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S T
∑ [N \N ≥ Q  S T
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N =  N =   N = 
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S S S T 
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 Q S  Q
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T
∑ [N \N ≤ Q  S T

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     
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  
T T S S T 
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S T
 
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 Q S  Q
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T
N =  N =   N = 
   
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T T T S
 
Q
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  
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T T ST
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D (E + F )
S

  
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[ \ ]
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∑ D N (E + F )S =∑
[N− S
≥  S − N +
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=
(\ + ] )S  S (∑ [ )
S S

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F + DE


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∑ =∑ 
≥ 
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(

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( )
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  Q −
 
Q 
 + λ )DNQ − 
  ∑  (  ≥Q
N =
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 Q − 
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L≠N

 N 
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S
S
 Q Q
 Q
   ∑ DN  ≥ ∑ DNS + Q S − Q  ∏ DN  
Q

( )
 N =  N =  N = 
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S +
S +
 Q Q
 Q

 Q
DNS + ( S +
)

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 N =  N =  N = 
S
S + S  
 Q   Q  Q   Q  Q S  Q
$YHP  ∑ DN  =  ∑ DN  ∑ DN  ≥  ∑ DN  ∑ DN + Q − Q  ∏ DN   = 
Q 
S
( )
 N =   N =  N =   N =  N =  N =  
 
S S +
 Q  Q  Q  Q  Q  Q  Q  Q  Q
  ∑ DN  ∑ DNS  + Q S − Q  ∑ DN  ∏ DN  ≥  ∑ DN  ∑ DNS  + Q Q S − Q  ∏ DN  
( ) ( )
 
 N =  N =   N =  N =   N =  N =   N = 
XOWLPDLQHJDOLWDWHGLQLQHJDOLWDWHDPHGLLORU
'HDVHPHQHD
Q
  Q  Q  Q  Q    Q Q
 ∑ DN  ⋅  ∑ DNS  = ∑  DN ∑ DLS  = ∑  DN  DNS + ∑ D SL   = ∑ DNS + + ∑ DN ∑ DLS 

 N =   N =  N =  L =  N =   L≠N   N = N = L≠N

 
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Q Q
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N = L≠N N = L≠N
S S  S S +
Q Q − Q + ⋅ − Q
= Q −  ⋅ Q − ∏ DNS ⋅ ∑ DN Q − ≥ Q ⋅ Q −  ⋅ ∏ DN Q − Q Q − = Q ⋅ Q −  ⋅ ∏ DN Q 

L = N = N = N =
Q Q Q Q S +
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N = N = N = N =
3ULQXUPDUH
Q Q Q Q S + Q Q S +
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N = N = N = N = N = N =
Q S + Q Q S +
+ Q Q S − Q ∏ DN Q = ∑ DNS + + Q S + − Q ∏ DN Q
N = N = N =
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Q 
β = RE LQHP
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α=

  Q −
  Q

  + λ DN
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Q
 =  + λ ∑
Q 
D N
∑ −


N =  ∏ DL
 D Q − + λ ⋅ L ≠ N


N = Q
Q
DN + λ ⋅ ∏ DL Q −
 N DN L =


 
Q 
 Q  Q − Q
 Q −
  + λ ∑ DN Q 

  ∑ DN 
≥  + λ Q −  N = 

=  Q N =
Q


 ∑ DN + Qλ ⋅ ∏ DL 
Q
 Q Q Q
 Q −
 ∑ DN + Q ⋅ λ ⋅ ∏ DL   N = L = 
 N = L = 
Q
Q
( + λ ) ∑ DN 
5 PkQHGHGHPRQVWUDWF  Q  N = 
Q
≥ Q Q −  DGLF 
∑ DNQ + Q ⋅ λ ⋅ ∏ DN
N = N =
Q Q
Q Q
 Q
λ ∑ DN Q − Q Q ∏ DN  ≥ Q Q − ∑ DNQ −  ∑ DN   
  
 N = N =  N =  N = 

 
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Q −
( )
  Q   
  N =  N =
   N =  N =

   
  Q Q Q 
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−    ∑ DN  − Q Q ∏ DN  ≥ 
  N =  N =

 
Q
Q
 Q 
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N =  N = 
Q Q
 Q
Q Q −  ∑ D N  ≥ Q Q − ∑ DNQ − Q Q Q Q − −  ∏ DN 

