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GU625,15 '8/(6&8GU3(758ú$/(;$1'5(6&8GU0$5,865 '8/(6&8

$EVWUDFW7KHLQHTXDOLWLHVIURPWKLVSDSHUH[WHQGWKHUHVXOWVIURPWKHSDSHU³/LJDPHQWDWHGDQGQRQ
OLJDPHQWDWHGLQHTXDOLWLHV´E\7LWX=YRQDUXSXEOLVKHGLQ$UKLPHGH0DJD]LQH6RPHRWKHU
QHZLQHTXDOLWLHVDUHSURYHG

5H]XOWDWHOHRE LQXWHvQDUWLFROXOGHID H[WLQGDILUPD LLOHFRQ LQXWHvQDUWLFROXO
Ä,QHJDOLW L OLJDPHQWDOH úL QHOLJDPHQWDOH³ DXWRU 7LWX =YRQDUX úL SXEOLFDW vQ QU
 GLQ UHYLVWD $UKLPHGH SUHFXP úL QXPHURDVH DOWH WLSXUL GH LQHJDOLW L ,Q
FHOHFHXUPHD] YRPSUHVXSXQHF ;HVWHRPXO LPHQHYLG 
 9RPGDXUP WRDUHOHWHRUHPH
7HRUHPD)LHIJ;→ 5 ∗+ FXSURSULHWDWHDF 
 I [ − I \ J [ − J \ ≤  ∀ [ \ ∈ ; $WXQFL
I [ > J \ + J ] @
  ∑ ∑ J [  ∀ [ \ ] ∈ ; 
I \ + I ]

[ \  ] [ \  ]

'HPRQVWUD LH
 I [ J \ + I [ J ] I [ J \ − I \ J [
 − J [  ≥  ⇔ +

⇔ ∑  I \ + I ] 
∑ I \ + I ]
I [ J ] − I ] J [ I [ J \ − I \ J [
∑ ≥⇔ ∑ +
I \ + I ] I \ + I ]
+

I \ J [ − I [ J \ > I [ J \ − I \ J [ @ I [ − I \
∑ ≥⇔ ∑ ≥   ⇔
I [ + I ] > I [ + I ] @> I \ + I ] @
+

J \ > I [ − I \ @  − I \ > I [ − I \ @> J [ − J \ @


∑ ≥  HYLGHQW
> I [ + I ] @> I \ + I ] @



7HRUHPD)LHIJ;→ 5 ∗+ FXSURSULHWDWHDF 


 I [ − I \ J [ − J \ ≥  ∀ [ \ ∈ ; $WXQFL
I [ J [ + I \ J \
  ∑ ∑ J [  ∀ [ \  ] ∈ ; 
I [ + I \

[ \  ] [ \  ]

'HPRQVWUD LH
 I [ J [ + I \ J \ I [ J [ − J ] + I \ J \ − J ]
⇔  − J ]  = =



I [ + I \ 
∑ I [ + I \


 $XWRULL GHGLF  DFHVW DUWLFRO DQLYHUV ULL D  GH DQL D $FDGHPLFLDQXOXL SURIHVRU 62/2021
0$5&86'LVWLQVXOQRVWUXSURIHVRUúLS ULQWHVSLULWXDODvPSOLQLWSHPDUWLHGHDQLSULOHM
GHDLXUDvQF RGDW Ä/DPXO LDQL³ $FHVWQXP UDOUHYLVWHLDDS UXWvQ 
 
$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH

 I [ J [ − J ] I ] J [ − J ] 
∑  =
I [ + I \ I \ + I ] 
= −

J [ − J ] I [ I \ − I \ I ] I \ I [ − I ] J [ − J ]
∑ ∑ ≥ 
I [ + I \ I \ + I ] I [ + I \ I \ + I ]
= =


7HRUHPD)LHIJ;→ 5 ∗+ FXSURSULHWDWHDF 


 I [ − I \ J [ − J \ ≥  ∀ [ \ ∈ ; $WXQFL

 
I [ J [ + I \ J \
≤
∑ I [ J [  ∀ [ \ ] ∈ ; 
∑ I [ + I \
[ \  ] ∑ I [
 I [ J [ + I \ J \ I [ J [ + I \ J \ + I ] J ] 
'HPRQVWUD LH ∑   = 
I [ + I \ I [ + I \ + I ]


