing planned - market economy. Since mid -1980, through the "Doi Moi' reform period, Vietnam has made a shift from a highly-centralised planned economy to a socialist-oriented market economy which uses both directive and indicative planning (Guy Langloy 2009). In 2010, the nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reached RM 309.3 billion, with nominal GDP per capita of RM 3,505.2 billion (Burreau of East Asian&Pacific affairs 2010). According to a forecast in December 2005 by Goldman-Sachs, Vietnamese economy will become the 17th largest economy in the world with nominal GDP of RM 1,308 billion and nominal GDP per capita of RM 1,305 billion by 2025. According to a forecast by the Pricewaterhousecoopers in 2008, Vietnam may be the fastest growing of emerging economies by 2025, with a potential growth rate of almost 10% per annum in real dollar terms that could push it up to around 70% of the size of the UK economy by 2050. Vietnam has experienced a rapid growth in the economy. The Vietnams Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), Gross domestic products per capita, gross domestic product based on PPP per capita GDP has been increasing which is an indicator that the economic is at a continuous growth. As the PPP increases there will be an increase in demand for basic goods such meat products. Hence this will have a positive impact on RAMLY products sales in Vietnam. (All figures were converted at 1USD=RM3) Figure 3: Vietnams monetary funds reports

Source: International monetary funds Trade Analysis The government of Vietnam has adopted a number of policies to facilitate imports e.g

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Vietnam's WTO market liberalisation processes(IMF 2010). The country successfully became a member of the WTO in January 2007, thus been practicing these liberalization processes for 3 years since. While some of its tariffs on meat and poultry were reduced immediately on its accession to the WTO, other tariff reductions are being phased in over the period to 2011 or 2012. This is driven by demand from the market, importantly, from state owned or government linked businesses that have been able to import high volumes of product under the new freer market conditions (The economist, 2009). The government of Vietnam has lowered their tariffs and this has enabled trade especially imports very convenient into Vietnam currently as will be displayed in the chart below Figure 4: Vietnam's Imports of selected meat and poultry product

Source: Official Trade Data (FOB Pricing) As the chart above indicates, there was a slow increase from 2005 to 2007, however after the implementation of WTO import policies for trade the increase from 2007 to 2008 was exponentially higher. The Vietnamese government is aware of the constraints and challenges of the local farmers and is certain there will be a continuous shortage of meat product and by lowering the tariffs they will be able to encourage more imports to come into the country and meet these shortages. Hence this shortage is a long term problem for the Vietnamese government and it will indeed be a long run growth in the imports industry of meat products in order to meet this ever increasing demand. All imports of meat products has to meet the requirement of the Vietnams food and agricultural import regulations and standards and produces the certificate. Vietnam now has a relatively easy process governing its imports of animal products. A key challenge for RAMLY imports to Vietnam lies in the fact that policies, regulations, practices and on-theground procedures do change from time to time. The Department of Animal Health is responsible for the food health and safety aspects of Vietnam's regulations covering meat and poultry imports. This department is part of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Imports of meat and poultry can only be undertaken by a Vietnam company that is officially approved as a trader in meat and poultry products. All imports of meat and poultry are subject to inspection at the port of entry. These inspections are undertaken by the Quarantine Regional Office of the Department of Animal Health. This office issues a quarantine

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

clearance certificate after it has inspected the products and found them to be fit to enter Vietnam's customs territory and market (Dao&Huong 2009). Exporters also have to be approved exporters in their home country. The HACCP certificate of the producing plant or manufacturer is now required to be submitted as part of the documents to be inspected when the products have arrived in Vietnam Customs area at the port of entry. Vietnam requires that the product label/packaging of imported chilled and frozen meat shipments include details of the product's production date and expiry date. Vietnam has a detailed regulation covering permitted maximum levels of biological and chemical residues in food. This will shortly be expanded by way of a new regulatory circular that specifically covers MRLs in livestock and meat products. Procedures at the port of entry are now standard involving presentation of documents, document inspections, quarantine inspections of the products, certification for entry into Vietnam's customs territory, payment of import duties and other fees, and release of the products from the customs area, if they have passed quarantine inspection and the customs process. This are one of the challenges faced during the import of RAMLY products in Vietnam. However, in order to overcome this challenges, I have recommended working closely with an established retailer such as NTUC in meeting all the regulation requirements. 3.2 Political and Legal Analysis Political Analysis Vietnam is a single part state that has a stable political situation that takes place in the framework of a single-party socialist republic. Vietnam is currently led by Prime minister Nguyen Tan Dung and the Communist Party of Vietnam reaffirmed the current constitution since April 1992 (Seth Mydans 2011). Every five years a Party Congress meets to set the direction of the party and the government. At least twice a year the 160- members Central Committee meets to ensure they are headed in the directions that has been set. One of Vietnam's competitive advantages is the public's trust on the politicians (Klaus Schwab 2009). The political state of Vietnam provides a conducive working environment encouraging trade and foreign investors to invest in the country. Singapore NTUC Fair price has taken the opportunity to build a chain of hypermarkets in Vietnam. NTUC Fair Price's new chain of hypermarkets would leverage Saigon Co-op's network of supermarkets for economies of scale as well as its existing loyalty programmers and large customer base by 2012( Mustafa Shafawi,2010). Legal analysis All businesses in Vietnam are governed by Vietnam business law and Fair trade Law. However, there are still a high number of disputes that occur in businesses. Culturally, Vietnam is not a litigious society. A large number of disputes are resolved outside of court. Vietnamese laws also highly emphasize the role of mediation. The Vietnam International Arbitration Centre at the Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VIAC) was established under the Decision No. 204/TTg dated 28 April 1993 issued by the Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on the basic of merging the Foreign Trade Arbitration Committee (established 1963) and the Maritime Arbitration

