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Jean-Claude VEILHAN

The Rules
of
Musical
Interpretation
in the
Baroque
Era
(1 7th - i8th centuries)
common to all instruments

According to BACH, BROSSARD, COUPERIN, ,,


HOTTE TERRE, MONTÉCLAIR, QUANTZ,
RAMEAU -d'ALEMBERT, ROUSSEAU, etc.

E1

ALPHONSE LEDUC - PARIS


_1 75 , rue Saint- Honoré

Réf.: UN
VI

Contents
PREFACE IX

METRICAL SIGNS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS ^i


^
Metres of four beats 1 C o
Metres of two beats 3

Metres of three beats

10
6

Lesson on every variety of metre (Montéclair)

PHRASING

Articulatory silences 11
e
Detached notes 13
e^
Slurs 1
Complete indication of slurs, 15; Complete or partial absence of slurs: should they be added, 16
F.
i.^
Unequal notes 20
Different degrees of inequality, 22; Reversed inequality, 23; Table for unequalising values in the
principal metres, according to Cajon and Hotteterre, 24; Exceptions to the rule of inequality, 25

Dbuble-dotted notes - 27
Different instances of double-dotted notes, 27; Exceptions to the rule of double-dotted notes, 31

Rubato 32

EMBELLISHMENT

GRACE NOTES 33
Accent, 34; Chute (Fall), 34; Coulade (Run), 35; Coulé (Passing appoggiatura), 35; Flattement
(Finger vibrato), 36; Pincé (Mordent, Schneller), 37; Port-de-voix (Appoggiatura), 38; Son enflé
(Messa di voce), 42; Tour de gosier (Turn, Gruppetto, Doublé, Circolo mezzo, Double cadence), 43;
Trill (Shake, Cadence, Battement), 44; Vibrato, 47

Two examples of pieces with grace notes added by their composers 47

ORNAMENTS 49

French ornamentation 50
L,,

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VII

German ornamentation 51

Italian ornamentation 55

The cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58

THE VARIOUS TYPES OF ADAGIO AND ALLEGRO

CLASSIFICATION — TEMPO — CHARACTER 60

Classification of tempo indications according to Marpurg 60

Classification of tempo indications with their metronomic values


according to Quantz 61

Characteristics of the various tempi according to Brossard and Rousseau 62/63

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ADAGIO SHOULD BE PLAYED (Quantz) ...... 64

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ALLEGRO SHOULD BE PLAYED (Quanti) ..... 67

CHARACTER AND TEMPO OF THE VARIOUS MOVEMENTS

AIRS AND DANCES 70


A llemande, 70; Aria, 71; Ariette, 72; Bourrée, 72; Branle, 72; Canaries, 73; Chaconne, 74;
Contredanse, 75; Cotillon, 75; Courante, 75; Entrée, 76; Forlane, 76; Furie, 77; Gaillarde, 77;
Gavotte, 78; Gigue, 79; Loure, 80; March, 81; Minuet, 81; Musette, 83; Overture, 84;
Passacaglia, 85; Passepied, 86; Pastorale, 87; Pav an e, 88; Polonaise, 88; Prelude, 89;
Rigaudon, 90; Rondeau, 91; Saltarello, 91; Sarabande, 92; Siciliana, 92; Tambourin, 93;
Villane ll e, 94

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED 95

INDEX OF TERMS, SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED 96

INDEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES (by subject and composer) 99

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IX

PREFACE

What would Lully, Corelli, Couperin and Rameau be saying today, if the performance
of their works could already be described as "appalling" in 1775, only a few years or decades
after their graves had been freshly dug?
Indeed since 1 750 (the year of J. S. Bach's death), the Baroque era had been in decline.
The dawn of Classicism was beginning to be clearly visible. In 1775 Haydn was forty-three,
Mozart nineteen, Beethoven five years old: another musical world had decisively eclipsed the
preceding one. Even though certain traditions persisted, the old forms, concepts and instru-
ments had undergone a radical development.
Nowadays, however, and especially over the past few years, research into specific
periods can guarantee greater fidelity to authentic interpretation. We are witnessing a true
return to the sources, the instruments and the rules of the past.
For it is essential to speak about rules. The word may seem didactic and suggestive of
fixed precepts. But in fact, for the musical era known as the Baroque, what we are con-
cerned with is a body of traditions, principles, effects, conventions an d inventions which
make up `good taste', and it is this same good taste that in the long run remains the sole
criterion for expressing a musical discourse that is at once both alive and sensitive. And it is
all this that the qualificative term rules, used in its most flexible an d general sense, must be
taken to indicate and encompass.
Formerly rules were passed on from master to pupil; indeed, they constituted the very
musical and social air they breathed. It is this state of awareness we must seek if we want to
make the music of our predecessors live again in the present with a true sense of continuity:
a resurrection, not an exhumation!
Theoreticians and musicians of the period often tried to lay down these rules in treatises
so as to convey them more easily to students and music lovers, and thus to help them in
avoiding inconsistencies of style. This book is simply a compilation from the p ri ncipal
contemporary treatises (chiefly those published in French) in which the most significant
definitions and opinions have been selected in such a way as to present today's reader—as
far as is possible—with a synthesis of this famous `good taste' in interpretation. We have,
then, confined ourselves to the principal rules (common to singers an d instrumentalists of
all kinds) which constitute a set of clues enabling us to decipher and complete the outline
that a score of this period generally represents, knowing full well that a book of the present
size cannot hope to be complete (a totally comprehensive study would take up dozens of
volumes!).
Even within the period itself, there was not always unanimity over ce rt ain points of
interpretation: where there is disagreement I cite the general prevailing opinion in an
objective way, adding, where necessary, the divergent views put forward at the time.
In the last reso rt , it is the job of the musician to create his own interpretation. There
is not just one possible interpretation, but many. Freedom of choice, however, must always
remain within the limits of the style and practice of the time.

J. C. Veilhan

N.13. All quotations in this work are printed in italics.


Certain writers being quoted more than once, the date of their works is not restated at each quotation. See the Biblio-
graphy, p. 95.

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Metrical Signs
and Their Characteristics-
The most perplexing thing when one starts beating time is the number of signs which
distinguish its different species.
In all metres it would be a very good idea to indicate the tempo as the Italians nearly
always do, since the same species is sometimes very fast and sometimes very slaw. (Hotteterre)

This chapter gives some of the p ri ncipal contemporary definitions of the various
metrical signs used, along with the characteristics of each.
In these definitions one often finds the terms `slow' and `light' which correspond roughly
to the tempo indications `lento' and `allegro'.
N.B. See the table of `unequal' values in the principal metres on p. 24.

METRES OF FOUR BEATS

This relatively little used metre has four beats to the bar; the unit is the half note.
This metre is used only in fugues and counterpoint. (Marpurg)

Allegro: F. BARSANTI (1724)

• . .. .
-=MOW ---- ---- /11P"111_ MIP".__ 111/71M ISM_.. _ ..•„
AM:AMII= MI MN NM 1.1r1111111•1111./MO IMMa WM NM NM 411•1111.I AMINO 011 NMI MIMI JIM r
.../■ rrlrrlMINIM= —.+rrlrM•rrlrrOMrr ...• RIM rrlr11MM.a MIMI MN MOMS r

D L'Affilard:
The measure of four slow beats is shown by a C:

. —
!— 1111r71.11■
—■—

.l=r11/M 1111111111-NIMrr113rr 1.11 -AI IIIIIIIIIIIMIrIMI.IIIrO1s>L •rrr* •iMMIE= 11/.r■=111111r
r^^
MIMI OM
---r ■ rrrr•WI/O! ^rr^.^^.^rrr^^^ l
.. sum rw•••••■ r MOM ea sour .1L./ •-a NMr•••■ rILA r■ •■I SW' V rrr^^l>♦or rrrrr^^
^ rll ■•=rM.rlNBNIN• ■■■ .rrrrLt a.rr^ ILlrt MOM • ^I

Hotteterre:
The metre of four slow beats is indicated by a C (...) It is taken in 4 and, normally,
very slowly ( . . . ) It is used both in vocal and instrumental music (... ) For instrumental
music it is suitable in Preludes or first movements of Sonatas, Allemandes, Adagios, Fuguc
etc., but not really in `Airs de ballet':

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Prelude from a Sonata b y Signor CORELLI, op. 5 Allemande from the same

Largo Allegro

15. it

flag
Thus the sign C alone does not suffice to indicate the tempo: the real determining
factor is the character of the piece at the head of which it is placed. Z^r
N.B. The sign 4 was hardly in use at this time.

tig
(This metre) is suitable for tender, affectionate kinds of expression, and sometimes for
lively and animated kinds. (Brossard)

In former times this sort of metre was performed with two beats to the bar, each with`
six subdivisions, but as this was found too complicated, people used the expedient of
beating in 4. (Choquel)

L'Affilard:
This metre is shown by a 12 and a 4 and is performed with four beats to the bar, but
gravely, each beat having three crotchets or the equivalent:
t

I-011■ 11111111••• NM1111•111=111111MMI,111r »MIAOW 1•1/ .1111111B ^ MIN IBM =1111•••• ^^^^^^^^^I
5D—_ a — arm- a~emme w— _. _^^^^^s— t

12 The metre 8 , parallel to the preceding (4) metre (... ) is similarly taken in 4, but
8
half as fast again. There are three quavers, or the equivalent, to each beat. ( lion)

This compound metre ) is exactly right for spirited and lively kinds of expression.
However, it is often used by the Italians for tender and affectionate feelings though it will
then carry the words adagio affettuoso or some other verbal indication, since on its own it ^
denotes gaiety. (Brossard) ^
L'Affilard:
This metre (... ) has four beats, but of a very light character:

.
'S..R V '10•11111•1111M^^ ^^^^..^^^
M ^I^^^^^^^1^t /._^IIMS 4•11,70•1 ^
,- iINNIIIII'f IfXIMINIM WM JINN MI
__`'111
,a •t1IIMMIINNI • =Y ■ ••.r1111•11••••• ..111 /^^^

12 This compound metre (2) is suitable for extremely lively and rapid music, which the 5101
16 Italians describe with the word prestissimo. (Brossard)

1.
(1) That is to say,4 eighth note triplet groups to the bar. P
(2) That is to say, 4 sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar. •
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- ^ ^ - -'
.r
a^.
x• ^ ^-^ '~ `^ -K $^ ^-

.
3
Hotteterre:
A famous composer of our times has introduced a metre of 16; we are referring to a
harpsichord piece by Mr. Couperin. It is made up of (the value of) 4 dotted quavers, hence
12 semiquavers, and has 4 beats to the bar:
'...< U' .
.MIMI, I." Ma M. ■••/.■•■••••■ iii•MINI
^ « ■•• ..•IIM• .11■ a--•••■
MU= IN JOB MIMI •■■••••••■•••
..s V• 1E= a WNW ••■••••••■..••••• •1•1•.- ow. ^
v .••■ • • •IMINII0 MOM MIS 1=III MOO UMW

METRES OF TWO BEATS


The metre of 2 beats comprises:
1) 2 slow beats shown by Q'
2) 2 light beats shown by a 2
3) 2 lively beats shown by a
4) 2 very fast beats shown by a 8
5) 2 extremely fast beats shown by a ló
6) 4 which is taken in two slow beats
7) finally, % which is taken in two spirited beats (Denis)
In a four-beat metre, when the C has a line through it one must be sure to observe that
this line means the notes will be given a different value, as it were, and should be per-
formed twice as fast as when the C has no line. This sort of time is called: alla breve or
alla cappella, or a metre of two beats. (Quantz) — (See also note (1) , p. 29)
It must be noted that this metre (which the author calls quadruple time with a
light beat) may equally well be taken in a slow duple time (... ) This should change
absolutely nothing, either in the pulse of the metre or in the manner of playing the
quavers, since the different ways of beating do not change its nature. (Cajon)
Hotteterre:
Normally the pulse is 4 light beats or 2 slow ones. The Italians only use it in what they
call tempo di gavotta, and tempo di cappella or tempo alla breve; this last having two light
beats. Mr. de Lulli used it in his operas pretty well as the equivalent of plain duple time.

by Sign' STUK, 1st book, by Sign' CORELLI, op. 5

Tempo di Cappella Tempo di Gavotta

( han - tons, chan -tons les doux trans-ports

Ist extract from the opera Alceste (Lully) 2nd extract from the opera Armide (Lully)

2 slow beats 4 light beats

Quickly
Poursuivons, poursui - eons jusqu'au trépas

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It may be concluded that this metre is mid-way between quadruple time shown by a C
and duple time shown by a plain 2, which we are about to look at. (Hotteterre)

2 or 2 The sign for this metre is Commonly it is indicated merely by a plain 2 ( . . . )


2.
I
The metre is taken in 2 beats. (Câjon)
When the words alla cappella or alla breve appear alongside the time signature, an
exceedingly fast tempo is indicated ( 1 ). (Marpurg)
There are two sorts of tempo in duple time: sometimes slow, sometimes extremely cP*
fast. (Choquel) p
Hotteterre:
This metre (... ) is normally lively and `piqué' (spiccato). It is found at the begin-
nings of Opera overtures, in the Entrées of ballets, Marches, Bourrées, Gavottes, Rigaudons,
Branles, Cotillons, etc. (... ) It is not known in Italian music. If it is used in slow pieces,
there should be a clear indication of the fact. Moreover it can be said that th, metre is in
reality that of C divided into two, with the quavers changed into crotchets:

Overture from the opera Phaéton (Lully) Entrée from the same opera

2 rG rr r , .
..W-.11NWII•.NNI.•1=• AM =II
^•. •M1E1E1 4111•11•10 NMI

.
!MIR Da. •a MAW La rtar AM MENDE-MO /MI -
MI NM MIN ^
WINN •
..

^a^a^


March from the same Bourrée from the same

Gavotte from the opera Roland (Lully) Rigaudon from L'Europe Galante (Campra)
+

The speed of this type of metre is neither too slow nor too fast, but should be moder-
ately paced. (Choquel)
Hotteterre:
This metre has two light beats. It is suited to light and `piqué' (spiccato) airs. It is
found more in cantatas and sonatas than in motets or operas. If you think about it, it is
really no more than light quadruple time cut in half:

From the 1st Cantata by Mr. Clérambault From a Sonata by Sig r Masciti

a
IAA
-F-

■MION/1111•11t .'>.••11 ,.-4=1t.a.t
+
OM .411 r>•••1 ■
I
.."\ i--

-t:i.WON An .a. MOM ■ -AM Min •11 SI


aa\.r II -All■ t1INIIINI.a t/.i. MIN ..a.at01111atat./
••••-•11•1ft.
,..s.11118■ ..1•IMI. Alm= 1111■■ •••••• ■■•■ Or •M• -••••... M•A= 11•7IMINMOI'
MINIM .^
- -.Mr •1•11 MI MEE INN WI VIM OM MIN. I•11. MI ^I
t^. ^r ^.a< ^.^^ .^^.^ ^^l
S.W.' >^as V%i: >11•11La/r ■
NI=
/Mil ED MIME ME

Qu'à vo -tre gloi -------tout cons - pi - re

(1) Marpurg applies this same rule to the 4 metre.


i
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E
Ÿ, 1

4 Hotteterre:
8 Some composers have indicated it (4 metre) in this way:

Shepherds' air: Mr. de Lulli, from Roland Sailors'air: Mr. Marais, from Alcionne

L'Affilard calls this metre: a metre of two rapid beats, adding: this metre is shown by a
4 and an 8 and is taken in 2 very fast beats, so that each beat is occupied by a crotchet or
its equivalent:

•A.. 1•1•1.___•....•. •ION•11111.1• •.111,11I •I•••• ..........


.t•.i ^r•r.•• /fa r/•. ^ f 1 •I ts C^7 I,.^ I/ta+Ct•.11I.I•I•• ^. ^^^^ ^
.\•^'t/fa/• Y Y r.•.•r•.•rra.rGJr.— .r.••_ •••■ al • ^.^ -.••
MS/NMI •■ = NEE iY•••••••
MD IN
Y tL^/'11111.•••'.■ I r•.••■ •■•• ■ f• rra t••

2 One might also use 8 metre which ( . . . ) would be taken in one very light beat. This
8
metre would be suitable for certain Tambourins or other tunes of a similar character.
(Hotteterre)

Tambourin DENIS

^•el. = rAt/IBr••rrwAIMIIr•I= •r•r•••J^Srf• t !7r•1•t•11•r.Jr••0•1r.••••./


.MEZIN•l•^^^r•7f•^^r_J_•_r^^r•^^^••^fa./+/•^r••.^.Jr•^ .w ^'f^---^•
.•I^•='••J_+_
"It•\•M^• MN- -AMU
■ 'r••
r•- r•rr• 1111•11M-.....••••111•1111....__+•—__—S_
rr.ra OM •1111.-ta•__

_.•••IIM•MIMI
...... •••• MEN r•^r•••^ts - NO

6 Hotteterre:
4 This metre is nearly always taken in two beats ( . . . ) Some call it 'the metre of six
slow beats' (1) ; however one seldom sees a slow air composed in this metre, and on the,
contrary many lively, buoyant airs are so written ( . . . ) It is used in the reprises of
Opera overtures, in Loures, Gigues, Forlanes, in some Airs from 'ballets de caractères
etc. It is rarely found in Italian music:

Reprise from the Overture to Armide (Lully) Loure: this is from Thétis (Lully)

•^ .111111•• ^^. r•^ ^^. r•^ r•rr.rr• ^


^ M .^,^._^.^.. ^•^^trs1•tr
.•v. 11■ . =SIM r.rna .1, .iratrar MII•raa
v+.•. atvaIMMa:s.. •a•••ta

Gigue, from Roland (Lully) Forlane, from L Europe Galante (Campra)


•_• MOWS __ NMI
.••r i r'
^tr.00••,I SINIMNP71•.••••1t•.
• ^ IMI

Air of the zeph yrs, from Le Triomphe de l'Amour (Lully)

(1) As, for example, L'Affilard.

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- t< >ga -^"^vas

Normally this compound time (1) is used for tender, affectionate movements; some-
times, and in France quite often, though very incorrectly, it appears in swift, fast pieces.
(Brossard)
The sign 6 over 4 decrees a very spirited speed, especially when the metre is taken in
2; but a 6 over 8 suggests a movement twice as fast, that is, extremely lively. (Saint-Lambert)

6 According to the above definition by Saint-Lambert it is clear that normally a 68 i


8 indicates a faster speed than a . L'Affilard tells us that it may be taken in 7ix light
beats: 4

i
'^.s¢Y■
.^..•.....^.^..^.. .:^.... ^.■ ■^■.^
^^ ^..^.^■q,...^...^^^..^^
..^...■..^t
^ O . ^^^■r■r■^ ^^^
.^..^: r ...^■^. .::^^^
^ ^r■ .^.^.^^..r
NM
.:.Z.■^■^w ■rr■^^^.u^
a.^.nr ^...^ .^:ras ^i^■ ^■ ..
s ^r..■i^^.. ^.r■^^- ..^ ■^a^^^^^...rr^^ .r==..^± •

^
but more commonly it is in two.
Hotteterre:
It is taken in 2 beats ( . . . ) It is in fairly general use, but chiefly in Cantatas and r6
Sonatas; it is particularly suitable for Gigues etc. 16
This compound time (2) is suitable for modes of expression that are lively, animated
and spirited; in consequence, it is taken at a tolerably fast speed. (Brossard) i^

METRES OF THREE BEATS


I
16

This metre is shown by a 3, and it is composed with a strong beat, being the first, a
weak beat, being the second, and a final 'idle' beat. The metre in three beats is the most
varied, yet it is the one in which indication of the various kinds of pulses by special signs
or characters has been the most neglected; amongst all composers, whether old or new,
only four characters or signs are found—namely 2, plain 3, 4 and . (Denis)
g
Nevertheless, Denis adds the metres ,4 and $ which were not in widespread use in
France.

This metre is very much used; it is cálled double t riple, or again major triple, because
its pulse should be twice as slow as that of ordinary triple time (4). (Choquel)
(1) That is to say, two quarter note tri p let groups to the bar.
(2) That is to say, two eighth note triplet groups to the bar.

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7

Hotteterre:
Titis metre is normally taken in three slow beats (... ) It is used for moving, tender
pieces such as Lullabies, Plaints, Cantatas, Graves, in Sonatas and in Courantes intended for
dancing, etc.:
The Sleep of Protée, from Phaéton (Lully) Another lullaby, from the opera Persée (Lully)

OM MI nl
■ 111111•111 ■11.111111• I= NMI WIN ALJr1101.■f•
*Mal
I\• t)111■11a11111.
MINN IMIN•M1••••••=1r1•11/111•111111• ■ •111 ^^1
MINIM 11••=111•01111I

Air from the Cantata by Mr. Bernier


It is also noted
in this way:
qui tant dc mi - sé - ra - bics

On this particular way of notating 2 Choquel has this to say:


Sometimes in this sort of metre, white quavers are used so as not to use black quavers when
the minims are to be divided in the vocal line; this is what Mr. Clérambault has done in his
Cantata A lphée et Aréthuse , so one should expect to find these (white) quavers elsewhere.

When triple tizne is written with a 4, it is suitable for tender, affectionate kinds of
34 or 31
1 expression and the pulse should be moderate: neither too fast nor too slow.
When it is written with a simple 3, the pulse is normally a trifle brisk; in France it
commonly serves for Chaconnes, Minuets and other spirited and animated dances.
(Brossard)
Hotteterre:
Titis metre is indicated by a 3 or sometimes 4. It is taken in 3. Sometimes it is very
slow and sometimes very fast. It is used for Passacaglias, Chaconnes, Sarabandes, `Airs de
bù llet', Italian Courantes, Minuets, etc.

Passacaglia from the opera Armide (Lully) Sarabande from Issé (Destouches)

Solemn tempo Slow tempo


Chaconne from Phaéton (Lully) Demons' Air from Thésée (Lully)

Spirited tempo Lively

Minuet from Roland (Lully) Courante by Sig+' Corelli


Spirited Allegro

--.---

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3 In pieces having the sign g, the metre is again taken in 3, but since the bar contains
8 only three quavers, with but one to place on each beat, it should go twice as fast as the
(previous) triple sign (4 metre), that is to say, very fast: however, on account of this
great speed and of the difficulty of making three such hurried movements with the
hand, the metre is customarily taken, as it were, in one beat only. (Saint-Lambert)
Hotteterre:
This metre, !alled minor triple, is made up of a dotted crotchet, etc. It is taken in one
when up to speed, which should be fast. Some composers, however, have used it for very
slow Airs; it is then taken in three beats, in the same way as the ordinary triple (4) or even
the major triple (2). It is suitable for buoyant A i rs such as Canaries, Passepieds, etc.

Canaries from Isis (Lully) Passepied from Le Temple de la Paix (Lully)

(in one) (in one)


Vivace by Sig' Corelli, op. 5 Adagio by the same, from op. 3

(in one) (in three)

9 The metre 4 (... ) is taken in 3 slow beats. (Denis)


4 This compound time (1) is suitable for tender and affectionate kinds of expression and
should be taken at a moderate tempo: neither too slow nor too fast. (Brossard)
Montéclair:
Slow

on the
second beat

The metre 8, parallel to the preceding one (4) ( ) is similarly taken in 3, but half as
fast again. Each beat is made up of three quavers, or their equivalent. (Cájon)
This compound time (2) is suitable for lively, spirited kinds of expression and should
be taken at a lively, spirited pace. (Brossard)
Hotteterre:
This metre is taken in 3 beats ( . . . ) Sometimes it is used in Cantatas, but more often
(1) That is to say, three quarter note triplet groups to the bar.
(2) That is to say, three eighth note triplet groups to the bar.

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in Sonatas, and above all in Gigues. In France it has only been in general use for a short
time.

1st Cantata by Mr. Bernier Gigue by Sigr Masciti

Res - per-tons l'A - mour (Hotteterre)

Montéclair:

Light

'/'.)1t11•tIJ /Il /J• .1,7S7 a./


_ D INNS 1^r.IIl^ I W 1./ 1J^r/1^II lt♦ l7r1^I ^)^* + ^ AII[/1
n ^ ^•^^•ii^^ t.J /If -.1•11111•111111t1 /Jr^.il1
A lil/ ^ ^/^ /^l^i / ri / 1`^ ti is i lï >!^ MUM. ^^//mil • ,01e116.1=0 MUM, /1J• ,I 1^/^^^i1
VI^\ Ir^^^^^i^t.^tr^.-. _ JIMMINEMII1 1 /111111 411111tLA=111111111•111 /...101111•1 =M t

This air may also be sung at a slow and tender pace.

Finally let us mention three rarer metres given by Hotteterre and Brossard:

3 This compound time (1) is suitable for extremely lively and exceedingly rapid music.
16 (Brossard)

Passage-work Hotteterre
Jestingly (in one)
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^
V— ^^ ^•=^/^1•^^r•^ NM ^1^ MUM

6 This compound time (2) is for varieties of movement and expression of the greatest
16 rapidity: what the Italians describe with the word prestissimo. (Brossard)

Passage-work Hotteterre
Spirited, equal semiquavers (in three, or better still in one)

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V:+ N ii^
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^ •=r^^1•^i^^^^i^•i^ti^i^li^^-- _. i•1-- —1
^^^— i.w^.=.

9 This compound time (3) is really for very fast and very swift kinds of expression.
16 (Brossard)

Passage-work Hotteterre

Briskly (in three) Briskly (in three)
.
- / .1/r1MIIIVAiiIT It 1.I f./if./•/i... 11•1111i1I/ f:/1IIMMr7 7IIIMMINMI i ^ MS _
^--+11i̕
I_ tI .r..1^11•`
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RIM
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,:
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en" t á •••••^^ ' Jr- r•i^1^^
I /...i•illttelr L■ I r11111II.•

(1) That is to say, one sixteenth note triplet group to the bar.
a (2) That is to say, two sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar.
(3) That is to say, three sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar.

a A.L. - 25.732
a
a
^^

10

LESSON ON EVER Y VARIETY OF METRE

Montéclair. Principes de musique (1736)

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A.L. - 25.732

^^^
fi

11

Phrasing
ARTICULATORY SILENCES — DETACHED NOTES — SLURS — UNEQUAL NOTES —
DOUBLE-DOTTED NOTES — RUBATO

ARTICULA TOR Y SILENCES

In Baroque music, as a general rule, notes were not held for as long as their notation
would subggest. This `aeration' between the notes is called an articulatory silence.
j\'otes must not appear to be glued together. (Quantz)
Engramelle explains this practice in detail: Notes in the music (i.e. notation) indicate
very precisely the total value of each note; but their true lengths and the value of their
silences which are integral to them and serve to detach them from one another are not
shown by any sign ( ) However in performance they are not all realised in the same
manner, and even those of equal value are in some cases to be interpreted in quite different
ways ( . . . )
In performance every note, whether trilled, with mordent or without, is partly sus-
tained and partl y silent; that is to say, it has a given duration of silence which, when added
to the sustained sound, gives the total value. That part which I call sustained or sounding is
always at the beginning ofa note; the part which I call silent is always at the end. Sustaining
will be more, or less long, depending on the character of the note; and the length of the
silence will depend on the duration of the sound ( ... ) These silences at the end of each
note define, as it were, its articulation and are as important as the sounds themselves; with-
out them these could not be detached from one another; and a piece of music, no matter
how beautiful, tivithout articulatory silences would have no more grace than a folksong from
Poitou played on insipid musettes which produce only blusterous, unarticulated sounds.
Again, one distinguishes between sustained notes and those called broken (`tacté'):
sustained notes sound for the greater part of their value and their silences are cbnsequently
extremely short; broken notes on the other hand are those in which the sustaining is very
short, so that only the touch (`tact') of the notes is indicated, and they are consequently
concluded by a considerable silence ( ... ) There are not even strokes ofa trill that are not
separated by very short tiny gaps between the rise and fall of the fingers upon the keys; my
use of the term articulatory silences in music refers to every such hiatus, great or small,
from which no note is exempt.
To sum up what Engramelle says in another way, each note should be shortened by a
silence whose length will vary according to the duration of the note and the character of the
piece. This is a general principle in old music, French or otherwise, that is practised in per-
formance but is difficult to notate (as are most other rules of interpretation). •
In the following two pieces one must try to respect an articulatory silence after each
note, but without playing in too dry or `piqué' (spiccato) a manner. On the contrary, each
note should be rounded: for this, it is necessary to soften the attack and release, avoiding
any sharp cut-off. In the Sarabande, we give an approximate transcription of the articula-
tory silences as they ought to be (it will be seen how complicated the notation becomes'
In the subsequent Allemande, the player will have the task of determining the silences for
himself. As Engramelle makes clear, these latter apply equally to faster pieces, and are then
shortened in proportion to the duration of the notes.

A.L. - 25.732

12

Sarabande: A. Van HEERDE (1st half of the 18th Century)


(Played)
(1) IVY

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W.^.raa^at/^-^.^+e•r a
r.c ..^^■^
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(2) (3)
t
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1

Allemande: D. DEMOIVRE (1st half of the 18th Century)

=11111•111MM•- - -
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• •

E

(1) See double-dotted notes, p. 27


(2) See unequal notes, p. 20
(3) See double-dotted notes, p. 28 (ex. 3 and 4)

A.L. - 25.732
13

In a group of slurred notes, the final one is not exempt from the rule concerning articu-
latory silences, as Dom Bédos points out:


Two notes slurred Three notes slurred

DETACHED NOTES

Beyond the customary use of articulatory silences, composers might ask for more
markedly detached notes in certain pieces. In this case they would spell it out in words or
indicate it with short dashes (or sometimes dots (1) ) over the note-heads.

