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# Lecture 20

## Transistor Amplifiers (II)

Other Amplifier Stages
Outline
Commondrain amplifier
Commongate amplifier
6.012 Spring 2009 1
Howe and Sodini; Chapter 8, Sections 8.7-8.9
A volta buffer takes the in ut volta whichma have
1. Commondrain amplifier
V
DD
signal source
v
s
V
BIAS
R
S
signal
+
i
SUP R
L
v
OUT
-
A voltage buffer takes the input voltage whichmay have
V
SS
ge p ge y
a relatively large Theveninresistance andreplicates the
voltage at the output port, whichhas a low output
resistance
Input signal is appliedtothe gate
Output is takenfrom the source
Tofirst order, voltage gain 1
Input resistance is high
Output resistance is low
Effective voltage buffer stage
v
gate
i
D
cannot change v
source

Source follower
How does it work?
6.012 Spring 2009 2
BiasingtheCommondrainamplifier
V
DD
signal source
v
s
V
BIAS
R
S
V
SS
signal
+
i
SUP R
L
v
OUT
-
V
SS
Assume device in saturation; neglect R
S
and R
L
;
neglect CLM ( = 0)
Obtain desired output bias voltage
Typically set V
OUT
tohalfway betweenV
SS
and
V
DD
.
Output voltage maximum V
DD
V
DSsat
Output voltage minimum set by voltage
requirement across I
SUP
.
V
BIAS
= V
GS
+ V
OUT
V
GS
= V
Tn
(V
SB
) +
I
SUP
W
2L

n
C
ox
6.012 Spring 2009 3
Smallsignal Analysis
D
G
+
g
m
v
gs
r
o
S
v
in
+
r
oc v
out
-
-

v
in
= v
gs
+ v
out
v
out
= g
m
v
gs
(r
o
// r
oc
)
Then:
A
vo
=
g
m
g
m
+
1
r
o
// r
oc
1
+
-
v
gs
+
-
v
in
+
-
v
out g
m
v
gs
r
o
//r
oc

6.012 Spring 2009 4
resistance of
Inputand OutputResistance
Input Impedance : R
in
=
Output Impedance:
+
-
v
gs
+
-
v
in g
m
v
gs
r
o
//r
oc
+
-
v
t
i
t
i
t
R
S
effectively:
resistance of
v
in
= 0; v
t
= v
gs
6.012 Spring 2009 5
R
out
=
1
g
m
+
1
r
o
// r
oc

1
g
m
Small!
A
v
= A
vo
R
L
R
L
+ R
out

R
L
R
L
+
1
g
m
1
g
m
v
t
r
o
//r
oc
+
-
v
t
value 1/g
m
Effect ofBack Bias
If MOSFET was not fabricated in an isolated pwell,
then body is tied to wafer substrate (connected to V
SS
)
V
DD
signal source
R
S
V
SS
signal
+
v
s
i
SUP R
L
v
OUT
Bias is affected
V
T
depends onV
BS
V
BS
= V
SS
V
OUT
0
Small signal figures of merit affected
Signal shows up betweenB andS
v
bs
= v
out
Two consequences:
V
BIAS
V
SS
-
6.012 Spring 2009 6
Smallsignal Analysis(with backbias)
See text pp.523527 for details
D
G
+
g
m
v
gs
g
mb
v
bs
r
o
S
v
in
+
r
oc v
out
-
-
B
v
bs
=-v
out
Also:
A
vo
=
g
m
g
m
+ g
mb
+
1
r
o
// r
oc

g
m
g
m
+ g
mb
< 1
R
out
=
1
g
m
+ g
mb
+
1
r
o
// r
oc

1
g
m
+ g
mb
+
-
v
gs
+
-
v
in
+
-
v
out g
m
v
gs
r
o
//r
oc
g
mb
v
out
6.012 Spring 2009 7
+

## CommonDrain TwoPort Model

1
(g
m
+ g
mb
)
v
in
+

v
in
+

v
out
+

(g
m
+ g
mb
)
g
m
Open circuit voltage gain ~ 1
Input resistance ~ CS Amplifier
We want a large input resistance because the
controlledgenerator is voltage controlled
Output resistance << CS Amplifier
We want a low output resistance todeliver most of
6.012 Spring 2009 8

## Relationship between circuit parameters and device

parameters:
W
g
m
= 2I
D

n
C
ox
L

g
mb
= g
m
2 2
p
V
BS
Device*
Circuit Parameters
|A
vo
| R
in
R
out
Parameters
g
m
g
m
+ g
mb

