Anda di halaman 1dari 100

r_f ma fj

Kjyh ML
mf kL
I. bghJthd brKiw gf:

a)

fF ghlf (1-7) = 175 (S.S. = 25)

b)

fj g (3 7) = 300 (S.S. = 60)

c)

brKiwg (bghJthdit) 625

II. r_f ma fj (brKiw gf)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

r_f ma fj ts brKiw gf
ghlbjhlghd tFgiw c/bt braghLf
njf
uL fUjuf gnff
dh t (midJ tifahd wta dhf)
i.
3-5 tF tiu cs ghlF
ii.
ts cs ghlgF

5
5
5
5
5

bkhj 25
III. (ts brKiw gf)
t.v.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

brKiw gf
glbjhF
fhynfhL
fsgaz miff
xgilf
fyJiuahl miff
dh-il t
brhbgh gnf
(i) kh ghuhSkw - gnf mif
(ii) bjhiyfh ghuhSkw ff cW nehf
mif
bral
thj - mif
brJfw gnf
fUjuf - gnf
ytiugl jf (3 Kj 5 tF tiu)
Rt ytiugl

206

vif
2
10
2
10
5
1
2
2

2
1
3
3
1
1

r_f ma - ghll
Kjyh ML
ghlbghU

brKiw
gF m ghlbghU
myF I

kj thif tuyh jhf - f


rKjha - mua bghUshjhu - rka fyhrhu - fiy kW folfiy

- glf nrf, Mtzf nrf


xgilf bra l - ytiugl
gf fhynfhL tiuj
glbjhF fhy mltizf ik
f tiuj ehlf - fyJiuahl
dhodh fsgaz - iza js
_y fw braghL.

myF II
a muayik
Kfiu wa beKiw
nfhghLf ah f Kiw
mogil cikf kW flikf
Foik a muayik rl
kf, wh kW ayhnjh ey kW
f bjhlila rlf

FGbraghL xgilf w
Ud iuf

myF III
ka khy csh murikf
ka muR

khzt ghuhSkw
xgilf

ghuhSkw - cWduhj eilKiwf


ka mu M mik mfhuf
kW gf , rlkw kW M
mfhuf cr kw - Jiw
gf kW mfhuf.

bjhiyfh xgughF
ghuhSkw ffis
cWneh mif jahj.

bral

ika, khy muRf


gfis, mfhufis
goaL, ntWghLfis,
wgrfis ga M
mif jahf.

khy muR
khyf kW a unjrf rl
nguit rl nkyit khy rlkw
gf khy thfJiw MSe Kjyikr - mikruit khy Jiw
gfS, mfhufS
csh
csh mikf grhaJ uh{ rl Cuh xa - khtl Cuh khy
njj Miza - efw csh
mikf ng%uh efuh, khefuh,
gf / mfhuf

vii

myF IV
ngul - ml - Na kly

jhnd fw fU jah, Na kly

tot kW mik RWj


ty tUj u / gf gUtfhyf ufzf.
ya njha j flnghF nfhghL flf
bgUflf ehLf kiyf
lf rkbtf ghiw mikf
yeLf - vkiyf kj
thif t bjhl.

Na kly mikl
wgrfis g fyJiuahl.

kf l L l bgatj
fhuzfis MuhJ mif
jahj.

fsg cWnehf tlhu


a (ynjhwf) g
brj mif jahj.

ynjhwf (kiyf, lf,


rkbtf, MWf) g ytiu gl
jf jahj.

gF M fw Kiwf
myF I
r_f ma fj bghU, tu
kW nehff

ghl bjhlghd thjf, FG


braghLf

kj tsF, r_f ma gF
jkj ts m ts r_f
ts mua m ts
bghUshjhu kW nja ts
myF II
bral
tiuaiw, bghU kW goiyf
KaJt kW gaf r_f
ma bra l Kiw nkbfhs
Toa jiyf

bj bragl bral Kiw


jiyf
-

uhk tuyhW / a /
bghUshjhu / f ga M

RWtlhu nfhf fiy kW


folfiy w

af thif Mnya
M jhf

jft bjh Eg ah
Kndw

myF III
kh ytiugl - ygl jf
gojj
kh gojj
mrnfhLf fnfhLf
fhyiy klyf neu klyf
neu fzL kh lf
mikl fhz.