 N =  N =
Q Q Q
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N = N = N =
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WHOHGH PDWHPDWLF ÌQ OLWHUDWXUD GH VSHFLDOLWDWHVXQWSUH]HQWDWHGLIHULWH PHWRGHGH
DERUGDUH D LQHJDOLW LORU LQHJDOLWDWHD &HEkúHY LQHJDOLWDWHD OXL -HQVHQ PHWRGD OXL
6WXUPLQHJDOLWDWHD&DXFK\6FKZDU]%XQLDNRZVN\LQGXF LHHWF 
,QHJDOLW LOHFDUHIDFRELHFWXOSUH]HQWHLQRWHVXQWFHOHGHIRUPD

 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

6 + 6  + 6 ≥ ' + ' + '   


XQGH H[SUHVLLOH 6 6 6 ' ' ' GHSLQG vQ JHQHUDO GH WUHL YDULDELOH 8QHRUL

''' α RFRQVWDQW FD]vQFDUHSXWHPFRQVLGHUD' ' ' α


,QWHQ LD QRDVWU HVWH GHD VXSXQH DWHQ LHLR PRGDOLWDWH FX GRX  YDULDQWH  GH
DERUGDUHDXQRULQHJDOLW LGHWLSXO 
6XEOLQLHP F  QX WRDWH LQHJDOLW LOH GH WLSXO  SRW IL DERUGDWH FRQIRUP FHORU
SUH]HQWDWHvQDFHDVW QRW 1XLQWHQ LRQ PV RIHULPUH HWH³FLGRDUVXJHVWLL5H
]ROYDUHD RULF UHL SUREOHPH QHFHVLW  SH OkQJ  FXQRúWLQ H úL DQWUHQDPHQW úL SX LQ 
LQVSLUD LH

9DULDQWD)DFHPXUP WRDUHOHJUXS UL
6 − ' = 5
+ 5

 6  − ' = 5
+ 5

 6 − ' = 5
+ 5



'HILQL LH 'DF 6 − ' ≥   6  − ' ≥   6  − ' ≥   YRP VSXQH F  LQHJDOL
WDWHDGDW HVWHQHOLJDPHQWDW 

$OWIHOYRPIDFHUHJUXS ULúLYRPGHPRQVWUDGHH[HPSOXF 
5
+ 5

≥   5
+ 5

≥   5
+ 5

≥  
([HPSOH
3UREOHPD&GLQ*0DXWRU*K)0ROHD
'DF DEFVXQWODWXULOHXQXLWULXQJKLRDUHFDUHDWXQFL
D + E E + F D + F 

U5
 
+  
+  

D +E E +F D +F
QRWD LLOHILLQGFHOHFXQRVFXWH³
   
'HRDUHFH DYHP
U5 DE EF DF
= + +

D + E  D − E  D  + DE + E 
− = − ≤  
D  + E  DE D + E
GHFLLQHJDOLWDWHDHVWHQHOLJDPHQWDW 

3UREOHPD&GLQ*0DXWRU,6DIWD
Ä'HPRQVWUD LF RULFDUHDUIL[\]∈5 DUHORFLQHJDOLWDWHD
[+ \ \+] [+]
+ + ≤   ³
   
[ + [\ + \ \ + \] + ] [ + [] + ] 