1
g
m
+ g
mb
I
SUP

W

n
C
ox

L

*V
BIAS
is adjustedsothat none of the other
parameters change
6.012 Spring 2009 9
Common Drain amplifier is often used as a voltage
buffer to drive small output loads (in multistage
amplifiers, other stages provide the voltage gain).
2. CommonGate Amplifier:
V
DD
i
SUP
i
OUT
signal
V
SS
R
L
signal source
i
s
R
S
I
BIAS
A current buffer takes the input current which may
have a relatively small Norton resistance and
replicates the current at the output port, which has a
high output resistance
Input signal is applied to the source
Output is taken from the drain
To first order, current gain 1
i
s
i
out
.(Current Buffer)
Input resistance is low
Output resistance is high
Effective current buffer stage
V
SS
6.012 Spring 2009 10
SUP OUT BIAS
=
BiasingtheCommonGate Amplifier:
Assume device insaturation; neglect R
S
and
R
L
; neglect CLM( = 0)
V
DD
I
SUP
V
SS
I + I + I = 0
I
OUT
I
BIAS
Select bias such that I
OUT
=0 V
OUT
= 0.
Assume MOSFET in saturation (no channel modulation):
But V
T
depends on V
BS
:
Must solve these two equations iteratively.
I
SUP
+ I
OUT
+ I
BIAS
0
I
D
=
W
2L

n
C
ox
V
GS
V
T
( )
2
= I
SUP
= I
BIAS
V
T
= V
To
+
n
2
p
V
BS
2
p
( )
V
SS
6.012 Spring 2009 11
t
i
i
i
out
D
G
+
v
gs r
o
g
mb
v
bs
g
m
v
gs
-
S
r
oc
B
i
s
v
bs
=v
gs
i
out
-
i
t
s
v
gs g
m
v
gs
r
o
g
mb
v
gs
i
t
= i
out
A
io
=
i
out
i
t
= 1
A
io
is the short circuit current gain.
Not surprising, since in a MOSFET: i
g
= 0
+
g
m
r
o s
g
mb
i
out
1
1
i
t
6.012 Spring 2009 12
v i
InputResistance
+
-
g
m
v
gs
v
gs r
o
g
mb
v
gs
r
oc
R
L

+
-
v
t
i
t
+
v
t
i
t
g
m
v
t
r
o
v
gs
=-v
t
g
mb
v
t
6.012 Spring 2009 13
Do KCL on input node:
i
t
g
m
v
t
g
mb
v
t

v
t
i
t
r
oc
// R
L
( )
r
o
= 0
Then:
R
in
=
v
t
i
t
=
1 +
r
oc
// R
L
r
o
g
m
+ g
mb
+
1
r
o

1
g
m
+ g
mb
-
t t
r
oc
//R
L
S
Output Resistance
+
-
g
m
v
gs
v
gs r
o
g
mb
v
gs
r
oc

+
-
v
t
i
t
R
S
+
-
g
m
v
gs
v
gs r
o
g
mb
v
gs
+
-
v
t
'
i
t
'
R
6.012 Spring 2009 14
Do KCL on input node:
i
t
g
m
v
gs
g
mb
v
gs

v
t
+ v
gs
r
o
= 0
Notice also:
v
gs
= i
t
R
s
Then:
R
out
= r
oc
// r
o
1+ R
s
g
m
+ g
mb
+
1
r
o
|
\

|

|

(

(
|
\

|

|
|
R
out
r
oc
// r
o
1+ g
m
R
s
( ) | |
r
oc
// g
m
r
o
( )
R
s
| |
R
S
CommonGate TwoPort Model
i i
in out
i
in
r
oc
(r
o
+ g
m
r
o
R
S
)
1
g
m
+ g
mb
The output resistance depends on the source
resistance
The CG current buffer is not unilateral
Input resistance << CS Amplifier
We want a small input resistance because the
controlledgenerator is current controlled
Output resistance >> CS Amplifier
We want a large output resistance todeliver most of
6.012 Spring 2009 15
m
1
s m o oc
Relationship between circuit figures of merit and
device parameters:
W
g
m
= 2I
D

n
C
ox
L

g
mb
=
2 2
p
V
BS
g
m
r
o

1

n
I
D
Device*
Circuit Parameters
|A
io
| R
in
R
out
1
Parameters
r
oc
//|r
o
(1+ g
m
R
s
)|
1
g + g
mb
g
m
+ g
mb
I
SUP

W

n
C
ox

L

*V
BIAS
is adjustedsothat none of the other
parameters change
6.012 Spring 2009 16
Common Gate amplifier is often used as a current
buffer i.e. transform a current source with medium
source resistance to an equal current with high source
resistance (in multistage amplifiers, other stages provide
the current gain).
Voltage gain 1
What did we learn today?
Summaryof KeyConcepts
Commonsource amplifier: good voltage amplifier
better transconductance amplifier
Large voltage gain
Highinput resistance
Medium / highoutput resistance
Commondrain amplifier: good voltage buffer
Voltage gain 1
Highinput resistance
Low output resistance
Commongate amplifier: good current buffer
Current gain 1
Low input resistance
Highoutput resistance
6.012 Spring 2009 17
MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu
6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits
Spring 2009