brJ fhl
FG ntiyghL xgilf gkid
ffh mikj mwhl ff
ga brfis nrfj.

viii

ytiugl gojj
ytiugl mogil TWf (u,
ir, tzf, Kiw FpLf
ytiugl tiff cq tiugl aifaik ytiugl, thiy
ytiugl, bghUshjhu ytiuglf,
ytiugl cUthFj, tiuj kW
tz Lj, ytiu gl
lfis Fj, ytiuglfis
bgjhFj / jhFj.
ygl jf gojj
lf Ulij flj
ytiugl, kh kW ygl
jf _F cs ntWghLf
mwhl kj thif ytiugl,
kh kW ygl jf gaf
myF IV
fUjuf

r_f uridf rhj fUjuFf

tiuaiw kW bghU fUjuf


jiyig njbjLj ll
elJ Kiw ghit- kl
fUju bghiu kW mif
eikf fw fj fUjuf
jiyf

RW NH uridf

fUjuf bghiu kW
mif jahj.

myF V
fsgaz
tiuaiw kW bghU fsgaz ghit
lf fsgaz - VghL, eilKiw
gLJj fyJiuahl mif
jahj r_f ma fsgaz
nkbfhs Toa w gFf.

w bjhlghd bghUf nrfj


ffh mikj khR fLghL
tha, nfhsuf, mUfhaf ghitl.

myF VI
brat fw
-

brat fw bghU kW
tiuaiw.

brat fw w /
wgFf mik

bratfw ko mik

bra tfw eikf

brat fw r_f ma cs
fw braghLf
- fw milf jahj.

ix

r_f ma fj
Kjyh ML
bghUslf
gF m ghl bghU

myFf

gf

kj thif tuyh jhf

II

a muayik

45

III

ka khy csh murikf

71

IV

ngul - ml - Na kly

94

gF M fj Kiwf
I

r_f ma fj bghU, tu kW nehff

121

II

bra l

132

III

kh ytiugl - ygljf - gojj

139

IV

fUjuf

172

fsgaz

180

VI

brat fw

186

izf
dhjh totikf

200

kh dhjhf

202

mf kL

206

dhjh totik I
Kjyh ML ghlbghU
ghlbghU

mj

gagLJj

kbgf

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

myF 1

1(2)

1 (4)

1(2)

1(4)

12

2.

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

12

3.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

14

4.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

14

18

ghl elJ Kiw


myF 1

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(10)

2.

1(4)

1(2)

1(10)

16

3.

1(2)

1(2)

1(2)

1(4)

1(10)

20

4.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

12

5.

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

10

6.

1(2)

1(4)

1(10)

16

bkhj

12

28

14

20

10

12

20

10

144

dhjh totik II
r_f ma - Kjyh ML
ghl bghU

mj

gagLJj

kbgf

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

myF 1

1(2)

1 (4)

1(4)

1(4)

1(2)

16

2.

1(4)

1(4)

1(2)

1(2)

12

3.

1(2)

1(2)

1(2)

1(4)

10

4.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

14

1(4)

16

ghl elJ Kiw


myF 1

1(2)

2.

3.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

4.

1(2)

5.

1(4)

1(10)

1(2)

1(10)

18

2(10)

22

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

12

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

12

6.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

12

bkhj

10

16

10

20

10

12

20

10

20

144

dhjh totik I
Kjyh ML ghlbghU
ghlbghU

mj

gagLJj

kbgf

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

myF 1

1(2)

1 (4)

1(2)

1(4)

12

2.

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

12

3.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

14

4.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

14

ghl elJ Kiw


myF 1

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(10)

18

2.

1(4)

1(2)

1(10)

16

3.

1(2)

1(2)

1(2)

1(4)

1(10)

20

4.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

12

5.

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

10

6.