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Committee (established 1964). Any dispute among businesses will go through the VIAC. It has jurisdiction over disputes arising from commercial activities among businesses. As an institution administering arbitration, VIAC is committed to complete impartiality and transparency in all that it does for parties (VIAC 2008). In Article 31, the Legal Effect of the Arbitral Award shall be final and enter into legal force on the date on which it is announced. The parties shall implement the Arbitral Award in accordance with the law. The chart below indicated the number of disputes that has arbitrated under the VIAC. Figure 5: disputes in Vietnam

Source: Vietnam International Arbitration Center Although all businesses are governed by the business law there are high number of disputes in Vietnam. 79% of disputes are foreign related issues (VIAC 2011) as displayed in the chart above. Thus to overcome this challenge, it is important to documented and formalised all necessary information before RAMLY products are launched in Vietnam. Vietnam is also governed by the Intellectual property Law (Intellectual property Law 2009) RAMLY could use this as a tool to further protect itself. Intellectual property right holder is defined as the owner of intellectual property rights or an organization or individual that is assigned intellectual property rights by the owner. One of the main benefits from using this patent will be to prevent such as exploiting the invention, the patent owner can exploit his patent by using his patent to raise funds for his business, license it to third parties for commercial returns or sell the patented invention for a sum of money (Intellectual property Law,2009). 3.3 Socio-cultural Analysis Vietnam is part of the east Asian culture sphere and has has almost the same tastes on food and enjoy their food to be slight spicier. This is especially so in the south of Vietnam, the cooking is influenced by the neighboring Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia. The food here shows a bit more of an Indian influence and is generously spiced with chilies, coconut milk and a variety of herbs and spices (Dennis Sim,2008). The similar taste preferences here would provide a good indication on how the Vietnamese market would accept RAMLYs food products. Vietnam's earliest religions are Mahayana Buddhism, Confucian and Taoism. Significant of Roman Catholicism, Cao Dai and Hoa Hao and minorities of Hinduism, Islam, Prostantism and Theravada Buddism exist. RAMLY products being a Halal product in nature would be well received by the Muslims in Vietnam that are primarily the religion of the Cham people, a ethnic group related to Malays. However, roughly one-third of the Muslims in Vietnam are of other ethnic groups. There is also a community describing themselves of mixed ethnic origins

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

(Cham, Khmer, Malay, Minang, Viet, Chinese and Arab), who practice Islam and are also known as Cham, or Cham Muslims, around the region of Chau Doc in the Southwest. The Local Culture of Vietnamese is an agricultural civilization based on the cultivation of wet rice, is one of the oldest in East Asia. The long-term Chinese influence on its civilization, in terms of politics, government and Confucian social and moral ethics, Vietnam is considered to be part of the Asian culture that is filled with warmth and kindness to all its visitors. This indeed attracts many tourists from various destinations making Vietnam a popular destination. The main tourists are mainly from the Asian provinces. Thus tourists would appreciate the availability of an established name like RAMLY burgers whilst shopping for food products in Vietnam during their vacation. As Vietnamese adopt a unique culture and their main mode of communication is Vietnamese language which is their mother thong, nevertheless English is the most taught second language in schools. Although currently all exported RAMLY product packaging are explained in English, RAMLY products would have a wider market reach if was also translated into the Vietnamese language.


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

2. TARGET MARKET RAMLY has always targeted the upper and middle class women who are constantly looking for fast cooking tasty nutritious food to be cooked for their families. By aiming for this demography of the target market, RAMLY had become a successful local brand in Malaysia and then a strong international brand in Singapore, Indonesia and Bangladesh. However in Vietnam, RAMLY should target young adults aged 18-30 who are constantly looking for fast cooking tasty nutritious food. This pool of generation Y has psychographic characteristics such as adaptable, mobile, multitasking, ambitious, and they have high expectations (Assael et al. 2007). The demographic of these target market are well educated and accustom to shopping in retail centers (Refer to Appendix 1). Vietnams climate is either hot or in some moths it has rainy day. The demographic situation of Vietnam will encourage shoppers to shop in a cool environment in these retail outlets. On the behavioral part of this market segment, they are price sensitive. This is due to the income per capita of Vietnam. RAMLY has potential grow in Vietnam as 95% of the population are educated and the retailed market is growing due to the nature of the consumer buying habits in the target market as well as the Education level and Income level also have impact on the choices of location they shop at. RAMLY is to cover generation Y's needs for apparel as discussed earlier. These potential customers are interested in consistently changing their style and welcome diverse change in coming to Vietnam's market. RAMLY start with the metropolitan area at this stage, Hanoi capital city of Vietnam, hence, there are the large number of young, ambitious and educated people there with high desire to shop in the retail industry. In summary: Table 1: Target Market conditions & its characteristic Target market conditions Demand & Sales potential Characteristics High demand in youth market since Vietnam is a young country Shoppers that shop in comfort, Information seekers Low; however, RAMLY increase brand awareness through its promotional activities such as advertising