I [ I ] J [ + I \ I ] J \ − I [ I ] J ] − I \ I ] J ]
∑ =
I [ + I \ I [ + I \ + I ]
=

I [ I ] J [ − J ] I \ I ] J \ − J ]
∑ ∑ =
I [ + I \ I [ + I \ + I ] I [ + I \ I [ + I \ + I ]
= +

I [ I ] J [ − J ] I [ I ] J [ − J ]
∑ ∑ =
I [ + I \ I [ + I \ + I ] I [ + I \ I [ + I \ + I ]
= −

I [ I ] J [ − J ]   
=

= ∑ 
I [ + I \ + I ]  I [ + I \ I \ + I ] 

I [ I ] I [ − I ] J [ − J ]
∑ ≤   ∀ [\]THG
I [ + I \ I \ + I ] I [ + I \ + I ]
=−

7HRUHPD)LHIJ;→ 5 FXSURSULHWDWHDF 
 I [ − I \ J [ − J \ ≥  ∀ [ \ ∈ ; úLJ!$WXQFL
I [ + I \ I [
∑ ≥ ∑  ∀ [ \ ] ∈ ; 
[ \  ] J ] [  \  ] [
J
 I [ + I \ I [ I \ 
'HPRQVWUD LH ∑   =
J ] J [ J \ 
− −

J [ J \ I [ + I \ − I [ J \ J ] − I \ J [ J ] 
∑ ⋅
J [ J \ J ] J [ J \ J ]
= =


∑ I [ J \ > J [ − J ] @ + I \ J [ > J \ − J ] @ = ⋅ 
J [ J \ J ]

 
$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH

⋅ (∑ I [ J \ J [ − J ] + ∑ I ] J \ > J ] − J [ @)= J [ J \ J ] ⋅ 
⋅ ∑ J \ > J [ − J ] I [ − I ] ≥  ∀ [ \  ] 


7HRUHPD)LHIJ;→ 5 ∗+ FXSURSULHWDWHDF 


 I [ − I \ J [ − J \ ≥  ∀ [ \ ∈ ; $WXQFL
I [ J [ > J \ + J ] @
 ∑ J [  ∀ [ \  ] 

I \ J \ + I ] J ]

'HPRQVWUD LH
 I [ J [ > J \ + J ] @ J \ I [ − I \ I [ − I ]
− J [  = J [ = 


 I \ J \ + I ] J ]


∑ I \ J \ + I ] J ]
J [ J \ I [ − I \ J [ J ] I [ − I ]
∑ ∑ =
I \ J \ + I ] J ] I \ J \ + I ] J ]
= +

J [ J \ > I [ − I \ @ J \ J [ > I \ − I [ @
∑ ∑ =
I \ J \ + I ] J ] I ] J ] + I [ J [
= +

J [ J \ > I [ − I \ @> I [ J [ − I \ J \ @
∑  GDU I [ J [ − I \ J \ = 
> I \ J \ + I ] J ] @> I ] J ] + I [ J [ @
=

= I [ J [ − I \ J [ + I \ J [ − I \ J \ = J [ > I [ − I \ @ + I \ > J [ − 
− J \ @ GHFLUH]XOW 
J  [ J \ > I [ − I \ @  + J [ J \ I \ > I [ − I \ @> J [ − J \ @
∑ ∑ ≥  
> I \ J \ + I ] J ] @> I ] J ] + I [ J [ @
=

∀ [\]

$3/,&$ ,,
 $SOLF PWHRUHPDSHQWUX I [ = J [ = [ úLVHRE LQH
[ + \
∑ ≥ [ + \ + ]  ∀  [ \ ] !  FDUH FRQVWLWXLH DSOLFD LD  GLQ DUWLFROXO
[ \  ] [ + \