[+ \  
$YHP ⇔  [  + [\ + \  ≤  [  + [\ + \  ⇔  ≤ [ − \  


 
[ + [\ + \
GHFLLQHJDOLWDWHDHVWHQHOLJDPHQWDW 



 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

3UREOHPDGLQ*0DXWRU&ULVWLDQ*UHFX
$U WD LF vQRULFHWULXQJKLDUHORFLQHJDOLWDWHD
   

DOD EOE FOF  6
+ + ≤

QRWD LLOHILLQGFHOHFXQRVFXWH³ 
$YHP  −  = E+F   5 VLQ % + VLQ & 
=
DO D  6  DEF FRV $  6 
− = −
$ 6
 DEF FRV
 
%+& %−& % −& %−&
 5 VLQ FRV  5 FRV FRV −
 
  −  −  ≤  
   
= = =
$ 6 56 6 6
DEF FRV

GHFLLQHJDOLWDWHDHVWHQHOLJDPHQWDW 

3UREOHPDGLQ&UX[0DWKHPDWLFRUXPDXWRU9LFWRU2[PDQ
$U WD LF vQRULFHWULXQJKLDUHORFLQHJDOLWDWHD
   S
+ + < 
D E F 6
QRWD LLOHILLQGFHOHFXQRVFXWH³
 E   K −D
 $YHP − = − = E <   GHRDUHFHvQ O LPHDGLQ%HVWHPDLPLF 
D  6 D KE DKE
GHFkWRULFDUHGLQWUHODWXULOHFDUHSOHDF GLQ% GHFLLQHJDOLWDWHDHVWHQHOLJDPHQWDW 

3UREOHPD(GLQ*0
'DF  D E F VXQW ODWXULOH XQXL WULXQJKL RDUHFDUH V  VH GHPRQVWUH]H F  HVWH
D E F
DGHY UDW LQHJDOLWDWHD + + ≥  ³
E+F −D D +F −E D +E−F
D D −E D−F
/X P 6 −  = − = + úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
E+F−D E+F−D E+F−D
D −E D−F E−F
5
= 5

= 5
= 
E+F−D E+F−D D +F −E
E−D F−D F −E
5

= 5
= 5

= 
D +F−E D+E−F D+E−F
D −E D −E  D − E 
2E LQHP ≥  
E + F − D D + F − E E + F − D D + F − E
− =

3UREOHPDGLQ*0DXWRU%RJGDQ5RPLO 
6 VHGHPRQVWUH]HF vQRULFHWULXQJKLDYHPLQHJDOLWDWHD
E + F $ + D + F % + D + E &
D$ + E% + F& ≥ 


 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

QRWD LLOHILLQGFHOHRELúQXLWH³
E + F $ $ D − E $ D − F
/X P 6 − úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
  
= +

$ D − E $ D − F % E − F
5
= 5

= 5
= 
  
% E − D & F − D & F − E
5

= 5
= 5

= 
  
$ D − E % D − E D − E $ − %
2E LQHP ≥   GHRDUHFH vQWUXQ WULXQJKL
  
− =
ODODWXUDPDLPDUHVHRSXQHXQJKLXOPDLPDUH
'DF [\]VXQWQXPHUHUHDOHSR]LWLYHDWXQFL
[ + \ \ + ] [ + ]
+ + ≥ [ + \ + ] ³
[+ \ \+] [+]
[ + \ [ [ − ] \ \ − ]
/X P 6 − ' = −]= + úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
[+ \ [+ \ [+ \
[ [ − ] \ \ − ] \ \ − [
5
= 5

= 5
= 
[+ \ [+ \ \+]
] ] − [ ] ] − \ [ [ − \
5

= 5
= 5

= 
\+] [+] [+]
[ [ − \ \ [ − \ [ − \ [\ + [] − [\ − \] ] [  \ 
2E LQHP ≥  
\ + ] [ + ] \ + ] [ + ]
− = =
[+] \+]

 2 JHQHUDOL]DUH D SUREOHPHL & GLQ *0  DXWRU 'DPLDQ
0DULQHVFX
$U WD LF RULFDUHDUILQXPHUHOHUHDOHVWULFWSR]LWLYH[\]DUHORFLQHJDOLWDWHD
[ \ ] 
XQGHP!³
P[ + \ + ] [ + P\ + ] [ + \ + P] P + 
+ + ≤

 P +  [ − P[ − \ − ] [− \ [−]
/X P 6 −  úL YRP
P+
= = +
P[ + \ + ] P[ + \ + ] P[ + \ + ]
[− \ [−] \−]
FRQVLGHUD 5
= 5

= 5
= 
P[ + \ + ] P[ + \ + ] [ + P\ + ]
\−[ ]−[ ]−\
5

= 5
= 5

= 
[ + P\ + ] [ + \ + P] [ + \ + P]
[− \ [− \ − P −  [ − \ 
2E LQHP ≤  
P[ + \ + ] [ + P\ + ] P[ + \ + ] [ + P\ + ]
− =

3UREOHPD&VHRE LQHSHQWUXP 


 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

3UREOHPDGLQ*0DXWRU,RQ1HGHOFX
'DF DEFVXQWODWXULOHXQXLWULXQJKLRDUHFDUHDWXQFL
D E F
+ + ≥ D + E + F ³
E  − EF + F  F  − FD + D  D  − DE + E 
D  E + F DE D  − E  DF D  − F 
/X P 6 − ' = − D = + úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
E + F  E + F  E + F 
DE D  − E  DF D  − F  EF E  − F 
5
=  5