1(2)

1(4)

1(10)

16

bkhj

12

28

14

20

10

12

20

10

144

200

dhjh totik II
r_f ma - Kjyh ML
ghl bghU

mj

gagLJj

kbgf

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

.dh

F.dh

f.dh

myF 1

1(2)

1 (4)

1(4)

1(4)

1(2)

16

2.

1(4)

1(4)

1(2)

1(2)

12

3.

1(2)

1(2)

1(2)

1(4)

10

4.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

14

ghl elJ Kiw


myF 1

1(2)

1(10)

1(4)

16

2.

1(4)

1(2)

1(2)

1(10)

18

3.

1(2)

2(10)

22

4.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

12

5.

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

12

6.

1(2)

1(4)

1(2)

1(4)

12

bkhj

10

16

10

20

10

12

20

10

20

144

201

4.5

flef nfhghL / ya gyiff

4.6

ynjhwf

4.7

4.8

4.6.1

kiyf

4.6.2

lf

4.6.3

rkbtf

4.6.4

ghiwf

yeLff
4.7.1

yeLf - fhuzf

4.7.2

yeLf - m fU

4.7.3

yeLf - ffhF Jiw

4.7.4

yeLf - ghJfh

vkiyf
4.8.1

vkiyf - tiff

4.8.2

vkiy bto - isf

4.8.3

vkiy, fhyiy

4.9

Koiu

4.10

ghit f

fw braf
t.
v

myF
TWf

brKiw g

njitgL jftf

1.

Na
kly

kh jahj
Na FLg

2.

fyJiuahl
(mif) Na
FLg
wgr

Na FLg cs
9 nfhfis ga
mogil jftfis
nrfj
ia ga mogil
jftf kW kw
nfhfS F cs
ntWghLf

3.

RH

brJ fw
RH u / gf
is (tFgiw
braghL)

tFgiw braghL
njitgL bghUf,
kh, lh sF,
nkir

95

tuf nrfF
l
g
kw lf
yf
jff
iza js
-

yf
jff, ts

FLs
ghit f
kW iza
js
yf
jff

4.

ty
tUj
(ufzf)

brJ fw
ty tUj
ufzf
(tFgiw braghL)

5.

ya
gyiff

brJ fw
ya gyiff
(tFgiw
braghL

6.

y
njhwf

fsgaz mif
jahj cdJ
khtl
ynjhw

7.

yeLf

8.

vkiy

ytiugl
tiuj cyf
yeLf
klyf, m
mikJs Ka
ehLf
ytiugl
tiuj cyf
vkiy gFf,
Ka
vkiyf
bgaf, mit
mikJs ehLf

tFgiw braghL
, ru, Na tF
khztfilna
khfshf W
ufzf kW
ty tUj g
mj
tFgiw braghL
x cF jhf
2 (nos).
1.
cyf - flf
bgUflf
2.
ya gyiff
- x nk
xiw bghU
ya gyiff
flfY
bgUflfY
vthW gusd
vgij mj.
ynjhwf
mik, mikl
wl, w bgaf,
bjhlghd if glf
Kjait
cyf wt
ytiugl

cyf wt
ytiugl

96

yf
jff

yf
jff

yf
jff

ytiu
gljf,
yf
jff

ytiugl
jf, yf
jff

gF m - ghlbghU
myF - I

kj thif tuyh jhf


mKf
xbthU kjD rKjha xU mf. xU rKjha Kndw,
m thG kf thif Kndw mlsJ. kf, j thifia
Knd bfhs, jkF K thj kf tuyhiw g, bt fL
tuyhW gilwd. kfsh tuyhW TLwJ; tuyhwh kf thif
brikWwJ. kf thif mogil TWfshd f, r_f, mua,
bghUshjhu, rka, fyhrhu, gghL, fol Efiyf Ma midJ flj
fhy tuyh jhfdh tsW nkghL miljitna.
iwa cyfsha bghUshjhuK ( Global Economy), tjf nkghL
bjhiy bjhl rhjdfis gogoahf fLoj tuyh isnt vgij
kWf ayhJ. braif nfhfis V, bjhiyz ( Remote sensing)
Kiw Ys tsfis fLogJ, fzbfLgJ, kj thifF
njitahd bghUfshf tsfis khWtJ flj fhy ma tYef
fLof bjhFng vgJ mnth. vdnt, kj thif TWf
xbth tsF, tuyh jhf xbthU fhy flY vthW
UjJ vgij khzt MafS, g khzhffS czJ bfhs,
tuyh KaJtij J bfhs ghlbghU sf
jugLsJ.