PDLVXVPHQ LRQDW
D  + E
 $SOLF P WHRUHPD  SHQWUX I [ = [   J [ = [ úL VH RE LQH ∑ ≥
F
≥ DEF FDUHHVWH(GLQ*0DXWRU'0 UJKLGDQ
[ + \ [ + \ + ]
 3HQWUX I [ = J [ = [  WHRUHPD  QH G  ≤ ∑  FDUH
[+ \ [+ \+]
HVWHSUREOHPD2GLQ*0GLQDXWRU,RQ%XUVXFúLFLWDW vQDUWLFROXO
GHPDLVXV
 
$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH

 $SOLFkQGWHRUHPDIXQF LLORU I [ = VLQ [ J [ = [ [ ∈    VHRE LQH


 π
 
D VLQ D + E VLQ E
∑ ≥ D + E + F  FDUH HVWH SUREOHPD 2/  GLQ UHYLVWD $UKLPHGH
VLQ D + VLQ E
QU

352%/(0(352386(
 'HPRQVWUD LF 
D + E + D + E 
 ∑ ∑  D E F >  
D E F D + E  + D  + E D E F D + 

D P+Q + E P+Q
 ∑ ≥ D Q + E Q + F Q  ∀ D E F >  úL ∀ PQ∈1
D E F D + E
P P

D VLQ D + E VLQ E D VLQ D + E VLQ E + F VLQ F


 D  ∑ 
 D + E

D+E+F
D VLQ D + E VLQ E D VLQ D + E VLQ E + F VLQ F
 E   ∀ DEF∈    
 π
∑  VLQ D + VLQ E

VLQ D + VLQ E + VLQ F  

&2175,%8é,,/$67$%,/,5($8125,1(*$/,7àé,
*(20(75,&(
GH,90$)7(,ûL*HRUJH323(6&83$17(/,021

$EVWUDFW7KHDXWKRUVFRQVLGHUDSRLQW0ZLWKLQDWULDQJOH$%&7KH\GHQRWHWKHOHQJWKVRI0$0%
0&ZLWK555DQGWKHGLVWDQFHVIURPWKHVLGHVRIWKHWULDQJOHZLWKGGG
7KHJHRPHWULFDOLQHTXDOLWLHVLQYROYHDEF WKHOHQJWKVRIWKHVLGHVRIWKHWULDQJOH 555DQG
GGG6HYHUDOVSHFLDOFDVHVDUHFRQVLGHUHG

 3HSDUFXUVXODFHVWHLQRWHPDWHPDWLFHYRPIDFHUHIHULUHODXQWULXQJKLRDUHFDUH
$%&YRPFRQVLGHUDvQLQWHULRUXOV XXQSXQFW0DOHF UXLSURLHF LLSHODWXULOHWUL
XQJKLXOXL VXQW $
 %
 &
 3H OkQJ  QRWD LLOH RELúQXLWH YRP PDL QRWD 5 = 0$ 
5 = 0% 5 = 0&  G = 0$
 G  = 0%
 G  = 0&
 5HDPLQWLP XUP WRDUHOH UH]XO
WDWH F5 5 + E5 5 + D5 5 ≥ DEF   YH]L[]  D5 + E5 + F5 ≥ DEF    YH]L
 
[]  D  + E  + F  ≤ 5     YH]L[]  5 ≥ S ≥  U    YH]L[] 


 
$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH

0$  + 0%  + 0&  $%  + $&  + %& 


0*  =  0 ∈ ,QW $%&    /HLEQL] 
 

$ S − E S − F $ S − E S − F 6
DEF =  56    VLQ =  WJ =  UD =  úL
 EF  S S − D S−D

DQDORDJHOH   PD + PE + PF = D  + E  + F  ≥  6    YH]L[] 

  
*+ = 2+ = 5  −  FRV $ FRV % FRV &    *, = S  + U  −  5U   
  
 $ % &
2* = 5  −  FRV $ FRV % FRV &    U =  5 VLQ VLQ VLQ    FRV $ + 
   
$ % &
+ FRV % + FRV & =  +  VLQ VLQ VLQ    D + E E + F F + D ≥ DEF  ∀  D
  
EF!   PD PE + PE PF + PF PD ≥  6    5 + 5 + 5 ≥  G + G  + G  
0 ∈ ,QW $%&    YH]L []  5 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 5 ≥ G + G  G  + G  G  + G  0 ∈
∈,QW $%&    YH]L[] 