Detaching the notes is when one divides a note into


two others of equal value and pitch, of which only the
first is made to sound:

Here the rest takes the place of the second note. When this detached articulation is not
expressed by rests as in the preceding example, it is indicated by dots or little dashes (2)
above those notes which should only be half heard, as has been said above. (Marpurg)

In the following example, the word detach implies a dot or dash on each note:

(1) The dots signifying 'detached notes' should not be confused with similar dots signifying 'equal notes'. See paragraph
'unequal notes', p. 20.
(2) Marpurg does not seem to establish any distinction between dots and dashes (short lines, strokes). For all that, dashes
sometimes indicate a more marked articulation than dots: When there are dots above the notes oYe must play them
with a very short pressure or bow-stroke which should not, however, be really detached. (Quantz) Quantz adds: If
there is also an arch (slur) above the dots, all the notes must be taken in one
bow, however many there are, and each one marked with a pressure on the bow:
Bordet defines the latter as pearled notes: one must simply increase the sound of
each dotted note under the sign (slur), and not detach them.
For notes with dashes, Bordet explains: One must use a sharp attack
(piquer) and cut off the sound of each note regardless of its value.
(Méthode raisonnée pour apprendre la musique, 1755)

A.L. - 25.732

ä ^

^
14

Gracefully: A. DANICAN-PHILIDOR (1712)


Equal notes (1), and detach

-SOS MI AM> > •1 ■11111111117■ 1=1..MININ


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r
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When the word staccato is found alongside a piece, every note is played with a short,
detached bow ( . . . ) It is customary to put dashes above the notes to be played staccato
(... ) They must only sound for half the time they last according to their (written) value
( . . . ) Thus crotchets become quavers, quavers semiquavers and so on. (Quantz)

Aria: J. S. BACH — Cantata BWV 127 (1725)



simile
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(1) See unequal notes, p. 20

A.L. - 25.732

4Qg
15

Grave: J. F. FASCH (1688-1758)


^ I I I I I

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.
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SLURS

In this highly articulated, `aerated' manner of performance (we have seen the impor-
tance of articulatory silences) that is characteristic of music of this pe ri od, the use of slurs
is much more restricted than it was to be in the Classical and more especially the Romantic
periods..
Different instances may be cited according to whether the composer indicates the slurs
completely, partially, or not at all:

Complete slurs.

Sometimes the composer himself writes in all the slurs he wants, making it unnecessary,
therefore, to add any further ones:

A.L. - 25.732
16

Andante: J. S. BACH (1721)

MINI rN= MOMS MINIM •■■■•


01•1 ..=MIM. r1111111111
amnia •111 NIrsIIMIMININI •11111- ^ -•••••011•10

Complete or partial absence of slurs: should they be added?

Very often, however, composers do not write in the slurs, leaving it to the performer
to decide whether or not the musical text needs them. In this case, it is as well to recall
Quàntz's warning: Notes must not appear to be glued together.
Thus, in the following example, any slurs would seem superfluous:

Andante: A. VIVALDI (1678-1741)

Cantabile

A.L. - 25.732

17
. •• MN
;LJ,. /••f/-!'irilla• UMW Jilin v •••f•l El
.i. NAM ff:1.i..M1AiAfiiir
I .i. 11011á•ffii Mil MI AI
41IMralir!♦
AIllAi••••I •••• MnillA^..••••JA
Mai afif•a/1An.M•11A1•••
Will //.1f ,sMIIIMi,
IA fiAfAJftrf
• Wv Milli MI !Mil 1
no

By contrast, in the Allegro movement below, the rapidity and a rt iculation of the
phrases may permit the sort of slurs suggested here uy means of_ dotted lines (all other
ligatures are original):

Allegro non molto: A. VIVALDI (1678-1741)




•AfraA•ANEV Mr a^7ifa^./ f/ rv__+
.a•Ma•f
..r l•A^^A^7faA'
Jral.ifl^ ^a>rafa•_ —^`
—`^^^
—_ r__—.`
aff^r^—J/
+••al^^.^a•ffl alral---_=
m,f^^^ M^ --__+
f^^ J•^^.
^f•f•f• fIii_`^
af^ a^ ^a fi ^
Vr ^ •fa—'^ ^i . main f•■M^t
--^ ^ -^^ "...Mi..- -.- ^^^^^^.^1
^^.

•I At!•lliO.I •1 MI UM J (b) MAIM' a/ •ilfifaJff.^


• •1
.f/7t•J
I
..^]•ra•••'J^
rIlraL••••••1afll•Mrlfli
I7.r!•r1^••.^f•
ill i^^^^.••_.r
M•f_i••f•.I
-1^ ••r^r^. ir^
•_...- J 1•7N•
1•11 Milli .a^.flf•/a1i MA
•AfaMOfflfif•
MOM= ff M lr•r• llifi
MI^•^
vrl^A^•r•^
ff . =.^•^f......... i• NM

:1]!S ---1111=1111L` ----1111=11111— .—

I ^^) ...,)( . ')(


(. ,
'aA,1♦f••• Mai iJAr 1111• _^^ IM\^ ^li!MMIMMAJ••• ^I ■ i./11• ••■ ill
^■•■
.a•y• Maiff•ifffAJi 1 ! l^:l^tY1^7Arf/^^f/ffA^7tl/7 ^i i
^^i^C^^
..\•I,a•^^f•_ - f/^•^i^f• J•^/ffi•id•/ ••J•^._,r•ar•^ara,.1•^f/J•I /J1ra•miOr•
_

,r
,•^•nri — r>•.^._ ral`^^r^ffi^/ff^•flalaf•^^fafLffi fla^ ffl•f•1••^r^
•'p `

•Mat =J
7^7^a1•^ 1oimi fiJ
^ ^^
ff
t•— MMJ MUMAIM
• •r•af a^fJirarl.•
^_•^^^^^1Alfaa^ffalJ•f•^^
_A ^^^^^Af^fi^MMMAlM JI ^ r
^JfflJ• af! ar7

• ^urIIID.4•11111U--- = f• Eli ff^^^ M AI^Afffr

Similarly, in the following example, Telemann only indicates a few ligatures_ Aside
from these, one can choose between an interpretation entirely in detached notes and one
that is enhanced by a number of slurs to be determined by the articulation, expression and
rapidity of the phrases.
In the following extract, the choice is left to the performer:

A.L. - 25.732
^^ _^ ^,_
^ g-

18

(Allegro): G. Ph. TELEMANN (c1716)

^ MINIM ^^aJF ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^


.+-ár/^^.^^ ^^ ^^ 1•
!.. ^_`^__
^^ ^^ _ *w^^^^^
+ 1^^•. ^ = 1/^
ut ^ =^^^ -.•r=1

The tirata (detached) and the coulade' (run) (1)

However, the absence of slurs may also indicate the composer's wish for an interpre-
tation entirely in detached notes, as this definition of the tirata by Montéclair suggests: The
tirata requires separate bowing or, on wind instruments, tonguing for each note, and the
'coulade' (run) takes all the notes under a single bow, or in a single tongue stroke, or r the
same syllable:

MONTÉCLAIR. (1736)

tiratas

...^11■1,1•1M •11111111•1111110M,. . ■..1^ 1.41.111 /AMU


.t)^^. I /^1'Jr1^7^^r^^^,^/^.^r•.^.J^^J . N t, t ^ ...^
^^^^.^f
:i:^w^rr ,L:r.^^
i ^/ r.r^^
-
' _
—/_—.
MI MINI


^^; _
^^^1
lJ.dJ JJ ^^1 ,

vo - lez, vo - Icz, petits of - seaux vo - lez pe-tits Oi - seaux

According to the character of the piece, then, a succession of rapid notes may require
to be performed as detached notes: ... when there are three or more demkemiquavers after
a dot or rest ( . . . ) they are then played at the fastest possible speed (2), as often happens
in Overtures, Entrées and Furies. However, one must give to each of these fast notes its own
distinct bow-stroke (3) and hardly anything may be slurred. (Quantz)

(1) See also the `coulade' (run), p. 35


(2) See paragraph `double-dotted notes', p. 27
(3) What Quantz says here for the strings can equally apply to the wind, in particular the flute, the detached notes
being produced by very rapid double-tonguing.

A.I.. - 25.732
19

Filling in slurs according to a given opening

When the nature of the passage-work is constant, the composer often indicates the slurs
at the beginning only. It is then correct to apply the given phrasing to the whole section:

Passage-work: HOTTETERRE (1719)

MN -.maw _á NNW ■■ MOM


:^^^:D^:D^: ^?^ ^^_^ ?;^.^'^


^.
.^^ ^^ ^C
r
;=^
:^ ^^CM=^:d
.r C:^ ^C^ ^C.^^^
■ •••_,•- ^_^^^
(simile)
Arpeggio

• J WM
• MOMMIMIJ7JIW allIIIIJ•1JIIIIIMWM IIIMMINt 1111•11111/ff ./1IIIMMIMIWJMIrtJ WM OM MAIMS WM OW OM MIMI J I

...^.7^J^ _ ^^J^^^^/^^/^^_^^^_^^^^r^ _ „mi.
/19^•1^ ^V-m _ ow.-- ^^r^^^^^^^_^_—_^_-_^_J
_ • ■—m^^.^1
/^I
Vr .-^^^^^^. O ^^ ^^...^^ _—`
1M---...-^^.^--
.^—_— ^^_ ^^ —_--
^^—^ _^^t—^+^
-- ^

Alternation of slurred and detached passages

It may happen that the composer, as with Hotteterre for example, marks slurs over
certain passages and not over others. In that case it seems logical to observe what he has
written: Notes which must be slurred should be played as they are written, since a parti-
cular expression is often sought thereby. But equally, one must not slur those which
should be stressed. (Quantz)

Prelude: HOTTETERRE (1719)


Moderately
;1:I ^. ^ ^ ^^^ I7 JO WM MI
Atir.•=)>i weir >I.^ _
=7 ^^ _
^A^.^^ ^^' 1 r. >r^^^ 1^ JMMMM^ ^M _
1..
V. •MM..__ i= ^.s^^^^^ ^^^^^^^...— _ JONI

+

ÌI'lUMWW>'1>•MO MMIW MOW' a ... 1J11W • WWI t./ 111111W1 WM 1
..WIOMIIIIr.lJI /D = .M IN 5.7.111 MII1.
is•ammon- MMMMM .571
J.^ - 1^^^^^i^^ 11111MIM WOW / OM 011J w-■11111 Iw^1
..111■I1■111Y011111M.■ 1011 - MU t IIINIMINI11J

N.B. The performer, however, is allowed a certain amount of freedom to modify the articulation shown by the composer;
we have this on Bordet's authority: Although I have almost always slurred the first two quavers of each bar or beat,
one is at liberty to detach all of them, or group them in twos, especially in the pardessus (1) and the violin, so as to
facilitate the bowing ('Six Sonatas for 2 transverse flutes, pardessus de violes and all similar instruments). This
liberty, however, should be taken only rarely and with great care, and should be exclusively reserved for cases in
which there are special instrumental difficulties.

It may be seen, then, that the possibility of adding slurs (where they are not indicated
by the composer) depends on the musical context, but that as a general rule the performer
should introduce them only with the greatest discrimination, always bearing in mind Quantz's
warning—which it is worth recalling yet again: The notes must not appear to be glued
together.

(1) (Translator's note) Pardessus de viole —a member of the viol family, smaller than the treble and tuned a fourth above it.

A.L. - 25.732
20

UNEQUAL NOTES

Inequality of notes is a manner of playing which bestows on them a sort of swinging


motion, designed to give then more grace (Saint-Lambert); it gives a flow to the melody and
makes it more supple. (Choquel)

This inequality is not only found in Baroque music. It is to be seen in older music (1),
both Western and Eastern, and in various present-day forms of music (Pop music, jazz, etc.).
The Baroque era, however, was pretty well systematic in its use of it. Here is Quantz's
definition:

In pieces in a moderate tempo, or even in an Adagio, the fastest notes must be played
with some inequality, although they appear to be of equal value; in such a way that in each
figure there should be a stress on the strong notes, viz. the first, third, fifth and seventh,
more than on those which come between them, namely the second, fourth, sixth and eii h,
although one should not sustain them for as long as if they were dot:cd. But this is c re
only if these notes are not mixed with figures of even faster, or shorter notes in the same
metre; for then it is these la tter which should be played in the manner just described. (2)
If for example one wished to play the (following) semiquavers slowly with equal values,
this would not be so agreeable as when one leans a l'-tle on the first and third of the four
notes, giving the sound a little more strength than on Le second and fourth notes:

(,) (y) (') (,) (>) (›-) (>)


(,)

But exempt from this rule are, primarily, fast passages in Q very rapid pulse where the
speed does not allow unequal playing, and where one cannot lean or apply a stress except on
the first of the four notes ( . . . ). (See the second example from Naudot on p. 21)

This definition sums up the principal points on unequal playing made by musicians
of the 17th and 18th centuries, namely:

— Inequality consists in prolonging and leaning on notes to make up pairs of


one long and one short. This inequality cannot easily be notated. In very schematic and
general terms it can be roughly transcribed as follows:

(1) As early as 1550, in France, Loys Bourgeois mentions this in his treatise 'Le droict chemin de musicque
(2) See also Câjon's observation on this point, p. 24.

A.L. - 25.732

21

I ii■I•wilm■ RE_` 7- R ^ 3
•MNs1■=11MON1 NI UMw I
.011P,IIMIMIMMIS MI/r-- _ MIMPAIMM ■11010" MEN NW IMAM= roaromeri
i..r. f^'a ^^^^---MAO-
— ^—^ —I r..W.710■AW a^^ ^^^^M ^^^
wa: MINIIMIM MOM IMMJIM Mil ^ vr^.. •11111=M1 -AM= ^^
MUM 1111111111

— It is the smallest values of any single movement (or, within a movement, those of a
given passage) which are made unequal (1 ) (with the exception of notes considered as grace-
notes. See p. 27).

The two examples below are extracts from the first movement of a concerto by J. C.
Naudot: the eighth notes in the first example and the sixteenth notes in the second are
unequal:

J. C. NAUDOT (c1741)

Allegro
.
,
1) i ^-^,
».^^^.^^^^^
^^^ ^^^
^
_^^^.^
^^^.^. ,M^o...,^^^

AU
r^
s7^7 ^=^.
..^..
^.

NMI MMIL— „.011M IMIN.M1/ s^^r


• ;_
.11MINMI ^.^ WM/BM MAI MM.=
M .MIN NM MI■
ME
MEMO NMI NM MINN ^A^^^a,•
^^^i ' r
Allegro

:t7>• =1 NM Min ME MN MOr .s r71 .A111 MIMI MI 111 IMI..A1 NM/ WV!
2) 1111_
M MMMM,WI'IMMII w^^^^MMM J^—.^I / rMM ^^^
! ^^ =rMU ^^. - ' MI MI ME MI =MIMI M.MIMr110 MOM
\Vi —M=M ^— MOM Mom ^^

— Inequality is applied to every movement permitting notes to be unequalised in twos,

except for those of too fast a speed to make it practicable (see p. 25 for other exceptions).
In this case only the first note of each group is lengthened and stressed. Thus in the previous
extract from Naudot's concerto, if the speed chosen does not allow the sixteenth notes to
be played unequally, they can be rendered as follows:

Allegro
(_)

(^) (=) (y) (-)
I .
.i•t:ANUO1---_^
li/s77»— —__—_ 1+ _^—._—_-_--tJ^s
m• =EMU MIME= M
WM/ Ar../W
12/.40
'.. ^^ ^ ■ ^^^^^^^t 5^^^^ — ^-------_` ■
l r^ __
V = ^^.— ^^^•^^ ^^^^^ ^L ^ ^^
_ M^^^^ ^

N.B. Only a considerable rapidity of execution can, therefore, prevent the sixteenth notes from being played in unequal
twos, for we must not forget Montéclair's caution: Whatever the metre may be, where there are four notes to fill
up a beat, these should always be unequal.

(1) Again on this point, consult Cajon's remark on p. 24

A.L. - 25.732

fi

22

Different degrees of inequality

When notes are to be unequalised, taste must decide whether they should be unequal
by little or by much: there are some pieces where it is appropriate to make them very un-
equal, and others where they require to be less so; as with pulse, this too is decided by taste.
(Saint-Lambert)

Engramelle defines the different degrees of inequality thus:

There is an essential observation to be made concerning quavers that are often played
unequally in twos. Written scores do not tell us what the value of this difference is; if it is
a half, a third or a quarter; yet it would seem essential to define it; for if the notated value
of the quavers were to be observed exactly as they are written on the music paper, they
would all be equal in duration, sustaining and silence, and this is rarely heard in per-
formance (... )

Unequal quavers are marked in twos ( . . . ) of which the first ( . . . ) is longer, and the
second ( . . . ) is shorter: but what is the difference between the longer and the shorter?

In some cases the difference is a half, so that the first notes are to be played as if
dotted quavers and the second notes semiquavers; in others the difference is of a third, so
that the first note is worth two thirds of a crotchet and the second its remaining third;
finally there are others where this difference, a less palpable one, should be in the propor-
tion of 3 to 2 as if the first note were 3/5 of a crotchet and the second 2/5.

Here are two examples of inequality cited by Engramelle which relate respectively to
the first case (marked inequality) and to the third case (slight inequality):

Marked inequality:

The King's March

, (+)^ (+)
• MIINI NO rt ar7 Ma/ 17•111110 M / /WIN aa.+ rJ•^J ^1
.^Il^^/'^^ L1d^1M^^J^^/^ t =^>•i1^^^J^^
I)
/ l..^ II/r^r Y +_rI_-^-,^^^^^I^^r^/r^^ I/
V.=1111 =MN AIM rarrra rr -"MOM
^^^^^MIIMrlNN
^r111111 NE r Min ^^^ `.-71♦ ^

• ^tr.MMr^ , aJ0OINrrrrrMIIF MINI-NI MINI I 1 MN 01;1) WiaIIIPrara.■ Lot r.INNIMIN


:1IINI■
..INIJMNII MM. 11111111110111M11 rt>•MI
MJIrra1MINP.•rINI IJrrJrrr MINuacr171MIIIIIIIIM11 MN
V MINNr=^=raaJr M rlrr^i/1•
V OM' /MAIM Va NM• MINIM i^

11111

^ s
'MIMI if... .r^■ ^^.^. ^ .^.. ^
.rrrtrrrrr /1rr••Jf /MINN IIINIA>•M OM MI arT .^ ^.^^
w^ In/7.iN/I WW1 ..1111•11111.1■11.111 .rl• ... I'M
rrJ MEMO ENNMI/ IJMMMJM / /l^li
ONN MINN rJrar a..1111i/-aMMrraMIJlIN/ wrrt
V t^^^^^=rr1 ^r• VIM =MEMO=
a^ll^^rrr^r^^r^^^^a^ar^71
• 1M. ^.^.

Speaking of the eighth notes, Engramelle says: It is as if the first notes were dotted
quavers and the second semiquavers. As to the triplet quavers, they will be made equal.
This gives us:

A.L.- 25.732

...`v
._... ..__„ x, •.^: ». .,
23

..•
I 1 . .. . T
aIM• MINI t• SIM 1I•mMI MN, 1..■ r1'1r•_11 ■11J ar7 INI
.SIMNS
as Ma
I[ memr-wwww
a^ 1
Q=mi■o■rI•asso1
^^ JIM MIMI= IMP
r>t'^^r•r1^^II
11 r• / NE IMI1SIM111.4•111
^l1^•• 1^ 7•1.1
RV^1^^ ^^^1
^ 8 . ` alh'Z -......eC
etc.

N.B. The performer will determine the articulatory silences for himself. The same applies in the following example.

Slight inequality:

The Fountain of Youth


• — .11— NI
1171: /7 / :IOW 1 11/.... 1♦ 17 1.I ■ 1/7/
A/1/ra/T 1 A 1 M //1/ I r1111=
N 1'
7 • .111M-
^
011111•1•1=J1=_1IMMIlJ AIM11/4111=/ tsr1W1
^ .iss.
1♦^r1sr^1^^^l1Jt
...... t,1 IMI
MIMI IN MI
//J1t 1/I/_11/J 1IIIIIIII/1^1/f 1111/
Mr•INE_
^ —
i./
r/ u r^1/1^I/r1/ /1^11//•1J1
'''IMI/t• / /Y /a1^/1/.a1^1I
^^1^1^^1sJ^^L^ - t ♦^1
MIMI
1
Air

^\

/ MOM IRE JItJ MOW 1rr7/1 1 I /I /7J /= al Illr= /T IJ1r1 = ■7IM.INII IIINr/•1 r^
.t I011IIMI•■1I1111W ^SJ^11r1NIr^rI11^Jr1/I
i « n MN =...811•11111111111111 ■r11Jr^1J= WI IJI^^rlrlrrr ^
— — ^ simmwmpossossala NM USN ^^^^^^1_^^^^^^^ ■••/^ r^ ^^

I aNS/ ^1 1J/^1 1• _
IOW SI../1111111W^ L•^ ^^r/•r111=1
• aJIMEr/Jr1111111•11, 11011111/.J0110•r1MINI•J1r/ MON rrMS IM11 ^111111 1JrI••J IM= -1
r /7•1•11
..111•111P
V. . IN MI SW
t•1I■1
=MIMI MSS
^^^t♦• t♦1 /1.-=Yr1/=_=====J1/^1
L^1^
^1
111111 MIN Ell ^1

The semiquavers are unequal in the proportion of 3 to 2, as Engramelle specifies. This


can be realised as follows:
s s
^ r^ /1 1/r MI•A^^
.•^_taJr^/I^t•Jf r,^
^^^^t,tlt♦ IIMPW 1 ^ 1
^t: •J•r1^.a1^
. L^^ ^
11. ^_^•1111^11/^1— S/ Yrlrrr^rlt•1^1^
w/i. a==`1N^^^ 1 etc.
^a^ó ^ ii •1^

Reversed inequality:

Sometimes inequality can be reversed by making the first (half beat) shorter than the
second:

LOU LIÉ

This type of inequality, less common than the first, is not without resemblance to the
`chute' (fglling appo ggiatura, sec p. 34), and is particularly applicable in fast movements.
Thus it can be seen that inequality may assume different forms, and that it may vary
according to the character and speed of a piece. As a result one must be careful not to
interpret this inequality in a systematic or monotonous way, which would make a per-
formance as dull as if the notes were being played with strict equality. There again, good
taste and musicality remain the only touchstones.
In the following table, we set out the note values which should be unequalised (dotted)
according to the principal metres in which they are found along with the definitions by
Cajon and Hotteterre which epitomise contemporary practice:

A.L. - 25.732

r
•^ :^ =
^-:- _ .^^^^m-3.- ^--_-

24
Table for unequalising values in the principal metres
according to Cdjon and Hotteterre

Metres in 4:

C Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon)


12
4 Quavers are unequal (Câjon)
12 Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon)
8

Metres in 2:

s*, 2 and Quavers are played unequally (Câjon)


4 and 8 Normally quavers are equal and semiquavers dotted (Hotteterre)

8 One might also use a which would be composed of 2 equal quavers


or 4 unequal semiquavers (Hotteterre)
6 Quavers are unequal (Câjon)
4
6 Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon)
8

Metres in 3:
3 Here quavers are played unequally, and when these are not used in `his
2
metre then it is the crotchets that are played unequally (Câjon)
3 and 4 Quavers are unequal (Câjon)
3 8 Quavers are equal and semiquavers dotted (Hotteterre)
9 Quavers are unequal (Câjon)
4
9
8 Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon)

(Observation):
When in a melody there are notes of lesser value than those which are prescribed as
unequal by the kind of metre in which they are found, then, as the notes of lesser value
should be unequal, those which the nature of the metre ought to render unequal will
become equal.
Thus, if semiquavers have been used in a melody whose metre is 2, then the quavers be-
come equal; it is the same for every metre in' which quavers are declared to be unequal.
For the same reason, in every metre in which semiquavers ought to be unequal, they
will become equal if the melody has demisemiquavers. This rule would even extend to
demisemiquavers if a melody made regular use of hemidemisemiquavers. (Câjon)

A.L. -25.732

25

Exceptions to the rule of inequality

The rule of inequality is of general application, except in the following cases:

—contrary instructions from the composer (`equal quavers', etc.)


—when the notes are played in groups of three, which does not allow unequalisation in
twos: All notes, of whatever value, that are played in groups of three are always equal,
whether these be natural or incidental to the type of metre present. (Cájon)

Gigue: E. F. DALL'ABACO (1675-1742)

Ia W •a•11M•411111111 r=1/11111111111111•1111=100r IMM ra..all■111•111•7•11111


.^7• _^^
_ MIN-, MNI/S-71M-41•11MINNIO ■IIMM
I ••
1■ I MEN --^ MIN ^^^^^^^^^^



w11$111111/7» / INI NE ).111Pt./ MIPt 1111111 = 1■7 ■ r71■ ^ ^ •/ ^ • MI
:0•7..11111V11111 •/I^1^^./^M.^^^M.^^^ ^ ^^^
• r
— when the tempo is too fast for inequality in groups of two to be performed or per-
ceived (see p. 21).
— repeated notes: One must also make the same exception when several notes of the
same pitch follow one another. (Quantz)

Allemande: J. C. SCHICKHARDT (1670?-1740)


Allegro

MNIMII ^^.^...^^...^^_ ^^^_^ ^^


.^1^f= ^^^^^^ ■ ^=M^^^^^^Y^^J^^^,/^.^^
MINN
i-
1111111.1• ■••••111111111111MM111•111•M
^^^^^^^^^^^ MO MI ^ ^^^
^ ^^^^^^.
^rrrrrrrr_^^

— note-heads which have dots or dashes: an exception should be made for notes on
which there are dashes or dots. (Quantz)
When one finds quavers or semiquavers with dots above or below, one must then make
them equal and detached. (Denis):

Passage-work: HOTTETERRE
Briskly and with equal quavers

^-
^:.^^^^ ^^ ^ _.^^
^ • =a^ ^^ r^ LIC_r=
^^^^^^^^^^^

■-■•11rr1111•111111111.-1=111
^^ — rIN10rr0111
MO
V^ ^= ^^ ^^• ^^`
.41. ••1111
spiccato

— slurred notes: (... ) when there is an arch (slur) over notes in groups of more than

two, that is, groups of 4, 6 or 8. (Quantz)

Passage-work: HOTTETERRE
Spirited

• V

• •
^ . C

—L*

A.L. - 25.732

i[;

{
26

c í^

N.B. It may happen, however, that a number of slurred notes greater than two will not
always preclude a certain inequality, such as that required by Hotteterre in the following
example:

I Go
Musette: HOTTETERRE
Gently, with the quavers dotted

t o.

—a sequence of disjunct intervals:

Fugue: HOTTETERRE
Spirited, equal quavers

%maim ■■■■... ■
.^fífl' ^^•
^uJ^I.Iu^^^^^
..^/rl/t.J^^lJ^^rM •^
.,I7
W/ ^
1^ ^ ^^f^^fMrs^^rs
?i r +.r^^ ^■
/m^/'7r^^^
^a^s.I ^=^^ ^^^ ^^j^^:^.fl^^
v^^•w=M^rMMMM^^:== J^17
^ ^r :::^^.:^^.^ wr^• ^^^ MU ^. ^^^^

Couplet from the Passacaglia in Armide (Lully)

l.^
What makes the quavers equal on this occasion is firstly their intervallic leaps, and further, the fact that they are inter-
mired with semiquavers. (Hotteterre)

Courante by SigrCORELLI
Another example of equal
quavers, this time in Italian music: Allegro

(Hotteterre)

— the basses of Sara- Sarabande: A. D. PHILIDOR (1712)


bandes when the y arc equal notes
entirely in quavers: ,^^ ^= ^ ^ r..^ ^^^.r. .^
R:S]=^mamma =Mir ran. Mr/^^^^^^^^I=
.... m ^^^^
(Hotteterre) ..m, .
1111111.111M...IM.ILAMM+..^...■^.^
:! }_^_•_iss^^^^
— ..

A.L. - 25.732
27

— notes of small value which correspond to ornaments:

Passage-work: HOTTETERRE
r - ... (equal) --- - •+
Solemnly
- (equal) --
1 -a-
^
• NM 7 'IMINf' UNIM
.Mt1 =1111111=1111 :7.7 7J.1/IU IrIIMII■M --
..wry 1^^^^i7^^^r^Mj r1•^^ L7•- NMI
^■ ^^ ^--- M^^.7^M>•rM^M^- M^^,
mumg
WIWI.

^ -___
(equal) - - r (equa» ;
' ^T

:.M ^^^^MM[
MMI
:M
M1MMlIMIMMIMM14/11' WM=
Y

111■1( 74E1 AION 7•INV /rM- milt.•M>>I


=NI -• ■••7=11J•• ^>•^^^
1+^'^^^M^MI- 7•••••■11111110 ■1■1^ ^^^ ^1
m
Obse rvation: The Italians make less use of inequality. According to J. J. Rousseau: In
Italian music the quavers are always equal, unless they are shown as dotted.

DOUBLE-DOTTED NOTES

This is the name for a type of inequality which is very pronounced, applying to dotted
notes followed by notes of small value: in performance the dotted note is double-dotted and
the small value shortened.
The note which follows the dot is always extremely short. (Quantz)
The short notes which follow dotted notes are always shorter in performance than
their value suggests; it is therefore superfluous to add dots (to dotted notes) or hooks (to
short notes). (C. P. E. Bach)
This would be transcribed as follows:

or rather, with the articulatory silences which L'Affilard does not neglect to mention (To
make the dots into their value, one must hold the dotted crotchet and play the subsequent
quaver quickly):

h • IN _
^^-

Different instances of double-dotted notes

Quantz is very explicit about these different cases: The dotted notes in example 1
(see below) require almost the full value of a crotchet, and those in ex. 2 that of a quaver (1).
(1) Hence it is necessary to double -d ot the dotted notes.

A.L. - 25.732

r
it
I 1

a; t,,^^ ^ • .
rr

^-r?=^ r ,__.-.. . -:-^-e . ^ ..- .__^..^.'.,


—x-_ =^^ - -- — _. -;-^-^ -^-' ^^. s ?^ _ r •,---r..^.:^:>._ -°- --
--= —– " ...

28

One cannot determine precisely the value of the short note after the dot. To form a clearer
idea of it ( . . . ) play the upper notes (of ex. lb and 2b) and hold the dotted notes until the
time required for the lower dotted notes has elapsed. The dotted notes( 1 ) will only last as
long as the lower hemidemisemiquavers.

Ex. 1 Ex. 2


Ex. lb Ex. 2b

(Quantz)

Dotted notes followed by more than one short note

In this case the short


notes must likewise be played Ex. 3 Ex. 4
more rapidly than they are
shown: The more one prolongs
the dots after the notes
(examples 3 and 4), the more
(Quantz)
caressing and agreeable will be
the expression:

Thus this extract from a Prelude:

HOTTETERRE
Solemnly

.i.n
. mm.= /01111111•111■71^^^•s^r r^^r8üi^ ^1^irMí^r^.^•^^^ v
r. ^ita^ ■^^.s AIM/Wits MIMI n^^^^^^^
.^•^rrs^^^^
^t ^^^ ^
11111111•1•11M- ^^^^^^s.^ ^sa^^^^a V ^^^ ^ ^ ^ ■
/MEW MMININW~ a1•••111111111-11111■11r111
MN L

should be performed:

%1
N l
^r^áw ^^^.^^^^ ^w ^^ító•i ^ i^.í
^^i'a^ ^ ` ^irr^^r• i^c^áií^r ^i^^^ AM as.^INI ^^
V• MIrIIMIi■
1.. s'.s■•■ ••■
imuot/—
OW 1.111=
a■■ •...•
^
•-aJssummoomiw/wniar/seum....•r
E E ■:
cosiLarossus•r I/wwwwwe- womr1.as ■
■••■=rsi ■I/eummummamor sow imaw mallowm^••=lreesc■
É

(1) By `dotted notes' Quantz here means the notes a/ter the dots, that is to say the sixteenth notes and thirty-second notes
in the upper line which would be played as sixty-fourth notes (see ex. lb and 2b).