myF TWf
1.1

kj th f ts tuyh jhf

1.2

kj th r_f ts tuyh jhf

1.3

kj th mua ts tuyh jhf

1.4

kj th bghUshjhu ts tuyh jhf

1.5

kj th rka ts tuyh jhf

1.6

kj th fyhrhu gghL ts tuyh jhf

1.7

kj th fiy-folfiy ts tuyh jhf

1.8

Koiu

1.9

ghit f

fw braf
t.

my F

TWf

1.

tuyh

tHfgL
br K iw

glbjhF

yff /

brjhf,

bt lf,

giff,

jff,

cjl tuyh

brjhf,

jhf ga

giff,

jftfis nrff /

cjl

mt glbjhF

nrfj.

fhynfhL

yf cjl,

nghuhl

jahj

Rju nghuhl

ghl

tuyhW

kw lf

jff,

Rju

ffis Fj. jff

ff
3.

tuf nrF l

j f t f

jhf

2.

n j it g L

fsgaz

tuyhW wf

WtdF

wf

lF fsgaz

mUYs

lf

nkbfhL

tuyhW

mif

wf

jahj.

lij
njbjLj.

4.

1.1

r_f Ujthf

yf

Uj

ga jft

jff

jff

thf

nrf

r_f

xgil

kj th f ts tuyh jhf

1.1.1 ntjfhy f Kiw mt gf


cgljf, uhkzf nghw mogil rhWf tna, ntj
fhy f iy magLwJ.
ntjfhy FUFy Kiw yaJ. jij ntL nfhSzf
ukra kW Mu thif Kiw cgead vw rlid brJ f
fj bjhlfgld. 12 MLfhy khzt FU y thJ,

ahfF njitgL bghUis nrfj, ahrf brj, Ma L gf


Matiw brJ, Ma fF fia bgwhf. jF Ma rhj
f Kiw mW ntj fhy yaJ.
bknkY jJtf, yaf gof Ug cilatf, ya
yik bgwtfis eho brW ca f bgwd. yaf kW f
Fj <LghL cila murf, fahs khehoid To, f nkik mila,
t tFjd.
rkaij rhj f Kiw yaJ. ntjf, fhrf, uhzf
thbkhahf fJ kdghl bragld. jUf, yfz, thda,
fj, nrhl, gilg nghw ghlf ffgld. j rlFf,
ahff br Kiwf, ahf lf mikKiw Mait ffgld.
it msa Kiw, nah nghw ghlf tsF Kndhoahf
fwd.
Kntjfhy bgfS f fwd. dnu bgfSF f
kWfglJ. vD mur FLg bgfS, caFo bgfS f fwd. ahf,
ntf

elJ

Kiw

mjzfSF,

ngh

rafSF

ffgld. rh Kiw rhj f ntj fhy eilKiw gLjgld.


cyf m (yfz, fj, kUJt, nrhl, xGf, ey elij, ey
thif Kiw) rka m (ntjf, ntjhjf) ca jJt m Mait
f ika bghUshf fhr fhyfY, U fhyfY ts
bgwd.
kdghl brj, Ma Taij L L Tw, jhnd crJ
goj, fgid tfw, fyJiuahl, thj brj nghw ntjfhy
fwKiwf W eilKiw fhzgLwd.