3URSR]L LD PD + PE + PF PD
+ PE
+ PF
≥  6 − 6 5  + 0*   , 

XQGH PD
 PE
 PF
VXQWPHGLDQHOHGXVHGLQ0vQWULXQJKLXULOH%0&&0$úLUHV
SHFWLY$0%
$
'HPRQVWUD LH 9RP QRWD FX $

 %

 &


PLMORDFHOH ODWXULORU %& $& úL UHVSHFWLY $%
GHFL PD = $$

 PE = %%

 PF = &&


PD
= 0$

 PE
= 0%

 PF
= 0&

$SOLFkQG &

 %


LQHJDOLWDWHD WULXQJKLXOXL vQ WULXQJKLXULOH 0
$0%

 %0%

 &0&

RE LQHP *
5 + PD
≥ PD  5 + PE
≥ PE  5 + PF
≥ PF   &
% $


ÌQPXO LQGLQHJDOLW LOH FX PE  PF úLUHV
SHFWLY PD úLDSRLDGXQkQGXOHUH]XOW 
5PE + 5 PF + 5 PD + PD
PE + PE
PF + PF
PD ≥ PD PE + PE PF + PF PD  GDU L
QkQG VHDPD GH   UH]XOW  5PE + 5 PF + 5 PD + PD
PE + PE
PF + PF
PD ≥ 
≥  6  ÌQ FRQWLQXDUH YRP PDMRUD LQHJDOLWDWHD GH PDL VXV IRORVLQG LQHJDOLWDWHD
&DXFK\%XQLDNRYVNL6FKZDU]úLGHFL
5 + 5 + 5 PD + PE + PF + PD
PE + PE
PF + PF
PD ≥  6  GDU FRPSD

UkQG FX   RE LQHP 5 0*  + 5  + PD
PE + PE
PF + PF
PD ≥  6  1RWkQG

 
$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH


FX Ω = PD
PE + PE
PF + PF
PD DYHP 5 0*  + 5  + Ω ≥  6 

'DF vQPXO LPLQHJDOLW LOH FX PD  PE úLUHVSHFWLY PF XUP ULQGUD LRQDPHQWXO

DQDORJ YRP RE LQH 5 0*  + 5  + Ω  ≥  6  XQGH Ω  = PD
PD + PE
PE + 

+ PF
PF  ,DU GDF  vQPXO LP LQHJDOLW LOH  FX PF  PD úL UHVSHFWLY PE  RE LQHP

5 0*  + 5  + Ω  ≥  6 XQGH Ω  = PD
PF + PE
PD + PF
PE 6HREVHUY F 

Ω + Ω  + Ω  = PD + PE + PF PD
+ PE
+ PF
úL GHFL DGXQkQG LQHJDOLW LOH

5 0*  + 5  + Ω L ≥  6  L =   UH]XOW 


PD + PE + PF PD
+ PE
+ PF
≥ >  6 − 5 0*  + 5  @ 


&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ3URSR]L LDvOSDUWLFXODUL] PSH0FX* FHQWUXGHJUHXWD

WH RE LQHP PD + PE + PF ≥   6 − 5  


&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ , 0 2 FHQWUXOFHUFXOXLFLUFXPVFULV UH]XOW 

PD + PE + PF G + G  + G  ≥ >  6 − 5   −  FRV $ FRV % FRV & @  GDU DSOL

FkQG LQHJDOLWDWHD WULXQJKLXOXL vQ WULXQJKLXULOH $2$
 %2%
 &2&
 DSRL DGXQkQG
UH]XOW  PD + PE + PF ≥ 5 + G + G  + G  úLGHFLFRPSDUkQGFXLQHJDOLWDWHDGHPDL
VXVUH]XOW 