=  5

= 
E + F  E + F  D + F
DE E  − D  DF F  − D  EF F  − E 
5

=  
5
=  
5

= 2E LQHP
D +F D +E D  + E
DE D − E DE D − E DE D − E D − E DE D − E  D + E D + DE + E
≥  
E + F D + F E + F D + F
− = =
E + F D + F
$FHDVW GHPRQVWUD LHDUDW F HVWHVXILFLHQWFDQXPHUHOHDEFV ILHUHDOHSR
]LWLYHFRQGL LDFDDEFV ILHODWXULOHXQXLWULXQJKLQXHVWHQHFHVDU 

'DF [\]VXQWQXPHUHUHDOHSR]LWLYHDWXQFL
[ \ ] [+ \+]
³

+ + ≥
\+] ]+[ [+ \
RIRUP PRGLILFDW DSUREOHPHLGHOD2OLPSLDGD,QWHUQD LRQDO GH0DWHPDWLF 
 $FHDVW  LQHJDOLWDWH D IRVW SXEOLFDW  vQ *0 VXE QU & FX
PHQ LXQHDF DIRVWGDW ODXQFRQFXUVOD6WDUD=DJRUD%XOJDULDvQ 
[ [ [ [ − \ [ [ − ]
/X P 6 − ' = úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
\ + ]   \ + ]  \ + ]
− = +

[ [ − \ [ [ − ] \ \ − ]
5
= 5

= 5
= 
\+] \+] [+]
\ \ − [ ] ] − [ ] ] − \
5

= 5
= 5

= 
[+] [+ \ [+ \
[ [ − \ \ [ − \ [ − \ [  − \  + [] − \] [  \  [ + \ + ]
2E LQHP ≥  
\ + ] [ + ] \ + ] [ + ]
− = =
\+] [+]

3UREOHPD2GLQ*0DXWRU,RQ%XUVXF
'DF DEFVXQWQXPHUHUHDOHSR]LWLYHDWXQFL
D  + E  E  + F  F  + D   D  + E  + F 
+ + ≤ ³
D+E E+F F+D D+E+F
D + E D + E + F DF D − F EF E − F
/X P 6 − ' = 
D + E D + E + F D + E D + E + F
− = +
D+E D+E+F

 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
DF D − F EF E − F DE E − D
5
= 5

= 5
= 
D + E D + E + F D + E D + E + F E + F D + E + F
DF F − D EF F − E DE D − E
5

= 5
= 5

= 
E + F D + E + F D + F D + E + F D + F D + E + F
2E LQHP
DF D − F DF D − F DF D − F 
≤  
D + E D + E + F E + F D + E + F D + E E + F D + E + F
− =−

3UREOHPDGLQ*0DXWRU0LKDL2QXFX'UvPEH
6 VHDUDWHF SHQWUXRULFHQXPHUHUHDOHSR]LWLYHDEFDUHORFLQHJDOLWDWHD
D E F   
≤  + +  ³
D  + E  − EF + F  E  + D  − DF + F  F  + D  − DE + E    D E F 
+ +

1XPLWRULLVXQWHYLGHQWSR]LWLYL1RW P P = D  + E  + F  
D  D − E D + E F E − F
/X P 6 − ' = úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
P − EF D D P − EF D P − EF
− = +

D − E D + E F E − F E − F E + F
5
= 5

= 5
= 
D P − EF D P − EF E P − DF
D F − D F − D F + D E D − E
5

= 5
= 5

= 
E P − DF F P − DE F P − DE
 D+E E  D − E >P DE + EF + DF − DEF D + E + F @
2E LQHP D − E  
 D P − EF F P − DE  DF P − EF P − DE
+  =