1.1.2 j, rkz rka fhy f gf


j, rkz rka fhyf j rff, j Rfis cUtha
fhuf, rkz klf, f ikafshf fjd. ehsjh, jry, uky
f wj f ikafshf fjd. itaidJ fhufUJ njha
f ikafshF. a kL, bg, dh nghw ehLfUJ khztf,
ehsjh, jry, uky Ma fikaf f gwd.
629 .. th Rth ah tJ gidJ MLf jUjh.
mfhy ya uhkz f Kiw, j f Kiwfis jFngo

vLJiuJsh. mrhfh, tRgJ, grt, rutk, mRtnfhr nghw


fahs bgaf th Rth F l bgWsd.
fhy fl, bjhlf f, Kj bkh thijf
ffgld. mLj flkhf yfz, fiy ifid bjhf, kUJt,
jJt Ma IJtif maf kW j fS ffgld vd th
Rth jdJ F vLJiuJsh.
rka rhj fl, fiyf, ifid bjhf, tzLj,
gfiy, folfiy, w, bej nghwitfS ffgld. ngR tHF
bkhaha ghbkh fF bkhahf gagLjglJ. jJtf ca
fahf ffgld.
rka thif f, gh nghw ngR bkhf, jJtf nghwit
f Kiw w jikfshF. bg Jwf f fwd. bjhlf f,
ca f ts, bjhf, btehlt ah gwik, ma f,
mWit ir g, jff, thjf mogil fw, jJt f,
fLghL iwj fw Kiw, ngR bkhtfw, Ma - khzt R_fkhd
cw t fw Maitf rkz - jfhy f Kiw ghuhljf
gfghF.
FUFyf Kiw, jfhuf, rff, rkzklf, nfhf
nghwit f ikafshf fjd. jJt f ts, ya f
ts, f kheho tna f bgw, thda, fja, jUf, nghw
caf tsf gilafhy f ts ika TWfshf fjd.

1.1.3 bjah f Kiw


jHf rf yaf fzfha vw brh Maiu FF
brhyhf fjJ. fzfha rKjha wghd l itJ nghwglt
vgJ

FljfjhF.

rkzf

`mk

gfis

kjd

`fhufis W f gia brjd. gyt kdf ntj f


Wtdfis foiffshf Wd. foiff caf ikafshf fjd.
t khztf j gwd. fh fwj f ikakhf fjJ.
ntjf, uhzf Ma f ts gfhf gyt kdf khaf
tHd. Mntj kUJt, jkrhuf ffgld. ntjFod kLnk
mDkfgld. f iyaf bjklyf rhiyf vw bga
sd.

1.1.4 nrhH fhy


f iyaf tahf bghJ Hhf tahf, fhafS,
uhzfS ffgld. izgfS, Mugiy fia fjd.
nfhfSl izJ, f iyaf bragld. ca f iyaf
nta Fyjt kLnk cz ciwS bgwd. Kjyh uhnru tl MfhL
khtl vzhu uhk vGa f iya 340 khztfS, 14
MafS Ujd. ghonrF mU cs Utd 240 khztfS,
12 MafS Ujd. MafSF yf khakhf tHfgld.

bl Rjha - Kfyhaf - fjhf


1.1.5 bl Rjha kW Kf fKiw - kjh
bjhlf f fF Wtdfshf kjhfS, ca f fF
Wtdfshf kjurhfS sd. bgUghY kjhf kNfnshL izJ
fhzgld. bksf Mauhf gahdhf. f Wtdf FuhD
kW tghL KiwfS mnua, ghuf bkhf ffgld. KfkJ nfh,
Kj kjurhit M{ Wdh. kjurh mnua bkh, ya, yfz,
jf

rhu,

ma,

mua,

bghUshjhu,

tz

Lj,

jj

untiyghLf, Mguzf brj, ntiyghLf nghw fiywfS


ffgld. Rakhf fW, wj Kiw nja khztfSF murhf
Ka gjfS mfgld. muR jhuhskhd cj bjhifia, f
WtdfSF tH tjik FljfjhF. #, mfk ef, nfhbfhlh,
khst, #h, tfhs, Kjh Ma gFf murfS f wf
ghLgld.
bl Rjhf, mf, khyfis Ml K Mahsf,
uf Mnah ghuf bkh yaf tsu bgU Mju ed. bl,
#yj, ~nuh[hgh nghw lf Kf f iyaf bgU
yffSl izJ ts bgwd. bl Wtgl a yf
fbga yfkhf fjJ. #yhY , m FUit myf
jiytuhf ajh.
Rjha f l tsdh, tuyhW fS yha
fS vGjgld. vLJfhlhf yha cy bghJ tuyhiw TW
`jgfh - eh vw iy Ah vGdh. `bkdf vw wj
tuyhW iy m FU vGdh. nkY bgnuhhJs bjhg
ikafis W, nghfiyia ff brjik, Rjha f ts
kbwhU ika fyhf fwJ.