A.L. - 25.732
29
Reversed dotted rhythm

When the rhythm dotted note—sho rt note fl is reversed ^•, the same rule still
applies to the short note and it must again be shortened.
The notes D and C (in example 5) should not last longer than those (in example 6),
whether the tempo is slow or fast:

Ex. 5 Ex. 6

Silence replacing the dot

When the dot is replaced by a short rest, the same rule must be applied. When, after a
long note and a short rest, there are demisemiquavers (example 7), the latter should always
be played very quickly, whether in an Adagio or an Allegro. Before playing them, there-
fore, one must wait until the very end of the beat to which they are allocated, and at the
same time avoid getting out of time. (Quantz)
As C. P. E. Bach confirms: When there is a short rest, it must be prolonged, even at the
price of hurrying the group which follows.

Ex. 7
to be
performed:

It is the same for a brief rest followed by a group of notes in dotted rhythm. Quantz
specifically tells us: If in a slow Allabreve (1) or in a full bar of four beats one finds a semi-
quaver rest on the beat with dotted notes following it (example 8), the rest must be per-
formed as if there were a dot or a rest of half its value after it and the following note had an
extra hook.

Ex. 8
to be
performed:

(1) When the Italians modify the metre whose sign is a large C by drawing a line through this sign (4), it indicates, as we
know, the Allabreve metre. The French use this metre for different types (of movement), as for Bourrées. Entrées.
Rigaudons, Gavottes, Rondeaux, etc. However, instead of the ¢ they put a large 2 which likewise indicates that the notes
are to be played twice as fast as in other metres. Moreover, in this metre as well as in crotchet triple time (3/4) which
is used for the Loure, the Sarabande, the Courante, and the Chaconne, the quavers which follow the dotted crotchets are
not expressed according to their true value, but in a very short, sharp manner (... ). All dotted notes are treated in the
same way if the tempo permits, and when there are three or more demisemiquavers after a dot or rest they are not always
performed according to their true value, especially in slow pieces; but one waits for the very end of the beat to which they
are allocated and plays them as fast as possible, as often happens in Overtures, Entrées and Furies. (Quantz)
A
A
A A.L. -25.732
r

30

A nacrusis:

Similarly, when a short note (anacrusis) Allemande


begins a movement, this may be further
shortened: A single quaver is always short.
(Saint-Lambert)
(J)
;..^•^ ..^..: ^^ ^
A•...1.MI•11••
^t

Superimposition and succession of different rhythms:

On this subject, Quantz writes: This rule (of double-dotting) should also be observed
when one of the parts has triplets against which the other part has dotted notes (example 1).
The short note following the dot must not be sounded until after the third note of the
triplet rather than at the same time as it. Unless this is done the metre could be confused
with 6/8 or 12/8 (example 2), and the two types of note must be treated very differently
from each other ( . . . ) If one were to play the dotted notes appearing beneath the triplets
in such a way as to give them their normal value, the effect, instead of being brilliant, would
merely be deformed and insipid:

Ex. 1 Ex. 2
MEIN
1
Mai INN arr III II. ANN All=111■9•1=1111 ^ Ir!' U.rr^^^^
^—^ t t Mr s

L...1 • r
According to Quantz, which thus differen-
then, ex. 1 should be tiates clearly between
interpreted in this way: the two rhythms.

Observation: Quantz's rule only applies when triplets are added to a rhythm which is ini-
tially dotted. If, on the contrary, the rhythm is essentially composed of triplets, the dotted

notes are then interpreted as in the lower part in example 2, the notation r 7
- 7 not being in
use at this time.
Thus the third movement of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto should be performed in
the rhythm shown above the stave:

Allegro: J. S. BACH (1721)


r— s –I J

oh 171
^ 3 3 -
rrlaa
r0ttrW111.11111111P r.illl
^r 'M ar
11111111•11M1NIM4// Mad= ^^rrlI^^rr^^^
ININI^lIg-,1111M.s-7.1111M ^t.lMa7//ralr ^lr^^r^
a1r 11111

IV
.^^IA♦^
^^ i^Ilr^'^t ^^^^ ^r/^r ^ /l•^ rl./■^^^
a^ --—

M 1":71 Of"7"")
R1110140I
Ilegg.á+ /1
111111111111•1111111 ti r^rr11^1^^lr^It^ r^t.sas •
^^^ ^rr^ ^^Iworrl^^^^r1IPAIl.imillirMa.
il
VW — W..-
i irrl^r iniirsmw^=r^ —i — ^^^ l s^^-^o^^^
^r^
` ut.

A.L.-25.732
Exceptions to the rule of double-dotted notes

Naturally, double-dotted notes should be used knowingly, and one should distinguish
between melodic passages and those cases where the short values following a dotted note are
simply the opening of a rhythm which does not lend itself as a whole to double-dotting.
It is only in the generality of cases that short notes should be played quickly, for there
are exceptions. Melodies in which they occur should be examined carefully. (C. P. E. Bach)
Thus the short notes in the examples below do not appear to need double-dotting:

2nd Brandenburg Concerto: J. S. BACH (1721)

Andante

■•.• ^^
11111111111111•11•11111111 1■1111111111/
••■• witm allow
-.am=
ogimmol Mir OEM sow mu 11111•11111=1111 ^a^^

Sonata: J. F. FASCH (1688-1758)

Allegro

Passage-work: HOTTETERRE

Spirited

,=M _ EMI MI - MO
/11/7M-AM _-../N1 _^S.t ='7
. ^7^^^s a^r^^^^^^= ^^^^ OM =Ell
/..t^1^^S.^^^^^^^^^^ m ■ MI ^^ ^^_
Vr^^^^^ ■ ^^ - NNW ^i MIMI =^^
^^^-^--
^^^^ ^.

A.L. - 25.732

32

RUBATO
t-

What we call rubato—that sort of elasticity in playing and of suppleness brought to a


rigid beat—is not an invention of the Romantics: far from it! Already in 1601 Caccini
alludes to it (Nuove Musiche), and it was to become a characteristic feature of musical inter-
pretation in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The beat—whether in two or in three—is changed a number of times to make a given piece
of music sing, hurrying or retarding the downbeat or tale upbeat according to the text and
words, or to the differing passions of the subject. (Mersenne, `Harmonie Universelle', 1636) tr•

Perhaps in an .4 it there may be no four bars that are of exactly the same length (... ) Ohs
For if Italian music draws its energy from slavery to a strict beat, the French put all theirs 1001
into subjecting this same beat to their will, hurrying it and retarding it, according as the
savour of the song and the agility of the singer's organs dictate. (Rousseau)
One must not adhere too precisely to the beat in the Double below; everything must be d
sacrificed to taste, to the neatness of the passage-work, and to an adequately affective r^
rendering of the accents marked with a mordent:

Double of the Nightingale in love (1722)

MÌL.O ■ •' ■-a1 /7 1111•71,••■•••■•


■.....M11111 IM1^ ^^ _
WWI ■ I>••••
.^_rI/1trr■^—=ICs^^e^ _^^^^^^ M r_^_
.d111110 111•111 h11/211/./11111
■ ^M^^^^^^^—l^^M1^^II^ IIIN■11111111•a-al■ a/•111111MINNI1111116.M1
/\
[0:

•••
NNW My 1. ^wv ,
_
.....•~~
-^

^^ i
^ T --
, .r
^•
a.
,.n^r^ •--.
^^Mr^ NI., /M
I.r11•rfr101L7l'I 11,M.IM•1M0 AP7MIIIIM111•1111117
MlIIII•r AO
MTIMII/•PIM =IMPIP"INE MIMI r
.Mina MOM=
MI IMI 111/111•Mo1 lrAr \
1Ei..1Ma.■ ••_••a.f 4.-t•MIIIIMIIIMMIIIME M=MIMINIMI•1110r .^.rr1Pra•18-ININIIIINNINIZIMrsir11141 .^ 1f 1'1-1•NIF • /Mr
,V11NMt PI MrMEIIIIMMrM-74S1111•1MINIM7 11.1rI/MINNIa:aaIN/aINO r .

/NM •1M011■r •J111INK.I


.
—'r.
Li .T.d.rlS-a■•■ NM! ^r S./M^r tn^^ _11•
NM I
' . !■ •
} =
(F. COUPERIN)

A.L. - 25.732
33

Embellishment
For greater convenience, a clear distinction should first of all be made between grace
notes and ornaments, even though these two terms were frequently confused in the past
(as they are today). (1)
Let us say that ornaments are variations, embellishments designed to vary, indeed to
adorn the skeleton of the musical text (we shall return to this later), and that grace notes (or
`notes de goût')—more sober an d more concise—are the little notes, the trills, the vibratos
etc. added by the composer or (more often) the performer to embellish, or grace, the musical
text and increase its beauty. (Saint-Lambert)

GRACE NOTES
It is almost impossible by using the written word to teach the manner of forming these grace notes well,
since even the living voice of an experienced master barely suffices for that. (Montéclair)

When, where and how to apply grace notes

It is easy to err in any of four ways over this important aspect of melody (the subject
here is grace notes) ( ... ), to wit: by omission, by inappropriateness, by excess and by want
of skill. By omission, the melody and harmony become naked and unadorned. By inappro-
priateness, the playing becomes crude and uncouth. By excess, it becomes confused and
ridiculous. And by want of skill, heavy and constrained. This is why great care must be
taken over these invaluable adornments of music every time there is need of them; much
circumspection is required in knowing where to place them correctly, and much dexterity in
expressing them well (... ). (Muffat)
Where can one learn to distinguish those notes which should be coloured and those
places in the melody where one kind of grace note is more suitable than another? One must
study pieces in which all the grace notes are written out and in which there are neither too
many nor too few of them (see examples at the end of this chapter). Afterwards one must
listen to people who have a reputation for playing well. It is from such models that one's
taste must be formed while doing one's own practising at the same time. For it is impossible
to give rules for the placing of grace notes that will apply in every case. (Marpurg)
It is impossible ever to fully understand how all these grace notes must be expressed;
because it is not possible to explain it completely in writing, since the manner of expressing
them changes according to the pieces in which they are used. And here I can only say in a
general way: grace notes should never alter the melody nor the metre of a piece; thus, for
pieces in a spirited tempo, the appoggiaturas and arpeggios should be quicker than when the
movement is slow; one must never hurry in making a grace note, however quickly it has to
be played; one must take one's time to prepare the fingers, and perform it with boldness and
freedom (,... ) Good taste is the only criterion. However, it is very important to know
how to perform grace notes well; for otherwise they will disfigure pieces instead ofincreasing
their beauty, and it would be better not to play them at all than to play them badly. (Saint-
Lambert)
Here, in alphabetical order, is a list of the p ri ncipal grace notes, with a summary of
contemporary definitions. Sometimes two authors will give the same grace note different
names. In such cases the more usual terminology is adopted.
(1) `Ornaments (ornements) were often termed optional ornaments or grace notes; and 'grace notes' (agréments) essential
ornaments oi grace notes.

A.L. - 25.732
v
s-:.
..-_.
_ _
-. .
-_
. . .
__
.,
-P . --<
;

34

Observation: In the majority of cases, tables of grace notes given by writers of the past are only schemes for realisation.
These grace notes should therefore be interpreted flexibly and in accordance with the context in which they appear.

ACCENT

The accent, also called aspiration, or `son coupé' (interrupted sound), is terminated by
means of an imaginary note above the one on which the sound is; it is expressed by a broken
inflection of the voice:
^ ü
ILO
a i
^
A i7
•7 ^ ^ I [l
1 A^^ ^^ 1^

(David)
The accent is marked by a small perpendicular dash above the note and is only made
upwards or at the end of a held note, according to the expression (of the piece). (Denis)
( . . . ) The little quaver must be felt as if it were indeed a note, but with a very weak
sound, since otherwise the performance of this grace note would not be in good taste; the
sound of the first note must therefore be lengthened, leaning heavily on its vowel, and the
accent must be felt at the end of the name (I) of this note, on the pitch of the note above.
(Choquel)
strong Strong
The accent is an aspiration or sorrowful note note
lifting of the voice which is practised more accent accent
often in plaintive Airs than in tender ones; it r
never appears in spirited Airs nor in those ex-
pressing anger:
(Montéclair)
One can hardly determine all the places
where the accent should be placed; normally
it appears at the very end of a dotted crotchet
when it is followed by a quaver on the same
degree, in metres, that is to say, where the
quavers are unequal:
lam
(Hotteterre)
(1st book for the transverse flute, 1708)
CHiJTE (Fall)

The fall is an inflection of the yoke which, after having leant on a note for some
time (A), gently, and as if dying, falls onto a lower degree (B) without lingering there ( . . . )
The fall brings much grace to songs of pathos:
• ^ ^^ri
sar.ass.:
aromm. .^^•v^.
-1......^. 111•1•1•111111
WI=
111ria
^•^it:.^.^_^w• ^.^^^^n


fall fall fall fall

AB A B AB port de voix
a
^^car.11MM IMiNN/WZA..IMraa.MON/fi0.411•111INOI riiIIIIIIIMMII.mWEIINIOI
i NIMMr_^11•=1 ^^^

'r
MI
MN
1111•rn.ua.11ri■1111111
1w11111.MMIa..IIII s 1-21MINi.IIritar.AM.a. ■ • Ir i1=
OIIIIIIirui .r1/1111•MisIBMVAIIIMM INIOr^^u.a^.^^^r.^^uw.^^. 1
i

(Montéclair)
(1) i.e., its name in solfège (translator's note).

A.L. - 25.732

E'
0
.
ta

35

The fall has a totally different effect from the `coulé' (see below). It is an inflection of
the voice which, falling from a strong note, reaches a lower, less strong one, and this depends
on the words; for to judge by the note alone this would not show the slightest difference
from the `coulé'. (Choquel)

COULADE (Run)

The run is two or more ( . . . ) small notes in stepwise motion, that is to say, following
directly on one another, inserted between two disjunct notes to make a more graceful link
between the one and the other. (Loulié)
The run is shown by a number of little additional notes following one another in rising
or falling conjunct motion, which can be made without interrupting the flow, the smooth-
ness or the beauty of the melody:

run fall run run run flatté

>~^^^7^ri^irA^^^^^7a.A M Jt• a< t111/711«I


-`^ NMI MI MI IA OM :AIM • fJf. rid= VM III NM 'MIMI
i-^ii r ^^ 1i ^ ^^^ ^C^ ^ rï ^^^ si ^^^'iii✓ ,í^i Ól

(Montéclair)
N.B. See also p. 18

COULÉ (Passing appoggiatura)

The coulé' is a grace note that softens the line, making it smoother by binding the
notes together. It is used on various occasions, particularly where the melody falls by a
third. There is not normally any sign to identify it, and tastetkìvill decide on the places
where it should be inserted; however, there are some masters who show it by means of a
small note linked by a slur to the strong note onto which it must flow (... ) or simply by
means of a slur:

T ♦ ha.
:t^f/11UNINI1111/2•111 ...5•11111mm/1•mma t/m =Iw/ Iffl•r/. t1M1/7 111111111111 Mff.1111=11
AM )1l7 tA :aMIIli.f/AINIIMUMMI- MI NM WI =II _^^ MIL I/lt...%/111111111MIN

1111IIff.;■ 1
1

coulé coulé coulé coulé

• Wen.'
i
i _ ^_
1 6^ :^ ^^f/I!•1:^ 7:` ^ U^ / ^^^
I1•_ ^ //J• ^ ♦ /
_ ^_^/^O ^_^/^ ^_ Miff MIMI IMP IN
.tJ ir-u.
.^ ^!• I^^^^^ •0^^^^^^ •5l1^^^^^r11d^^^^ •
i. / /
VI ^ ^^S!•^^^i MIN •■ ^^

(Montéclair)

`Coulés' are performed by means of one or more notes interposed between the 'back-
bone' or essential notes of the melody where the interval is a descending third or fourth:

41 r J J I _(r^^^J^ I o

(David)
It will be observed that a coulé' should A

be made between nearly every interval of a


falling third:
(Hotteterre)

A.L. - 25.732

.
• t+ ::r^ r n ^a x
36

When the words express anger, or when the melody is in a precipitate tempo, the
descending thirds are not joined up by a `coulé':

good poor
;MILD NMI MNIIIMMINNE•111r .1•11 IMI.1111 ■1 NMI .^r^^^
S7=_•= M __&_$_I__.____ II 1=INIPIIIIM1111111111•t•INIILIMO, ■.MIIIIII^ ^^
." `S.r^t^^1■IW O MIN ^ ^^I^I^ ttlllllr.^1^ 1^1^iN 1I If utr/tl^It• /1^ M^
.Iia *41■1■1IW111I411111111111 If Mat n43■NOININI M ^all• ■•••111•tl c>■ 11111t 111111••
etc.
Fais tom - ber, fais torn - ber ton ton - ner - re. Fais tom - ber.fais tom -ber ton ton - ncr - re.
(Montéclair)

FLATTEMENT (1) (Finger vibrato)

The `flattement' is a characteristic embellishment whose effect falls roughly between


the shake (trill) and what is today meant by vibrato. Formerly, the terms `flattement' and
`vibrato' did not always have distinct meanings, especially for stringed instruments.
On the viol, for example, the `verre cassé' (2) or plainte' (3) is usually effected by the
little finger, with a wavering motion of the hand (M. Marais, 1st book of pieces for the viol).
It can also be achieved with the bow, by pressure on the hair.
On wind instruments, where the holes are stopped by the fingers, the `flattement' is a
sort of finger vibrato produced by rapidly tapping the finger (or fingers) on the edge of one
or more holes, and sometimes over the centre of one or two complete holes.
The ;flattement' is a slower throbbing than the `tremblement' (shake), and is made
with a lower note that does not form the interval of a semitone; this embellishment is most
often added where one is swelling or diminishing the sound of a long note.
Some tap it on the extremity or edge of the apertures by stretching out the finger
which is to effect the throbbing; others tap it over the whole aperture and even over two at
the same time depending on the force and expression they wish to achieve. The finger
which makes the throbbing should remain in the raised position to finish with. (Mahaut)
Hotteterre adds: One will observe that flattements' must be made on almost all long
notes, and that, just like shakes and short trills, they must be made slower or faster accordifi
• to the tempo and character of the piece. (1st book for the transverse flute) -
Montéclair:
The ' latté'isa sort of rocking which the voice makes with many soft, short aspirations,
on a note of long duration, or on a note of repose, without raising or lowering the pitch.
This embellishment produces the same effect as the vibration of a taut string set in motion
by the finger. There is at present no sign to identify it with; it might be shown by a wavy
line ^•^:
quasi sudden
mordent flatté shake shake complete shake

accent coulé fall cadence

(1) Sometimes this term leads to confusion; at this period, ' lattetnent' or flatté' can also mean a lower mordent or a
shake.
(2) See also under Vibrato, p. 47
(3) Pla inte can also mean accent; see p. 34

A.L. - 25.732
37

Were the ' latté' to be used on every strong note, it would become unbearable in that it
would make the melody tremulous and too uniform:
complete
shake
mordent mordent mordent
poor poor accent preparation cadence
note tr.

flatté flatté flatté flatté flatté


(Montéclair)
MESSA DI VOCE: see SON ENFLÉ, p. 42

PINCÉ (Mordent, Schneller)

The `pincé' is one of those shakes so short that they have neither a preparation note
(`appui', see p. 44) nor a pause (`point d'arrêt', see p. 46). (F. Couperin) It was frequently
identified by the term martellement in France, or Schneller in Germany. It is somewhat
like our present-day mordent.
Generally it comprises a single alternation (`pincé simple'), sometimes two or more
(`pincé double', `pincé triple', etc.). It can be performed with the lower note (this is the
usual `pincé') or the note above (this is often called `pincé renversé', `martellement',
`Schneller'):
pincé pincé renversé

(lower mordent) (martellement, Schneller, upper mordent)

Lower mordent:

To form this well, the voice must first of all P


be carried onto the pitch of the strong note (prin-
cipal note) and then descend to the next degree
after which the voice reascends promptly to the
strong note and stays there:
pince note
of (Montéclair)
repose
Upper mordent:

When one uses the pincé' by



: i
contrary motion, it is called the ■wr m NIIIMINIII
n ■I ■ii~..Nsri1111111 ^^ •t ir
1.1 /MMININIMt.4111. ■
rr.■91111C■ IIMMINININEWw 011•ao..4111..=1•1•1111•••011M.MMII
`pincé renversé' (... ) The term s3MINO./MINI.IN•11111/= --MIIII .4MI..MINIMINII—JMINI.:

Schneller' serves to describe it in ^^ /' W.".^_=


German:
(Marpurg)

The `martellement' is a very short trill which one makes after having sustained the
sound of a note (Choquel):


martellement ntartellemen t

which, according to Choquel's directions, would be performed as follows:

A.L. - 25.732
b

38

Ms
^.^ ^ MUM / ^ ^ •-•1111. MI
AEI + ..
^ IMIIIIWOI rlIMMri
MM.- S • AMP =NINO
N=
••■
MN
aJIM L! WIN.
•■ IMM■11■111111■■■••••
MN MI

Ng 'W// .=
WWI
BIN
IMME■IMI■
MI MNIO.4, a/
' i
W/

How and where to perform the mordent

Short trills or mordents are a sort of appoggiatura, but they are taken abruptly, that is
( . . . ): one must tap the finger on the aperture, which should be done rapidly. Short trills
or mordents are made on notes which begin the air or melody, such as the minim, crotchet
and quaver, so long as the metre or pulse is not too precipitate. One should never play two
in a row. When it is made on a third, a fourth or a sixth, so long as it is in the minor ... ),
it must be emphasised like an appoggiatura, and must first rise, with the finger curled
rapidly just once or twice.
All quavers that are preceded by a dotted crotchet or its equivalent should be played
with a mordent.
In metres which are solemn, such as some in four and in two, and all those in three
beats, there must generally be a mordent on the last notes of each piece, by which I mean
on the first of the last two notes. One should only make one mordent in each bar when
there are only crotchets, and the same applies proportionately to the other values; note that
one can play more of them in lively airs, because they make the melody more brilliant.
(Freillon-Poncein)

PORT-DE-VOIX (Appoggiatura)
(V)
The port-de-voix is sometimes
marked by a little added note (... )
It is also shown by this sign: V . The
port-de-voix is the inverse of the
coulé' I think that this sign / would
be more suitable than the sign V to
identify it:

The port-de-voix is not marked


at every place where it must be
made; taste and experience provide
this knowledge (... ). The port-

de-voix is always accompanied by a Port de voix Port de voix
mordent:
(Montéclair)

David:
The port-de-voix is one of the most essential of the melody's appurtenances; it adorns
it in so graceful a manner, that it serves to express all that the soul can feel; therefore it is
very difficult to give a good written definition of the manner in which one must set about
forming it well, and few singers have succeeded in making it as touching and sensitive as
it should be. Only through the feelings of a mind thoroughly imbued with what it is saying
can one attain perfection in this embellishment. There are three varieties: Lia
1) The prepared and sustained port-de-voix is played upwards and it originates on the
note beneath that on which the sound will settle, whether a tone or a semitone beneath;
and when the sound has been lodged it must be softly threaded through the first of the
three segments into which the duration of the note must be divided, imperceptibly swelled (1) ^

(I) See 'son en fl é' (lit. 'inflated sound'), p. 42. ^.^

`1
A.L. - 25.732
39
^V
on the second segment, and
made to die, just as it has been
Z r1°
given birth, on the third seg-
ment; this is what characterises
the port-de-voix (... ):

2) The double port-de-voix originates on the third below the note on which the voice
will come to rest:
t
?) 2 ti 0

3) The disjunct port-de-voix, both descending and ascending, originates on the note
preceding that on which one will come to rest, borrowing the sound of the first to slur it
onto that of the
second; this is too ,^l ^ ,
`Gothic' and unbear- R^ o 1r 1 1

able to make general


use of; but it can be
tolerated and practised
in certain cases:

(David)

Quantz:
Without them (ports-de-voix), the melody would often be dry and extremely simple
(.. ) Dissonances should sometimes excite and arouse (the ear). To that end ports-de-voix
have much to contribute (... ).
They are sounded on the beat, in place of the principal notes. Ports-de-voix are a
slowing-up of the preceding note (... ) When the preceding note is one or two degrees
higher than the following one, in front
of which the port-de-voix is found,
the latter should be taken from above
(example 1). But if the preceding
note is lower than the following one,

it should be taken from below Ex. 1 Ex. 2
(example 2):
There are two kinds of port-de-voix. One kind should be sounded ( . . . ) oñ the beat.
The other kind ( . . . ) on the previous upbeat. One could call the first accented and the
others passing appoggiaturas.
Passing appoggiaturas (be-
fore the beat) are found when
a number of notes of the same
value descend by leaps of a
third:

A.L.- 25.732
40

The appoggiaturas we are dealing with here require a caressing expression.


Often there are two appoggiaturas before a note, the first being indicated by a small
note and the second by a note which counts within the metre:

Accented appoggiaturas (on the beat) are found in front of a long downbeat that
follows a short upbeat. The appoggiatura must be sustained for half of the following prin-
cipal note (1):

Where the port-de-voix or-


naments a dotted note, the latter
is divided into three equal seg-
ments of which the port-de-voix
is given two and the note itself
only one, namely the length of
the dot:
When, in a metre of 6/4 or 6/8, two note s are tied, the first being followed by a dot,
as may happen in a Gigue, one should hold the port-de-voix for the entire value of the first
note with the dot:
11 ., ,
1
a11111MIlMININIIIII..a a/ (a JO .w i MI . a WM71111E1 INI..III? ■
I. MINI
MIS LI./ t A= NM WII11IIMII•111 WARM II /tJ1aO1alI ■11♦ a
1 ,
l =IIIIIIMM-1111 ■1 a.4•If. aIMP"7111111•11.111•11M11 1
• MI n.I
ALI • aIIIIMr1•111I•It♦• iN IIIMI ■ra1IIIaIIIIIIII OM al
•. l•a^^= ^^^^^-^1^. 1• ^at I^I^I/O/a^ .t• M ^t^^a^r^^•al^. •■ ^t•S r^^••1•I■ ^1
VA AN `=^^J•^rs^.•^ i^/V^a^
^i ^ÌI .•a ■ I N rSatMIN•tM14 i•■ 111111ts■ t.—a1M11/ NM
IIE ■

When there are shakes on notes which form dissonances against the principal harmony
(... ), one should make all
ports-de-voix preceding these : Nit ■
- 11111aP•maleIaaia.7
me sr r. own am/ ai mare/ I
shakes exceedingly short, so as MY .1 '411111•111 ■ I■1Y.• M...M111I11=11111111a11111■1•11&.I —a a /tt7111111•111l
• 11/711 Mi. UM MSS 111114111111111111M1 r • r11~
1
M1111110./ !NallI
V tal.MB =I NM 10111•1 MI MN l:li1111111111•11la MIN
If
^^
1111,

not to change the dissonances


into consonances:

When there is a port-de-voix before a note and a rest after it, unless it is absolutely
necessary to take a
breath, the port-de-
voix is given the value
of the note and the
note the value of the
rest: (Quantz) .. .

(1) In Adagio movements the Italians



sometimes make the port-de-voix C D
(C) as long as the note which follows
it, and even longer (DJ, making a
small shake after it.

(M. CORRETTE: Méthode raisonnée ... , 1750)

A.L. - 25.732

41

( . . . ) It is not enough to be able to perform ports-de-voix according to their char-


acteristics and individual differences when they are marked in the score; one must also know
how to insert them in an appropriate way when they are not written. Here is a rule that
may be of use in learning this:
Wizen after one or more short notes on the downbeat or upbeat of a bar there comes a
long note which remains consonant to the harmony, a port-de-voix must be placed before
the long note, in order that a pleasing line should be constantly maintained; the preceding
note will show whether the port-de-voix should be taken from above or below.
The (following) brief sample contains most of the ports-de-voix (... ) It will be seen
from this example that ports-de-voix are most often placed in front of notes that are
preceded or followed by faster notes and that there must also be ports-de-voix with most
shakes.
If one wishes to mix the grace notes of examples 1, 2 and 3 with ports-de-voix and use
them in the following example, this may be done on the notes over which the corresponding
figures appear:

Moderato 3
! JJ1Jn- ^ i^.^—^^^= ^ ^ JIJ r aJlll^^^ i M".■ ws BM ■IMII■IMMI
.1•1111 i 11M= INMEJ L1/" IIINSIMr• /, ■•^
_ /^ ^■/^^■ —JL^^ M ^l/' 1^^^
^^ ^^ ^^^ ■ ^^M.^i/ I^
.^^/^^ M t ^i—^ ^ L^/^ ■IIMIN ^— ^^ ./• = ^ ^ ^
V^ —\ /^^ / ^
^

2A
I >•a ñ a^0J♦■ i ■o7 Ira
^ ^^ i I ^ir v^^.^ ^^.^ =WM J IN=
./ /IMMIONNII• ll7i^
.^ NM MOM St•.i7JMMI ■■• ■ J 1MILIM/ /TI/ R2•11M=t,ONNIM /^—/^^^^r
=GIFT>.
.■ MI W MI WWI IML MN /IMJ^ ^ I^^ ^^ •
MM
Matz_ . _ . ¡
^` ,

2
^
1 ^ ^iJll^.^^'/.^^^1. ^ , . Il 1.
wil^t r:I^r—^ 1..^^ t --a^1111^ .-:-a^^^r....IMMI—
.NINISIMr/ /•11111111~SI/ All■Mr. MINIM
• • ^L^^^ J^ —^ ^^^^^J^__^
A•11110'.7JMiY Mam / TM /if 1.7 1J^1^ ^^^0_^^^_^W^^
MIME ^^^J_^^^^^^^ _ M. ^1^^^ Jl
^.^^.^ ^ ^—^^ ^^^^^^^ 11.I MI NM
...am 11.... ...."'°-

. i,.
4•111111..IN ■ 1•11■111/Itl
v -^ y --^

OPM11^_-1111./ /1111111.011111111— 1••tJV71 •1•01•Mo^I^.t/^^

MUM IM■P INE•1111■■••■1.1 /IMM 11••■ /11•111iMtM1111111111111M11/...WW JrPINIMMI /111111 ■01•11111111111114— ^
/^^^^ ^ l• ^^^I^L ^^/ !I ■ ^^^ :^_^
J .^^iI11■1 4/NOSHOMM MNIMIIIIIINiNILa MO= ^^^^

(I)

Ex. 1 Ex. 1 A Ex. 2 Ex. 2 A Ex. 3


half mordents turn
shakes (Quantz)
N. B. See also p. 42 for Quantz's observation on how to make ports-de-voix on the transverse flute: 'If there is a held
semibreve or minim .. .