Consumer buying habits

Brand awareness

To reach this target market, it is recommended that RAMLY establishes a long term business to business relationship as a supplier to the big retailers such as TESCO and NTUC Fair Price in Vietnam that have similar target markets as there is an expected boon in the retail section due to the buying behavior of the Vietnamese target market.(REF)


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

4. COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS In Vietnam, RAMLY'S target is the retailer market as RAMLY products are fast moving consumer goods which are required in the retailers chain in Vietnam. Currently there are many big retailers such as Dairy Farm, Lotte, Guoco Group, Big C and Metro cash&carry in the Vietnam (Vietnam Business News, 2011). Many more big retailers like Tesco and NTUC Fair Price are tapping in the Vietnamese market by 2012 (Vietnam Business News, 2011). Traditional retail outlets currently dominates the retail food sector in Vietnam, however the retail food industry is transitioning away from traditional trade to modern retail outlets such as hypermarket, wholesale centre and supermarket. The Modern trade has grown tremendously in the last seven years, from only a few supermarkets in 2000 to currently over 140 supermarkets, 8 hypermarkets and 9 wholesale centres, and there are indicators for strong further development in this industry. Forecast shows by the year 2014, the retail sales in the packaged food market in Vietnam is expected to reach US$7.1 billion, a period growth rate of nearly 41%, or US$2 billion (Food export Association, 2011). Refer to appendix 2 Vietnam's Retail Market Share Grocery Distribution 2008. Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is the commercial capital of Vietnam and located at Mekong River. There are high numbers of tourist in HCMC due to long Vietnamese coast line where tourist and locals enjoy spectacular view of the South China Sea causing an increasing demand of food services. The city's population has been increasing to meet this demand (Blamer, 2009). HCMC has a strategic location and has attractive geographic variables to the target segment for RAMLY to tap in. From the analysis it the previous section and appendix 3 of the appendix, it has shown that sales for meat-based products has been on the increasing number. The high demand for meat products are unable to be met by the local producers in Vietnam. Hence, encouraging imports to Vietnam especially in the most populated area HCMC (GSO, 2010). The commercial city, HCMC has the highest number of urban population in Vietnam ( GSO, 2010). The urban population has a border horizon on frozen food benefits and are more adventurous in developing their taste for foreign food. Especially in the working adults generation where time is their main constrains due to the nature of their jobs having them to keep abreast with work and the fast past of life in Vietnam. The fast cooking food is an attractive element to this generation. It is inevitable that this food eating culture will be implanted to their ongoing generation eventually boosting sales for RAMLY in the long run. Refer to Appendix 4: Cities and urban areas in Vietnam with population for future detail analysis of Vietnam's urban population The key players in the meat industry are form Australia, US, New Zealand, Canada, UK and Netherlands. Refer to appendix 5 for key competitors analysis. The other competitors include CP Vietnam, D&N Meat Factory, San Miguel Purefoods Vietnam (Le Gourmet brand), Angst Truong Vinh, e-Bon, Golden Pig Joint Stock Company, Duc Viet Foods,Viet Huong, Tuyen Ky Food,Halong Canfoco, Aqua Blue and Farmland (Blamer, 2009). The two main competitors for RAMLY are, Farmland on meat products and Aqua Blue on seafood products. Farmland features a range of 25 different dry and frozen products. Its frozen category

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

comprises of burgers, processed meat, nuggets, pizza and baguettes, sauces and potato products(Farmland, 2011). Aqua Blue on the other hand features a range of seafood products like fish filers, cooked and raw shrimp, calamari rings and tubes and crab (Aqua Blue, 2011). Farmland and Aqua blue have various packaging sizes for their products. Their contents are detailed out in English. RAMLY has many different sizes of packaging and contents are either listed in English or Bahasa Malaysia, Malaysia's native language (RAMLY, 2011). Farmland actively participates in Trade road shows as well conduct promotions via reading material such as newspapers and broachers to inform customers on their product availability and pricing. Internet promotion is mainly conducted on its official website (Farmland news&promo, 2011). Aqua Blue uses more internet sources for its promotion activities. Advertising are done through distributors web pages such as 'Al Jabra' and promotions updates are conducted on regularly basis (Aqua Blue,2011). RAMLY uses the medium of internet, sample food tasting in retail outlets, television and newspaper advertisements by distributors such as Jusco, in Malaysia (NST, 2011). However, in other countries the internet and newspapers advertising are the main mode of communication with its customers in other Countries Farmland, Aqua Blue and RAMLY has the same pricing policy strategy as they are all under the same level of category and fast moving consumer good. The product-line pricing determines prices, whereby prices are established and adjusted according to multiple products within a product line. Odd-even prices strategy is used to influence buyers' perception of these products. During holidays season, especially during the Chinese Lunar New Year, RAMLY and Farmland entice their customers with periodic discounting in Singapore (Fair Price, 2011). Refer to appendix 6 for detailed analysis on RAMLYs two main competitors Farmland and Aqua blue.