'HRDUHFH P DE + EF + DF − DEF D + E + F >  U PkQHGHGHPRQVWUDWF 


D −E E−F F−D
≤  DGLF  
DF P − EF P − DE DE P − EF P − DF EF P − DF P − DE
+ +

DE±E P±DF  EF±F P±DE  DF±D P±EF ≤úLGXS GHVIDFHUHDSD
UDQWH]HORUP DEEFDF ≤P DEF FDUHHVWHDGHY UDW 

3UREOHPD,;GLQ507QUDXWRUL*LJHO%XWKúL/LYLX9ODLFX
)LHDE∈ ∞ 6 VHDUDWHF GDF [\]∈ ∞ DWXQFL
[ \ ] 
L D≥E⇒ 
D[ + E\ + E] E[ + D\ + E] E[ + E\ + D] D + E
+ + ≤

[ \ ] 
LL D≤E⇒ ³
D[ + E\ + E] E[ + D\ + E] E[ + E\ + D] D + E
+ + ≥

[  E [ − \ E [ − ]
/X P 6 − ' = 
D[ + E\ + E] D + E D + E D[ + E\ + E] D + E D[ + E\ + E]
− = +

 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
E [ − \ E [ − ] E \ − ]
5
= 5

= 5
= 
D + E D[ + E\ + E] D + E D[ + E\ + E] D + E E[ + D\ + E]
E \ − [ E ] − [ E ] − \
5

= 5
= 5

= 
D + E E[ + D\ + E] D + E E[ + E\ + D] D + E E[ + E\ + D]
2E LQHP
E [ − \ E [ − \ E [ − \  E − D

D + E D[ + E\ + E] D + E E[ + D\ + E] D + E D[ + E\ + E] E[ + D\ + E]
− =

H[SUHVLHFDUHDUHVHPQXOOXLE±D

2IRUP PRGLILFDW DSUREOHPHLGLQ&UX[0DWKHPDWLFRUXPDXWRU
-L&KHQ'HPRQVWUD LF GDF [\]VXQWODWXULOHXQXLWULXQJKLDWXQFL
    
[\ + \] + ][   ≥ ³

[   

+ 
+
 [ + \ \ + ] ] +
 [ +  \ ] − \  [ + \ ] − [
/X P 6 − úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
  [ + \   [ + \ 
= +

[ +  \ ] − \ [ + \ ] − [ \ +  ] [ − ]
5
= 5

= 5
= 
 [ + \ 
 [ + \ 
 \ + ] 
 \ + ] [ − \ ] +  [ \ − [ ] + [ \ − ]
5

= 5
= 5

=  
 \ + ] 
 ] + [ 
 ] + [ 
$YHP [ +  \ ] + [  − [ +  ] [ + \  = [  +  [  ] + []  + [  \ +  [\] 
+  \]  − [ −  [  \ − [\  − [  ] −  [\] −  \  ] = [  \ − [  ] + []  − [\  +  \]  −  \  ] = 
= ] − \ ([ \ + ] − [ +  \] ) úLRE LQHP
[ +  \ ] − \ [ + ] ] − \ ] − \  ([ \ + ] − [ +  \] )
≥  
 [ + \   ] + [   [ + \  ] + [ 
− =

GHRDUHFH[\]VXQWODWXULOHXQXLWULXQJKL

9DULDQWD)DFHPXUP WRDUHOHJUXS UL 6 − ' + '   = 5
+ 5


 6  − ' + '   = 5
+ 5


 6 − ' + '   = 5
+ 5



'HILQL LH 'DF  5
+ 5

≥   5
+ 5

≥   5
+ 5

≥  YRPVSXQHF LQHJDOL
WDWHDGDW HVWHVODEOLJDPHQWDW 

$OWIHOYRPIDFHUHJUXS ULúLYRPGHPRQVWUDGHH[HPSOXF 
5
+ 5

≥   5
+ 5

≥   5
+ 5

≥  
 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

([HPSOH
 3UREOHPD  FODVHOH 9,,9,,, &RQFXUVXO DQXDO DO UH]ROYLWRULORU *D]HWHL
0DWHPDWLFHDXWRU0DUFHO&KLUL 
)LH[∈ ∞ úLDEF∈>[ 'HPRQVWUD LF 
D+E E+F D+F D E F