(1) These examples should be adapted to the pitch of the relevant passages.

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42

SON ENFLÉ (Messa di voce)

Inflated sound (`son enflé') and threaded sound (`son filé'):

`Inflated sound' is the opposite of `threaded sound' which Montéclair defines as follows:
'Threaded sound' is executed on a note of long duration, by prolonging the voice
without any wavering whatsoever. The voice should be, so to speak, as smooth as a mirror
throughout the entire duration of the note.

Unlike `threaded sound', `inflated sound' arises from the vocal procedure which consists
in attacking the sound softly, `inflating' it mid-way through its duration (that is, increasing
its strength), then diminishing it during the final part:
If there is a held semibreve or minim, it must first be sounded softly (... ); after
which one starts to breathe out—quietly, however—and to increase the volume of sound
until half-way through the note; thereafter one starts to diminish the sound until the end of
the note. ( ... ) But in order that the sound should neither rise nor fall in pitch as it is
being reinforced or weakened (a defect which might arise from the nature of the flute), the
rule which we have given (1) must be applied here. In this way the sound will always be in
tune with the accompanying instruments, whether one is blowing strongly or weakly.
(Quantz)
Quantz, then, gives special attention to intonation and moderation in `inflating' the
sound. On the recorder, where the embouchure by itself (fixed wind-way) does not allow
so great a correction of tuning as on the transverse flute, it is therefore advisable to execute
the `son enflé' with circumspection: Reflecting on the difference between (... ) the trans-
verse flute and the recorder, one will find that, despite the resemblance between these instru-
ments, each requires to be treated in its own particular way. (Quantz)

`Inflated sound' was a stylistic feature much in use at this period (particularly in
Germany) and was practised on all instruments with the exception of keyboard instruments,
where it was not possible (2) (apart from the clavichord and the bowed harpsichord). Here
are some comments referring to the `son enflé' taken from composers of the 18th century:

How to inflate a sound:

.To inflate a sound well, it must first go forth from the breast, beginning with a tiny
fraction of the voice: it is threaded, and strengthened bit by bit, thrusting out and éxtending
the voice until it reaches its greatest fullness ( . . . ) There is no symbol by which to identify
inflated and diminished sounds. (Montéclair)
Montéclair here shows it by wedges:
inflated sound diminished sound inflated sound diminished sound

full voice

.This sign: -411111 ^ means that one must begin softly, strengthen the bow mid-way
through the value of the note on which the sign is found, and end with the same softness as
one began with; the transition from one to the other should be made imperceptibly:

(1) Quantz here refers to the technique of embouchure on the transverse flute which makes it possible to maintain correct
intonation when the dynamic level varies. Quantz adds, moreover: Piano and forte must never be exaggerated, nor
must instruments be forced beyond what their nature allows: for that is exceedingly disagreeable to the car.
(2) Though th e harpsichord cannot swell its sounds (...fit has other advantages (... ). (F. Couperin)

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Prelude
Grave e affettuoso
i

Ply ^f *

(J.-A. Desplanes, Sonatas for solo violin and violoncello with harpsichord, 1712)

Where to inflate the sound

Long notes should be sustained in a manner distinguished by swelling and diminishing


the strength of the tone.
(.. ) each note, whether a crotchet, a quaver or a semiquaver, should have its own piano
and forte, as far as speed allows. But if a number of notes follow one another, and the
speed does not allow one to swell each note's sound, one could still increase or lessen the
force of breathing during these notes in such a way that some notes will be louder and
others softer. And this change in the strength of the sound should be made from the
chest, that is to say, by exhaling.
(... ) the tongue should begin ports-de-voix softly, make them swell, if the speed
allows it, and move on to the following note slightly more softly. (Quantz)
N.B. See also on pp. 38-39 the example and the quotation from David concerning the `son
enflé' which accompanies a port-de-voix; also the 'Messa di voce' on the first note of a
Fermata, p. 59.

TOUR DE GOSIER (Turn, Gruppetto, Doublé, Circolo mezzo, Double cadence)

The turn is indicated by the sign 419 ; the five notes which serve to make it are taken
in a single breath ( . . . ) To execute it well, the voice must emphasize the strong note (M)
where the sign cv appears (... ) After having paused on the stressed note, the throat
(`gosier') must make its turn by moving lightly from the first note to the fifth, making a
kind of very sudden shake on the second small note (o):

i/
r P P

.mm/ ar7mt Laws■iissdmormi ^i =^.


1111'

n^ o (Montéclair)

N.B. The turn can also be the termination of a trill. See p. 46.

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,_
-..' _.^_ v! . . _. _ ^ — r ^'-F• v ..... mr Tr —.,

44

When a slur precedes the turn (`doublé'), then the eka

first note of that turn should not be reiterated: ^..


s :.^..^^
.^^^

(Marpurg)

TRILL (Shake, Cadence, Battement)

In 17th- and 18th-century France, what we call the trill (derived from the Italian
'Trillo') was given various names, chief among which were `tremblement' (shake), `cadence'
and `battement'.
Here we will deal with the usual, or long, t ri ll. For the short trill (`martellement',
mordent, `battement'), see under 'Pined' on p. 37.

Signs for the trill

These are numerous and their interpretation often varies from one composer to an-
other. The most frequent are•, t, tr, +. The latter sign (+). probably derived from t,
often indicates a trill; but it may equally well mean a different embellishment of the per-
former's choosing (mordent, gruppetto, `flattement', etc.).

Rules for the trill

The trill obeys the following general rules:


— A shake should occupy only the space of a tone or a semitone, according to the
requirements of the mode and the note from which the shake originates. (Quantz)
— It always starts on the beat and generally on the note above (except when it is pre-
ceded by a port-de-voix from below). This is the preparation note.
— If the duration of the preparation note permits, the speed of the strokes will increase.
—The termination is preceded by a `point d'arrêt' (a rest or a pause on the principal
note).
—This termination is always rapid.

The trill can be illustrated roughly as follows:

'point
strokes ^ d árret
preparation note mï^r r1
10111•71111 ^ r e^ • e7 I7 17
^ iii^N ^^^^^ ^^^r-^
■ 111s11s111s

The beginning of the trill (preparation note)

With which note should one begin a trill?

The preparation note, which should be formed on the note above the principal note.
(F. Couperin) This is the general rule. However, depending on the note that precedes the
trill, it may start on the note below the main note of the trill. Every shake begins with a

A.L. - 25.732
45

port-de-voix which is in front of the note and is taken either from above or below.
(Quantz)

Duration of the preparation note

The preparation note of a shake should be longer or shorter in proportion to the value
of the note on which the shake is made. (Loulié)
One should mark it (the trill) by leaning on the note which immediately precedes that
which carries the trill, and that for half the value of the note, and then humming (trilling)
for the other half of this duration:

•.MINI
becomes ^^....^IME.//. ..IIIN IM.
',.1•1111 ^ ^ C^ ^^

(Choquel)

Choquel's advice is, of course, rigidly schematic. However, it underlines the impor-
tance of the preparation note, which should always be perfectly perceptible.

The strokes

In tables of embellishments of the period, strokes in trills are most often represented as
equal. This must be regarded merely as a simplification of notation:
Although the strokes are shown equal in the table of embellishments in my first book,
they should nonetheless begin more slowly than they end: but this gradation should be im-
perceptible. (F. Couperin)

To succeed in making a good trill, which is a meritorious achievement on any instru-


ment, one must begin by moving the fingers very slowly, strike progressively faster while
swelling the sound, and end it (the trill) as fast as possible. (Van der Hagen)

Quantz:
One does not have to play every shake at the same speed. One should adjust not only
to the place in which one is playing, but also to the piece itself that is to be performed. If
the place in which one plays is large and reverberant, a somewhat slow shake will make a
better effect than a fast one (... ) If, on the other hand, it is a small place or a room hung
with tapestries, where the listeners are quite close, a rapid shake will be more suitable than a
slow one. Beyond that one must be able to distinguish what kind of piece one is playing
( . . . ) In sad pieces the shakes are played slowly; but in spirited pieces they must be played
faster ( . . . ).
It would be rather difficult to indicate precisely the
correct speed of a good shake. I would imagine, however,
that the speed of a long shake in preparation for the end of
a piece would be neither too fast nor too slow if, during
the space of a pulse ( = 80), the finger made hardly
more than four movements, and consequently eight notes: ^s

In fast, lively pieces the short shakes can be a little faster, and one can then lift the
finger once or twice more (hence making two or four more notes) during the time of a pulse.
(Quantz)

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.. . . ...
^ :^t:"^ .. i:ti:^^_L:.
a - ::+.
' ,..+ rr... :.r•...: .. . .
46

The `point d' arrêt' (pause) ^

Just before the termina- HOTTETERRE: Prelude


tion, the strokes are inter-
(pause)
rupted on the principal (i.e.
lower) note of the trill in a
sort of pause. In those days,
it was called the `point d'arrét'
(halting point).

The length of the pause is included in the value of the trilled note: The strokes and the
note where one stops should both be included in the value of the essential note (i.e. the note
carrying the trill). (F. Couperin) (See the first example under `Trill', p.44.)

The termination

Sometimes one ends the shake with a fall (`chûte ), and sometimes with a turn:


stroke fall turn

(Montéclair)

This turn is called `after-stroke' by Quantz: The ending of each shake consists of two
little notes which follow the (principal) note of the shake and which are added at the same
speed (as the strokes). In German they are given a name meaning 'after-stroke' (ex. 1).
Sometimes these two little notes are
written out (ex. 1 and 2), but when
Ex. 1 Ex.2 Ex.3
only the principal note itself is given
(ex. 3) one should assume there will be ¡ ^',. ir
both a port-de-voix and an after-stroke; :.^
^ ,^^,MU.
^^1^ ^^I ^^,^^.,
because otherwise the shake would be
neither complete nor brilliant enough:

The termination of the trill is always rapid,


whatever the speed of the piece in which it J.-J. ROUSSEAU:
appears (the note which follows the dot should
always he extremel y short, Quantz). This
rapidity can vary according to the character of
the piece, but it is always greater than that
generally indicated, which merely represents a
systematic way of notating it.
The terminations in the above examples NI AW.^/ ari r^^.
by Montéclair and Hotteterre, just as in the I.^
.•^^J^J^J^^
.• •
^^^^^ ^^/ ^^
{ \w^^ MMrMM • ^^1
example opposite by Rousseau, are explicit in
this respect. sounding

Those who find it awkward to make certain shakes, where they appear too difficult to play, may pass over them,
not wishing their hands to be constrained in any way, but rather for tempi to be observed very precisely. (N. Lebèguc,
First organ book, 1676)

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47

VIBRATO

Today vibrato has become an almost systematic, obligatory embellishment, especially


among string players. In former times, in fact, this oscillation of the sound was very diver-
sified and was consciously used as an embellishment. Tartini writes:

This embellishment (tremolo, or `tremblement' in French) is never used on half-bodied


sounds (`threaded sounds') (... ) This embellishment produces a very good effect on the
final note of a musical phrase, when the note is a long one ( . . . ) It also makes an extremely
good effect on the long notes of any melody at all, whatever the metre ( . . . ).

It is known that in the 17th century, French lutenists and viol players termed this
effect the 'verre cassé' (lit. `broken glass') ( 1 ). It appears to have been particularly highly
valued in Poland, since in 1545 Agricola recommended flautists to use it in imitation of the
Polish viol players.

The vibrato seems to take its origin from the rocking motion of the finger on the string
of a viol or lute or on a clavichord key. Mersenne puts it precisely: Whilst the bow is in
motion on the strings, the finger should be rapidly rocked on the fingerboard. (1636)

Marpurg adds: 'Rocking', in Italian 'tremolo', is nothing other than the repetition of a
note on the same pitch, with the difference that the repetition is not made by fresh articu-
lations (... ) It is not possible to represent it in notation. It is an imitation of the Tre-
mulant organ stop ( ... ) On a long note, 'rocking' must be preceded by a messa di voce
('inflated sound').

Concerning the tremolo, De Lusse writes: There is yet another kind of flexible shake
which the Italians call 'tremolo', which lends a great deal to the melody when used appro-
priately. It is made simply by an active movement of the lungs breathing out these syllables:
Hu, hu, hu, hu, etc. (L'Art de la flûte traversière, 1761)

TWO EXAMPLES OF PIECES WITH GRACE NOTES ADDED BY THEIR COMPOSERS

C. DIEUPART: Overture (c1710)

M. 11 IMO I. MIMI= s aJMIlli.if 1•t./_^..41■1111J■1



.r 1MIN11•r•ta . 11•111•110M1■■•11r1IIMINIIPUINIMMI
rWO= 1•1111a-■111111t•
=NMI
ONOMINI
1•1•5.1•j■ ^•^
IMO/ ^^
.^.^^^^^^•^+ ANNIMvir■ IMMIMIN ^^^
AINNIIMMINN

MN NSW NW
I . Mw
•LANIM1 01■t:TEMIMINNW _ ow JIM/ S.MTE>•NIIIMI■1111111•111WaMINMI1 IMO WIWI
.111111=11111.f l>• WI • MIIMi.1.~ZIP71 OMNI NBLIINIMrMINIIIII> /9M !t/1•^i^T^^^^&M .^
...■11t VIM ^^Y^^^ I^Y I^ I ^M^^y^^ ^ ^Y .^J^^s •I t=^^
• _ •

ww
NW 11M1
0
=cm
^^^ i i
...minor-Irmo,
• ^^ ^ ^^^^í^iu^^^á i á ^a:i^•
•..
,...^. ^• ^
MI /MI II
!I, m ...wr ^ RIM Y UM VANNES / 1alM1111

(1) See also p. 36.

A.[.-25.732
Extract from Dieupart's table of grace notes:
Explanation of signs

shake mordent (lower) double 'cadence'

.Ii■•• ■ .A•••17 '-■•■ .11••.•110r


.; _^^.^^^^^

shake with mordent fall port-de -voix and mordent

a.11111/ SS L••■IMP

J. B. de BOISMORTIER (Six suites of pieces for the transverse flute, 1731)


These pieces are embellished with all their grace notes:
Courante


..«
Nrs11111,

Amme
AM:7 I ICII•E-1111111..11111^^
Y MPì=1NY M.■1•1 J11•• •• IIM•1•11rNMI MOE I= MI IN••■ l••••t1 ARUM...WM
•• WNW r•••••■•••/^^^^^L^1•11■1
•1•7•Ir MINIM 111•111••■•• MIMI MUM M•11•1111•111,M.f 17/11 ■.■
IMMINI 1•MMIII .1•1/M•11•1111•11INMAIi\f
^••••-
RUE ^

, ^ .... _
•MOMINIIIW7 1 0/_
^ _^_7^^^__^^^^^_^.7^ _r_^^^^s^ ^^^^I ^
-.•^^^^ a^^^ M ■LL^ I I.ii/^^^^; t^ r^M-//UNIMII =NI IN •11111111 mar
•r■• I•• =al IMI ■ 1=IMIMI•10•1••■■•111M•r MINN a ■I•NIMI ■ IMO=1•a
-•••11111111111111

N. B. One may add to these pieces embellishments which it was not customary to notate,
such as `threaded' and `inflated' sound, 'flattements', vibrato, etc.

A.L. - 25.732
49

ORNAMENTS

Let us recall (1) that by ornaments we are here referring to variations and embellish-
ments designed to diversify and decorate the bare bones of the musical text, thus distin-
guishing them from grace notes, which is how we have described the little discretionary
notes, appoggiaturas, trills, etc.
Ornaments are therefore the variations added (by the composer or the performer) to
the melodic line. Rousseau defines variations thus:

Under this name one designates every manner of decorating and varying an air, whether
by diminution or by 'passages' or other embellishments to adorn and embroider it. However
much one multiplies and crams the variations, it must always be possible in the midst of
these decorations to recognize the heart of the air, called the `simple', and at the same time
the character of each variation must be marked by differences which sustain the attention
and prevent boredom.

The word variations encompasses the terms doubles, diminutions and passages, of
which Loulié gives the following definitions: Passages' are many little sounds that are inter-
woven amongst the simple grace notes. These 'passages' are commonly called doubles
(va ri ants). Diminution, which is a sort of embellishment of the melody, consists of several
measured notes put in place of a single one.

Examples of `passages' or doubles (Montéclair):


'simple'

'passages' or variants

Examples of diminution (Montéclair):


'simple'

n-7
'diminished'

r lr r -F3•77:-F--

(1) See the chapter on Grace Notes, p. 33.

A.L. - 25.732

î _?
50

FRENCH ORNAMENTATION

The French musician of the 17th and 18th centuries was inclined to make more use of
grace notes than of ornamentation such as we have defined it on p. 49, in contrast to his
German, and, above all, his Italian neighbours. (1)
The incomparable Lulli (... ) preferred melody (... ), fitness of expression, lack of
affectation and, lastly, noble simplicity to the absurdity of doubles and irregular kinds of
music ( . . . ) Passages are arbitrary, and everyone can play them more or less to taste and
inclination. (Montéclair)
If the French musician uses ornaments, his `good taste' persuades him to do so with
discretion and poise (later we shall see examples of Italian `extravagance'):
An important point, and one which cannot be stressed enough, is to avoid this confu-
sion of notes, which are added to melodic and expressive pieces and which only serve to dis-
figure them. (J. M. Leclair, 4th Book of Sonatas for the Violin, 1738).
From this 4th book, here is the beginning of a Minuet which Leclair follows with two
successive doubles (on the sanie bass), the first in triplets, the second in sixteenth notes. For
greater clarity we have here set them out vertically under the theme of the minuet:

Minuet (J. M. LECLAIR) 1738


Allegro non troppo ,••••"---■
r•
I.aatf^^^^ •^^•/^ ^^ ft♦
l3tsi^ri'm ■^>i ^r
(Double 1)
3
orrL. -....ew•afÌ/' v7i /r •w1lA1fafl111M1iii/.11i JrNIIIIMMI a IIIIII•t __fi1Mt♦ ai111•ai1MINIIMI MOM
I.4111•1111 SWIM L :..^^__^^ ^J^_ ^ BMW AO," MOW=
= ft
\V r<^^ •^a ^ •^ ^i^ir•^^^^ fff/fa^ •as arT••r^iilrt=ai^a7tl a^i
^ u AIM raL.1111■.aJ. ar 1111.■•■•111f12

(Double 2)

WM: araa•l•11•ifi11M MO I aaali tt//1,1111i.4/1/1./••11■1111P11111•1111=1..- --...m...........= afa•i1.-ar I Mims mama NMI


ar .a•aff>♦ ^ira/ i^•alai^^a^iJaif♦•i BMW /7J^^I♦ Nfif.^fifa^^ffafafa/r^^^i -^ ^ M •^ i•^
^ ^a/".." ^ ^itfa^ - MEN
I .6^11•a/ \rS.fi^ r^^^rir^rf ^a^/^^^^^^rr i/'r
^V•—^ : ^^^ ■ ^^^.^^^^w ^^uut s i^J = MEN
^ Li^
7

^
'/:'■ ^^ f•s7f^^ar^ aia^in•f /7
^^ ^>.^ ^^^^ •T^•^•■ ai•••arai•i•ralaft'a..t /111171111aal1•11aiIIMIiWa •
=11J MNP.fi•fi u•110•lANIia• LAM •1111111•111MfY •/S AV^M1111 ■ r11 ILA fa1i1•i
IIIIIIaAafINILt AMP' •^•^a•^ r1111111111,•i/ ■ ai1•i•ia•11 ■11rdEll
--• r

■ ••.* MSS
t♦ Omfi■■ rffit♦=eamt•fi.nme<•frfif
^
al'
I.afaat MINf✓•i ft111 r 1M1
1• rip) f/fifafsffifaifflf/lutiffur
Am•-.m:ai.r /1/11•15 MP" a^Vfa al
.•11111•111a•iJ•1• L// /11111/al•A111M1aaaalitaa/ia.11111MWMII/ -/ /\ -. aWi4I1•1J LI'1/V'l.111•<.11•1111al
,•arif M ts • sanfif = s f ai "Sa111111 ■1=i•O1S =YIP' ^i

(1) One can consider the Adagio in two ways, with respect to the manner in which it must be played and decorated;
firstl y according to French taste, secondl y according to that of the Italians. The first manner calls for a clear and sus-
tained expression throughout the melod y, and a style always combined with the essential grace notes, such as appoggia-
turas, single and double shakes, mordents, turns, short trills, finger vibrato, etc., but in addition there must be no ex-
tensive passage-work, nor a lot of arbitrary grace notes. (Quantz)

A.L. 25-732
51

Here is an example from Michel Blavet of the ornameï iation of a phrase upon its being
immediately repeated (as before, we have set out the simple form above the ornamented
one):

Adagio (M. BLAVET) 1732

^^^^^ = ■■
^-- - --- ^,^–•^^7
I7I a•.i 1t Bahl./ r'7••^-^ ^^^^=
Mr MVO MINIM
I.^^^•^-^^-!'
,,..limi arm n -r1111
a-a.,•■-I _
•rC•.t •'• u L•■••— •■ ONS–wrM IaI-1=1,-M-ENIM--MNI–
■cL/rl-sorJ---rms-am-arJ •-/-•1am-rI • •••••
\V, - W--IIII---1J =I -1111M■-■11MI -
--mmll

GERMAN ORNAMENTATION

Amongst the numerous precepts given by Quantz, let us cite the following:

Almost every person who applies himself to the art of music, especially outside France,
is not content to play solely the essential grace notes; in the main they wish also to follow
their own taste, and seek to perform the melody with different arbitrary variations ( ... )
In general, care must always be taken in variations that the principal notes on which
these variations are based are not obscured. When variations are made on crotchets, the first
of one's added notes must usually be the same as that of the simple form; and the same
must be done for every variety of note, whatever its value, whether greater or smaller than a
crotchet. One can also choose another note in harmony with the bass, provided that the
principal note is heard again immediately afterwards ( ... ).
Variations should only be made when the unadorned melody has already been heard
(... ) Likewise, melodies which are already well written and which already have enough
grace notes must not be varied, unless one is sure of making them better still ( . . . ).
It is not enough to play a long succession of quick notes (... ). It is in this respect
that the greatest abuses are perpetrated; this is why I would advise against becoming too in-
volved in variations instead of rather applying oneself to playing a simple melody in a noble,
appropriate and clean manner.

A.L. - 25.732

sf 4.7

— - — _^ -_ ^ .

52

QUANTZ: different ways of varying a single phrase:

7x
i

"NV
1110111ININP7
_^ ^ <117:011/71 •i r^
^t. ^•^..^r,ï / ^^^^^^^^^^
/1111.4/f -MINN r
=M ^
^ _ 11111111:::

..11,
WNW _ ^
rl AMMO IMMUNE
^^^^^ ^sil

9 .PMMIMa. IMI )l1111


.r l >• .^_
1r^t•-It ^^ Al
/.a^ 411.1=1 --
rA^^! -^ - MOM an^ ^ ^I
V •^ -^r^r/r^ ^^^^^
o 1=i .. ^ ^r<rl

^.._r
^`i/- r^
d)
_ \^'Ir7^7M
VW •., rt r• / '^»
Jt••M ,.•PW1 - _ .__ .I7
^--^^^^ ^:
,_
rr•••••t• ^•` —•^— I • ^^^

^^^
^ ^^^ ^-
<t!•t•^I^t•
I.r• ..
r ear

MIN INN
r•W ^ NW 11.7 ..111.40 J110•11
.L•^ ^ ^^^ • ^ srr,SS is ^s^ w ^=isss•
t•`- t•t_t• ^^;
In the matter of ornamentation Germany underwent French and Italian influen.ìes. (1)
Here, from Telemann, are two examples of ornamentation, the first more specifically
French (mainly grace notes), the second more Italian in the style of its ornaments:

Example 1
Sicilienne (G. P. TELEMANN) 1732
.AMNI r- ^- i=7^
r• .r•,1,r• rJ,i.
t• • ): mow
•..^Irri•'rrv^^t••^r
•-rr•N^r -
rr■rr^r^
/MOM
^^ ^•^I a•^•- ^•: ^•
,IIMrt•.4^-r^-rrrrrr-r^rrllL-_==.- JON=
♦ ^ris•r•a^^-rrrr- ■ID ^t ^ r ^r r = r 1.=

•' /.Ai &a


r•-.1=1 •
^•^^^=t•t•^^^^^:vta_^ NW ^^ ..^
r.^^.r•
=r•^ r•rrr•-r)rrt• -• •.^r/ •/ _ ^ ^^t•t•
\\Ì
OM MIN
•^ t^ ^^^-- _ ^_:

•• LJ1IM•I<!t•rrtl.Art- //1■P'77•11- I]./ !.!111111111•V .4/•■/=11111/Ir =It


^^ ^ ^ ^ ^
av,t•^rrrr- íiií7^^
r8ii^ •^ ^ ^=ó^= r i^ i^C:s^i-
/„..----.

, -^- ^ + /` .- 1)+ /' -i- ^ t• I

r.r••.^
•"/:,, 4.1.■1r•r.d<s 411•111al1'»- )/
^t..n^r-••r-rrrr•mr+c•ca.r•^r^1^n^rr J 1J^^r••r^\t^
^I^.-on^imeMamoso•verr ama
14
r as ^
0.41M.imo -r.
u.lV•^t♦
... IMI IM rim mil
- ^r^-•t•r^^ •rrrr•^
• ^ ^+^ - r<f/^ - <tt•^^t•^ ^ w / t•t♦<I It•t•
í r -_/' _ w-^-J+M-_)^--•_-)_+_^^/r••+•-
'r^-^ t• _t•iiit•_Ÿtrrt•t•^ m

--- - ^ e^ - - ■ ^^

r.-rr.1111t<r••
_
Ì .,I M ^ - ■MININLrI AIM Ial111.11111t•
^,a^rrr,.^r^~••r
•411111111t• min)f• ^ ^•rrrr•rr•.
tL7^ ^^
• t/^ ^
10=1•111•1•12ts t-•I^O•r^l^^r^t<t^^^r^^^
rr/ `^ rr/.^•.rrr,•r NIP" ^^^ ^^^r • ^ •a•-
ii 11^
^.•^.a
`
.. ^ •í
mt . .v n+w+
r __ r•ttr^ ION r.^ ^áe Lr^^1r_r" ,^ ^^r^• i ^^••^r•
- ;^^ii ^^^ r•• rt•tr •t.•t<^^a•^ ^i ^•^^ ^^o í i•4r^i i=ii^á ^^i
1\•.a•-..._ t••tr•t•) a■l^= / rr•^• r•r/\J•^ ^t✓ /t••I•••L•s<tt•r!•t♦^•1^-
^ i •^i ^^^
/P'". 111==1. ^■ . _

(1) Resulting in what Quantz called 'style mêlé' (mixed style), and Couperin les goûts réunis' (conjoined tastes).

A.L. - 25.732
} •
^
l^

^•:
: . ^^ r ;•r^ ® ,^-zs^'a _ ^ ;, `' ^

53

Example 2
Adagio (G. P. TELEMANN) 1732
I•M,..^- CM=
. .^ >_.=^ .^^. o^ .^^ ••11M..^
•••••-10•E. -
^ ^-•
M.-.
. ..^^.^ M-MM^-IM^M-MMM=1./ —`M so■-1M.I
•11111

M MN,
I .-7-I■I I I JMI MO MMM-I 1.0 J716 =7 M^1// -IMMI =.Jtt I 1T Man=
I •.1%/I IIIJ•IMEM=..MMYIaI..IIIIIIMr111111111I I =.•111I111=i1J1Ns-III IMO
--M.•=1- =NI MS= MM-MINIMNIS
-* _ .
M-I^I ENS =NM.
I

M M./ AlMr1 Emir .0MMM IMI-- 17.• MM/M


I.I.ls.J1>a 7M- = = =MEIN= =111/41■INNI lt..I/. .61111111s-ME NOMIP711I/t-I
/ .•t]M•MVJ-.61■11Yi41..I -MI-MrMI WNW =.4■I - !•YrLr.•1111111 - _ -MI..M1M-MI-r•
16,4 • IZa ..W.i.1••■t^•••'". iIME• MMMM_IMMMMM

-^ • ^— .......
s' MS/-Y^.J.. 1 .^^^^ ..^^^^ .1 l»i^r.^ ^ .t I. 1 MI ^1 ^
M.I^I/_lE1MM MI MI./
/...JI /MV/JM^MIM=^I.IJI /W7^".I..^^ISI0.^/
/•.M!•./'M^t 1^N/.t7=/.E^..^^J
M rf .^.^.J ! J.f DYA
ILMIY^MM^.M.M....^V .
_ IN
^ ,.r 7s^ MM.- ^I^IMt/
_ .7f ^^ /' ^a^M.^MM M. _^MMI ^
^r^_ SI tMM f^

—II ^
— ^ ^^^

• •

MEMO MIN

^ +
• -.1MMEM/ !A M-117311111■ 1 1 1 1 J.. 1 1 1 IMMf.a.JMM .I ^/MMEINSI! M—
MS 7MINN M=J- 1 a ^-III-II- M.IM7MM MM—ll
..7I•- M-MCMMMMI-M-M-I^MM-MIII^I MMME IEIMMr7MMM- - -I M
-1 MMMM I••• M. -I-
.MMMMM^...^^MI^- - - _MI MM-M.0 MM
M^^. MM -IME1111

In the example below, J. S. Bach has ornamented (for the harpsichord) a theme taken
from tarcello. It will be especially noted how Bach varies his ornamentation at different
repetitions of the same motifs:

Adagio (MARCELLO-BACH)
Alessandro Marcello (1684-1750)
(oboe)
I ^ -
soy M^^^^MIMMMI. M^- MI M1^^MIM^-MI M^^-^ ^.01•111MINa.
/ .I7<7 -AND -- IN= MIMM-MMIME= - 1•NM -EINS =II MMMMMM71111M^-ANNIENIMAINIEN MMMIMMM
I .•{MNIS. NM I= MM1=11=, Min I MIR MIN MON= -MMMM^ _ ^MM^
• MI- MI^ ^t^^s^

J.S. Bach
(harpsichord) . "
.
MI' .ME1!-7i.aMM- IMMM =SIM I7 NI MIIMIMMMIMMIIMMEMEINISnMr7r Mr7f II -.61M ¡roam
...Irmer7 -.MMM MIN MMMI - =NM IME= MM II -MMI IMM-1111111M^7 17i.• 1J61 1r111MM.611-11-
IMN!
..1MS,.
•Alis-M.-
i- MIEN Im.. - BIM MMMMr MINI= -II-
M--MMM-M ■MI...IIM-MMMJM I../M1IMMMMMNMI.M-=-
MMIM MSS INN M ME- MM-MI••=M._
MM- N.A. •^^-..