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

5. Target entry market strategy RAMLY is entering the market at the 'late starter' stage as it is surrounded by international active suppliers, competitors and intermediaries in the frozen food market such as Vissan, CP Vietnam, D&N Meat Factory, San Miguel Purefoods, Angst Truong Vinh, e-Bon, Golden Pig Joint Stock Company, Duc Viet Foods,Viet Huong, Tuyen Ky Food, Aqua Blue and Farmland. RAMLY is relatively a small firm in size, needs to focus on entry mode that allows close relationship with their customers in the retail market (Muhlbacher, Leihs & Dahringer p.411) Table 2: Level of globalization of product market High High Early starter Low Lonely international Level of firms Internationalization Market entry modes Market entry modes can be classified according to whether they require indirect or direct involvement of the firm. Direct entry strategy involves extensive capital, while indirect market strategy has less capital involvement (Muhlbacher, Leihs & Dahringer p.415). Indirect market entry strategy has the lowest level of risk. However, the firm will have less market control involving marketing activities. Direct entry involving marketing occurs when the firm becomes directly involved in marketing its products. RAMLY is recommended to use indirect-entry strategy. The main advantages of indirect entry are:
1. RAMLY will not physically go into the Vietnamese market but instead appoints an

Low Late starter (RAMLY) International among other

(Muhlbacher, Leihs & Dahringer p.415)

agent (export trading company) to enter Vietnamese market via the agents contacts and knowledge of the Vietnamese markets. 2. Ramly will need not compete with local manufactures in local retail outlets but instead establish itself as an upmarket international product 3. RAMLY will have more control on the branding and placement unlike working with the local retailers whereby communication would be a challenge and there is no guarantees that they would take care of the product. RAMLY products will not receive market resistance as Vietnamese has been consuming similar food product being Asian, and there has been an increasing shortage of Frozen food products in Vietnam (Official Trade Data, 2011). The market potential in Vietnam is forecast to be slow at the introduction stage of the RAMLY product life-cycle. However, sales will pick up at the growth stage, once public is aware of the RAMLY products availability in their

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

market. This is due to RAMLY's entry to Vietnam's frozen food market at a matured phase of its life-cycle. It has to ensure the firm's competitive position and the expected cash flow is generated to be spent in the markets in earlier stages to create product awareness in the local market. RAMLY's products require minimum level of customers services. Perhaps the only form of customer service that would be required would be the form of feedback by its customers on the products consumed. Any information required would be easily accessible via the internet. Moreover the target market for this product is the working adults generation which uses the internet regularly. Vietnams trade environment is conducive. Competitors have market share in froze food industry however due to the nature of the products RAMLY supply, RAMLY will be able to compete and gain market share over time. The distribution channel for perishable food in Vietnam's is sophisticated and accepts new entrants easily; therefore it supports the indirect entry techniques. The geographic distance of Vietnam, evaluation criteria from the macro-environment are economic, technical, legal and cultural factors have been taken into consideration for the market entry decision. Vietnam has stable economic and political situation. The currency has consistency and its not devalued. Level of technology is sophisticated. The infrastructure is developed. There are no legal restrictions on the market-entry mode. Trade is encouraged between ASEAN countries (Trung, 2002). Tariffs are lowed for ASEAN countries trade in Vietnam. RAMLY's limitation of capital and Vietnam's conducive environment of trade has justified RAMLY's market entry will be indirect-entry in marketing only by engaging sales to retailer and wholesaler.