5 + G + G  + G  G + G  + G  ≥ >  6 − 5   −  FRV $ FRV % FRV & @  GH XQ

 
GH DSOLFkQG   RE LQHP 5 ≥ >  6 − 5   −  FRV $ FRV % FRV & @  DGLF 

5 > +   −  FRV $ FRV % FRV & @ ≥  6 


3URSR]L LD 6 ≤ D5 + E5 + F5 ≤  S+0 +  5 +*  + 5   ,, 


'HPRQVWUD LH 1RW P FX $  %  & SLFLRDUHOH vQ O LPLORU WULXQJKLXOXL $%& GLQ
YkUIXUL LDU + RUWRFHQWUXO WULXQJKLXOXL $SOLFkQG LQHJDOLWDWHD WULXQJKLXOXL vQ WULXQ
JKLXO $0+ UH]XOW  5 ≤ $+ + +0  GH XQGH vQPXO LQG FX D UH]XOW 
D5 ≤ D$+ + D+0  $QDORJ VH RE LQ úL E5 ≤ E%+ + E)0  úL F5 ≤ F&+ + F+0 
$GXQkQGFHOHWUHLLQHJDOLW LUH]XOW  D5 + E5 + F5 ≤ D$+ + E%+ + F&+ +  S+0 

 
$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH

GH XQGH PDMRUkQG IRORVLQG &DXFK\ $


%XQLDNRYVFKL6FKZDU] úL LQkQG VHDPD GH
  RE LQHP D5 + E5 + F5  ≤ S+0  % 
& 
+ 5 $+  + %+  + &+   GDU FRQIRUP   +
úL   UH]XOW  D5 + E5 + F5 ≤  S+0 
0
+  5 +*  + 5   ± 
 7RWGLQLQHJDOLWDWHDWULXQJKLXOXLDSOLFDW  % &
$  $

WULXQJKLXOXL$0+UH]XOW 
5 ≥ $$ − 0$
 GH XQGH vQPXO LQG FX D UH]XOW  D5 ≥ D$$ − D0$
 $QDORJ VH
RE LQúL E5 ≥ E%% −E0%
úL D5 + E5 + F5 ≥  6  FRPSDUkQGLQHJDOLW LOH
±  úL  RE LQHP 6 ≤ D5 + E5 + F5 ≤  S+0 +  5 +*  + 5   FX HJDOL
WDWHFkQG0 + 

&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ ,, 0 2 FHQWUXOFHUFXOXLFLUFXPVFULV UH]XOW 
6 ≤  S5 ≤  S+2 +  5 +*  + 5  

&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ ,, 0 * FHQWUXGHJUHXWDWH UH]XOW 

6 ≤ DPD + EPE + FPF ≤ >  S+* +  5 +*  + 5  @ 



3URSR]L LD [\] ≥ 5 5 5 XQGH [ \ úL ] UHSUH]LQW UD]HOHFHUFXULORUFLUFXPVFUL


VHWULXQJKLXULORU $0% $0& úLUHVSHFWLY %0&  ,,, 
'HPRQVWUD LH&RQIRUP  DYHP $
5 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 5 ≥ G + G  G  + G  G  + G  GH XQGH
LQkQGVHDPDGH  UH]XOW  5 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 5 ≥ GG  G  
&
 %


0$% α
0%& β
0&$  δ 
0
$SOLFkQG WHRUHPD VLQXVXOXL vQ WULXQJKLXULOH
$0&
 %0$
 &0%
RE LQHP
G G G % $
 &
5 =   5 =   UHVSHFWLY 5 =   ÌQOR
VLQ α VLQ β VLQ δ

FXLQGvQLQHJDOLWDWHDGHPDLVXVUH]XOW  ≥  'DUDSOLFkQGWRWWHR
VLQ α VLQ β VLQ δ
UHPDVLQXVXOXLvQWULXQJKLXULOH $0% $0&  %0& RE LQHP
5 5 5
 [ =    \ =  úLUHVSHFWLY  ] =  
VLQ α VLQ δ VLQ β
ÌQPXO LQGUHOD LLOHúL LQkQGVHDPDGHLQHJDOLWDWHDSUHFHGHQW UH]XOW 
[\] ≥ 5 5 5  FXHJDOLWDWHFkQGWULXQJKLXOHVWHHFKLODWHUDOLDU 0 = 2 = * 
 
$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH

&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ3URSR]L LDvOSDUWLFXODUL] PSH0FX2 FHQWUXOFHUFXOXL