+  +  ≤  
+  
+  ³
[ − DE [ − EF [ − DF [ − D [ −E [ − F
$YHP
D + E [  − DE
=
D+E D E D+E
6 − '  + '    =
[  − DE [  − D  [  − E 
− − = −
[  − DE [  − D  [  − E 
D + E > [  − D  [  − E  − [  − DE  @ [  D + E D − E 
≤  
[  − D  [  − E  [  − D  [  − E 
= = −

GHFLLQHJDOLWDWHDHVWHVODEOLJDPHQWDW 

 3UREOHPD ( GLQ *0  DXWRUL 0LKDL %RORú úL /DXUHQ LX
1 VWDVH
)LLQGGDWHQXPHUHOHUHDOHSR]LWLYHDEFV VHGHPRQVWUH]HLQHJDOLWDWHD
DE + EF + DF + D  DE + EF + DF + E  DE + EF + DF + F 
≤ D + E + F ³
E + F + D D + F + E D + E + F
+ +
/X P
DE + EF + DF + D E F D − E − F D  − E D − F 
6 − ' + '   = 
E + F + D    E + F + D  E + F + D  E + F + D
− − = = +

úLYRPFRQVLGHUD 
D − E D − F E − F
5
= 5

=  5
= 
 E + F +  D  E + F +  D  D + F + E
E − D F − D F − E
5

= 5
= 5

= 
 D + F + E  D + E + F  D + E + F
2E LQHP
D  − E D  − E D − E E − D − D − E  D + E
5
+ 5

= ≤  
 E + F + D  D + F + E E + F + D D + F + E E + F + D D + F + E
− = =

3UREOHPD(GLQ*0DXWRU'RULQ0 UJKLGDQ HQXQ SDU
LDO 
'DF DEF!GHPRQVWUD LF 
D  + E E + F  F  + D
+ + ≥  D + E + F ³
F D E
' + ' D  + E  D D − F E E − F
/X P 6 − −D −E = úLYRPFRQVLGHUD

= +
F F F

 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

D D − F E E − F E E − D
5
= 5

= 5
= 
F F D
F F − D F F − E D D − E
5

= 5
= 5

= 
D E E
D D − F F D − F D − F  D + F
2E LQHP 5
+ 5

= − = ≥  
F D DF

3UREOHPDGLQ&UX[0DWKHPDWLFRUXPDXWRU+R-RR/HH
'DF DEFVXQWQXPHUHUHDOHSR]LWLYHDWXQFL
DE + F  EF + D  DF + E 
+ + ≥ D + E + F ³
D+E E+F D+F
DE + F  D E F + D F − D F + E F − E
/X P 6 − ' + '   = 
   D + E  D + E
− − = +
D+E
úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
F + D F − D F + E F − E D + E D − E
5
= 5

= 5
= 
 D + E  D + E  E + F
D + F D − F E + F E − F E + D E − D
5

= 5
= 5

= 
 E + F  D + F  D + F
F + D F − D D + F F − D F + D F − D 
2E LQHP ≥  
 D + E  E + F  D + E E + F
− =

3UREOHP SURSXV OD2OLPSLDG vQ3RORQLDUXQGD,
'DF DEFVXQWODWXULOHXQXLWULXQJKLHVWHDGHY UDW LQHJDOLWDWHD
     
+ + ≥ + + ³
E+F −D D +F −E D +E−F D E F
/X P 6  − '  + '    =    D−E D−F 
E + F − D E  F  F E + F − D E E + F − D
− − = +