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

6. Recommendation for RAMLYs marketing mix strategy The Product, Place (distribution), Promotion and Price is an important element to ensure RAMLY's products are successfully launched and produce upscale results in their product life-cycle phases. Product RAMLY's tangible product features uncooked frozen food, the products has a nature of 'pure product' with minimal service element. The core products are nuggets, drummers, chicken burger, fish burger, beef burger and hot dog buns as well as various condiments to go with the burgers such as chilli and tomato sauce (Ramly, 2011). Consumers expect the meat to be fresh with their purchases. RAMLY products are prepared in a 'halal' manner. Thus, this added feature is an attractive element to Muslim community in Vietnam. The RAMLY brand is itself is a symbolic feature to its products. Product profile Management Product portfolio management is focus product development activities on the areas that deliver the greatest incremental value to the business (Muhlbacher, 2006). RAMLY's product policy is based on the intended global strategic position of the firm as well as the international customers' driving forces, decision making processes and product usage. In Vietnam, RAMLY has to position itself as fast cooking nutritional and delicious food to define the global differentiation of its products from major competitors. Currently RAMLY has embarked on the Global common dominator policy to standardise the products. The goal of common dominator policy is to define the international product market that contains customers that can be served with a standardised product. RAMLY products standardisation and product adoption polices are based on Asian markets that have strategically determined the global product market defined in the customer segments which can be served with internationally standardisation(RAMLY,2011). Therefore, Vietnam being an Asian country share homogeneous variable such as similar taste of RAMLY products that has been launched in the other Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Bangladesh(RAMLY,2011). One of the most important process of RAMLY's international product management is to maintain the competitive combination of RAMLY products portfolio that will be served in Vietnam. RAMLY. As RAMLY is a late starter in Vietnam's market, it is essential to increase global competition, which will force RAMLY to be innovative constantly. The shortage in the meat industry in Vietnam and the increasing demand for these products will attract higher competition the future. Therefore, RAMLY must develop new improved products from time to time to maintain attractiveness to its portfolio balance. Product Brand The brand name of RAMLY has been successfully in countries it has been launched. Pronunciation may be complicated for Vietnamese but with advertising it will create a long lasting impression. Vietnam's legal trademark registration will protect RAMLY's brand name

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

(Intellectual property Law,2009). RAMLY products, the ingredients, nutritious levels, preparation requirement and contains needs to be translated to Vietnamese to give a broader scope of understanding to consumers. The packing of products will strong contribute as it is the visual surface of the RAMLY products. The goal of quality management (TQM) of RAMLY is to ensure customers satisfaction is achieved by conducting frequent TQM checks on consignments that are delivered to Vietnam. Distribution Managing the distribution channel efficiently is essential in order to build and sustain its global strategic position (Muhlbacher, Leihs & Dahringer). There are two ways to distribute goods, directly to final customers and indirectly through intermediaries. Taking in to account RAMLY's company size, potential market, level of customers' globalization, complexity of the total products, hierarchical level of purchase decision maker, minimal importance of customers service and minimum need of contacts with customers, independent and companybound distribution is highly recommend. The company uses intermediaries but largely controlled them are said to have company-bound distribution system (Muhlbacher, Leihs & Dahringer, P.511). However, it will distance RAMLY from customers and limit the control of local marketing and achieving minimum limited loyalty of distributors. RAMLY is recommend to use distributors or imports. Distributors have a formalised, continuing relationship with RAMLY and have exclusive selling rights for a specific geographic area in HCMC. Distributors take the title to buy RAMLY products and sells to other merchants. Close cooperation between RAMLY and distributor allow RAMLY to gain more control over price, promotion activities, inventory and service policies it has when it sells products to a wholesaler. Importers are the second option for RAMLY. They fulfil the same function as distributors but generally do not have exclusive territorial rights. They maybe either wholesaler or retailers and they may handle the products of many suppliers, sometimes even competing compensation, their profit is the margin between buying and selling prices of the products they carry, minus their cost. They depend on the level of competition in a given market, level of services offered by intermediaries, geographic distance, sales volume, purchasing power, efficiency and tradition (Muhlbacher, Leihs & Dahringer). Intermediaries take over four main basic functions from the distribution channel although it is performed to a varying extent : Physical handing of goods is especially important to RAMLY's frozen meat products and RAMLY having limited experience international marketing experience. They will assist RAMLY with promoting and selling RAMLY products and providing services to local Vietnamese customers. Managing of RAMLY's businesses relationships with businesses community members and government agencies. Financing and risk taking for RAMLY by providing foreign payment exchange, financing the distribution process and assuming certain business risk. Ideally, an intermediary will resemble the most effective members of RAMLY's current distribution channel. However, its important for RAMLY to find appropriate intermediary. Tashun cooperation (TASHUNCO) a Vietnamese company will be a right start for RAMLY to