FLUFXPVFULV UH]XOW  [\] ≥ 5  

&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ3URSR]L LDvOSDUWLFXODUL] PSH0FX* FHQWUXGHJUHXWD

WH UH]XOW  [\] ≥ PD PE PF 


&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ3URSR]L LDvOSDUWLFXODUL] PSH0FX+ RUWRFHQWUX UH]XO
W  [\] ≥ 5  FRV $ FRV % FRV & 
3URSR]L LD  5 D − F + 5 E − D + 5 F − E ≤  5 3*  + 5   ,9  XQGH 3
HVWHXQSXQFWDUELWUDUGLQ,QW $%& 
'HPRQVWUD LH$SOLF PLQHJDOLWDWHDWULXQJKLXOXLvQ $
WULXQJKLXO $30 úL GHFL 5 ≤ $3 + 30  $SOLFkQG
WRW LQHJDOLWDWHD WULXQJKLXOXL vQ WULXQJKLXO 3%0
DYHP 30 ≤ %3 + 5 &RPSDUkQGFHOHGRX LQHJD 0
OLW L UH]XOW  5 ≤ $3 + %3 + 5  GH XQGH vQPXO
$
LQG FX D RE LQHP D5 ≤ D $3 + %3 + D5  3
$QDORJRE LQHPúL % &
E5 ≤ E %3 + &3 + E5  F5 ≤ F &3 + $3 + F5 GHXQGHvQVXPkQGUH]XOW 
5 D − F + 5 E − D + 5 F − E ≤ $3 D + F + %3 D + E + &3 E + F  9RP PDMRUD
IRORVLQG&DXFK\%XQLDNRYVFKL6FKZDU]úLYRPRE LQH
5 D − F + 5 E − D + 5 F − E ≤ $3 + %3 + &3   D  + E  + F  + DE + EF + FD
GDU DE + EF + FD ≤ D  + E  + F  LDUFRQIRUP  UH]XOW 
5 D − F + 5 E − D + 5 F − E ≤  5 $3  + %3  + &3  ùLGHFLFRPSDUkQGFX  
RE LQHP 5 D − F + 5 E − D + 5 F − E ≤  5 3*  + 5  

&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ ,9 0 *úL3 *UH]XOW 
PD D − F + PE E − D + PF F − E ≤  5  

&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ ,9 0 +úL3 *UH]XOW 
FRV $ D − F + FRV % E − D + FRV & F − E ≤  5 


3URSR]L LD 5 − 5 5 − 5 5 − 5 ≥  S> U5 − 0*  + 5  @  9 


'HPRQVWUD LH(YLGHQWGLQLQHJDOLWDWHDWULXQJKLXOXLRE LQHP
5 + 5 ≥ D 5 + 5 ≥ E  5 + 5 ≥ F 3HED]DDFHVWHLLQHJDOLW LYRPFRQVLGHUD
5 + 5 − D 5 − 5  + 5 + 5 − E 5 − 5  + 5 + 5 − F 5 − 5  ≥   GH
XQGH GH]YROWkQG UH]XOW  > 5 5 5 − 5 + 5 5 5 − 5 + 5 5 5 − 5 @ + 
 
$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH

+ D 5 + 5 + E 5 + 5 + F 5 + 5 ≥  D5 5 + E5 5 + F5 5 


'DF PDLSUHOXFU PUH]XOW 
> 5 − 5 5 − 5 5 − 5 @ +  S 5 + 5 + 5 ≥  D5 5 + E5 5 + F5 5 + 
+ D5 + E5 + F5  LQkQG VHDPD GH   úL   LQHJDOLWDWHD SUHFHGHQW  VH WUDQV
IRUP vQ > 5 − 5 5 − 5 5 − 5 @ +  S 5 + 5 + 5 ≥ DEF úLFRPSDUkQG
FX   UH]XOW  5 − 5 5 − 5 5 − 5 ≥  S U5 − 0*  − 5   FX HJDOLWDWH
FkQGWULXQJKLXOHVWHHFKLODWHUDOLDU 0 = 2 = * 