I
M MM-
/.I7 ININIMP■II ■ M^ J----M-^
N_.♦1=1=11 MMMM- MiI.I M M MM 7 - I- M^ MMM
^I

•MEMM I —/I M OEM MM EMI MMM7t l.• Jai/ /.IIMJMJM IME MIM - MJ l.MNI
M.MIM - MM=ME
^.I711
.•r •
MMIIIM/TM1/gat I'1 II /JMM.MIMMMMMMMMM
M I'1•I WS./ JI.i.MYMIMMIMMMM.MMMMMMM-.iM
MEIN
_.^M-c>r-^MMM/
\.' • MI. NO IN ._M - o- ^^MM

M tM- MM-- MMMMI.t./ Ml EINMPIIIMIIIIIIIIIIMM-MMr/ 1 /7.• I_


W•I7^7
I a. • 1^MM^_Mw^.-^MMMM -^MM MI-. ■■•I4JMMEI-M-I-
_MM` MMMMMMMr-^MN-MMM--^-MMSuMMM^ —I—I—i
I -••=1•
M-MENIP ^
• ^M^M ., . -••••••. , _ ^ ..^ -- I- M—

(^) 1
, Jr rw

^^^i I JJMIM AI 1M J1 rs rvsMMMI•■ .6IMi /II., 1J-RMMMM1111•111.././11-IaMrM ^—■ -M


I• ••1 I= 1 EEISM INI
Iill =FM -MM. 7JMM=^MMIMMI-I•IIMM1-MMI-IMM
7lM-IM0MMMM/•..JMMM
M MI ■ ^_ \•I MMM..^MM INS -M.M JMM IM MOVIE= EMMA
-MM- - -
MiMM• ■ M ^MMyIMMMMMMM M --M ...MEM-M EMI MM^MMI

A.L. - 25.732

54


^• ...11/211111•1111•MB smormil .^^ ^.a. ;.^=r.^ >....^... - WV NNW
I:—:'^•^
./..r
S V..
^^^• •-^•^---
^^—•a^ •^•—^
/ . . ^ • ■ •^•0•M••
^^ •a- ^ ^.• ^i.
•r ^^
••^

T
%1 ^\
!/r•u
1.^.^ ' in— Min I • MO/ 1111■1•• ^: r•^ a.01M•11 - -. - r
-!^,__•^^__^_.^^^^^ j^ I-r-r 1^
rrw.M.a-s
—^•I :i.^•-
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.^^a^.^—^••^■ _ ^^^^^^^^^^D^^^
—•^.^•1^ 1 ^^^!^' -•-^• ^ ••■••••■+••

-- / '
IIIIrir ' ...Ras ^a•rr^ -I r a/^. >.+r
i :• ^sa^ ^ ^^•i ^ ^s^^ ú+= rI• WINNO Illa
-.•••••••=11111
^.,. .a^..^•.— _^^.- ^ w^ ^ í^^^ ^..^iii^i^^
-- ,—,..,.p.•••■••,.,•,

-• •11.•••.■ NMI all.. Inn NOME


1.1-71 •— •110•Y•••....Ir•••I•11•MI
^^^
r
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\V■^ ^

{ MANNI,,,^••I.I .Jat
••7^a1a1/
. .•,r^.
•,... vr•a•—^^ •r ••...—•^
^^•^^^•---nr—
1 aI— ^ .•^•.^^ ^../
i^--^ •t^..•••.^•a^•^•s•.^I../
r^••^y-••..^_
• ^.^
mar INN
^^- a-^^1•^
^ i1.^
^^.^^—+.^^•^^--.-- -^^•OM.11•M.•.wi

^ ......r..^.r -,_^..^..^,
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MUM
^..•^■^
.....^r. ^^ —.-..0 ^•'
•••• U.= /•^

..1MI
••./1/~/5/41>—aa.^ L:/J1-- rJJ •..^••^ • •^^•^^
. Ism ^.
WI 11111M.41111111111.0 1./.l^P
..^^A^1••.^al-1^•--`.^
1( .••7^ •••a.•^ a.Il.-•/-a^—••.••at ^ r ^.••^•i U ^^....•I^, f J^1 1 La/
^ M .A.^^^t'.J M .^■ .1.^^
aV. ^.^^^^—a-at^^
.....•• -MI ^1 ^ .•^..m^r^—!^. MEN ^ ••a•
^.^^^^
■•••■•••••••.0 M^

II
,Ar^ •—
tit , /

a
-'-•IIMI.■
I..•77í /r
••M a—ß._•111•.•1 a._.•• _. _ l'Or. 1
ii/•••—••r••I— fii AlIM11^a•1••r .^•i^.////
^•1.J J
UMW
•111•1•11-8•11

NV
a 401,

- -
:-; ^ •
---E4/111/-

^^YY
.
m—a['IL ......^•/—•1•^•.^- • ^mJ— —rLS.- rt :^a
5...!.—^.--1^.
...,r.—.-- —^^. —^^^ •--
... —^ ^^^1 ^C--
--^-/^—^ i.I /J!17
••1111•1•211111111^,.^..:..•^.—..^ 3 ^..
., ^..^ -- O ^----»• -^^...^.—. N•_•
_-. ^----•-- -r -.^..._rr= ^
^ ^ -- s -,•..•.^..• - •_,... ^ .^^
---- ^^^ Nowa.

A.L. - 25.732

55

ITALIAN ORNAMENTATION

Quantz:
In music composed in the Italian taste, much is left to the caprice and capacity of the
player (... ) One cannot deny that for a piece to make its full effect in Italian music, the
performers contribute as much as the composers.
Knowledge (of figured bass and the art of composition) is essential in Italian music;
this is because .of certain passages written in an extremely simple, dry manner, leaving t'e
player free, within the limits of his capacity and judgment, to vary them repeatedly so as
constantly to surprise the listener with new inventions ( . . . ).
Wizen perfori p ing in the manner of the Italian taste (in playing and decorating the
Adagio), one does not content oneself with these little French grace notes; but one tries to
find such larger ornaments as are elaborate and refined, yet always consonant with the
harmony. Here the (following) example may be taken as a model where these optional
ornaments are fully written out in notation:

Adagio (QUANTZ)

a,
.s-NE
=NNW
NMI ^
■=r01111111
=MI
=IN

^ s)
I
^:a/ ta^^:3^sM./7 i1 M III. li
r^s r r.i.^^r MU =Y:a^^^a^^^^^ ^'_^
+ ^r
W.
o.^rrl/
•^^^a_^
SLAM
/^^J/^^^^rRilJ^J^^^
^^ ■^1^^^^iM1^
■--^^^^'w N ^...r
^^ u/^^
.1.,^^^^^ ^•^.^^
^. ■ ^^^---^
..^
- ^+--r-^i-^^
_^^^_^^^^^w^^^^r^.
_....
_^
^ _.
^^^

56

:
...^.^{^ ^.-_
. ^^.^...r ,....
:^^•■ ^
.^.^^
...._^I^J.
t
^
NIMI. .1. ^ . . ,,,•••••■

^7// ■■■r^^^^A■^•1^^•V7^^=
OL1 ^1//f lr^ 1^^^r■■ ^J.T1^^ ■ 1.t 1^t 1^•i -^
•• ^.rJ•^^ ^^^^A
^ !^_^ I!•H ^^lr^^^^^•^
■^■t
^ ^l tL ai^—.^ {{ .r^^.m•^. /- -

I
I. -.^^ lfJ 1 l<: Js i11^ ^
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SIM MIMI MM... ^ .41I■
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- The Italians often decorate melodies with even greater . imaginative freedom and virtuo-
sity, which is not always to the taste of the French: They (the `passages', ornaments) are
practised less in vocal than in instrumental music, especially now, when instrumentalists,
wanting to imitate the Italian taste, disfigure the nobility of simple melodies by variations
which are often ridiculous. (Montéclair)
Here is how Tartini decorates the melody of an Adagio, the line of which is already
over-written in the first place. This constitutes only one suggestion among some fifteen
different variations offered by him; moreover, he leaves it to the performer to invent others
as he pleases ... :

A.L. - 25.732

-7."",._..r-;-' 7.
G. TARTINI (1692-1770)
Adagio

^ sì^^^ ^^^ i ^
^^^ t ii ' i >r^^^^^r•••sr115•1•■
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A.L. - 25.732

á.y,-^..
58

THE CADENZA (improvised on a pedal-point)

Here we refer to that optional ornament which, depending on the performer's wishes
and imagination, is added in the principal (solo) part at the end of a piece, on the penulti-
mate bass note, to wit, the fifth of the key in which the piece is written. (Quantz)
It is rare for pedal-points to be made in our Latin music, and they have n-ver been used
in French music, at least until now (1759); I do not know whether tastes migra change, and
the Italians excel in this sort of decoration. (Choquel)

Quantz devotes a whole chapter to the manner of performing the cadenza. Here are
some important extracts:

It is perhaps not yet fifty years since these cadenzas became fashionable 1, rh the
Italians, who have been imitated by the Germans and by other nations who are intent on
singing and playing in the Italian style. Up to now, the French have abstained ( ... ). It
was only in the period roughly between 1710 and 1716 that cadenzas such as we now have,
with a pause in the bass, became fashionable ( ... ).
They only occur in sad, slow pieces, and in fast pieces which are serious at the same
time. The aim of cadenzas is to surprise the listener yet again unexpectedly at the end of
the piece, and to leave a singular impression on his mind; for this reason it is sufficient to
make only one cadenza in a piece ( ... ). Cadenzas should be invented virtually on the spot;
they require not so much knowledge as a lively mind. Their greatest beauty is in that they
arouse the listener to a new, touching admiration through something unexpected, and ele-
vate to their highest point the passions one is aiming for ( ... ).
Cadenzas for the voice or for a wind instrument should be such as can be completed in
a single breath. A string player may make them as long as he wishes, provided that they are
sufficiently rich in invention. However, he stands to gain more from appropriate brevity
than from tedious length (... ).
Cadenzas should always partake of the principal sentiment that prevails throughout the
course of a piece. They must contain a short repetition or imitation of the most agreeable
passages found therein. It sometimes happens that other preoccupations may prevent one
from inventing something new on the spot; there is then no better solution than to choose
one of the most pleas-
ing passages, and to
fashion the cadenza
from that ( . . . ). , . ^^:-
^
^
^t ^
* NB
•L'
..i.^.^. ^^^r^w^ w /^ :r ^ ^
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NMI - r-••-
The more one sur- v:^.^ r^s 1^^^^^^^1 A
^J^^^^^_^-^^ ^ pi/
prises the ear with new ■ :.y

inventions, the more


pleasure one gives. r.,..-----..^
Therefore one must al- . . ^ I
'II MN OM MI MINI M r 41/7 AN ....... iNI.rr >7.irrr
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ways blend together .1•1111=1111•1
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\ •^ -^^ ^^:^-^^^ .
^^^^^^^ —_ _— ^^ ^^_ _ ^ ^^i ^^'
_
^ ■ `
figures of different
kinds:

(... ) Care must be taken here not to mix the spirited with the sad in an absurd manner,
nor to confuse the one with the other. A lively cadenza will consist of large disjoint leaps
and of spirited passages with an admixture of triplets and shakes:

A.L. - 25.732
59

•^f^^....^..^... 1J1^W ■ JIt^^^M^t:.rs:.


^ t^r r^!!t 1./ /•111•1111171J ^^ ■ JM^t^ ^1^t0^^ ^^1
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EL:
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r^^r^

(ii) 41)
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.IIIIMIr■ 11•111■ 11111111•110 EMI JIM/ tJt11•11t11•1111Ms /IN/ 1rINIII• /IV=..,_. ^.
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■ •••••t1•11•1 ^/^ !NW t MOti

A melancholy cadenza is almost entirely made up of intervals which are very close together,
intermingled with distances:

I should make some further comments on fermatas, where a pause is made ad libitum.
Sometimes they are encountered in vocal pieces, at the beginning of an air; but for instru-
ments, they are much rarer, though even so, they may be found, for instance, in the Adagio
of a concerto. The fermata usually consists of two notes, forming an interval of a descending
fifth, over the first of which there is an arch with a dot inside it, and it is used to give the
singers an opportunity
for making an embel-
lishment at this point
(... ). This embellish-
ment should consist
only of such principal Va do va
notes as are found in
the chord of the figured , ^^^ ^ w r
• t:11111111..1111Jr /1111711•1111111JI MOrINNINWIlf MI ^^^^.^
bass, as passing into .t1IIMII OM^^^J•^^^^ 1J ■ =a^v^.^ ^
...^ - MO MIMI IIM MIN =MI MIMI ■I MNr MINI tMOW" 11101111 lMIMIMM7
Vf -.RIM ^ ^^^^^^- t I
other keys is not per- amor...= mom
mitted. The example du
(opposite) may serve
as a model:

One may stay on the first note under the arch with the dot, (messa di voce) (1) for as
long as one's breath permits, decreasing and increasing the strength of the sound. However,
one must have enough breath left over to complete the subsequent decoration in the same
breath.

(...) But since it is not possible to write out cadenzas just as they should be played,
any number of examples of well-wrought cadenzas would not be enough to give a complete
idea. Thus it is only by paying great attention to cadenzas played by several able people
that one will learn to perform good ones too. (Quantz)

(1) Messa di voce (`inflated sound'): see p. 42.

A.L. - 25.732
The Various Types of Adagio and Allegro
CLASSIFICATION — TEMPO — CHARACTER

There are five principal modifications of tempo which, ranging from slow to fast, are

expressed by the words Largo, Adagio, Andante, Allegro and Presto; and these words are
rendered in French (with much less precision and in a much looser sense than in Italian
music) by the following: Lent (slow), Modéré (moderate), Gracieux (graceful), Gai (spirited)
and Vite (fast).
Each of these degrees is further modified and subdivided into others, of which one
must distinguish those which indicate only the degree of rapidity or slowness, such as Largh-
etto, Andantino, Allegretto or Prestissimo, and those which additionally indicate the char-
acter and expression of the Air, such as Agitato, Vivace, Gustoso, Con brio, etc. (Rousseau)

IMPORTANCE OF THE TEMPO


No-one can doubt ( ) the importance of seizing upon the tempo required by each
piece, or the major errors that can be committed in this regard. If, then, there were certain
rules about this and they were to be observed as they ought to be, a great many pieces that
are at present completely ruined by an ill-chosen tempo would make a better effect and
bring more honour to their composers. (Quantz)
To do this, Quantz suggests a pulse beat (at 80 to the minute) as a standard which
^^
could se rv e to give one an idea of each tempo in question.
N.B. Quantz goes on to say: It must be observed that above all else it is necessar y to give as much consideration to the
word written at the beginning of a piece to indicate the tempo as to the quickest notes that make up the (rapid) passage-
work, for each of these different tempi has two principal kinds of pulse, namely one which is fast and one which is mod-
erate (in the ratio of 2 to 1), depending on whether there are sixteenth notes or eighth notes in bars of 2/4, 3/4, C, etc.,
and thirty-second notes or sixteenth notes in bars of 3/8, 6/8, 12/8 etc. Concerning rapid tempi, Quantz remarks: In the
past, what was said to be played exceedingly fast was performed almost twice as slowly as today. Where the words Allegro G
assai ( 1 ), Presto, Furioso, etc. were marked, the music was written in the same manner and played barely faster than .fin
Allegretto is written and performed today. Thus the great number of fast notes formerly found in instrumental pieces by
German composers were much more difficult and perilous in appearance than they proved in performance. The French of
today still, for the most part, observe this moderate speed in fast pieces.- (Let us remember that Quantz is writing this
in 1752.)

CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPO INDICATIONS ACCORDING TO MARPURG


The three gradations of slow tempo are:
Very slowly Slowly Less slowly
Adagio assai ( 1 )
Adagio di molto
Adagio
Largo
Andante Poco adagio
Andantino Poco largo
9
Largo} Lento arghetto Poco lento
( i ) or di molto, etc.
etc. etc.

The three gradations of fast tempo are:


Very fast Fast Less fast

Presto or Prestissimo
Allegro Allegretto
Allegro assai (1) Veloce Poco Allegro

Allegro di molto Vivace Poco vivace

Velocissimo Poco presto Poco veloce

Vivacissimo etc. Allegro ma non troppo (non tanto, non presto)
etc. etc.

(1) See note (2) on p. 61. A.L. - 25332


1

^<
... ,,,..Pt •,.-,.,.. ,
61

CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPO INDICATIONS WITH THEIR METRONOMIC VALUES


ACCORDING TO QUANTZ

4. J = 40 Oh= 40 J=40 CJ = 40 ¢J=80 CJ=80 CJ= 120(1) 4a=160CJ =160


Adagio assai 12) Adagio cantabile Allegretto Allegro Alleg ro assai (2)
Adagio pesante Adagio spiritoso Allegro ma non Poco allegro Allegro di molto
Lento Arioso tanto Vivace Presto
Largo assai 121 Larghetto Allegro ma non etc.
Mesto Soave troppo
Grave Dolce Allegro ma non
etc. Poco andante presto
Affettuoso etc.
Pomposo
Maestoso
Alla siciliana
etc.

4/8_(2/4) J = 160
when these metres
are taken fast
6/8 J. = 160
when these metres
are taken fast

12/8 J1 = 160 12/8 J. = 160


siciliana)
(Alla when this metre
contains no semi-
quavers

=40 J = 160
when the bass moves when there are semi-
in quavers quavers and quaver
triplets
3/4 J = 40 3/4 314
(Adagio assai, (Adagio cantabile)
Lento and Mesto
if the bass only =80 J. = 80 3/4 J• = 107 (Presto)
moves in crotchets if the bass only when the speed is when the speed is
moves in crotchets extremely fast and extremely fast and
and the melody is there are only 6 there are only 6–.
arioso rather than quick notes (eighth quick notes (eighth
sad notes) to the bar notes) to the bar

3/8 J1 = 80 3/8 J. = 80 3/8 J. = 107 (Presto)


(Arioso) when the speed is when the speed is
extremely fast and extremely fast and
there are only 6 there are only 6
quick notes (six- quick notes (six-
teenth notes) to the teenth notes) to the
.bar bar
(the metronomic
signs for all these
metres refer to the
Allegro tempo)

(1) Note that this tempo is the same as that indicated by Engramelle for an Allegro of twenty bars in duple time, which
should be performed in twenty seconds, that is to say: 2/4 J = 120 or ( J = 120 etc.
(2) According to Brossard, the adverb 'assai' for some means 'a great deal' and for others means that the metre and the
tempo should be in no way exaggerated, but should remain within a prudently moderate slow or fast speed depending
on the different characteristics that have to be expressed.
Quantz, as we can see, here takes 'assai' to mean 'a great deal', which is its usual sense.

A.L. - 25.732
62

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE

SÉBASTIEN DE BROSSARD

Largo means extremely slowly, as if broadening the metre and emphasizing main beats that are often unequal

Larghetto

Crave means that one must beat time and sing and play gravely, sedately, with majesty, and consequently
almost invariably slowly
Adagio means smoothly, comfortably, in a leisurely way, without hurrying, consequently almost invariably
slowly and drawing out the metre a little

Affettuoso lovingly, tenderly etc. and consequently almost invariably slowly


(or affetto)

Andantino

Andante from the verb andare': to go, to walk with even paces; means, especially for the continuo bass, that all
the notes must be made equal and the sounds well separated

Allegretto diminutive of Allegro, means a little spirited, but in a graceful, pretty, playful, etc. way

Allegro always means lively and really animated; very often quick and nimble but also sometimes at a moderate
speed, bordering on the lively and animated

Vivace Italian adjective often taken ( . . . j as an adverb to show that one must sing or play with fire, vivacity,
spirit, etc. Often it also means to sing or play quickly, or at a bold, brisk, animated, etc. pace. It
roughly the same as Allegro

Presto means fast, that is to say the metre must be hurried along or its beati made extremely short. This nor-
mally indicates liveliness, rapture, frenzy or swiftness, etc.

Prestissimo

Arioso means in the saine tempo as if one were singing an Air

Dolce means that the voice must be made tender and the melody rendered in the softest, most graceful manner
possible
Maestoso means in a majestic, pompous, emphatic manner, etc. and consequently gravely and slowly, though with
vivid and well-marked expression
Soave agreeable, sweet, graceful etc.
Légèrement blithely, spiritedly
(lightly)

A.L. -25.732

^a

63

VARIOUS TEMPI ACCORDING TO

JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU

a tempo slower than Adagio, and the very ultimate in slowness.


It shows that the long sounds should be 'threaded', the beats and
the metre drawn out, etc.
s•".'
_ ^ ..^^

a slightly less slow tempo than Largo, slower than Andante, and
very close to Andantino
^ ^■ , ^,
■ i

v ^ .
^^ ^ ' tali w
^.r^ ■ . 4.:
• ^

adverb which indicates slowness in tempo, and in addition, a ^r t 1 : 11C11^


certain gravity in performance Ï^^ ^ .f' îít^
I^.■ 5 /^/.^. ^`
4111, ^
adverb which suggests leisurely, steady performance i ii` c̀ iii ^ .^f
^^'I,r . ^ .^!.`7^
'l'-`:
adjective taken as an adverb (...) indicates a tempo halfway 1 11^.• ^^^ J
^
^i■
^

between Andante and Adagio, and an affectionate and sweet


expression in the character of the melody , i i^111 s
.^ t :to. ^ in
the metre slightly less spirited (in relation to Andante): it ^^i ' / ■ ^^ •\
[Ili L J F'
should be particularly noted that the diminutive Larghetto has
quite the opposite meaning (in relation to Largo) ,^ ^ ¿ ^ %ÌÌ ! C 1 /ir ^J
present participle of the Italian verb andare'.' to go. It des-
cribes a tempo that is decided without being lively, corres-
_^ñ
■1
^ IìGI^ •Z̀ `
^. .41i1^ ^
ÿ ^^•
If^ 't
III—
ponding almost to what in French is denoted by the word 1.. ^ L -= ^
'Gracieusement' (gracefully)
l^ -%4 u ^ q
^ ,1^ ^
indicates a more moderate liveliness (than Allegro), the metre
being slightly less vivacious

adjective taken as an adverb ( . . . ) means lively; and it is also


ái^
tllh
^^ ^ •u
.;^^I .t^ ^^
^. r7-
the indication for a spirited tempo, the most lively of all after
^ ^ ' trill
^
Presto. But ( . . . ) it is often applied to transports of fury,
frenzy and despair, which are anything but sprightly
1 f♦ ^
1.1;12
^^1 t±,1
lr r ^ Il
t
spirited, quick, animated tempo; to be performed with bold- r ' ^^, ^^,, ^ °éi.
ness and fire. In French: 'Vif, Vivement' (quick, quickly) (see
below: Légèrement) 11;1I ^ _::^ ^ • 1
means fast
^^ i n!!!
loi
^a^ ■
.., . ■ 1l
sometimes an even more precipitate t mpo is indicated by the
- ^^ 4.t.
`ia1 i
superlative Prestissimo or Presto assai.e() Very fast rr ^^^ ^^^^i;;
^1 ^ ^^ v
`74.
... RBI ^ ^ `•r^.iw1 i M i d
RBI
^ ^i ^ ,s^b .-.,
adjective taken as an adverb (...) indicates a style of melody ti
that is sustained, elaborate and appropriate for important Airs 114^
s:1^1^
.^¡^r^ ^ ^ti!' III.
^ ir•
t:.
this word Dolce (sweet) is the opposite not only of strong
^" r ^ ^`111 ■■1^i^^ ^^
(`Fort') but of harsh (`Rude')
■^,
^ ^ ::: 1^^
61
__
tl/ 7;
^`''=
:orr., ir 11'^^^.^
.-fi ^
' ^. ,^ ^11

this word indicates a tempo still faster than 'Gai' (spirited), a
...
^^^i.-^^; ^ ^.
.^
^_
till
pulse halfway between the spirited and the fast. It corres-
ponds almost to the Italian Vivace
zs

(1) See note (2) on page 61.


s t

A.L. 25-732
64

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ADAGIO SHOULD BE PLAYED (1) (extracts):


J. J. QUANTZ

DIFFERENT SORTS OF ADAGIO—THEIR CHARACTER AND TEMPO

Thé principal mood of the Adagio is one of tenderness and sadness.


The Adagio affords more occasion than the Allegro for both exciting and subduing
the passions.
The right method of playing an Adagio requires the soloist to allow himself to be held
back by the accompanying parts rather than to go ahead of them.
In order then to play an Adagio well, the mind must as far as possible be in a tranqur
almost sad state (...) An Adagio can be compared with a flattering supplication ( . . .
In playing, one must also be governed by the principal sentiment intended by the composer
in Iris piece, so as not to play a very sad Adagio too fast or, on the other hand, a lyrical
Adagio too slowly. A pathetic Adagio should be clearly distinguished from these other
kinds of slow piece: Cantabile, Arioso, Affettuoso, Andante, Andantino, Largo, Larghetto,
etc. As to the tempo required by each particular piece, it must be judged in the total
context of the piece; the key and the metre—knowing whether it is equal (duple) or unequal
(triple)—also provide some elucidation.
An extremely sad Adagio is normall y shown by the words Adagio di molto or Lento
assai.

N.B. As regards the two ways of playing and decorating the Adagio, firstly according to French taste, secondly according
to that of the Italians, see the chapter on Ornaments, p. 50 (now (1)) and p.53 (Telemann).

NOTES FOLLOWED BY A SILENCE

Especially when rests are encountered, the sound must not be cut off at once; it is
better to sustain the last note a little longer than its value calls for ( . . . ) letting it die away
gradually.

TONGUING

In the Adagio, each note should be caressed and soothed, so to speak, and rough
tonguing must not be used; except when the composer requires some notes to be cut short
in order to waken the listener who may have been languishing.

SWELLING THE SOUND

When in an Adagio the soloist alternately swells and diminishes the strength of the
sound, thereby putting light and shade into his expression, an excellent effect is produced.

DOTTED NOTES

When in the Adagio there are slurs over


dotted notes (see example), the note after the dot
must not be stressed; it must be slurred with the
preceding note, the sound gradually diminishing to
piano (see Quantz's chapter on the Violin):

(1) Subheads by J.-C. V.

A.L. - 25.732

65

A If there t a dot after the second


A
A
note, in an Adagio the first note must be
played as shortly as in an Allegro, but
A without as much force:

A
A THE EXPRESSION OF ASCENDING CHROMATIC SEMITONES
A
A When in a slow movement there are semitones intermingled with the melody, those
A which are raised by a sharp or natural sign should be
perceived as louder than the others; this is produced °...^ :^l^^
when, on wind instruments, the wind is increased:
'V7^^^ sot 1•q -^I
N3•ININMM.^'^^,".MOI ^^
■ (>)
(')
A GRAVE

A A Sostenuto, which is the opposite of Staccato and which consists simply in a well

A sustained, serious and harmonious melody, in which there are many dotted notes which
must be slurred in twos, is normally headed with the word Grave; for this reason it must
A be played with a long, weighty bow-stroke.
A A Grave, in which the melody consists of dotted notes, should be played in an ele-
vated, lively manner (... ) The dotted notes must be swelled as far as the dot, and they
A must be softly and briefly slurred onto the following notes, unless the interval is too large.
A For very distant leaps, each note must be stressed separately. If such notes rise or fall by
A i step, the long notes, which are most often consonances and cduld ultimately displease the
o ear, may be preceded by a port-de-voix. (1)

A
ADAGIO SPIRITOSO

An Adagio Spiritoso is most often composed in triple time with dotted notes, its
melody being often interrupted; and the expression requires even more vivacity than we
have requested (for the Grave). For this reason the notes should be stressed more than
slurred, and fewer grace notes should be used. Above all, ports-de-voix which finish with
A half-shakes may be used (2) ; but when some cantabile ideas are found amongst the rest
A (... ), one must adapt one's performance to these as well, mingling the serious' with the
charming in alternation.

*fl If many conjunctly rising or falling semiquavers are found in a Cantabile or Arioso in
ow' triple quaver metre (3/8) ( ), one must strive to express these sorts of notes in a simple
and charming way, sotnetimes using `piano' and sometimes 'forte'.

If leaping quavers are interspersed, rendering the melody dry and failing to sustain it,
4 leaps of a third can be filled up with ports-de-voix or triplets. But when tize bass has notes
A of the same value for the same harmony throughout a bar, then the principal part is free to
make more grace notes. Nevertheless, grace notes slzould never deviate from the general
manner of playing in which one is directed to perform such a piece.

(1) See paragraph 'Port-de -vo ix', p. 41 ('When after one or more short notes ... J.
(2) See paragraph 'Port-de -vo ix, p. 38, example by Montéclair.

A A.L. - 25.732
A
A 4 47
ANDANTE, LARGHETTO

In an Andante or Larghetto written in triple crotchet metre (3/4), where the melody
consists of leaping crotchets accompanied by the bass in quavers, with six often remaining
on the same pitch and in the same harmony, one can play with more seriousness and with
more grace notes than in an Arioso. But if the bass goes hither and thither by step, one
must be carejtrl with the grace notes to avoid making forbidden fifths and octaves with the
principal voice.

As regards the interpretation of the Adagio on the violin (for wind instruments sub-
stitute `tonguing ' for `bowing'), Quantz says:
An Arioso. Cantabile, Soave, Dolce or Poco andante is played with calm expression
and with a light bow-stroke. Even if the Arioso is mixed with different kinds of quick
notes, it still requires light, tranquil bowing.
A Maestoso, Pomposo, Affettuoso or Adagio spiritoso should be played seriously and
with somewhat weighty and pointed bowing.
A slow. sad piece, which is indicated by the words: Adagio assai, Pesante, Lento,
Largo assai or Mesto, requires the greatest moderation of tone and the longest, most tran-
quil and weightiest of bowing.

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67

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ALLEGRO SHOULD BE PLAYED (1 ) (extracts):


J. J. QUANTZ

THE ALLEGRO AND ITS VARIOUS APPELLATIONS

Firstly it must be noted that, of the various names given to pieces of music, the
word Allegro, unlike the word Adagio, has a very broad meaning, and under the term
Allegro are included several kinds of pieces in fast tempo, for example: Allegro, Allegro
assai, Allegro non presto, Allegro ma non tanto, Allegro moderato, Vivace, Allegretto,
Presto, Prestissimo etc. Here we are using the word Allegro in this broader sense, referring
to all kinds of lively and fast pieces, and paying no attention to the special meaning of the
word when it describes a particular sort of fast movement.
Since many composers use the words assembled above more from habit than to give a
good description of the true tempo of pieces (... ), many cases are found ( . . . ) in which
the composer's intention must be guessed at from the content of the piece rather than from
the word found at the beginning to denote the tempo.