1.1.6 Kfyha M fhy


Rjhaf nghnw, Kfyha M fhyY rka rhj f, fj,
xGf, nah, thda, jUf, il guhkF fiy, mua, kUJt
Mait f iyaf ffgld. gntW rkUj bkh yaf
ghuf

bkh

bgafgld.

Kfkaf

kLnk

iyaf

mDkfgld. mg fhy JfS kjurhf fgy VghLf


bragld. Kfyha murfS mf ms f ikafSF xJdhf.
#Ah thR yhj brtjf kW btehL gaf w mtf
brt midJ f tsF gagLj ntL vw Mizia
wjik FljfjhF. muf ViH vatf f tsfhf
mf

ms

vGJfiy,

ia
jhuhs

tHdh.

xJL

rka

rhghd

Mait

f,

Kfyha

nghKiw
M

fw,

fhy

jjikfshf sd.

1.1.7 Mnyaf f gf
Mnya mu 1813 M ML glarl _y fgfhf xU
yr %ghia xJL brjJ. J f g tsF monfhaJ. 1822 M
ML brid MSe r jhk knwh Mizgo vLj f fzbfL
fnwh vif 1:1000 vW %fglJ. f rhuizF wF
brid Wtgl f ika Wtd gntW ts bgW iwa `khy
fahf fwJ.
bkfhny fU mogil My t f eilKiw gLjglJ.
Mnya muR neh fj nfhghil gaJ. neh fj
vgJ ca kl cstfSF nkiyehL fid mj _y
fa rKjha jhj iy cs bghJ kfSF J jhf gu
vgjhF.

jhk knwh

b k f hn y

f ts mLj Kndw iyia rhy c mif (1854)


VgLaJ. ca f My tahf, bjhlf f tlhu bkhtahf
fj; rka eL iyik Vw f WtdfSF cj mj, aFd
jiyik khyf f Jiwf; brid, ffjh, ggh gfiy
fHff bjhlf; ff; caiygf; eLiygf; Mnyh
tlhu gf; jhYfh gf; kf f; Ma g f; bgf
f; bghJ nj Ma gJiuf rhy c mif Ka mrfshF.
it f KG tsF ld.
1882 M ML Al fFG gJiuf f nkghil
nkY caaJ. bjh f; cj bjhif; kf f; Ma g f; muR
gf Mait FG Ka gJiufshF. 1902 M ML afgl
gfiyfHfFG (r jhk uhny) gfiyfHf f nkghoF t tFjJ.
1917 rhy f FG caiygf Myij, fjij ju
kw ghlfis jh bkh ff ntL vW gJiu brjJ. Alh
(Hartog) FG, a f f iyia ( Wastage ) MuhJ mit FtjF,
caiy, bjhlfiy bg f Maitf cau t tFjJ. 1937 Mghc FG bjhf, bjhEgf tsu ttFjJ. fh mof Mjhu
f bfhif 14 taJs midtUF flha f, jhbkh t f,
ifbjh ika f, Ma w jikfis cslajhf fjJ.
Rju ah mikfgl uhjhUZz gfiyfHf FG (194849)

gfiy fHf fia caaJ. 1952/53 M ML mikfgl brfl

f FG g fia caaJ. gf 5+3+4 Kiw; gKidgf;