&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ 9  0 = * UH]XOW 



P F − P E P F − P D P E − P D ≥ S5 U − 5 


&RQVHFLQ D'DF vQ 9  0 = + UH]XOW 
S
FRV % − FRV $ FRV & − FRV $ FRV % − FRV $ ≥ U5 − +*  − 5  
5 


5 5 5  
+  +  ≥  5  G + G  + G  − 5   9,  XQGH WUL

3URSR]L LD 
FRV $ FRV % FRV &   
XQJKLXO$%&HVWHDVFX LWXQJKLF QHGUHSWXQJKLF 
5 −  5 FRV $ 
'HPRQVWUD LH&RQVLGHU PLQHJDOLWDWHDHYLGHQW  ∑ ≥  GHXQ
FRV $
5 5 5
GH RE LQHP +  +  ≥ 5 5 + 5 + 5 − 5  FRV $ + FRV % + FRV & 
FRV $ FRV % FRV &
GDU LQkQGVHDPDGH  úL  UH]XOW 
5 5 5 $ % &
+  +  ≥ 5 G + G  + G  −  5   +  VLQ VLQ VLQ  úLFRPSD

FRV $ FRV % FRV &    
5 5 5 U
UkQG FX   RE LQHP  +  +  ≥  5 G + G  + G  −  5   +  

FRV $ FRV % FRV &  5
5 5 5
DGLF  +  +  ≥  5 G + G  + G  −  5 5 + U  GDU FXP 5 ≥ U  UH
FRV $ FRV % FRV &
5 5 5  
]XOW  +  +  ≥  5  G + G  + G  − 5   FX HJDOLWDWH FkQG

FRV $ FRV % FRV &   
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 D EFDE DFE EE E  DF 
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N L − =
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S S S 
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 T T  TU 

 
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P > Q  úLvPS U LPS WUDWXOvQPS WU HOHFXODWXUDHJDO FX 
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+
      
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+ = +

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            P
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               Q
+ + +
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       [ ⋅ \ ⋅ ]   
[  + \ + ]  = [  + \  + ]  ≥ [ + \ + ]  ≥ [ + \ + ] ≥
 
≥ [\] [  + \  + ]  
9RPIRORVLvQUH]ROYDUHXUP WRDUHOHGRX SURSULHW LFXQRVFXWH
30
3 'DF 0 ∈ 31 FX = N DWXQFLSHQWUXRULFHSXQFW7GLQSODQHVWHDGHY UDW UHOD LD
01
 N
70 = 73 + 71 
N + N +
3 'DF *HVWHFHQWUXOGHJUHXWDWHDOWULXQJKLXOXL$%&DWXQFLSHQWUXRULFHSXQFW0GLQ
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= 0$ + 0% + 0&   $GXQkQGUH
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= 0* + 0*

  
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*
= *

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⇔ *
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UHOD LD 0*
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=  ∑ *$    
     
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   
$WXQFL UHOD LD   GHYLQH **
=  *$ + %* + *&  úL IRORVLQG UHOD LD FXQRVFXW 

    
*& = −*$ − *% ⋅  ⋅ (∑ *$ = )UHOD LDGHYLQH **
=   *$ +  *% ≠  SHQWUXF 
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≠  DGLF *≠*′
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&ODVDD;D

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− ]  
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+ ]  + ]  + ]  + ] + ] + ] 
= ⋅ =

E 1RW P σ = ] + ]  + ]   σ  = ]]  + ]]  + ]  + ]  = ]]  ]  2EVHUY PF 

$ =
∑  − ] K  + ] U  + ] V = ∑  + ] U + ] V + ] U ] V − ∑ ] K + ] K ] U + ] K ] V + ] K ] U ]V =
π  + ] M π  + ] M
 − ]
 + σ + σ  − σ − σ  −  σ − σ   − σ + σ  − σ

M
π  + ] M π  + ] M π  + ] M ∏
M =  + ] M
= = =− =−


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 + ]K K = K

 − ]K  − ]K
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 + ]K K = K

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]  ]   ]  VXQWDIL[HOHYkUIXULORUXQXLWULXQJKLHFKLODWHUDO
$ ] 
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SHDUFXOPLF$%DWXQFL0& 0$0%úLDWXQFL % ] 
( ]  0$0%0& 0&≤&&′ αXQGH&′HVWH
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$5+,0('( V 1UQRLHPEULHGHFHPEULH