CHARACTER AND TEMPO

The chief characteristic of the Allegro is sprightliness and liveliness.


The Allegro must not be begun faster than one is able to play the (fast) passage-work
to be found in it ( . . . ) It is for this reason that the speed must be decided on in accordance
with the most difficult passages of the piece.
However much vivacity the Allegro calls for, one should never deviate from a con-
trolled and reasonable speed. For everything that is hurried will cause the ear more dis-
comfort than satisfaction. One must always have as one's aim the sentiment that is to be
expressed, and not set out merely to play rapidly ( . . . ) Hence, if in an Allegro one wishes
to affect and charm the ear, each piece must in fact be played with suitably fiery expression;
but one must never hurry the tempo, as the piece would thereby lose all its grace.

TO AVOID HURRYING

The tempo is hurried when the fingers are lifted too quickly, especially for leaping
notes. To avoid this fault one must give a little emphasis to the first note of fast figures; in
this way the important notes should always be heard for a little longer than those which are
merely passing notes.
As for triplets, one must take great care to make them very full and even, and not to
hurry the first two notes too much ( . . . ) To give this effect one may stress the first note
of a triplet since it is the most important note of the chord.

TONGUING (See also p. 68, `To set off the theme', `To express different sentiments')

The fault of hurrying too much also very often results from lack of attention to
tonguing.
The fast passages of the Allegro are those which must above all be played roundly,
cleanly, with vivacity, with articulation and distinctly. To this end, liveliness of tonguing
contributes much (... ) The tongue must sometimes be applied robustly, sometimes gently,
according to the requirements of the kind of notes in question.
(1) Subheads by J.-C. V.

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68

HOW TO BREATHE

Breath must be taken at a suitable time and carefully husbanded so as not to separate
the parts of a melody which belong together by taking a breath at the wrong time.

THE LOW NOTES IN LARGE INTERVALS

In passage-work, the wider the leaps, the more strength must be given to the low notes;
because on the one hand they become essential harmony notes; and on the other hand the
low notes of the flute are neither as strong nor as penetrating as its high notes.

CANTABILE PASSAGES

When fast notes are followed by some slow, cantabile notes, one must immediately
moderate one's fiery expression and play the slow notes with the sentiment they require,
so that the listener will not experience any boredom.

TO SET OFF THE THEME AND COLOUR IT


When in an Allegro the subject comes back several times, it must always be well differ-
entiated from the less important ideas in its expression. Whether majestic or charming,
lively or bold, it can always be made perceptible by vivacity or moderation in the move-
ments of the tongue (... ), as also by piano' and forte' And for reprises in general, the
alternation of piano' and forte' will lend much grace to one's playing.

TO EXPRESS DIFFERENT SENTIMENTS (spirited, majestic, bold, charming)


Sentiments change frequently, as much in the Allegro as in the Adagio.
Spirited sentiment is imitated and represented by short notes ( ... ); it must again
be noted that it is principally vivacity of tonguing that expresses a spirited sentiment.
Majestic sentiment makes itself felt in long notes ( ... ) and in dotted notes. These last
should be firmly stressed and played with animation. The dots are sustained and the follow-
ing note is passed over very briefly. (1) One can also sometimes use shakes on the dots.
Bold sentiment is represented by notes in which the second or third are dotted, and the
first ones consequently hurried.
Charming sentiment is expressed with slurred notes which rise or fall by step; likewise
with syncopated notes, where the first half can be played softly, and more force given to the
second.
If, in an Allegro, there are more spirited than majestic and charming ideas, one must
then play it in a spirited, lively fashion. But if majestic sentiment makes up the character
of the principal ideas, the piece must as a whole be performed more seriously. If charm is
the piece's dominant sentiment, then more tranquility should prevail in it.

ORNAMENTATION
In the Allegro as in the Adagio the plain melody should be decorated and made more
pleasing by ports-de-voix and other small essential grace notes, according to the require-
ments of the sentiment it contains.
A majestic sentiment does not allow much to be added, and anything appropriate to it
should always be performed in a sublime manner.

(1) See paragraph 'Double-dotted notes', p. 27.

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A charming sentiment requires ports-de-voix, slurred notes, and a tender expression.
On the other hand, a spirited sentiment demands cleanly finished shakes, mordents,
and a playful expression.

As regards the interpretation of the Allegro on the violin (for wind instruments substi-
tute `tonguing' for `bowing'), Quantz says:
The Allegro, Allegro assai, Allegro di molto, Presto and Vivace require lively, very light,
short and well detached bowing, particularly in the accompaniment where the manner must
be playful rather than serious. However a certain moderation of tone must be observed.
An Allegretto or an Allegro that is qualified by the words: non presto, non tanto, non
troppo, moderato etc. (... ) should be performed a little more seriously, and with bowing
which may in fact be somewhat weighty, but nonetheless lively and vigorous. In particular,
semiquavers in an Allegretto, as with quavers in an Allegro, will require a very short bow-
stroke (... ): but fast passage-work should be played with a light bow-stroke.

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^
-^^.^^i

70

Character and Tempo


of the Various Movements
(Airs and Dances)
The various movements (airs and dances) in use during the 17th and 18th centuries
will here be listed in alphabetical order. For each we have selected the principal definitions
given by writers of the period, citing more than one when they complement or sometimes
even contradict each other: in such cases, the date of the definition must be taken into
account, the character of movements having often been subtly modified from one period
to another.
Whenever a precise speed is given for the tempo, it will be translated into a metro-
nomic figure. (The patent for the metronome only dates from 1816. Before then, theore-
ticians used different means of indicating the tempo, such as chronometers—pendulums—,
pulse beats, the number of seconds required for a given number of bars, and so forth.)

AIR: see ARIA

ALLEMANDE

At first simply a dance, at the end of the 17th century the Allemande became the
first or second piece in instrumental Suites. Its tempo was generally moderate, except
in the second half of the 18th century when it often required a fast, sometimes even
very fast tempo (Dom Bédos: Fast Allemandes of thirty-two bars in twenty seconds,
that is J = 184!).
A sort of tune or piece in which the music is in quadruple time, taken gravely
( . . . ) The Allemande in a Sonata is now universally obsolete (... ); those who still
use it give it a more spirited tempo.
The Allemande is also the tune of a dance extremely common in Switzerland and
Germany. This tune, as well as the dance, has much spirit: it is taken in duple time.
(Rousseau)

Allemande (HOTTETERRE) 1708


Gravely

1111 -.111•1 ■111M1111111111r


raararara^rar^^^
%a:aaaar ar111.`Ta=1•401111 /^^
a^^^ra^r^
•a
^^^r^^rar^a^r ^^
.^ ^a ^ =aar ^^ara 1111111111111.1 alIllraraIIE.a '!t a•
^ar^ sr,•ra^^rarar, ■ ^ra^ra^ra^ra^^ra
.^. i ■a•■•■ aaaa^affir Ill a41•111■11■1111 al MANI= MIMI al MIN ta ••• 1111faM = ara
MIIIII– .—

ao =U . ' 4//111/01M■
11•10aarMra
^^aa^a^^
aaLMM a MO -araos IC
■fll 1[

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71

Allemande (HOTTETERRE) 1708


Gracefully
i1.... WI MIM •MIIMINI••••4W7 M..•• I.■ MEIN .•.r. 117.01111•.=111
Ma/ LIT ■11111./•
.^'=J'•^^L7.^^r l ■J^r^I^^^^'I.^/^^^ J
_ M■ ^N^^Nr•^f Il^ Iran
or ■ .•• ^•^w•^^^w v.. •^•1•^^ ^.^^^ MM^ ^. ^/ • ^^^
:..1^1^ -J•
s^ •

.
• 5.11•1111,/ MOM
^
• 7 /1•1MIIIIMI
T
G"6.11=11•ININ EV Mt Jaa:W1111 -1
1M =MO-
+`.+
.^..^ 7 ^r_^ =
_^_^. J
_ ^J ^1•7^^^T7 /MINIM= 111111 p7_^\1•^^'!^1 1
V `^ ^^^1_._^ ■ 11•.^!•r^ [.i.^sr l^. ^I ^ _ ^1 1
^• i

Allemande (ENGRAMELLE) 1775 J= 184 (from Dom BEDOS)

ARIA

Aria means Air or Chanson, that is, a melody whose pace is precise and even, and
whose beats, especially the first of each bar, are well marked; its tempo is nearly always
somewhat fast and sprightly, provided there is no term such as Aria larga or affettuosa
etc. to render it otherwise. (Brossard)

Air (J. B. DE BOISMORTIER) 1731


With spirit

L..N/r. Am" mart -.a rr Ir.t M •.•11■ 71r7. ••=111111■1./7 1=1•r r••./tj /WV 1•11•7/ I
.111•111 •f•IIM1•1•.■••,1111111•11. /'I•tA./ •.■ .M.I111111•1111111.1.JI.MEMIIIIIN•=•11111'I• ISM MUM
.•1•tt •1• /I•^•/ 1^^.^^^•^•.••^r1^^^ MO' . 1-_•__^l"^R^.11^^11 A1'.4113/i1[
.: ^•!r•^.^^Ir.i ^' ^^^^•^^ 1•___
r
•^^^^11• •=.111111M •• I1•111111111M11 I

Tender air (L'AFFILARD) 1694 = 80

Aria (J. M. LECLAIR) 1738


Affettuoso
't.t1~ -...INIIIIMIIIIIIIMINIw
^ `\
MING rINI./ rr,/ • 2>•.I•Ir72111111111/ 1
.rlr7iIMIIIIMwINEMIwMIIIII/MIIIBMIIIII MO MINION NM 111r=.:J.e•I /a MIC1i71 1
•._I MIS MOW 11111n411 ME
WM IMIIIII!lias .'..I11111i liall1♦1MI 71 I
VINNIIIIMMI•1=1•1/• !NNW /SWS — IIitlr -••■•..... — NMI
.....= ME 1

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72

ARIETTE (ARIETTA)

The word Ariette implies a spirited Air, in the Italian taste. (Villeneuve)
Arietta: diminutive of Aria, means a short Air or Chansonnette. An Arietta
normally has two reprises, or is repeated da capo in the manner of a rondeau. (Brossard)

Ariette `Cruel vainqueur' (L.-N. CLERAMBAULT) 1713 J = 87 (Choquel, 1762)


Sweetly and `spiccato'
a ..,.^^ ^ 11M MEN'. MAIM
.^-=.-av^c^aMINIIIIIIIlal•
i .i.^. i^ /.11111111=1 NI=
WIN
MN SIM
11:1111M-MIIIN.IM
a..
MLA! .7.'
INNI1...u.a/ ,7.111111111■1M1..=1111111M
.../J. Jr.'r1111.
^^ ^^^_^^^^^^^^ a ^ ^.^.^..^_^^ a^.
^

Ariette `Ce n'est plus la mode' (A. CAMPRA) 1710 = 96 (Choquel, 1762)
+ +
..11/111107.f JIIMIP7MM111111=111•11111,11=1=11.1111......11111111
..7.^.....^...... [>•^.^ = t.7.^....^.^.^.5^...•..01
11111. 1.7[^^^ .1^^ .... lf...^
1^•^^^^/^.1.^ L7 /^\^^ If^^^/M. ^I^.1.^ ^^I111^...^
ViNNME• 1•rJ•111•1141111111•111ra /Mr MIAMI MINI AMMO .MI ■S

BOURRÉE = 120 (L'Affilard) 01= 160 (Quantz)

Sort of tune associated with a dance of the same name, which is believed to have
come from the Auvergne ( . . . ) The Bourrée is in brisk duple time, and begins with a
crotchet before the downbeat. (Rousseau) r0
The Bourrée is virtually the same thing as the Rigaudon. (Rameau-D'Alembert) JP
^
Bourrée and Rigaudon are played with spirit and with a short, light bow-stroke.
(Quantz)

Bourrée (J. S. BACH) c1720

144:

Bourrée (L'AFFILARD) 1694 = 120


... —r WIC
.1..-t)t•^^^^J^^
...—/s-1111•1111■.•1111
V./OEM n 11M
a^ iJl^ ..^ ^lj^^^r^.^ -__
11111.111111•--^— ---•__.1.=
11...111111111111111111
•1111111=1MIr. ■ =1111111i.=M1a/// AMAMI r1111.-
=MIL-1 111111111•111
INNE/MsI
MP B. MitilHarlIMINCI, 1I
MINI111111.r 1I
1

BRANLE = 112 (L'Affilard)

Very spirited kind of dance which is danced in a circle to a short tune in rondeau
form, that is, with the same refrain at the end of each couplet. (Rousseau)

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73
Branle en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694 d = 106

END
(1st couplet)
I
;sW a^^l^^^.a■ ^:^^./ ^s^^^^^^^ ^^^
11117J11111tJ MIlf ill 1!1M1 A'IllIM NMI
I
I
MS
IMMMIIIIIIIIMIt Ma
^^^^^^^I•f^^^^l
Vi^^ ^^ –••1tif• M l l• Ill ^ft tlf^^7 I a/ f^
Ill

(2nd couplet)
MAI
• •III■lfls/ //.^I.I AIf/'f/ fIIMINA /.
•f^^rff= .vIAIMBIA'/If<•= f.r IIIMI:4111111=I1111fa.
..111■11/t•fi ■1a.f >•.I^^^ MI1111•111f•11
• !^ ^I<•f•^^^^^^^I^^<i^lf^I^
-••• ■• f^ t 111/ ^
px.

CANARIES = 106 (L'Affilard) J, = 160 (Quantz)

Whatever kind of metre is indicated, Gigues and Canaries must be played extremely
fast. (Muffat)
Sort of Gigue whose tune is even faster in tempo than that of the ordinary Gigue
( . . . ) This dance is no longer in use today. (Rousseau)

Cana ries (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736


Quickly
,'_] 1/•••//!'fI t>•.I`ION. »1/, >_.■/Z1 laall•t L » IS /f• ^^1 I
.s7 =. ir ARNE ill–I–_- -11111111Ia11•11■•11:11 I
r ..t.l♦ l In IMlIIIIf11111I111•1•= I \_I
IlINIfr••1•INIIt _^^^^Il^i^l I
e\,i ..f^^fr•– ^Ia^^I^Ii^^I^ ^^^r^^>•1 I

6/8 metre is more suitable to the Canarie and the Passepied than 318, because of the speelof the tempo
required by these two tunes. (Montéclair)

Canaries en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694 J.= 106

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...
:^ -^--- -^- ^^t
74

Cana ries (DENIS) 1747

CHACONNE J = 156 (L'Affilard) = 160 (Quantz)


The Chaconne is a long piece of music in triple time, whose tempo is moderate
and whose metre well marked. It is composed of a number of couplets which are
varied as much as possible ( . . . ) Normally the Chaconne begins, not on the down-
beat, but on the second beat. (Rameau-D'Alembert)
One may alternate at will between major and minor (... ) and between grave and
sprightly or tender and lively, without ever hurrying or slowing down the metre.
(Rousseau)
A Chaconne is played as majestically (as the Sarabande, the Entrée, the Loure and
the Courante). (Quantz)
The metre is shown by a 3 which is taken in three light beats, or in one and a half
slow (beats). (Freillon-Poncein)
It is known that the Chaconne, the Villanelle ( ...) which are spirited (... ).
(Denis)

Chaconne (M. CORRETTE) 1738


Met
^^• • 11•11•11ra ■ s i ■ r•1111 -NM r7 J^R■ iw.^.
- ,t^^^ ^^^^ ■^■r^r^/s
10•111rwis.T
^■^ .> 111•1r111, MIA ^^^ ■ .J^^^..^.■r•ItF_•
^:^^f ^i^M^tl, ■^^^ . ■ ^... ^ ' ?lnïr•^—

Chaconne (L'AFFILARD) 1694 j= 156

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.,--^ V^!Ç4^14'@P.
r

75

CONTREDANSE j= 132 (Choquel)

Tune for a sort of dance of the same name ( . . . ) that at balls is normally danced
after the Minuets, as being more spirited ( ... ) The tunes of Contredanses are most
often in duple time; they should be very rhythmical, brilliant and sprightly, while still
possessing much simplicity; since they are repeated with great frequency, they would
become intolerable if overladen (with figurations). (Rousseau)

Contredanse (E. P. CHEDEVILLE, 1696-1762)


-4- y

^ + •11•^ ^ . ^ !
..wstiss
1 • • •
3

Contredanse (CHOQUEL) 1762 ej= 132

COTILLON

This is a sort of Contredanse which was later to become the Quad ri lle.
Cotillon (E. P. CHEDEVILLE, 1696-1762)
I . ^ a^
.1.•r11•1•••111 ■r>.11111•11 ■r71111111=1.11 MM11111/71111
+
MIME ■I
rNI MI MI ri111/1MINI1■1t MIIIIIII•1111•1111111•1•1131 ■
1.■ Wt,aMirt MIS r>rsMINO MI I= war 1111111•11 ■If ///■^1•11nr• MINII5.! ■ 111MMII, a ■!11■111111=111 I
v %•111■ ` s•■■ r1Yr1 ■!••1111tl!• MI aall•IIIM•• IMMrrJ♦1r!•tlria1l 1
— MIMI —..111.111

COURANTE j= 90 in 3/2 (L'Affilard) j= 80 in 3/4 (Quantz)

The Sarabande is really a slow Minuet, and the Courante a very slow Sarabande.
(Rameau -D'Alembert)
The Entrée, the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically, and the bow
is detached at each crotchet, whether it has a dot or not. (Quantz)
Those who did the Courante put two steps in each bar, the second gccupying the
third beat only. (Bacquoy-Guédon)

Courante in the French manner (MONTECLAIR) 1736


Slow

•AL1>_•1111111•111111
.^Z1^.■
wIMc.11 aw 1131171 vIIII
■ .IV1^^rla•1r)1^^ ^.♦ Ls.1J^^
WO' r zs^^>r1
111
.013///L1 IMP I la^^^^•^^^a
tl!•—,,_-- _••--^_wr Z2/"Ur ■ ^1.11MONII ■
— ■ Ill /UMW.MEN NM W1111111u ■ /11111=1111111//11111=11111111111121111
■ -- r/lbi S=11•11111111111111•1"/ ■ / /•/1•• 111111t/ JO MIMI ^ ■ 1

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_ _ ".`3•:i - ::s-L'A

76

Courante (L'AFFILARD) 1694 J = 92

Unlike the French Courante, the Italian Courante is fast and in 3/4 time:

Corrente (M. BITTI) c1712


Allegro

%a.=:^^_"^r..^^
^^^^
..^ ^ a_^r
.^
^^^a^ss.^^:

s.a ^^^i^s^
^.^ ^.^ar•^ ^ w^
r a^^^
^.^ ^^^^ a
.,^^^a^r^^ ^^^a
^^a^^
^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^
^
^.^-^^w11=11•1••=11 ^
^^
MUM

ENTRÉE J = 80 (Quantz)
These are normally Preludes or Sinfonias which serve to introduce or prepare for
the movements to follow. (Brossard)
Tune for the Sinfonia with which a ballet begins. Further, at the Opera, the term
is used for an entire act of an Opéra Ballet where each act makes a separate subject.
(Rousseau)
The Entrée, the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically, and the bow
is detached at each crotchet, whether it has a dot or not. (Quantz)

Entrée de ballet in two slow beats (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736

First part of the air


4- ^
• 6 • e

FORLANE

The Forlane is in a moderate tempo, half-way between the Loure and the Gigue.
(Rameau -D'Alembert)

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It is taken cheerfully, and the dance is very spirited too. It is called Forlane
because it originated in the Friuli, where the inhabitants are called Forlani. (Rousseau)

Forlane (J. S. BACH) c1720

AP,
• NA= MAMA 11 /aL/ .. /:1111111.1WTf a^L^7 L. ^L^L^LLL^.
./M11111.111111LLI OJM11L11111= i1•1■11•Lt4111111r.•11•111•11•1•1 .•1••M1/11• > ♦ ^^=1L1111111111101 i
NI =IN rLW/•11111111t11111111/ O/1 Llr ■11=31 I

Forlane (DENIS) 1747

FURIE J = 160 in C and in 3/4 (Quantz)

A Furie is performed in a very fiery manner. (Quantz)


Con furia: furiously, in a fast, violent and very fiery tempo. (Brossard)

Furies tune (DENIS) 1747


I . '
•L.Mtl1:i1LLL I AMIBolm• =nit MUM A=r-- _...■ L♦ L♦ MI 111•1 ■1r71 L,/ ^^
.1111MrSIE.LnL<'7IIMr ANI/f AP.IIMIIIIIM NMI L•IIIMILLLL/NM IMINr1•1•111WW• 1 ■=1f LM •LN .-.- JAI7
^i r•^^^^/^ ■ 11111.1f ANI'' NV,/a<^^^^ M^^^^IJ
MIMN milINIOINIW LLL^^INI•sin^
InLL^^L^ Li ■

r:
^
i . UM
_ AMU_ ___ __ _ _
!I^I^i
^ v^v^ ^ //2 MI
Vr^LLLf / LV^^/^^LM^^^^^ ^"'LL -^ILf1Lt
'__- 1'L•/NI

GAILLARDE (GALLIARD)
Tune in a spirited (duple or) triple metre from a dance of the same name (... )
long out of use ( ...) Formerly it was called Romanesque because it was said to have
come to us from Rome. (Rousseau)

Gaillarde (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736

=
.M1.- ■
•41111111L
22M/».=11M111111•11..LL1..1=1 L^^1
11L.••■f S1111■1Ln1•••••^1rrn111111lr111
AMIN= IM111Y.r/LSY1.I i7Laf.f 11KiJANI■ 1 I
t: 111 I

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78
GAVO TT E d = 120 (in (V, L'Affilard) = 132 (in (V, Choquel)(1)

The Gavotte is in duple time, and is made up of two repeated sections having
four, eight or twelve bars each; the pace of the Gavotte is sometimes slow, sometimes
sprightly; but never extremely fast nor excessively slow. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt )
These are graver and more serious tunes (than Rigaudons and Bourrées) and a
more touching kind of expression is found in them ( . . . ) The metre is shown as 2 and
should be taken very slowly. (Freillon-Poncein)
The Gavotte is almost the same as the Rigaudon; however, it has a more moderate
tempo. (1) (Quantz—who gives j = 160 for the Rigaudon in (V)
Its phrases and cadential paints are articulated in groups of two bars. (Rousseau)

Gavotte (HOTTETERRE) 1722


With gravity
V

r ^
r r LJ

Gavotte (Jean-Baptiste LCEILLET) cl 715


Presto
..:.■... AL+..111M.1111M1111M1111 MN ■...11111..MIIIMB. NM M.A/ NI .rrr .M11111//f .rr^^
..•11W.'•111=1 NM ..11111.1111.•111
,IIIM.a,
NM 1NNIIIMIN ^^^^i
—ww--- ....m..me ow gm ..r.^.^.^
^^^ i- ^ .^ ^ - 7^ ^s = r ^ ^^1^

Gavotte (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 61 = 120


va11,.~ _-.11111.^^..=11..•111,
111■11
s11•11111111•41=1
111111.111Mr1■1 J^^ MAW
M.41111=111•.11,11=
^^m^.i •
=NB ^ ^ •

Tempo di gavotta: this is when it is only the tempo of a Gavotte that is being observed,
without deferring to the Gavotte's normal number of bars or reprises. (Brossard)

Allegro tempo di gavotta (attrib. VIVALDI) 1737

..^^.^^.^.r — •11V rlmomor


r^
AI..=.... MEIN
.11111■11 sMO
^
í ii^•^^`


(1) Choquel gives the same tempo for both the Gavotte and the Rigaudon.

A.L.-25.732
L. =

L^
1^^^ : ^,r 77-1^

79
GIGUE J.= 100 (in 6/8, L'Affilard) J. = 116 (in 3/8, L'Affilard)

J. = 160 (in 6/8, Quantz)


The Gigue requires the metre or pulse of 318, of 618, of 918 or of 1218 (1) ; and
very buoyantly. (David)
The metre is shown by a 4 and a 6 (6/4) and is taken in slow duple time. (Freillon-
Poncein)
Whatever kind of metre is indicated, Gigues and Canaries must be played extremely
fast. (Muffat)
The Gigue is really only a very lively Loure, whose tempo is far more rapid.
(Rameau-D'Alembe rt )
The Gigue and the Canarie have the same tempo. The Gigue is played by means
of a short, light bow-stroke. (Quantz)

Thus the majority of writers of the period endow the Gigue with a rapid tempo,
even an extremely rapid one (as Quantz's tempo indication shows). This contrasts
with the contrary indication of Freillon-Poncein quoted above, which applies to the
older and slower Gigue in 6/4.

Gigue (J. PAISIBLE, 1650?-1721)

' MUMS, • Sa.t AII■MIM NM MUM


.M117• ■IIIIIMEN11•11/ Ar,_aIIN,: Mr:1•I•1•• INN EMI
III l•71111•1 Mall= JIM •110•1111•1111•••

..WMIIIIV.ts I= MN r11•11111111. ■•■ t 11J^f..! 11111•11/
•.■•••h. MI INII 1•01
•/7 1/1.11M =V/ A11»L•111110 =WINO =IN NM OEM I■11
AM AM MI MO IIM,.1111 AIM= ^a^^
r IMO S-4•01,t^OM Ms NM NUM MI OM Ili•111.


A111110••••••■aININ M11a911•r a-411•IIIIN../M BM NB ^.r Air 41• IN IIMI MIIIIIIIIMI.0111111•• ^ L7wMSC 1.2.10■11
:11ANI61111111I11 NM •11111-JA_____-+1/.111J'f 1.i,1•••_ al IIIMI SIM II MINI NM 1 NMI • IN NMI =111•11=1.11 1
.. r^^^^^ ^^^^r^^^^^^^Y W.-JW ^ s _ iJ•^^ MN WHIM IN VIM •1111•1■31

Gigue (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 el.= 100


PAY

MIMI/ r rs+t 111111i . - MN


^.■
CM= MP.
rC^
cMIPIMMININII NMI ••• Mr
.s • = /JIM MI MIMS MIIIIIMr
: .a.
MIN
^^^i ■ •■••
IM
/PT CI •a11•11• rn111 ^
MN IMP • 1.•■•111111= ME/".c ■11=11■-aJNO." ^ .• a
M IC 1111

• !♦ awirmint.Ami me ring/ =maw = a/1•S 1311111111 =11MIl 1


amomamo.=mosamemiespimmi.ir Lary, it/w•al a^ ••••• LTV !•U1NO.AMINUM.,0,1■ 10 WIN NM MI 1111••••••1 I
•:.■•■••Lniu. ■ 171••f I111.4•MIPS• 1111111111••• MIMI /1/M-4111•uIIIIIIM.41aM •a N= MIMI= MI ./ NM III MI PANNE-II I
'^•■1111.s•V aAIN/Mr•1111111116YMINIIMI NI= IAMB MIMS MI/ II III- IIIM MN t1•1 I l
1111.- MI L101 --

Gigue (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J. = 116


% a•La) av A
4/WIIM7Itnfal■W 1111•111111atar Li../AIIIII
ilff IIMI a WIN=
NO EOM =AMINE/
111111■11••t MMIIIP•917111•1•11
MN r AJ NM MP ^^
/..111.211M •7■11111011J MIMEO_ MI OMNI WIIMIIII ZS 111IM ON MPS NI NB Millrl7=WW1 ^
Vr/NM=•!_MI MI M1111^'IMI^^^^^i^V^^1^ ^^ a ^^t .^^^ r
1LIN

iw•rw9I Mira/NM AEI= 1171MINNIPa7 t.411=1 MIN AI= Mo.r a ENE ^l


/!1S:aJ MONIAEMBOINI•11•1. ■111110 ri rf' /1•11/■ =1.4MIN= 11
1.V.1•1•11111M INL MIN MI MIMI MI MIMI. WW1. I. M■ MI MIMI INN
NNW. EMI ^^^1
.^.^
7 NM- IM ` I=

(I) Gigues in 4/4, 4/2, 2/4, 3/4 and 3/2 also exist.

A.L. - 25.732

Gigue (J.-B. LCEILLET) c1710

Gigue (DENIS) 1747


•r=I^ MEMO -^ . 1=1 Ir MFEN
AIM • i-aUa.M.MENEWNIEENnow MN MO rENI>.ME ON, >. a.NIN 11111ti.4111f..ri sr ■• r.MEIMMr.sOMEMIr 11W-MINEMI
EN •s^^a>.^^^ENEN^rra^lrr uENM^a^Er•rWrMENaMMsw^Ma^i^^^EN•^Mr r
^i •aa• alINN1^••^.MIPr rINIF.■ 1111111•11la■1_411.411111■11•111•sMERrr•sIIIIMEINiaalm_ in AMMIIMMIMErUNO ^^
MIEN =WWI& .r
...N.1

I i•^
MIMIWIMEMEN-IEWIMEMEMOMIEMENIMI
' MEO MIME
.^^^E-NIJ 17WMEIMIE r>•Irr rarriMENraENNOr>tr•rIENNEMME77 —1• r .
.•tENDEMINrMINrut,a aMrNIa•ENaEN.sINIMME .Ill• ^ rENOWINDErrIEN1EENNrINW ru.411EN =MI EN NIA M
^
`, UMW •4111EEN ••* ■NI ND' INEI• EMY•l7M/ WWII! MOM /rrlEIt MUM I MI
••■1 MIN W M

LOURE (1) j= 80 (Quantz) (2)

The Loure is a tune whose pulse is slow, is shown (as) 6/4, and is taken in duple
time; it usually begins on the upbeat. Normally the note in the middle of each beat is
dotted (i.e. shortened). (Rameau -D'Alembert)
The Entrée, the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically, and the bow
is detached at each crotchet, whether it has a dot or not. (Quantz)
The first beat of each bar (is stressed) more perceptibly than the second. (Brossard)

Loure (M. CORRETTE) 1738


I .
• la/ar • MEIIr.tM M• NMOM= MEMO IED•Waar•IEM•Et /-4MOMMIEWMEMI NE MIN riMMII,W MIS
.m1rI_I /W a•rr'rlraal/ NIVltllr MIN r.NEN/INM IMMIN'A ENNEAD' NM rENIMrlrla NOIONra/I W a MO, L11II1ENN
r•.Y.MINV.'IN= rlarrarIMMMEE +/'r s!•II■ 41111 OM ENEMA= EN EIME•DOMMIEN• W I NNE
• mOmM. IMENLa1•••ME•r^ 11EMO MOM MAIMED/NM ENO AMMER

/
M•NIEMIOEN1J.I • ^^I/^^ ^r _ ^! J.^ • ^ 7^r>• rll^ -.
.41111E MEMO SIO-DIMMENEEIMMININNIIMIE
^
as• 'DENIM., Mr/r1♦ MEM ^^rarir NM ^ arar>. ^ /'rlrl•
Mo.—

Loure (DENIS) 1747


-f-
I +
t1=/^w•rW 11r rtt lr7l=1111
•at.a•v:a/r
.10_.
M1111111111111/f J•raIII MMrriMMrllalr...
I^IIrLMMEN ANEM/EEDNENI•4/ ! M / Nall/ • 77111, 1 l.41rrlrlrl /MIMI /rrr N r•rl1/r1
.rrl.411./
...1i.11r.,1•NIEr'NOMM _^^1_r1M1^t'Jtsrrl/r 1 1^ 7/ 1Y 21M11/.1" WIENS
^^I^^ w r1EO1MErI1•S.aMI1 MOW LAM ~MN a EMI• V II.