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

embark on their new market entry. TASHUNCO are looking at diversified and expand business. TASHUNCO is specialised in processing and exporting dried seasoned seafood is looking to expand and diversified operations to develop internal strength for integration in Vietnam's booming economy (TASHUNCO, 2011). TASHUNCO Vietnamese name of company is 'CNG TY C PHN I THU' with a their Certificate of business registration Number 3703000231 issued on 8th December 2006, will be an appropriate intermediary for RAMLY as they will provided and facilitate RAMLY with (TASHUNCO, 2011) : Storage facilities RAMLY and to assist in reaching target customers in a short period of time. Potential channel of member who provide local packaging facilities to ensure the target market will have a better understanding of RAMLY's product in their native language. Complementary products and having the ability to provide customer services based on RAMLY products will increase the attractiveness of RAMLY's offers to local Vietnamese customers. TASCHUNCO can increase the speed and flexibility of customers problem solution in the geographic distance market. Finally, TASHUNCO is able to communication activity hence resulting in achieving customers satisfaction and building local preference for RAMLY products. RAMLY can leverage on TASHUNCO strengths to gain higher market share. TASHUNCO will distribute RAMLY products to various hypermarkets/wholesalers which will encourage sales of RAMLY products in Vietnam. The odds of consumers purchasing their daily goods which will encounter RAMLY products will tempt and influence their purchases RAMLY products rather than them going to the RAMLY manufacturer specially to purchase RAMLY products. Encouraging RAMLY to gain efficiency in market coverage. By having TASHUNCO as an intermediary, RAMLY can reduce the number of transactions that is needed as well as gain a higher market share of frozen food products. It is essentially important for RAMLY to find an right intermediary to ensure successfully businesses growth in Vietnam (Martin, 2009) Promotions Communication is Vital for Products of RAMLY to be launched in Vietnam. Decisions concerning the integrated application of various communication tools are taken into consideration to develop the most suitable communication policy for RAMLY. Advertising, will stimulate potential customers' interest and growth for RAMLY. Advertising will lead to products reaching intended position in potential customers' minds in the target market segment. Thereafter, continuously reminding customers of the benefits gained by purchasing RAMLY products in order to ground for positive buying decisions by the customers in all stages of the product life-cycle and to achieve upscale growth of sales. The best method of promotion in Vietnam is through the medium of Print advertising. The print advertising has taken an annual growth rate of around 30% in the recent years due to the high literacy rate especially in the print media circulation (WESGRO,2010). This will inform target audience about RAMLY's activities and products. Vietnam's high urban population has

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

resulted in significant growth of TV advertising as over 90% of Vietnam's population owns television sets. However, TV advertising is an expensive medium of promotion (WESGRO, 2010). While cost of advertising is on the rising scale, the print advertising is still a justifiable cost to stipulate growth for sales (Shah,2008). Another promotional vehicle for RAMLY is Vietnam's most establish food and hospitality trade show event. It is the unrivalled sourcing ground and networking trade event for food and hospitality trade professionals in Vietnam. The 'Food & Hotel Vietnam' is hosted in HCMC will increase RAMLY's brand exposure to the locals and foreigners and help and enlarge distribution of RAMLY. In year 2009, there were 7,784 trade visitors form Vietnam and abroad (International food& hospitality trade, 2011). Refer Appendix, Figure 4 . In the modern retail sectors, in-store promotion such as cooking demonstration of RAMLY products and sampling of RAMLY products is highly suggested as a useful supplement to other promotional activities. By encouraging trial purchases by potential customers will inevitably stimulate growth for repeat purchases. Pricing Pricing RAMLY products is the key element of success and is the most crucial part of the launch for RAMLY products is Vietnam. The actual Price set for RAMLY products is influenced by a few major factors which include the cost of goods, they are determined by the lower price limit and Market demand determines the upper price limit. The final price is determine by RAMLY's pricing policy, competition, structure, power and actions of local intermediaries as well as other import stakeholders, general economic conditions and Vietnam's government regulations. RAMLY's pricing policy has a plus factor. The government of Vietnam sets low tariffs on the import of goods within ASEAN, this will lower the cost of goods sold (COGS) for RAMLY and competitors especially those from Australia, US and Canada who are liable for a higher tax will be charging a higher price on frozen meat products. Vietnam is also strategically located within the Asian continent providing a reasonable cost of transportation for RAMLY (Trung, 2002). Thus, this contributes to the lower COGS. RAMLY has followed Strategic price policy where the product price is determined by the local prices for similar goods. The absolute minimum of price standardisation is necessary to attain the intended global strategic position is achieved through price line. Price line allows adaptation of price to the changing market competition saturation levels that accompany different stages in the product life-cycle. In Vietnam, RAMLY will use Penetration pricing strategy to attract consumers. Price are set below competitors to penetrate and quickly gain market share at the introduction stage of RAMLY's product life-cycle (Pride & all). Penetration pricing pursues the objective of quantity maximising and to gain quick market share and acceptance of the products due to low price setting. The demand of RAMLY products are highly elastic and consumers are price sensitive. The quantity demanded for these products will increase significantly as the price decline. The COGS will decrease as cumulative volume increases. Products will gain economist of scale, for an example the cost of transportation will decline per product due to the large number of goods transporting at the same time. The pricing policy will change at different stages of RAMLY's product life-cycle in Vietnam in order to sustain RAMLY's

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

market position. Modes of payments Vietnam has yet to develop the concept of long term mutual beneficial businesses relationships. Local businesses tends to be focused on making money quickly, by any means. Thus, RAMLY being a new exporter has to start businesses on the basis on documentary (L/C), preferably confirmed. Once regular trade and relationship has been established with reliable importers, open account may be considered (Trung, 2002).