úLYRPFRQVLGHUD
D −E D−F E−F
5
= 5

= 5
= 
 F E + F − D E E + F − D  D D + F − E
E−D F−D F−E
5

= 5
= 5

= 
F D + F − E E D + E − F D D + E − F
D −E D −E D − E 
2E LQHP ≥  
F E + F − D F D + F − E F E + F − D D + F − E
− =

 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

¨1&à3$758352%/(0($/(6(
&8&20(17$5,,
GU$1'5(,9(51(6&8

&RQWLQX P DúD FXP QH SURSXVHVHP vQ DUWLFROXO GLQ QXP UXO  DO UH
YLVWHLSDJFXDOWHSDWUXSUREOHPHFDUHXUPHD] V vQFKHLHPLFDVHOHF LHI 
FXW  GLQ FDUWHD OXL &KDUOHV 7ULJJ ,QJHQLR]LWDWH úL VXUSUL]  vQ PDWHPDWLF  (GLWXUD
(QFLFORSHGLF 5RPkQ %XFXUHúWL  1 G MGXLP F úL DFHVWHSUREOHPH V ILH
LQWHUHVDQWHúLXWLOH
 3UREOHPDSDJ Ä/DVIkUúLWXORUHLGHDOJHEU ILLQGvQF SUHRFXSDW
GHRSUREOHP ODFDUHVHJkQGHDLQWHQVXQHOHYIRDUWHEXQODPDWHPDWLF QDUHXúLW
V REVHUYHvQvQWUHJLPHRHFXD LHVFULV FDWHP SHWDEODFDUHWRFPDLvQFHSXVHV ILH
úWHDUV (ODPDLY ]XWGRDU
 [±[«   
ÌQV HOHYXOQRVWUXDPDLDSXFDWV DXG SHSURIHVRUVSXQkQGÄùLVHPDLG 
F WRDWHU G FLQLOHVXQWUHDOHúLSR]LWLYH³*kQGLQGXVHFkWHYDVHFXQGHHODGHVFRSH
ULWWRDWHFHOHU G FLQLDOHHFXD LHL&XPDSURFHGDWúLFDUHVXQWDFHVWHU G FLQL"³
'6*UHHQVWHLQ 
6ROX LH)LH[[[«[FHOHGHU G FLQLGLQHQXQ WRDWHUHDOHúLSR]LWL
YH6 DSOLF PLQHJDOLWDWHDPHGLLORU
Q D D D D ≤ 
D + D + D +  + DQ
    Q  DL!   
Q
FXHJDOLWDWHGDF úLQXPDLGDF D D D « DQ SHQWUXQ LDUD [
D [D [«D [DGLF WRFPDLFHOHGHU G FLQLDOHHFXD LHL2E LQHP
 [ [ [ [
[ + [ + [ +  + [
  ′ 

    ≤

FXHJDOLWDWHGDF úLQXPDLGDF [ [ « [ 


'DUSULPDúLXOWLPDGLQUHOD LLOHOXL9LHWHUHIHULWRDUHODHFXD LD  VXQW
 [[[«[   
UHVSHFWLY
 [[[⋅«⋅[  ′ 
DúDvQFkWLQHJDOLWDWHD ′ HVWHvQGHSOLQLW SULQHJDOLWDWH
 [ [ [ [
 [ + [ + [ +  + [

 == 
 
    = =
'H DLFL UH]XOW  F  WRDWH QXPHUHOH [ [ [ « [ DGLF  U G FLQLOH HFXD LHL
WUHEXLHV ILHHJDOHvQWUHHOHILH[ [ [ « [ αLQWURGXFkQGXOHvQHJD
OLWDWHD  UH]XOW α GHXQGHα ODGLF WRDWHFHOHGRX ]HFLGHU G FLQLDOH


(QXQ XúRUPRGLILFDW 1$ 
 
$5+,0('(V1UPDLLXQLH

HFXD LHLVXQWHJDOHFXO 'HIDSWPHPEUXOVWkQJDOHFXD LHL  QXUHSUH]LQW QL


PLFDOWFHYDGHFkWGH]YROWDUHDGXS IRUPXODELQRPXOXLOXL1HZWRQDELQRPXOXLOD
SXWHUH [±O HFXD LDVHSRDWHVFULHFRQFHQWUDW [±   
'HVSUH LQHJDOLWDWHD PHGLLORU DU IL GHVWXO GH PXOWH GH UHODWDW QX R YRP IDFH
DLFLFLSRDWHFXDOWSULOHM
 3UREOHPDS Ä6 VHGHPRQVWUH]HF GDF vQWUXQWULXQJKLGRX EL
VHFWRDUHLQWHULRDUHVXQWHJDOHDWXQFLWULXQJKLXOHVWHLVRVFHO³
7HRUHPD6WHLQHU/HKPXV 
6ROX LH 6H SRDWH IRORVL R IRUPXO  FXQRVFXW  FDUH H[SULP  OXQJLPHD ELVHF
WRDUHLLQWHULRDUHvQIXQF LHGHODWXUL

LD = EFS S − D 
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