bjh gf; thciw gf; ghitanwh; fhJ nfshnjh gf; nj
Kiwf Matiw gJiuJ g fia ts mila brjJ.
1964-66 nfhjh FG, 1986 nja f bfhif Mat gJiuf
f Kndw Ugjf jhfij VgLaJ. nfhjh FG g f,
ca f, bjhEg f, ntshik f, taJtnjh f, ma
f Muh, Ma g, khzt ey, fF Kiw, kjts, f
Uthf, Ma 12 tifahd fJiwf cau gJiujJ. bg f,
gnlh f, gTl, g rKjha cw, a, g KgUt f,
ghll Mat w ftd brYaJ.
1986 nja f bfhif, nja f, jhjgnlh f, f
rkJtK bgf, taJ tnjh f, Kiwrhuh f bjhf, bjh
Eg; ntshikf; Ma g Matiw nkgLj ttFjJ.

nkY gfiyfHf kha FG ( UGC ) my a bjh EgfHf


(AICTE ) nja f Muh g FGk (NCERT) nja Ma f FGk
( NCTE ) nja kL kW ju FGk ( NAAC ) khy caf FGk Mait
jukhdf nkghoF ttFwd.

1.1.8 r_f jidahsf kW fahsf gf


r_f jidahsfS fahsfS f tsF cWJizahf
whf. uhrhuh nkhfuh, <tru ahrhf, Rth jahdj rut,
ntfhdj, uueh jhT, muj nghw rKjha jidahsf f
tsF tnfhdhf. Jt df gntW lf gf,
ff bjhl, f tsF bgU gfhdhf. Kf kW
Wghik WtdfS f tsia gfjd.
gila fhybjhnl fj gntW f bjhlghd ff bjhlf
f, ca f, bjhf, kUJtf, trha f, bg f, Ma
f, bjh Egf vw gntW gkhzfis cila fJiwahf ts
bgW fia nkgLaJ.

bra
a r_f Uj thf vtnuD Ut gF g izajs _y
xgil jahf.

1.2

kj th r_f ts tuyh jhf

1.2.1 tuyhF Kgl fhy

kj Fy ts bjhlf iyna tuyhF Kgl fhykhF. mtf


gagLa fUf, Mjf mogil tuyhF Kgl fhy,
ffhy, cnyhffhy vd tifgLjgLsJ.

ehf tghL, j tghL, ky, f tiff gilJ iwtgL Kiw,


Ukzf kr brw gagLJ tHf Mait tuyhF
Kgl fhy Kj Wtiu tHf csJ.

1.2.2 Augh ehff

Augh ehff M bg UghyU Hhil, nkyhil vw uL j


Mil mjd vgjfhd Mjhuf ilJsd.

tisaf, fhf, xoahz, y, fhj, nkhu, _F nghw


Mguzfis bgf mjd. it jf, bt, br, btfy nghw
cnyhffsh jahfgoUjJ.

ma tif f Mguzf, kghlf, ff, XLf, jj kW


cnyhffshyhd ghuf bkhfrjhnuh fblLfgld.

KfghF

fzho,

jj

f,

cjL

rha,

Kfgl

gagLajfhd Mjhuf ilJsd.

Cf, o Kf, ff

nfhf, gJf, jha nghw isahL bghUf ilJsd.

ntilahLj, vUJ ril it bghGJnghfhf Ujikfhd Mjhuf


ilJsd.
nkTa Mjhuf mogil, Auhgh r_fd Hhil, nkyhil

mj,

Mguzf

mj,

myfF

bghUfis

gagLJj,

Mild Kiw gagLJj, ghuf cgnahfgLJj, csuF


isahLf btauF bghGJnghFf <Lgl Matiw mUjd
vgJ bjthwJ. it a r_f ggho bjhikia nkgLJwJ.