Lourer (lit. `to Loure'): ' this is a manner of singing which consists of giving a little more
time and force to the first of two notes of equal value, such as two crotchets, two
quavers etc., than to the second, without however dotting or sharply accenting it.
(Brossard)

(1) Loure is the name of an old instrument similar to a musette, on which the tune of the dance in question was played.
(Rousseau)
(2) Quantz does not indicate the metre, which here he must be assuming to be 2/4.

Al.-25.732
81
MARCH J = (in , L'Affilard) ( 1 ) J = 150 (in 6/4, L'Affilard)
J = (in (t, Quantz)
Duple and triple time (...) are both equally suitable metres for the March.
(David)
A March is played seriously. (Quantz)
The tunes of Marches should have different characters depending on the occasions
at which they are used. (Rousseau)

March (L'AFFILARD) 1717 J = 120(1)


+ (3)

• MEWAM•11•
:S!^ /^ ^_^ 7
i^ 1./
Ir111111•1■f
••!JIMI•111 1 ■1•111111=
• W
MI /.
/NE
11•11•111M
r%Iái I
IMMIF.-111•11 1
. 111•1•1•0111•1..1111••••■ MOW!
MEMOIR
^...MN MI •r•l
IMP—
MN NM MIN.. MIN ■•01 1

Marche en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J = 150

■•1111.•,. _•.11,..811111■,_ 1•!•.• ■ 1•111111 1• •r r


..^•lr.^ •^ •M
tl•Il11■1110M 111111.1.■=
AMID 111■.7111•M
.•• NNW" mnii
111.s1P.11
MMININNEO.,=••••••l.t••■•-■•1 ■111
VIP" t1♦.1 atfM1•••■•i

March of the Shepherds from Jepthé (M. BLAVET) cl 737


Tenderly
. ^ •
• !'7• mlIN111 IIII/Tf .111.11=11111/l1111111.1111r^ JIM f a7♦/1/IL IN I NM 1• >f1.tY7 :o 1
.ir•=s lr-.1 .••1/.1•1•..a1• ^L i7.tl 11•1■LI1 SLIM a.i1111•1f11•••iisf/ MP 1 Mil
...11111111•Il a•1 MINIM r•MNI All ra Va MI [,1a/!•a•1••11•INE MO .ol••••I 1

^ a
.1 .n111111, Vrft/•.••11111J•1•ILaf 17r. 1f/ !1•1. 711E11 / rlrr2/1•111/I ^ iJl.••^1^1
.•LL.1=•,11ra. MP' MI 1i. /I ^ •^^11/l/1^^/^^I^1.^1^•1^•1•: ^l^1
..^•^•^^\S•F r1r ■ I^1rt .^1f^ •r1

MINUET J = 160 (Quantz) = 76 (Engramelle) JI .= 70 (L'Affilard)


J.= 76 (L'Affilard)
The importance of the Minuet and the large quantity of writings concerning it
make it necessary to give it a fairly generous amount of space here, while once again
noting only the most significant definitions.
Very sprightly dance which originally came to us from Poitou. In imitation of
the Italians, the sign 3/8 or 6/8 ought to be used to show the pulse, which is always
very spirited and fast; but the practice of marking it with a simple 3 ( . . . ) has pre-
vailed. (Brossard)

(1) In the 1705 edition L'Affilard gives ei = 96, a tempo he increased to 120 in the 1717 edition.

A.L. - 25.732
82
It often happens that very good musicians do not dance in time, especially in the
Minuet, through the habit they have contracted of stressing each bar, and this over-
riding habit sometimes distracts their attention, which ought to be directed towards
always taking two bars to execute the steps of the Minuet, only the first of which bars,
which we call the strong one, being stressed; because of this, we even compare the
metre of the Minuet for dancing with that of 614 in terms of its values. (Bacquoy-
Guédon)
The downbeat in this metre (6/4) is called the strong beat (`bon temps') and the
upbeat is called the weak beat (`temps faux'); and this is the only reason why 6/4 is
used instead of twice 3/4, because in 3/4 this strong beat is not distinguishable from
the weak beat, and it is for this same reason that dancers take the Minuet in 6/4, even
though it is only ever marked in 3/4. (Loulié)
Moreover, the metre of simple triple time is so hurried for the true tempo of the
Minuet that the hand has insufficient time to mark each beat when moving through
the triangle formed by this kind of metre, so that in taking the Minuet in 6/4 time, all
these inconveniences could be avoided, and a genuine Minuet tempo could be found by
using a pendulum. (Choquel)
Because of this great speed, and the consequent difficulty there would be in
making three hand movements so hurriedly, it is usual to take this metre ( ... ) only in
one ( ) Minuets for dancing are also taken in this way ( ... ) because they are
played in a very spirited manner. I say Minuets for dancing since there are harpsichord
Minuets which are not normally played so fast. (Saint-Lambert)
The Minuet is a tune in triple time and in a moderate tempo. (Rameau-D'Alembert)
According to him (Brossard), this dance is very spirited and its tempo very fast.
But on the contrary the character of the Minuet is one of elegant and noble simplicity;
the tempo is moderate rather than fast, and it can be said that the least spirited of all
the types of dance in current use at our balls is the Minuet. It is a different matter in
the theatre.
The metre of the Minuet is of three light beats ( ... ) The number of bars in the
tune should be four or a multiple of four for each of its repeated sections, because this
number is required to complete the steps of the minuet; and the musician should take
care to make this division evident with well marked cadential falls, so as to assist-the
dancer's ear and keep him in the correct rhythm. (Rousseau)
The Minuet is played in a manner which carries along or, as it were, lifts the
dancer, and the crotchets are marked with a slightly weighty though short bow stroke.
(Quantz)
It c an be seen that on the subject of how Minuets are written nearly every author
of the period stresses (and often deplores) the difference between their notation in triple
time and their beat in duple time. It is therefore worth making a clear distinction be-
tween, on the one hand, the slow character of the steps in the Minuet as it is danced
and, on the other h an d, the contrastingly lively character of the music where the
tempo is either very rapid if taken in t riple time, or moderate if taken in duple time
(6/4: two bars of t ri ple time).
Finally, although the Minuet's tempo undeniably slowed down as soon as it was
x no longer danced, an d consequently the period in question and the musical context
must both be taken into account in performance, it was only in the second half of the
18th century that this tempo became palpably more ponderous.
Minuet (M. L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J. = 70
^..^ ^^ ^
_ .. *Th.. ,.^7.._
IO _^.. .^ ^as w0 1 ,L7..^N I
r ^' ^ ^^^.^^^.^^ .^ii^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^í+ri^iwsii ^i ^

A.L. - 25.732

^•^--;^^r,.^
83
Minuet (ENGRAMELLE) 1775 J = 76 ,

V
MiNIN/WW I . ■ / 7••••••-7 ,MW _ MI 11■11/ NW ■ M.III•••/ I7 II
Mill MN LAMM' -- =11•••10.,/ Ar^M 1.1••••11•11Wl^-•_r^—_\_===.I 1• ^T^1 1
•.`1
.^_ •• 1•11•1•1•1•1•1.411r /011••r•./ •/ • 1• * lJ•••• J••• 11•I1•77•./INP111=1L ../••__^.. ^7, 1
VP 1111•11___11•11311•1 ^••rl^••IJ•••Irl ■ •••rw•I .J•I^•J••• r^ ^^ ■■ ^I
.1 -.oppp - I MOM, 11.101.111
i

Minuet (John LŒILLET) c1725

• MIS/•V r•r••rJN •11Jr•JI•■ \=111 • ••1111•r••MMIMNAIIr./ 1J MAINE •^


.^_^\rr>I r•11•11rr11111111•1111\_ ---\_ • •411•1\W•111•1••11•••N1M=MI MI ■ 011 •^1 i1
vvr•.a
V/^^•IL '^^ ■ •=1=1•1111•■1\1111••
■^ IMO ■/■//\ --.••^^^^^r•r^^
^^ •r^l l 11

Minuet (M. L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 = 76


4C81YP7 • ■ V =11•MZEIIII /7 /•
.•rI:!a/,_=1MIN•11,7911,
+ +
t
-I- ^-^ =MIR r
•••••/•• ■■ ••••••
^I^IS •aMIMr.4111 /MN •11.1••11r! aar.MION/M•a /V >.‘••••••1•10.r•r
•!^^•rJ•Jl^rra^•^•^^^^•r^ ^ _ ^^•^•t,•J •r- v WM, ♦
n^^
Vi—\•L< AIM= ^Ir r\ra - •^•a = ^ ^^^ ^•^^•^••_^^.^/

Minuet (CHOQUEL) 1759

ANIMIIMP..••..
W \' 11_J A/ v

Minuet (G. P. TELEMANN, 1681-1767)


IL
J•1•111,• •/ AENEENE JMINI•MMIJ•/ 1* 1111•M•I
e 1■r.ra•• ..= J•/ 11I•• ■ •.."•111•1•111•11
_•1•^J^J AIM
^ ■^•^^ _^ ^_M^^=^•r•r•r• • ^ ^•^^ ^^ ^
^` ^^..-^ ^•^^^^^ ^-^^ ^_ ■•■■ ^

O
1.
• I
NIMMIIIIM•1•71 Jr♦♦• Bi•Nr• •J^7 •JEEI •. —•rrJ.r•JIII IrW ■ JIMI1♦ r•.••• ■ ••ral r
•M7•r__^7^ _ ^•^ 1.I^•r^^•^_ •^^^^ 1•• —..SII •
J••==pr1••^^ ^^•^^^^ 1•^^^^_/ i ^•MII •
r .,
t
`—■.■-■
e
N.B. It is clear that the elaborate writing of this last Minuet (no longer for dancing, but for playing only) necessi-
tates a slower tempo than, for instance, the first Minuet by L'Affilard quoted on p. 82.

as
t
MUSETT E J(orJ) = 80 (in 3/4, Quantz) J(or J, ) = 80 (in 3/8, Quantz)
te Kind of tune (... ), naive and gentle in character, whose metre is of duple or
triple time with a somewhat slow tempo, and normally featuring a held bass or pedal
point such as a musette can play, and for this reason known as a musette bass. (Rousseau)
A Musette is to be played with great charm (... ) Sometimes it is the whim of
certain dancers to require it played so fast that there is only one pulse beat (80 to the
minute, in triple time) to each bar. (Quantz)

A.L. - 25.732

84

N.B. See also on p. 92 the interpretation of the Alla siciliana according to Quanti which, he claims, applies equally
to the Musette.

Musette en Rondeau (M. BLAVET) c1737


Gracefully, without being slow
+ +
=le:-
__ _ _
, ..mm=1r u eJ. am ----
.^----- - _—_
^ _—._
y — - ^^I^
. •
V .__••-- 11^•^•^= ■^^.-- ---=1.11= .

Musette `la Favorite' (E. P. CHÉDEVILLE, 1696-1762)


With nonchalance
^-
__ -do ^- -}-
+ + ^ + .+
^^tÁ ^
^.1•S•1•J1I^11^1/ ^r-J1/^1—r: r^ Á t♦11^^J^
LJIM1S 1 /J11I11•1•MM1J•ar ^ ^/
L11JWI11111/.11■111 1^.\ /=^• ^^^1 11
L411110t.t •' 1111I1!•1J J• rR=]/
V.S • =RIM I ARNI • Ll1111•■ 411•11//111 •11•1•.J••■1 I
NMI

Musette 'la Sincère' (E. P. CHÉDEVILLE, 1696-1762)


Gracefully, without being slow

;t'^ ^^1111 MIMI 1^1111^^1^1I:^


^I ^\1^A ^7♦/`•w=^r/ 'J••C^^tJJrl^/ 11•1•^11111.11 Mr 11
•.11•111111L1
..1t11J 1110,•••MM 1^1^1J1•^^./^
1111111111M• II =I • M 1111•1111•J11
1.m••N11ENNIIIIM==IMIIIM1Ill
A ^R/ /7♦I11111IILtI
M J 1LA III If LIIIIIIIMIItlllllll/11/11/11•11011111•1111111\J.I/I/I al 1•2•1•31 I
■'''1.••••••.i11111111111111•111C ■111111 I
^.^ I No •M11■

Musette (J. B. de BOISMORTIER) 1731


Gracefully

^L'1•t1 . 1•1`18•1111a11^JII/ W ^1 J^11 ^^.t ^1111•^^ ^ 76^


.•111.1<:D^^/^11•^1^1I^^^I^ME•1J111111/ ••••••1 111111 ■11 1 d1111•11114111. 1~111111111•IM
V/^^ ^1• ^1^'^1r ■11^I^/^^
l..^1 11^ ^^ 1^ ^ ^^^^1 I^1^ I1j
1^11^^1- ^. ■\:I1^

•I1.A11111•11 JIII111M •1•a••'9•1•1111 /111•11111./ WW/M MINIM IM••41111,


I• IMINI NM J14/1■1111M1/1
^i1•^ r1111^ •■•••••'■ — FINN= MIL - -.mu. ^ 1^' ^^1•M•

OVERTURE

The Overture has its origins in Opera: it is an orchestral prelude designed to open
(French `ouvrir') an opera. By extension, an Overture may serve as an introduction to
an instrumental suite (and sometimes the term Overture may even be stretched to
cover the whole of a Suite as, for example, the four Overtures by Bach, Telemann's
Overtures, etc.). Lully established the French Overture form: slow — fast (— slow)
which was to be notably successful. The slow section of the French Overture calls for
double-dotting (j. Jbecoming J.. JEI ) as a necessary requirement of its majestic,
solemn character. The French Overture was to be adopted throughout all Europe.

An Overture (... ) should have a majestic and solemn introduction (... ) It


owes its origin to the French. Lulli provided good models for it; but a few German
composers, especially Handel and Telemann, have far surpassed him. (QuaiAz)

A.L.-25.732
85

A Sinfonia which one strives to make brilliant, imposing and harmonious ( . . . )


Overtures ( . . . ) consist of a lingering section labelled `slow' which is normally played
twice, and a skipping repeated section styled `spirited' ( . . . ): a number of these re-
peated sections finish by returning to the slow tempo ( . . . ).
The Italians ( . . . ) nowadays organize their Overtures in a different way. They
start with a leaping, lively piece in duple or quadruple time; then they slacken the pace
by a half and provide an Andante in which they endeavour to deploy all the charms of
bel canto, before ending with a brilliant Allegro, normally in triple time. (Rousseau)

Here is a typical example of the French Overture:

Overture (C. DIEUPART) c1710


(Slow)

• L.MMMMM Q MM ^11•11M M. MM r= M••■••••■ /M-s'.1•IAMrAM


AIM/
•..wma.^ummMM-7MIAMM/'M
IL vimM•MMM memo mI•dLammo IM•
r
A•AM MIMEO

/
•M.MI osM.a.MMMM LM AU Is7/71:711••1♦ MMMMMAMM• I=
.MIIN• • ! 0 M/MM•.U./Ar7 MOM ■ MM .A.r. I= MI– !•III .= MM/•l■INIWVIIIIIIIIIIEWIllMMM. WI
• ..111=111M•1=1.M^'MMMMMt^r I^MM^IMM^ ^MIM/M•MAMMM .M^ MMMIA^.^WM_M
• M .I ~eV MI
It.

^ i. I 12.
(Spirited)
.MIIMIMMMA10•M/M LarMIMMMoI•T 1r= ..MI LM >•7=M•<Z.. M SWIM= ,.1 8 ILI ^7• M^1
..MMrMM..■.M/M1•••• WOW MM•A•• ! MNIOIMMMI.IAI I /MM•IL^..A.l.•MM.Wl1 MCI 110.-4111•11•1•1111111
r
'uMMl/MIM rain. -MM •/7•M• –i MM.rI

!L.I ■ !f 1^MM11MIMIA W MI 1I■7M


Ammo /oir.I.M•wumlMAMA AIA.1•MW AM In
M•711 •11■1 M 1•T ■ AMIMIM ■1111M•111MI II111.1 W.1111
■.aMlt .JmiMMJMMMMMM•••J .1 0
..•10111•1 AEU Ell IV_ _HI 11J11•MIA.1 ■ AMMAIMMMMM ===== =OM
,..•//•• I M. WIN 1A MMMr MN= ■ MMMMM 11=m– J^

/
•<^II^ umsaMM /1/ AMmmMtMWmer7 ■Timr1 •nmA••IuTs7sw' s•1
.M1111MI II11110MMM. VI AMMA>•M7MlMM• UMW • •AM7/.1./ .AMi . T 1MMII[. LAO A MM/MM.•.• V7
...
I
.^M/ ^!!M•:MM^^./M•MM r• ^ ■ r^•r /AII MItMMINtMIMMM WM• ^MMIaA•t0M•J
. ^ M MINIIII=M/MLMW MM ^MW^.^M _ 1^•MM M• MI ^MIMIMIMMMI M M.MIMr MI MI
1.M new

;M:M^7Mr7 •M•111111=1•11• 111,11M, M.'711 MA =I /MI M M IMI /1•1•11M^7MI


.M11MIaM/AM••111111MI MM M•t>I7A71•1Mr.AO.• lAIA.• I.1.•••••.'IJ OM 11•11/71■ M•MMIAWMWMA OM
•• 1MMEMf MIMM/ •A^M1M.• M•AM.I.A• aM..• AIMS .1MM•II MIME MI WMI1■ rMiAMM MIAMI MMIMM. M an
, r • M.A■t•1111•1•11•MM FAO MMM.... /M• MI M•MIIIa1•MISaM111M

(Slow)
%MHNNI
S 'SIIIMI–M-r7 AM . ■ AM •IMM• 1:711■11•9•MMAMMRAM1.1l MMMMI IMO M•MrM
•T MM. =III ILA A7 MIN MMM EMI •.1.•MMM AA. 1I7M•J■i0M /611W7111.V70•••MMM•MMII111.1•01•1M•M
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• -iiM7ArMWMMAM•rM JINN=A IMAMA•MMM . ^ M ^ M •^'^^^^ M

^ 1. 112. I
a _^ AMIN.
• <:aMMI/A•■ZA7 W71MMM0MMM n1A■111•IAM.77/1■4, >•M f= Ar M^^^^1 t•' 1
.MMWM•M/•MMIM M P MIM.-.^MA• T 17 In 1•MMI•MM..^MiMMMI.M•.MIAJ^MI Mr MMLri •
• .. ■- M• AMMMMMat M MMI/1MAMM.MMIIM.M••111 A M.MIA1•111111MMM INN= /AIA7 III Mr MIM-1 1 ^ I
V.^^M.MMMMMMMMIAMM.MMMMAMAMMMM.MM^ MI MM.MMlMMM1^MMMM^MMMMMM I ^1
we

PASSACAGLIA j= 106 (L'Affilard) a little faster than j= 160 (Quantz)


The Passacaglia differs from the Chaconne (see the definition from the same

A.L. 25 -732

.ntlF . , •I

writers on p. 74) only in that it is slower and more tender, and normally begins on the
downbeat. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt )
A Passacaglia is the same (as the Chaconne); but it is played a little faster. (Quantz)
Most writers of the period agree in giving the Passacaglia a slower tempo than that
of the Chaconne (in instrumental suites). Quantz's contrary view seems to refer to the
Passacaglia for dancing.
Passacaglia (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 j= 106
• Arosom sows, a11.WsrMMAN•71 /1•1•71•117 tT7f!
.111•711111.1 MOM r A1ffr.400/ •// lIIMMw11111.^7^ 1:f1i•i .0'1rf D-4/01111>•.IS ••
1;^^ ^^ ^•^•^ t1^ ^.^^a:•:I[ Ar^f^.l^rt^^^^i.a s s.1 ^^^^r//1
^ %^•s^•^•^r•^••^r•• ^..rrw^•^r^.^r^•u•^nr ^•^ iiTr •^.^
^^a •••11111111,41111
• -

Passacaglia (VILLENE UV E) 1733


Slow and tender

M., ,11..•., ar'Ir11...11•. 1... BRIM .111111.IN.•....11111•1....^


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Vi^ ^1^^^•^i•.^i•ftrf•
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1
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..1M.7AR11•1•,II/a111110.11 ir•lOWr1111111M11111rr•111111111rMINIIMIIM NM r111.4111 ilk /IM■ NMI MINI WARM WWII 41•1=11•11....111111114111•11•/
.•r0r.•A 1111•• •-• BMW r11111111MI 411111111.111•i•M!– •r0•41111111 ■IIIMM11111wMI =I••11111111111• s•111011NI OISE

PASSEPIED J. = 88 (in 3/8, L'Affilard) J. = 96 (in 3/8, Choquel)


J = 160 (in 3/4, Quantz)

The Passepied is in reality a very fast Minuet which does not, as the ordinary
Minuet, begin on the down-beat; but whose two repeated sections begin on the third
beat. (Rameau-D'Alembert)
The metre is triple, is shown by a 318, and is taken in one beat. The tempo is
faster than that of the Minuet, the character of the melody almost similar. (Rousseau)
The Passepied is played both slightly more lightly and more quickly than the
Minuet. Often it is found that two bars are written as one (1), and there are two
vertical strokes over the central note:

aura - -rte

(1) It is in this (double) bar that dancing-masters impose the step they call the 'contretemps' (syncopation). (Choquel)

A.L. - 25.732
87 E

Some leave these two bars separate and instead of the crotchet and the strokes write in
two quavers with an arch (tie) over them, between which they insert the bar-line. In
performance these notes are played in the same way—namely, with a short, detached
bow-stroke for each of the two crotchets—and in the same tempo as for a triple crotchet
metre (3/4). (Quantz)

Passepied (MONTECLAIR) 1736

:/v'^11111••••. l.■ 11/!^1 _^„!.t Mt•.^7 MANE. -1f—^^1^•= / AMM.


'.
1
.S>1•J•^•J•—.^7• MI= ./•1M••—.—/•••MII•111/1 ^.11 •111=1.i./
■•1111111. 1
I..11t • >•I•1111111• ••—.• 1JY• AI .•d--•—•—.—•••1111•11•WM /1JW ..•111
V.■ . ISM ■III•I•^•1•—.NMINIIMI—.^—•• ^—.= =••I• —•—.^—^f— /
■■
=- ■ ---

fast; equal quavers

• !•.—J•—.—• •—•101..••11•111../ NW= •111.1•11.11= ..11•••••■••••11U•ANIMIIYAM


■I
.• ,c71111•1_411__•_ •1•11•11■ •..../ INII. —••—KI —•—IMIL--I•11111•11•1•t••
•IMIII • 111111■11[1•
.01 11.^^.^ — • ^.^ _-__ •1111• ■ •M..M •I1=11•I— •— /. ^i
■ . •^•^
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----Ng
equal

/
'— AM •./ I.11M•1/7,1111•1••r. ••J /11•/1 ^ ^ 1■ 11•./ I♦• —W7'[•1MIU>♦•■•1/•1
.^— ••--..4•11•—••—MININI•••■ M.1 Ell•■ .••—IC1 • J•.1 1•.4111.41.• .17•..1■1111I
... _ -• ^ ^ ^ —. ^ •1111111111•1111•••••111111•1•111••••••••1111••• 11•INIIIIII••••••■ .. =IMO MIAMI
I — ^ IN= . ■I 1.
111 !

Passepied (CHOQUEL) 1759 = 96


[TTI 1-271

• /MU 1•1711111111111r•••111111•_ . ^-- _ .•


^ _^.^ ..—__^^•.•^..^• ••— _
1.1111•11ft_^ ^ ^•^^ a.
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a ^1

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Passepied (J. S. BACH) c1720

^ >.,_-111•1•,_ ■•,_1•••/•,■
••••••—S WIEN_ /I 1•IIIIM1..1•1•••••■■/ —711■1111=1—
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----1
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^^^^^^^^

I a-
^^

PASTORALE (PASTOURELLE)

Italian melody of the pastoral type. French Airs called Pastorales are normally
in duple time and have the character of a Musette. Italian Pastorales are more pointed,
more charming, equally sweet and less dull. Their metre is always 618. (Rousseau)

A.L. - 25.732
88

Pastourelle from Jephté (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736


+ + +
lma .INENEr,:. .
..7♦•^■r J^
',.M1111=NI.
INNIMME IMIN.r^^ ^w^
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,^^..^ ^
¡♦

Pastorale ad libitum (attrib. VIVALDI) 1737


,
'I•'A.1~. =•11•0..,=J Ai■11/ t•EMMINO NMI A1•1111■11IMIM l'■•11•1111 'S^
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:a^.r•^.^.rr.^a^ '"•••=11111•MMI- _...■■••_ ....1•WIIIMIBMINIBOI •■••. IrIIIMr_r•
^..4
MOM-


nn.11•11MIM : MIIM7/11111MMW INW/ =7111•111J{..1•.I
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..1•1111•1111NJ111=^4111•1r/WW11111 /.11111> !•/J111111 ■ 11111111 NIMIIIMrMINI=1111111MINIIIIIIMlMES MILAN ^J
^•^^411MUNMINI /MOM ..AMMI/1/11111•01•11111•1111111•111 ■ ! ^ 1■11111•11011M1111•r.
-m_ now.

PAVANE = 92 (L'Affilard)

A grave and serious piece which is generally taken in duple time. (Brossard)

Pavane (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736


Moderate

'411111111•1.rr7111111111 +^. rNINIa.0 IWW ■al.IMMEINIIa.1111WII. 1111•1•1..1U


AIM )'.1//M.^^1111• ■ • • 7 011111MIIMMIIMEJ..I a
f.. VII-7111M
ï.^^.^^^^^.^^
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/. ^....^^^
^ !• NM MINIM

!a _. ^s a..^y a/JJ^ J•^J ■1.^^.\^^ sJ = 1a^.^


.^^/^J^ ^ ^.r/^I..^___^^_^-I^^._^•7 J•J^r^r1r^.I _/rJlf•.I !• NI L^.
..mow .•1111.110•11=1.IMI1♦. IIIM.IIM_ MIUMMISMAIIII!•IIIIIIIMI/rIUrMMINIF /.JI.IIIMIIIIWINII/..NINIM ^/
• t•INMI =MY" Mir-- •111111r1=/111M/YMINNIMIIIIIIMMIMMIIIIMaOINIMIN 1+1

POLONAISE

Court Dance, generally in triple rather than duple time, introduced in 1574 at the
coronation in Cracow of Henry III of Anjou, subsequently fashionatlle in 18th-century
Germany, where it adopted the gait of a rather moderate movement, often followed by
a Double.

Polonaise (TELEMANN) c1 716

A.L. - 25.732
89

H2.

(Double)

PRELUDE

Two different sorts of Prelude may be considered: one is the composed Prelude
which is normally the first piece of what is called a Suite or a Sonata, and which is a
genuinely formal piece; this sort includes Preludes put into Operas and Cantatas to
precede and sometimes to herald what is to be sung. The other sort is the impromptu
Prelude (Prelude de caprice'), and this is really the true Prelude (...) (This) Prelude
should be produced on the spot without any preparation. (Hotteterre)

Here is how Freillon-Poncein defines the `impromptu' Prelude:


It is quite simply an inclination to take the key of the mode (i.e. major or minor)
wherever one wishes to play. (1) This is normally done as a consequence of the power
of the performers' imagination at the very moment when they wish to play without
having written anything down beforehand.
There is no special rule about the tempo or the length of Preludes; they are done
in various ways as the player fancies–perhaps tender, abrupt, long or short–and in dis-
continuous metre; one can even pass through all sorts of modes provided one arrives
and departs to some purpose, in other words in such a way as not to discomfort the
ear; however, each Prelude must begin on one of the three principal degrees of the
mode one wishes to begin in and finish on any one of these three, though it is always
best to stop on the tonic. (Freillon-Poncein)

In his `Art of playing Preludes' (L'Art de préluder), Hotteterre's intention was to


show how an `impromptu' Prelude could be improvised. In the following written-out
Prelude, then, it is worth while aiming for a very free interpretation that will as much
as possible give an impression of improvisation:

(1) and positioning the hand well on an instrument before beginning a piece of music. (Rousseau)

A.L. - 25.732
90

'Impromptu' Prelude (HOTTETERRE) 1719


With gravity

. 00.4•000•0•1070,11:0100004•101010101 40 Or.
al OM =I UM. NI MI WINN MN OM 011401011/14MMPIMINIIMMI10
Ammo ZWL-714•1111 200111M 0111004.201101 101011 0. 10110100110 SIM MD*" •110110111 •00011010/./~
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0101=1014-1=1M■110111110.1111011110101110..." Rams. AN ■■•
■•■••••=1111•111M .- ••■■■••// •■ •••
IN .1.70&440/M0

,...., ...■---

a:istmsw.' ex .e...Nor 0701101111■01001101I-7


wail,
MO 01101■00010~.01 00' MING 10110
1111111110
00110101110.1 3•4•111000 Er1111 MIMI
ANNININW NAM .. •wMf 111LINIMMIFIN.11 ir-IMMINIO MINIM i III a I•71 4.74,010•NrINI UN JIM Wir
r /1...l• IMIL-711111..11P11 MIMI
, ..1•11111ilia • NO MIME IMINIMIIN4/ AlrIll Mg_ A /MI /11040111111110.01110000010 Mall ILNIPMPTININI. r. /14.10■ 4111110~011.10.001101•1
..1•••■• ..•••••• ■■•• . - ...... MN 010,4•0 IV dIffW■•06.-..
—I' I1/ IINI MN IIIIIII MI
' ft.....■11■"- .1.1.. IMAM
IIIIIIIIIC

In contrast, the following Prelude corresponds to what Hotteterre calls a 'com-


posed Prelude':

'Composed' Prelude
Preludio (G. B. BONONCINI) c1700

'Miff 000 10W•dr .10/7. 010..11300.100111 W"lo UM 00101111100110010M.04MM


.M00110000 ...ON ".. 1011M OM 4001101•104,0/~/ ill I Mr ----- 1■11111111•11■: Mail Mr1011010•00110.11P.""•■• •=1 MINN
■.. -... MO 11•0011100
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41,-
-NA -40- Er
• •• •

re-

RIGAUDON j= 120 (L'Affilard) ej= 132 (Choquel) 160 (Quantz),

A kind of dance, the tune of which is taken in duple time, in a spirited tempo;
normally made up of repeated sections of four-bar phrases, and beginning with the last
note of the second beat. (Rousseau)
Bourrée and Rigaudon are played with spirit and with a short, light bow-stroke.
(Quantz)

Rigaudon (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 = 120


003.4100.0101•0110111■7111=110101J010000181114/ .111/9• 40 ■110 /111/7111=111111010001/7 •lirrY 1•ILOMPOSNIEle . I I
.1•17a., 16...71.11111111.■ A.11•90101
• .1•14•111K.W1111111.4•11 • MOM M.A. l•
20111101000•14■111000,VW
1110M10011000
0.4101100•400111101
•allEIMIEZ4111./111■ 9111VILI
11101140•000150011111•01•0•100.4010/111000101010011/110
00010101101011•110 I
I
NIMMII VW 111141111•111•111.•• • MN 1,1 OM MI!~ NIMINI•A MI MINIM= AM 1001 I

Rigaudon (QUANTZ) 1752 j = 160


,
•& .00010=10111011010111001 0111 010•11001011101100•111110100 .0111101•01 1IM1.1111 .14117 ■111•111101111•11r■ INI•1111•111=111■7 JIM AMMO
.110214/1.1111101•01111011 0•011110 • IN0101101,10111MMII MOIR OE 00110101 4030MI 01.11100= 11114011100111
..110.01 1010=01MI NUM ... MINN Milli 01011011001101101•10 M•111•11.111•11111MI MUM
MM.

