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JCRKLCH ]@CJ BCH _EIDCLC]CH ICREICRKNC ]IC NEJC] \ DCD J@FCTKRIC
3.
 
 Hkjck bcrk
4
j`f 2 +
4
j`f 34
 ” 
 
4
j`f 7 9... C.
 
< D.
 
7 M.
 
5 B.
 
2 E.
 
= 
 _eidclcsch 1
 Uhtun s`cj sepertk bk ctcs, icnc nktc perju iehfkhfct skgct j`fcrktic
c
j`f(d.m) 9
c
j`f d +
 c
j`f
, bch
c
j`f
 9
c
j`f d
 ” 
 
c
j`f m 
 selkhffc, uhtun iehyejescknch s`cj bk ctcs, nktc fuhcnch nebuc skgct j`fcrktic tersedut. Bkichc perlktuhfchhyc cnch iehacbk 1
4
j`f 2 +
4
j`f 34 
 ” 
 
4
j`f 7 9
4
j`f
2 .37
 9
4
j`f < Neiubkch, uhtun pehyejesckch cnlkr, nktc perju iehfkhfct skgct derknuthyc, ycktu 1
c
j`f
 9 h .
c
j`f d
< 9
 selkhffc, pehyejesckch cnlkrhyc cnch iehacbk sepertk derknut khk 1
4
j`f < 9
4
j`f
4
 9 = .
4
j`f 4
 achfch jupc behfch ychf khk 1
c
j`f c 9 3
 9 = . 3 9
= ( E )
 4.
 
 Hkjck bcrk
4
j`f 2< +
5
j`f 5?
 ” 
 
4
j`f =
 ” 
 
5
j`f 4 9... C.
 
-4 D.
 
-7 M.
 
37
 
B.
 
4
 
E.
 
7
 
 _eidclcsch 1
 
 
]edejui iehferacnch, icrk nktc jklct  perdebcch chtcrc s`cj h`. 3 behfch h`. 4. _erdebcchhyc cbcjcl 1 -
 
_cbc s`cj h`. 3, khbens j`fcrktic ierupcnch
khbens ychf sercfci
 ( khbens 4 ) -
 
]ebchfnch pcbc s`cj h`. 4, khbens j`fcrktic ychf bkfuhcnch
khbens tkbcn sercfci
 ( khbens 4 bch khbens 5 )  Hcl, tehtu scac behfch perdebcch sepertk khk, icnc nktc tkbcn dksc jchfsuhf iehyejescknchhyc sepertk s`cj h`. 3 bk ctcs. Cnch tetcpk, s`cj h`. 4 khk perju bk
utcn-ctkn 
 sebknkt supcyc dksc bksejescknch behfch skgct-skgct ychf cbc.
Utcn-ctkn 
 ychf perju nktc jcnunch cbcjcl behfch iehffcduhfnch icskhf-icskhf j`fcrktic behfch ychf seaehks ctcu der-khbens scic ( khbens 4 behfch khbens 4, khbens 5 behfch khbens 5 ), selkhffc s`cj tersedut cnch iehacbk 1
4
j`f 2<
 ” 
 
4
j`f = +
5
j`f 5?
 ” 
 
5
j`f 4 9... Neiubkch, s`cj tersedut dksc nktc lktuhf behfch skgct 1
c
j`f
 9
c
j`f d
 ” 
 
c
j`f m 
 
4
j`f 2<
 ” 
 
4
j`f = +
5
j`f 5?
 ” 
 
5
j`f 4 9
4
j`f
2<
 +
5
j`f
?
 
9
4
j`f 37 +
5
j`f 45 ]encrchf nktc fuhcnch skgct derknuthyc 1
c
j`f
 9 h .
c
j`f d
 
37 9
 
45 9
 
Bch aufc fuhcnch skgct 1
c
j`f c 9 3
 ]elkhffc, pehyejesckchhyc cnch iehacbk 1
4
j`f
 +
5
j`f
 9 2 .
4
j`f
4
 + 4 .
5
j`f
5
 9 2 + 4  9
7 ( E )
=.
 
Aknc j`f = 9 ?,2663 bch j`f 4 9 ?,=?3?, icnc hkjck bcrk j`f 65 9... C.
 
?,66<3 D.
 
?,;4?; M.
 
3,?6;3 B.
 
3,4554 E.
 
3,<653
 _eidclcsch 1
 
 
Uhtun s`cj ychf i`bejhyc defkhk khk, cbc nuhmk pehferacchhyc ychf lcrus nktc pclci. [cktu cbcjcl neterchfch ychf iehuhaunnch
hkjck j`f 4
 bch
j`f =
. Behfch cbchyc neterchfch tcidclch tersedut, dercrtk
ychf lcrus cbc bk pknkrch nktc
 cbcjcl dcfckichc
iehfudcl dehtun j`f 65
 iehacbk dehtun j`fcrktic ychf iehfchbuhf uhsur dkjchfch 4 bch =.
65 9 = . 45 9 = .
 
]elkhffc, dkjc nktc udcl dkjchfch
65
 tersedut behfch
= .
 
, icnc cnch nktc bcpctnch 1 j`f 65 9 j`f (
= .
 
) ↔ behfch khk, nktc lcrus khfct skgct 1
c
j`f(d.m) 9
c
j`f d +
 c
j`f
 9 j`f = +
j`f
 
 achfch jupc dclwc 1
c
j`f
 9 h .
c
j`f d
 
9 j`f = + 4 . j`f 5 
 Hcl, setejcl khk cbc sebknkt trkn... lele
Icnsubhyc cbcjcl behfch iehfudcl dkjchfch 5 pcbc j`f 5 tersedut, ncrehc bk bcjci s`cj ychf bkderk neterchfch cbcjcl j`f 4 bch j`f =, sebchfnch
j`f 5 tkbcn bkderk neterchfch cpcpuh
. Uhtun ktu, trkn ychf perju bkjcnunch bk skhk cbcjcl 1
5 9

 
Dkjchfch 5 tersedut perju nktc udcl ne bcjci suctu dkjchfch ychf
iehfchbuhf uhsur dkjchfch 4 bch hkjckhyc tkbcn derudcl ( tetcp derhkjck 5 )
. ]elkhffc, aknc nktc sejescknch, cnch iehacbk 1 j`f 65 9 j`f = + 4 . j`f
3?
 
↔ tehtu icskl khfct skgct
c
j`f
 9
c
j`f d
 ” 
 
c
j`f m,
nch0 9 j`f = + 4 ( j`f 3? 
 ” 
 j`f 4 )
j`f 3? 9
3?
j`f 3? 9 3 
c
j`f c 9 3
9 ?,2663 + 4 ( 3
 ” 
 ?,=?3? ) 9
3,<653 ( E )
 2.
 
Bknetcluk
4
j`f = 9 3,7 bch
4
j`f 5 9 4,=> hkjck bcrk
4
j`f
3;
 
cbcjcl... C.
 
3?,3 D.
 
7,; M.
 
5,2 B.
 
=,4 E.
 
=,6 
 _eidclcsch 1
 ]ebknkt ikrkp behfch s`cj sedejuihyc, behfch iehfetcluk cbc neterchfch bk bcjci s`cj iehfehck hkjck bcrk seducl j`fcrktic suctu dkjchfch, icnc ychf perju nktc jcnunch cbcjcl behfch iehfudclhyc ne bcjci dehtun ychf iehfchbuhf uhsur dkjchfch ychf sesuck behfch neterchfch tersedut.

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