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

7. Conclusion This report concludes that Vietnam is a good target market for RAMLY based on environmental analysis done for this market. Considering the target market characteristic, Competitive analysis, target market strategy the market with specific marketing mix strategies which introduced in this report supports the fact that RAMLY has a huge potential to grow in Vietnam. The most appropriate entry mode for RAMLY is indirect in order to expand its business easier compared with other forms of entry mode and enhances its brand recognition. The marketing mix for RAMLY products will change at different stages of the product lifecycle. Currently RAMLY's product policy is based on RAMLY's intended global strategic position, the international customers' driving forces, decision making processes and product usage. One of the most important process of RAMLY's international product management is to maintain the competitive combination of RAMLY products portfolio that will be served in Vietnam and this will achieve through TQM. An intermediary is recommended for the RAMLYs distribution channel. Prices should be set below competitors to penetrate and quickly gain market share at the introduction stage. Penetration pricing strategy to attract consumers. Pricing pursues the objective of quantity maximising and to gain quick market share and acceptance of the products due to low price setting. The best method of promotion in Vietnam is through the medium of Print advertising, trade events and food sampling is proposed to stimulate growth.


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Anup Shah, 2008,' Media and advertising',26th January, viewed on 29th May 2011, Aqua Blue, 2011, Viewed on 15th May 2011, Assael, Pope N., Brenan L. And Voges K. 2007, Consumer behaviour, John Wiley and Sons Australia, pp 460-475. Ben Bland 2011,'Vietnam Post congress uncertainties', Financial Times, 24th January ,viewed on 18th April 2011, Brayan Blander, 2009,'Analysis of the Food sector of Vietnam opportunities for Victorian Exports' June, viewed on 25th May 2011, Fair Price, 2011,' Frozen food section', viewed on 16th May 2011, storeId=90001&catalogId=10051&langId=1&sType=SimpleSearch&beginIndex=0&resultCatEntryType=2&searchType=ALL&pageSiz e=51&searchTerm=farmland Farmland, 2011, Viewed on 15th May 2011, Farmland News&promo, 2011, Viewed on 16th May 2011, Food export Association, 2011,'Vietnam Country Profile', viewed on 24th May 2011, ItemNumber=1021&token=24504&userID= Genaral Statistics Office for Vietnam(GSO), 2010, Gross national income at current prices, viewed: 1st May 2011 < tabid=468&idmid=3&ItemID=8672> GSO, General statistics Office, 2010,' Urban statistics of Vietnam',19th August, viewed on 24th May 2011, GSO,General statistics Office, 2010,'Average population by province',19th August, viewed on 24th May 2011, Guy Langloy 2009, 'Vietnam 'Doi Moi' and the World crisis', French Daily Newspaper, 13th June Viewed on 3rd April 2011,

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Hanio Times 2009, 'Vietnam's population', 18th August, Viewed on 22nd

April 2011,

Hans Muhlbach, Hekmuth Leihs & Lee Dahringer , TJ 2006 International Marketing A Global Perspective, 3rd edn, Thomson Learning Bedford Row, London. Huff, L. C. & Alden D. L. 1998. An investigation of consumer response to sales promotions in developing markets: A three country analysis. Journal of Advertising Research, 38 (3), 4756 IMF International monetary funds 2010 viewed on 18th April2011, sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=582&s=NGDPD %2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=71&pr.y=7 International food & trade event, 2011, Viewed on on 9th May 2011,

Intellectual property Law 2009, Viewed on 23rd of April 2011, (agntDisplayContent)?OpenAgent&UNID=A3257F48CA99547A4725773100292BFB Kamarul Aznam Kamanruzaman 2008, Muslim in Halal:a focus on Malaysia & Malays viewed on 8th April 2011, Klaus Schwab 2009, World Competitiveness Report 2009-2010, World Economic Forum Geneva Switzerland, Viewed on 14th April2011 Micheal F.Martin, 2009,'Analyst On The Asian Trade and Finance ' 28th May, viewed on 29th May 2011, Muhlbacher H., Leihs H. & Dahringer L 2006, International marketing: global perspective, Thomson Learning, UK. Mustafar Shafawi 2010,'NTUC Fair price to build hypermart chain in Vietnam', Channel News Asia, 20th December, viewed on 17th April 2011, New Strait Times, 2011, 'advertisement of food- Jusco promotion', section 2nd May,Viewed on 4th May 2011. New strait Times, 2011,'Top three burger stall', 25th May, Viewed on 30th May, Nguyen Tien Trung 2002, 'Vietnam's trade liberalisation in context of ASEAN: In Context Of Trade Regime' January, Viewed on 2nd June 2011, Planet Retail 2008,Vietnam's Retail Market Share Grocery Distribution 2008, viewed on 25th May2011,