A.L. 25-732
91

^L.PWIIII/^i^111••■11,71 _.411IIII 1111111♦ = l'7 AN rVA^/^t^ M^_^^^1 1


.^.7•^^/ If IJ^ ■ =^.f /^\.M^^ J^._I^^•^^ ^^ ^s11 I
M^J^^^^^^^^i I W. ^^ MM. ^^^eJ_^^ ^ ./Q 1 I
= .^1• ^ M ^^ 5!•^ta^^^^^_^ ^^^)♦ ^^ r1 I

RONDEAU J = almost 160 (in or 3/4, Quantz)

The Rondeau is a musical form which enjoyed a great vogue in the 17th and 18th
centuries. This form could apply to all types of movement (`Gavotte en Rondeau',
`Gigue en Rondeau', `Air en Rondeau' etc.). Marpurg defines it thus:
One begins by playing twice the first section, which is actually called the Rondeau,
before going on to the first couplet. When the first couplet has been played once, the
first section is also repeated once, after which the second couplet is played, finally
ending with the Rondeau. (Marpurg)
A Rondeau is played with a certain tranquillity. (Quantz)
Nor is it any less ridiculous to change the tempi of two Rondeaux that are in-
tended to go together, playing the major one more quickly than the minor one: cer-
tainly it is a good idea to brighten up the major one by one's manner of playing it, but
this can be done without increasing the tempo. (J. M. Leclair, 4th Book of Sonatas
for the Violin, 1738)

Marche en Rondeau (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736


Spirited
^
(Rondeau) -1-
—^. = s ■111/1111111111r7 MN r711111111 .1111/111•1•1•11■U 1• _ /1111/11111.11• 1111/1111I1 I=
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.. w -^^ I M .^^^^^/^ r = ^ m ^r M ^= MINIMS NB
^ . -AIM. =MI .WIMIMI WIWI. NMI MN ■ AM = MM =WI

(END) (1st couplet)


.
SalifiM ..IZIIIIIMIMMI
f
I IM r .= ..011•11111111
;
_^_^^_I^. MIMI ■ ^^^==r I7 ^. M ^^ M
1 (Rondeau)
0

^ ^^^^ ^^^ 1 ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^a^^MMMMM_—


,,,ANNO =I••
'—. I L ^••••11111."

b^9
(2nd couplet) (Rondeau)
^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^A^^ r. /^ ^^7 vi .:11111111r MI ^IIIIIIIIIi
• NMI= w11/110,11111. AN ON II/711/ /11/711111111•111. e^ .4NUMM1111111 ■111111411/ 4•11•11/111111sa1111/ sa111■■ Wail >•1111111MI IN •j=11•11i
•.7•■r1111WW II. NI /11,111rr. I-AMINNI•J W . MIIIII IIIIIII MIN= EN NM MIMI IWI,M1111111111 MIN 11111•111■Mt_ NM MN NI i
, W.1•11Y1111111■ MY1111111111/1111111111111■.■ 111 IMMIIIIM_IMINOILAIMMM ■1•11•1111•111110 IN I

SALTARELLO

This is a sort of movement that continually leaps along, doing so almost invariably
by groups of three notes with the first note of each bar dotted. (Brossard) -

Saltarelle en Rondeau (DENIS) 1747

A.L. 25-732
92

SARABANDE j= 72 (in 3/2, L'Affilard) J = 80 (in 3/4, Quantz)


J = 134 (in 6/4, L'Affilard) J = 88 (in 3/4, L'Affilard)

From being a quick dance in the 16th century, the Sarabande became in the 17th
and 18th centuries one of the (moderate or slow) movements of the instrumental
Suite.
The Sarabande, properly understood, being only a Minuet with a grave, slow,
serious, etc. tempo. (Brossard)
The metre ( . . . ) is taken in 3 slow beats. (Freillon-Poncein)
A sarabande has the same tempo (as the Entrée, the Loure and the Courante),
but is played with slightly more agreeable expression. (Quantz)

Tender Sarabande (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 ej= 72


.
• aUa•Iaa^aa^a•/A + r r . -4- -. : +
•^^a11.//^rI.7[/A.a/'^^^I/^^ aas / •rawasora1•rwomma.
+
■^ Sra^r/a^m^on^ 1 crusa^ i1
I
Ammn^••^^/^
t>,:araa^l-a^v^^t^r^^^ ^^^w^/a^^
-.-^^al^aara• ^ r.^^^^ ^a^l^ari/ ^^ ar^-•n1
'^í:ar^a-^a^^^a^^^ar^r^^^^^^^^^a^a^^^^.+^^^ i

Sarabande en Rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J = 88


+ + + +
11111•111/7a/
MOM/
it
Qa•rat nwat At /7^r t lilIrIla•t
a1.4•1•arra•a•aa•^aa•-••cW1a^.J•••.r 17dga-=iKi ^• 1
^.^a^alaa^^Iaa• ^aa.^ar ^ar/^aa^ 1
aa --
^aa^•a^^a^nars ■^-• a•
• r••-ala\^ ^^•a•\•' ^aa^ra^^ •^r^•••i i
Mal •a.• ^ r• aiaa^ MINIM aar FM a/ •aa^a I

When this metre is made to sing solemnly, as for instance in the Sarabande and
the Passacaglia, it is taken slowly in three equal beats ( ... ); the Chaconne is taken in
the same manner, but more lightly. (L'Affilard)

Sarabande in six slow beats (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J= 134

'<.STa-ra•• 11111111•ana111•1rar.aaII
•.11a.k•aa11•1a1110110
Main MN NI 'ON/WIar l>•rwt
='.S a•^ _ •aaaa\a•>.aaa^ i>•71!!!>•' 1111r ^^ 11 I
^aa.111•f^ )i.a•.^ O aiiL^71 1
: ^^.1•^a•a•1ar •^.1■••01101111111111M.aew MINIM • 1

Nimble Sarabande (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736


In the tempo of a Chaconne
+.
alai.
..abata.
WW1
w^1•0111111•• •^
^ ^tá ^i ^r^^^^, ^ Ì i

SICILIANA (SICILIENNE)

A kind of tune for dancing ( ) having a tempo much slower, but even more

I
pronounced that that of the Gigue. (Rousseau)
An Alla Siciliana, in 1218 metre with dotted notes interspersed, should be played
very simply, with hardly any shakes, and not too slowly. Grace notes can scarcely be
used, except for a few semiquaver passing appoggiaturas and some ports-de-voix:

A.L. 25-732
93

because this is an imitation of a Sicilian shepherds' dance. This rule applies equally to
French Musettes and Bergeries. (Quantz)

Sicilienne (John LŒILLET) c1725


Affettuoso
L.JI1•11 I ..MI■ .. !'77t L• a4111=.t 117r111111= ^^^
.•111..=•.a1=1••••={J. M1^^.Z71./^I/S 4..11111 .iINSI.1INI =1
1lts•1•^J.^.
!LM=11.1lt 1 ^^ ^^ ^ A^rl.^^^
.` ^1• ^ =/.•==^I.A..f L= J•.^
V•■•=11••1.i rJ. . ar.=/•=A..1111' Pd=
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TAMBOUR IN a little faster (than 80 bars to the minute, Quantz)

A kind of dance much in fashion nowadays in French theatres. Its tune is very
spirited and is taken in two quick beats. It should skip along very rhythmically, imi-
tating the [`galoubet', or] pipe (`flûtet') of the people of Provence; and the bass should
strike the same note over and over again to imitate the tabor (... ) with which the
piper normally accompanies himself (Rousseau)
The Tambourin is in two repeated sections (... ) It is taken in two very fast
beats and each section normally begins on the second beat. (Rameau-D'Alembert)
A Tambourin is played like a Bourrée or a Rigaudon; except a little faster. (Quantz)

Tambourin (J.-P. RAMEAU) 1735


Nimbly

Tambourin (DENIS) 1747

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A.L. 25-732
94

VILLANELLE

The Villanelle is a somewhat spirited Chaconne (see the definition by the same
author), a little more lively in tempo than the ordinary Chaconne. (Rameau-D'Alembert)
A kind of rustic dance whose tune should be sprightly and articulated in a very
clear metre. The basis of the tune is normally a fairly simple couplet on which one
then makes Doubles or Vari'tions. (Rousseau)

Villanelle (CAMPRA) i 710


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A.L. - 25.732
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED

BACH Carl Philipp Em an uel: Versuch über die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen
(Essay on the true art of playing the keyboard), 1753-1762
BACQUOY-GUÉDON Alexis: Méthode pour exercer l'oreille à la mesure dans l'art de la danse, 1778 (Fétis)
BÉDOS de CELLES Dom François: L'Art du facteur d'orgues, 1766-1778
BROSSARD Sébastien de: Dictionnaire de musique, 1703
CAJON: Eléments de musique, 1772
CHOQUEL Henri-Louis: La musique rendue sensible par la mécanique, ou nouveau système pour apprendre
facilement la musique soi-mime, 1759
COUPERIN François: L'Art de toucher le clavecin, 1717
DAVID François: Méthode nouvelle ou principes généraux pour apprendre facilement la musique et l'art de
chanter, 1737
DENIS Claude: Nouveau système de musique pratique, 1747
ENGRAMELLE Father Joseph: La tonotechnie ou l'art de noter les cylindres et tout ce qui est susceptible
de notage dans les instruments de concerts mécaniques, 1775
FREILLON-PONCEIN Jean-Pierre: La véritable manière d'apprendre à jouer en perfection du hautbois, de
la flû te et du flageolet, 1700
HOTTETERRE Jacques called Le Romain: L'Art de préluder sur la flûte traversière, sur la flûte à bec, sur
le hautbois et autres instruments de dessus, 1719
L'AFFILARD Michel: Principes très faciles pour bien apprendre la musique, 1694-1717
LOULIÉ Etienne: Eléments ou principes de musique, 1696
MAHAUT Antoine: Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre en peu de temps à jouer de la flûte traversière, 1759
MARPURG Friedrich Wilhelm: Anleitung zum Clavierspielen (Introduction to keyboard playing), 1755
MONTÉCLAIR Michel Pinolet de: Principes de musique, 1736
MUFFAT Georg: Suavioris harmoniae instrumentalis hyporchematicae florilegium, 1695-1698.
QUANTZ Joh an n Joachim: Essai d'une méthode pour apprendre à jouer de la flûte traversière, avec plusieurs
remarques pour servir au bon goût dans la musique, 1752
RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT: Eléments de musique théorique et pratique suivant les principes de M. RAMEAU,
éclaircis, développés et simplifiés par Jean le Rond D'ALEMBERT, 1752
ROUSSEAU Jean-Jacques: Dictionnaire de musique, 1767
SAINT-LAMBERT Michel de: Les principes de clavecin avec des remarques nécessaires pour l'intelligence
de plusieurs difficultés de la musique, 1702
TARTINI Giuseppe: Traité des agréments de la musique, 1771
VAN DER HAGEN Armand: Méthode nouvelle et raisonnée pour le hautbois, 1792
VILLENEUVE Josse de: Nouvelle Méthode (..) pour apprendre la musique et les agréments du chant,
1733

N. B. This bibliography lists the principal treatises from which are drawn the quotations in the present work. Isolated
references to other publications not listed above are given in full at the end of the quotations in question.

A.L. - 25.732
96

INDEX OF TERMS, SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED

Accent 34,36 Contre-temps 86


Adagio 1, 20, 29, 40, 50, 55-57 59, 60-66, 67, 68 CORELLI A. VIII, IX
Adagio affettuoso 2 CORRETTE M. 40
Adagio assai 60, 61, 66 Cotillon 4, 75
Adagio cantabile 61 Coulade 18.35
Adagio di molto 60, 64 Coulé, Coulement 33, 34,35/36, 38, 65, 68, 92
Adagio pesante 61 COUPERIN F. VIII, IX, 3, 32, 37, 42, 44 .46, 52
Adagio spiritoso 61, 65, 66 Couplet 74, 91, 94
Affettuoso (Affetto) 61,-6-2/63, 64, 66, 71 Courante 7, 29, 74, 75/76, 80, 92
After-stroke 46 DAVID F. 34, 35, 38/39, 43, 79, 81
Agitato 60 DENIS C. 6, 8, 25, 34, 74
AGRICOLA M. 47 DESPLANES J. A. 42/43
Air de ballet 1, 5, 7 Detached notes 13-15,18, 25, 62, 75, 76, 80
Air en Rondeau 91 Diminution 49
D'ALEMBERT: see RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT Disjunct intervals: see Intervallic leaps
Alla breve: see Metres in Dissonance 39, 40, 59
Alla cappella: see Metres in Dolce 61, 62/63, 66
Alla siciliana 61. 84, 92/93 Dots (over notes) 13. 14, 25
Allemande 1, 70/71 Dotted notes: see Double-dotted notes, Un equ..l notes
Allegretto 60, 61, b2/63, 67, 69 Double 32, 49, 50, 86, 88/89, 94
Allegro 1, 29, 60-63, 7-69, 85 Doublé: see Turn
Allegro assai 60, 61, 67, 69 Double cadence: see Turn
Allegro di molto 60, 61, 69 Double-dotted notes 27-31, 68, 84
Allegro ma non presto 60, 61, 67, 69 ENGRAMELLE J. 11, 22, 23, 61
Allegro ma non tanto 60, 61, 67, 69 Entrée 4, 18, 29, 74, 75, 76, 80, 84, 92
Allegro ma non troppo 60,61,69 Equal notes 13, 14.22-24, 2527, 62, 87
Allegro moderato 67, 69 Fall: see Chute
Anacrusis 30 Fermata 43, 59
Andante 60, 62/63, 64, 66, 85 Finger vibrato: see Flatté, Flattement
Andantino 60, 62/63, 64 Flatté, Flattement 33, 36/37, 44, 48,50
Appoggiatura: see Port-de-voix, Coulé Flute, flautists 18, 47, 68 (see also: Transverse flute,
Aria 71, 72 Recorder)
Aria larga 71 Flatet: see Pipe and Tabor
Arietta 72 Forlane 5, 76/77
Arioso 61, 62/63, 64, 66, 85 Forte: see Piano and Forte
Arpeggio 3r FREILLON-PONCEIN J. P. 38, 74, 78, 79, 89, 92
Articulatory silence 11-13, 15, 27 Fugue I
Aspiration 34 Furie 18, 29, 77
Assai 61 Furioso 60
BACH C. P. E. 27, 29, 31 Gaillard 77
BACH J. S. 53/54, 84 Gavotte 4, 29, 78, 91
BACQUOY-GUEDON A. 75, 82 Gigue 5, 6, 9, 4-0, 73, 76, . /$0, 91, 92
Ballet 76 (see also: Air de ballet) Goats réunis 52
Balls 75,82 Grace notes 21, 33-48, 49-52, 55, 65, 66, 68, 92
BEDOS Dom 70 Gruppetto: see Turn
Bergerie 93 Gustoso 60
BOISMORTIER J. B. de 48 HANDEL G. F. 84
BORDET 13, 19 Harpsichord 3, 42, 53, 82
BOURGEOIS L. 20 Harpsichord, bowed 42
Bourrée 4, 29, 72, 78, 90, 93 HOTTETERRE J. 1-9, 19, 23/24, 26, 34, 35, 36, 89, 90
Bowing, bow-stroke 13, 14, 18, 19, 36, 42, 47, 65, 66, Improvisation 89
69,72,75,76,79,80,82,87,90 Inequality: see Unequal notes
Branle 4, 72/73 Inflated sound: see Son enflé
BROSSARD S. de 2,6-9,61,62,71,72,76,77,78, Intervallic leaps 26, 68
80,81,82,88,91,92 Keyboard instruments 42
CACCINI G. 32 L'AFFILARD M. 1, 2, 5, 6, 27, 81, 83, 92
Cadence: see Trill Larghetto 60-63, 64, 66
Cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58/59 Largo 60-64
CAJON 2, 3, 4, 8, 24, 25 Largo assai 60, 61, 66
Canaries 8, 73/74, 79 Largo di molto 60, I, 66
Cantabile 64, 3 66 LEBEGUE N. 46
Cantata .4, 6, 7, 8:8-9 LECLAIR J. M. 50, 91
Chaconne 7,29,74,85/86,92,94 Lento 60,61,66
CHOQUEL H. L.7., 4, 6, 7, 34, 35, 37, 45, 58, 78, Lento assai 60;74
82,86 Lento di molto 60, 64
Chronometer 70 LOULIE E. 23,35,45,49,82
Chute 23,34/35,46 Loure 5, 29, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 92
Circolo mezzo: see Turn LULLY J. B. VIII, IX, 3, 50, 84
Clavichord 42, 47 LUSSE C. de 47
CLERA.MBAULT L. N. 7 Lute, lutenists 47
Con brio 60 Maestoso, majestic 61, 62, 66, 68, 74, 75, 76, 80, 84
Con furia 77 MAHAUT A. 36
Conjoined tastes: see Goats réunis Major 74, 91
Consonance 40,65 MARAIS M. 36
Contredanse 75 MARCELLO A. 53/54

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97

IN DEX OF TERMS, SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED (continued)

March 4, 81 Poco Veloce 60


MARPURG F.W. 1,4,13,33,37,44,47,60,91 Poco Vivace 60
Martellement 37 Point d'arrêt (trill) 37, 44, 46
MERSENNE M. 32,47 Polonaise 88/89
Messa di voce: see Son enflé Pomposo 61,0
Mesto 61,66 Port-de-voix 37,38-41,4346,49,50,65,68,69,93
Metres in 4/2 1, 79 Prelude 1, 76, 84, $2/9Q
"171 3,4,10,24,29,60,61,85 Preparation note (trill) 37,44/15
4/4 Prestissimo 2,9,60,62/53,67
4/8 5,24,61 Presto 60, 61, OM, 67,22
12/4 2,10,24 Presto assai 63
12/8 2,10,24,30,60,61,79,92 Quadrille 75
12/16 2/3 QUANTZ J. J. 3,11,13,14,16,18,19,20,25,27-30,
3/j, 10,24,29,61,78,81,83, 3846,50,51,52,55,58-61,64-69,72,74-84,86,
85,90 87, 90-93
2or2/2 3,4,10,24,29,75-78,82,85, RAMEAU J. P. VIII, IX
87,88,90 RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT 72, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80,
2/4 3,4,5,10,24,60,61,78-80, 82, 85, 86, 93, 94
93 Recorder 42
2/8 3,5,24,93 Repeated notes 25
2/16 3 Rigaudon 4,29,72,78,90/21,93
6/4 3,5/6,10,24,40,79,80,81, Rocking (in vibrato, etc.) 47
82,92 Romanesque 77
6/8 3,6 10, 24, 30, 40, 60, 61, 73, Rondeau 29,72,21
79,81,83,87 ROUSSEAU J. J. 27,32,49,60,63,70,72-78,80-87,89,
3 or 3/4 6 7, 10, 24, 29, 60, 61, 65, 66, 90,92,93,94
74,76,77,81,82,83, Rubato 32
85,87,88,92 Run: see Coulade
3/2 6/7,10,24,92 SAINT-LAMBERT M. de 6, 8, 20, 22, 30, 33, 82
3/8 6-8,10,24,60,61,65,73,79, Saltarello 91
- 81,83,86 Sarabande 7, 26, 29, 74, 75,92
9/4 6,8 10, 24 Schneller 37
186,8/9,10,24,79
6 Semitones, chromatic ascending 65
96 Sentiments, expression of different 68
6/16 9 Shake: see Trill
9/16 9 Sicilian a 92/93 (see also: Alla sicili an a)
Metronome 70 Sinfonia 76, 84
Minor 70 Slurs and ties 13,15-19,25,26,35,44,64,65,68,69,87
Minuet 7,50,75,81-83,86,92 Soave 61,.62,f1ó
Mixed style: see Style mêlé Sonata 1/2,4,6,7,9,70,89
MONTECLAIR M. P. de 8,9,10,18,22,33-38,42, Son diminué: see Son enflé
43, 46, 49, 50, 56, 73 Son enflé 13, 36, 39,42/41, 45, 47, 48, 59, 64, 65
Motet 4 Son filé 38,39,42,48,63
Mordent: see Pincé Sostenuto 65
MUFFAT G. 33,73,79 Staccato 14/15,65
Musette (instrument) 11,80,83 Stringed instruments 18, 36, 47, 58
Musette (movement) 80,83/84,87,93 Stroke (in trill): see Trill
Oboe 53 Stroke (over a note) _,L, 25
Opera 4, 76, 84, 89 Style mêlé 52
Opéra-Ballet 76 Suite 70, 84, 86, 89, 92
Organ (tremulant stop) 47 Swelled sound: see Son enflé
Ornaments, ornamentation 27,33,49-59,68/69 Syncopation: see Contre-temps
Overture 4,5,18,84/85 Tabor: see Pipe
Pardessus de viole 19 Tambourin 5,93
Passacaglia 7,85/86,92 TARTINI G. 47,56/57
Passages, passage-work 18, 19, 32, 49, 50, 55, 56, TELEMANN G. P. 17,52,84
60,67,68,69 Tempo 60, 61,70-94
Passepied -K71786/87 Tempo c': cappella 3,4
Pastorale, Pastourelle 87/88 Tempo d. gavotta 3,23
Pause (trill): see Point d'arrêt Termination (trill) 43,44,46
Pavane 88 Theatre 82,93
Pedal-point 58/59, 83 Threaded sound: see Son filé
Pendulum 7a, 8.2 Ties: see Slurs and ties
Pesante 66 Time signatures: see Metres
Phrasing 11-32 Tirata 18
Piano and Forte 42/.43,65,68 Tonguing, tongue-stroke 18,43,64,66-69
Pincé, mordent 36,37/38,50,65,69 Tour de gosier: see Turn
Pipe (and tabor) 93 Transverse flute 19,41,42,47,48
Piqué: see Detached notes Tremolo 47
Poco Adagio 60 Tremulant stop: see Organ
Poco Allegro 60,61 Trill 11,33,36,37, 40,41,43,4446,49,50,58,68,69,92
Poco Andante 61,66 Turn 43/44,46,50
Poco Largo 60 Unequal notes 20-27,34,62,65,67,68,80
Poco Lento 60 VAN DER HAGEN A. 45
Poco Presto 60 Variation 33,49, .51/52,55,16W, 94

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98

INDEX OF TERMS, SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED (continued)

Veloce 60 Viol 36, 47


Velocissimo 60 Violin 19, 43, 50, 66, 69, 91
Vene cassd 36, 4T Vivace 60, 61,y.2/ó}, 67,.
Vibrato 36, 42, 48 (see also: Flatte, Flattement) Vivacissimo 60
Villanelle 74,Q4 Wind instruments 18, 36, 58, 65, 66, 69
VILLENEUVE J. de 63,72

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99

IN DEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES


by subject and composer

Accent 34, 36, 37 Fast 87


Adagio 8,51,53/54,55/56,57,63 Flatté, Flattement 35-37
Adagio (of the manner in which the ... should be Forlane 5,77
played) 64/65 Furie, Con furia 77
Affettuoso 71,93 Furies Tune 77
After-stroke 46 Gaillarde (Gaillard) 77
Air, aria 71 Gavotte 4,78
Air of the zephyrs 5 Gigue 5,9,25,79,80
Allegro 1,2. 21, 25, 30, 31, 76, 78 Grace notes 41, 47, 48
Allegro non molto 17 Gracefully 71,84
Allegro non troppo 50 Grave 15,63
Allemande 2, 12, 25, 30, 70, 71 Grave e affettuoso 43
Anacrusis 30 Gravely, with gravity 2, 70, 78
Andante 16,17,31,63 Gruppetto: see Turn
Andante (un poco) 63 Half shakes 41
Appoggiatura: see Port-de-voix HANDEL G. F. 93
Aria 71 HOTTETERRE J. 3,9,19,25-28,31,34,35,46,70,71,
Ariette 72 77,78,90
Arpeggio 19 L'AFFILARD M. 1,2,5,6,71-74,76,77,79,81,82,
Ascending chromatic semitones 65 83, 86, 90, 92
Aspiration: see Accent Largo 2
BACH J. S. 14/15,16,30,31,53/54,72,77,87 LECLAIR J. M. 50,71
BARSANTI F. 1 LCEILLET J. 93
BEDOS Dom 13 LŒILLET J. B. 78,80
BERNIER N. 7,9 LOULIÉ E. 23
BITTI M. 76 Loure 5,80
BLAVET M. 51,81,84 Lullaby 7
BOISMORTIER J. B. de 48,71,84 LULLY J. B. 3,4,5,7,8,26
BONONCINI G. B. 90 MARAIS M. 5
Bourrée 4,72 MARCELLO A. 53/54
Branle 73 March 4,22/23,81
Cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58/59 MARPURG F. W. 37, 44
CAMPRA A. 4,5,72, 93 Martellement: see Pincé
Canaries 8, 73, 74 MASCITI M. 4,9
Cantabile 16/17 Minuet 7,50,82,83
Chaconne 7,74 MONTÉCLAIR M. P. de 8,9,10,18,34-38,42,43,46,49,
Chaconne (in the tempo of a) 92 73,75,76,77,87,88,91,92
CHEDEVILLE L. P. 75,84 Mordent: see Pincé
CHOQUEL H. L. 37, 45, 83, 87 Musette 26, 84
Chûte 34,35,36,48 NAUDOT J. C. 21
Circolo mezzo: see Turn Nimbly 92,93
CLÉRAMBAULT L. N. 4,72 Ornamentation (French) 50/51
Consonance 40 Ornamentation (German) 52-54
Contredanse 75 Ornamentation (Italian) 55-57
CORELLI A. 2, 3, 7, 8, 26 Ornaments 27
CORRETTE M. 40,74,80 Overture 4,5,47,85
Cotillon 75 PAISIBLE J. 79
Coulade 18,35 Passacaglia 7, 26, 86
Coulé, Coulement 35,36 Passages (Doubles) 49
COUPERIN F. 32 Passage-work 9, 19, 25, 27, 31
Couplet 91 Passepied 8, 86, 87
Courante 7,26,48,75,76 Pastorale, Pastourelle 88
DALL'ABACO E. F. 25 Pavane 88
DAVID F. 34,35,38,39 Pearled notes 13
DEMOIVRE D. 12 PHILIDOR A. D. 14, 26
Demons' Air, 7 Pincé 36, 37, 38, 41, 48
DENIS C. 5,74, 77, 80, 91, 93 Point d'arrdt: see Trill
DESPLANES J. A. 43 Polonaise 88/89
DESTOUCHES A. C. 7 Port-de-voix 34,38/39,40,41,46,48
Detached notes 13 Prelude 2,19,43,46,90
DIEUPART C. 47, 48, 85 Presto 63,78
Diminutiein 49 QUANTZ J. J. 20,28,29,30,39,40,41,45,52,55/56,
Dissonance 40, 59 58,59,64,65,86,90/91
Dotted notes 64/65 Quickly 73
Double 32,49,50,89 RAMEAU J. P. 3,93
Doublé: see Turn Rhythm (reversed dotted) 29
Double cadence: see Turn Rhythms (superimposition and succession of different) 30
Double-dotted notes 27-30 Rigaudon 4,90
Double-dotted notes, exceptions 31 Rondeau (form) 73, 81, 84, 91, 92
ENGRAMELLE J. 22, 23, 83 ROUSSEAU J. J. 46
Entrée 4,76 Rubato 32
Equal notes 22,25,26,87 Saltarello 91
Equal notes and detach 14 Sarabande 7,12,26,92
FASCH J. F. 15,31 SCHICKHARDT J. C. 25

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100

IN DEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES (continued)

Schneller: see Pincé STUK J. B. 3


Shake: see Trill Table of grace notes 48
Shake with mordent 48 Tambourin 5, 93
Siciliana 52, 93 TARTINI G. 57
S il ences (Articulatory) 12/13 TELEMANN G. F. 18, 52, 53, 83, 88, 89
Slow (grave) 75, 76, 85, 90,92 Tempo di cappella 3, 10
Slow (lent) 3, 7, 8 Tempo di gavotta 3, 78
Slow and tender 86 Tender Air, 71
Slurs (complete indication of) 16 Tenderly 81, 86
(absence of) 16/17 Tirata 18
(filling in) 17, 18, 19 Trill 36, 37, 40, 41, 43, 44-46, 48
(alternation) 19 Turn (Tourde gosier) 41, 43, 44, 46, 48
Solemnly 27, 28 Unequal notes 20-23
Son coupé (interrupted sound): see Accent VAN HEERDE A. 12
Son enfl t, (Messa di voce) 39,A2a3 Vill anelle 94
'Spiccato' notes 25 VILLENEUVE J. de 63, 86
Spirited (Gay) 10, 25, 26, 31, 85,91 Vivace 8,63
Staccato 13, 14, 15 VIVALDI A. 16/17, 78, 88

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