1RW P J = I $ ϕ − 1 →4'HFLH[LVW  J  J  1 →4VWULFWFUHVF WRDUHFX J = J − J  


'HFL I = J $ ϕ − J  $ ϕ XQGH I = J $ ϕ úL I  = −J  $ ϕ I = I + I   I  I  LQMHFWLYH
N N
N −   SHQWUX [ =

E )LHS±SULPN∈^«S±`úLGHILQLPI4→4 I [ =   S 
 LQ UHVW

3UHVXSXQHP SULQ DEVXUG F  H[LVW  I  I  PRQRWRQH DVWIHO vQFkW I = I + I   /X P
S −
 N +  N   N +  N  N + N
$= ∑ I   −I  ≤ ∑ I   − I   +  ∑ I    − I    ≤ 
S   S  S  S  S  S

N =  
≤ I  − I  + I   − I   3HGHDOW SDUWH$ ≥S±'HXQGH S −  ≤ I  − I  + 
+ I   − I   FRQWUDGLF LHGHRDUHFHSHVWHDUELWUDU
 3HQWUX Q   Q   úL Q   VH YHULILF  SURSULHWDWHD 3UHVXSXQHP F 
ORJ DN E + ORJ NE F + ORJ FN D ∈4 ∀  N =  Q 8WLOL] PLGHQWLWDWHD [ Q + + \ Q + + ] Q +  
= [ + \ + ] [ Q + \ Q + ] Q − [\ + \] + ][ [ Q − + \ Q − + ] Q − + [\] [ Q −  + \ Q −  + ] Q −  
Q∈1Q≥vQFDUHOX P [ = ORJ D E \ = ORJ E F ] = ORJ F D úLIDSWXOF  ORJ D E ⋅ ORJ E F + 

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∈4 ORJ D E ⋅ ORJ E F ⋅ ORJ F D =  ∈4 ⇒ ORJ DQ + E + ORJ QE + F + ORJ FQ + D ∈4'HFLSURSULHWDWHD
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+L  6  SUHVXSX
 
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WU$
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− W
[Q =  Q D FRV 6HRE LQHLPHGLDW OLP [ Q =  
Q

Q Q →∞

 
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 −   
  − [ Q = 
Q Q
−  D FRV Q
Q Q

    Q    
         
  
 

 D  Q

W

 VLQ Q   −
 
 D  Q  ⋅ W ⋅ Q −  ⋅    D



⋅  GHDLFL OLP  Q  − [ Q = − OQ 
   W  
= 
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 Q Q
 

Q +  Q +  + Q Q  
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Q  

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≤ [Q − ≤ 
Q Q
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≤ [Q − ≤ 
Q Q Q Q
+ +
OQ Q
Q − P Q Q P −  Q
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Q →∞ Q Q →∞ Q Q →∞ Q →∞ Q →∞

P −  P Q
OLP =  $úDGDU OLP [ Q =  
Q →∞ Q Q →∞
Q 
 D D 
 D SULQLQGXF LHE L  OLP D Q − Q =
LL  OLP Q =  LLL  OLP  Q  = H  
Q →∞  Q →∞ Q Q → ∞ Q 

/HP $ ∈0Q &  $ =  Q ⇒ $ =  Q N ≤QHVWHHYLGHQW)LHN!Q'DF SHVWHSROL


N Q

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P! N + N  +  + N Q DVWIHOvQFkW % P =  Q &RQIRUPOHPHL %Q = Q ⇔ [$ +  + [ Q $Q Q = 
2QGDUDFHVWDHVWHXQSROLQRPvQ [  [    [ Q ∈&QXOSHQWUXRULFH [   [ Q ∈&⇒DUH
WR L FRHILFLHQ LL GH IRUPD λ [   [ Q $U $ U $ UQQ  FX U + U +  + UQ = Q  'DU H[LVW  XQ
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UH]XOW F [∈+

 
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= 
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