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Ramly 2010, official website, Viewed on 1st April 2011, %20Web(Home%20C%20P.html Rhett A. Butler, 2002,'Cities and urban areas in Vietnam with population over 100,000', viewed on 24th May 2011, Seth Mydans 2011,' Shif in Vietnam's Leadership as Party Boss Apologies ', The New York Times, 19th January, Viewed on 23rd April 2011, Tashun cooperation, 1992 viewed on 28th May 2011, act=idx&lang=en The Economist 2009, Vietnam's rebounding economy, viewed on 18th April 2011, The Western Cape Investment and Promotion Agency, 2010, 'Trade fact sheet of Vietnam', viewed on 29th May 2011, %20Fact%20Sheet.pdf Truong Minh Dao& Bui Thing Huong 2009, 'Food & Agricultural import and regulation standards certification', Global Agricultural Information Network, 13th October, viewed on 2nd April 2011, US Departtment of state,'Bureau of East Asian & pacific affairs' 2010, Background of Vietnam, viewed 23rd April 2011, VIAC Vietnam international arbitration center 2011, viewed on 21st April 2011 Vietnam Businesses News 2011,'big retail chains keen to enter Vietnam market', 21st May, viewed on 23rd May 2011, Vietnam Health News 2009, 'Import frozen meat not good for health, experts say', 5th May, viewed on 16th April2011, W.Pride, G.Elliott, D.Waller,A. Paladino & O.Ferrell, 2007,marketing core concepts & application, 2nd edn, John Wiley, Australia.


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Appendix 1 The percentage f Enrollment in Upper Secondary Schools

Upper Secondary 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 2004-2005 205-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 Upper Secondary

Source GSO, 200

Appendix 2

Vietnam's Retail Market Share Grocery Distribution 2008

Source: Plant Retail 2008

Appendix 3: Vietnam's Imports of selected meat and poultry product


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Source: Official Trade Data (FOB Pricing)

Appendix 4: Review of Competitors in the Frozen food market-2008 Top 3 Developed World Supply Developing Developed Countries and Imports Product World World * Their Market (Tonnes) (% Share) (% Share) Shares ** Leader No 2 *** Beef, fresh chilled Beef, frozen Pork, frozen 2,182 100% 30% 60% USA (81%) USA (28%) USA (27%) USA (20%) USA (24%) Australia (12%) Australia (0.4%) Canada (23%) Denmark (5%) UK (3%)

No 3 New Zealand (3%) Canada (0.4%) UK (2%) Canada (3%) Netherlands (2%)

137,138 70% 22,644 40%

Pig's offal, 35,124 61% 39% frozen Chicken parts and offal, 222,636 61% 39% frozen *: OECD countries. **: Share of total imports. ***: Amongst the Developed World countries. Source: Official External Trade Statistics


Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

Appendix 5: comparing RAMLYs 2 main competitors Brand Burgers Beef Burger Ham Burger Chicken Burger Fish Burger Crab Claws Sticks Shrimps Prawns Fish Filler Breaded Fish Fish Cocktail Tuna Squids : Rings Octopus Ball Farmland 24 * 227g 24 *227g 24* 227g Nil RAMLY 420g/360g/300g/70g Nil 420g/360g/300g/70g 420g/360g/300g/70g Aqua Blue

4 pieces

10 pieces/330g 250g 400g 1 kg 450g 500g 500g 24*185g 500g 500g 400g 1 kg

Nuggets: Chicken 400g Tempura Pure chicken Beef Fish 160g Cheese Sausages: Chicken/Bee f Minced:Chic ken&Beef Condiments Chili/tomato sauce Mayonnaise Buns Chips:corn/p otato Frozen

1kg 1kg 1kg 1kg


1kg/ 34g

1kg/ 400g

340g/325g 150g 700g 500g

340g/ 3Litters 3 Litters 1pkt 1*10/ 40

Ashwinderdeep Kaur, Student ID : 0050097026 MKT8002

potato: 500g/270g Hash brown Wedges Fires

Packaging: Extra Features Advertising: The flagship of Farmland and the 1st product to be launched during our humble beginnings. Farmland burgers are juicy and tender and with every bite you will definitely crave for more. Create a whole burger meal with our Farmland Frozen Potato products ranging from Fries to Cheese Nuggets.

New packaging: Brighter and clearer packaging Halal Ramly Chicken Burger was first introduced in Malaysia in 1979 and it was the first chicken product ever produced by Ramly At the MAHA expo, Ramly's Tempura Chicken Nugget was awarded a Special Award - Excellent Product Award from the Department of Veterinary Malaysia Seafood: From the clear waters of Alaska, this whitefish delivers incomparable flavour, texture and nutritional content. Its mild yet delicate taste has proven ideal in producing high quality fillets. Significantly low in fat and calories, Alaska Pollock is an excellent source of Omega 3, protein and essential minerals for optimum health

Halal The brand's rigorous quality controllers oversee the whole production process all the way through shipping ensuring only the best products are packed under the Aqua Blue brand name. The entire range abides by the European Unions rules and regulations with respect to antibiotics and chemical treatments. For best results, keep Aqua Blue products frozen at -18 degrees, and do not refreeze once defrosted. Found in major supermarkets across Lebanon

Source: Farmland official website, RAMLY FOOD PROCESSING SDN BHD official website & Aqua Blue Official website


Appendix 6: Cities and urban areas in Vietnam with population over 100,000

Source: Butler,2002 Appendix 7 : Vietnam's trade show statistics in 2009

Source: International Food & trade hospitality Food event