1.2.3 ntjfhy, fhrfhy Mat jhff


FLg kW jij tku
ntjfhy kW fhr fhyf FLg r_f thif mogil
Mjhukhf saJ. jijt ku gwglJ. FLg jiyt `ufg vd
miHfglh. r_f xU jhukz filofglJ. y murFLgf
gyjhu kz brJ bfhsglJ. jkrhuf gyjhu kzij tikahf
fowd.
Ukz, mw, bghU, fhk Matiw ikakhf bfhl yw thif;
bgf jf fztid njbjLF Ratu cik Mait fhy
rKjha w jikfshF.
rlFf
ntj

fhr

fhy

gytif

rlFf

filofgld.

vLJfhlhf fgjhd, rtd (Mkf nto br rlF) ehkfz (bga


NLj), md urd (md CLj), rJfk (fhJ Fj) nghw gytif
rlFf eljgld.
rh mik

K ntjfhy xnu FLgij nrjtf gytif bjhfis brJ


tjd. eh fPdhf, v jij kUJtuhf, vjh jha

miugtuhf Unwh vw ntj tf rh iy yhj


rKjhaij, Ug mogil bjh brayh vw czid
ugwd.

ntjfhy bjh mogil, rhKiw tWjgld. uhkzf,


raf, itaf, Nuf vw ehF f njhd.

uhkzf FyFUfshf, Mafshf

brayhd. raf

murfshf, ngh ufshf sd. itaf tffshf,


ifidPfshf trhfshf gahd. _W dfSF
gil brjtf Nufshf fUjgld. tfSF f bgW
cik kWfgld. Vwjhthd rKjhaF rhKiwf bgU fhuzkhf
Ujd.

Muk iyf: jkj thif ehF Muk iyfshf fgld


mitahtd ukra myJ khztgUt, Ufj myJ yw
thif, tduj myJ Jw iy, rahr myJ KW Jwj iy
MF.

bgf iy: kidl izJ rka rlFf, yw bjhlila


ffis eld.

Kntj fhy ca kl eljgl bgf, ntjfhy


jhjgld. bgfSF f kWfglJ.

caFo bgfSF f mfglJ. nyhg Kuh, thuh, nfhh,


fhjh, tht, mgyh nghw bgf K ntj fhyY, fh, iknu
(ad tha kid) nghnwh ntj fhyY f wj
bgkfshf sdhf.

fiy: jkhf fUjglJ. fzt wjD fztiu idJ


thjd. kWkz bgfSF kWfglJ. MfSF mLj iynyna
bgf Wjgld.
FLg, xUjhu kzKiw, yw j jik, fiy Maitf ntj

- fhrfhy r_f mik w jikfshf fJ a r_f ggho


jjikia iy WJwd.
ntj - fhr fhyfnyna njha rhKiwf, gntW rlFf,
bgf jhiy nghwit ws r_f Vwjhfis VgLJwd.
rldh rkiy bfhLfgl iwa r_f bgf ca khbgU
rhthyhf csJ.

10

1.2.4

bksanguuR fhy
bksa M KgF rkz rka ts gF j rka
gujY fjd.

bksanguuR fhy j rka tsailjJ.

jh jijaF gbrj, miria filoj, cikia nej,


Mafis nghWj Mad wghf fUjglJ.

yFf gLj jilbraglJ. bghUbry f rlFKiwf


jfglJ.

kj nea filof tWjglJ.

midJ rkadU rjikl Ujd.


bksanguuR fhy filofgl mir, cik, kj nea,

rkar jik nghw waf ws Ugjf rKjha jhfij


VgLJwd.

1.2.5 rf fhy

rf fhy y IJ tifahf fgoUjJ. mit F, Kiy,


kUj, bej, ghiy vgdthF.

y mikF VwthW kf thif, bjh Mait mikUjd.

kf iy cathf fUjglJ.

bggh ytf wfgld.

fhj Ukz tHfUjJ.

Xz (Mtkhj UHh) fhif, bghf, gF Hh nghw Hhf


eilbgwd.

kz L fLj, fHfhLj, fh gjhLj Mait isahLfshf


Ujd.

ty nghw eifaf, njhtisf, nkfiy, yf, Fly Ka


mfyfshf Ujd.
IJtif yf; mtiw rhj thif, kf caiy, mfyf,

Hhf Mat jhf iwa r_fY l bgWsd.

1.2.6 FjnguuR fhy

Fj fhy nguu rhKiw fLikahf gwglJ.

gha thf Kiwna bgUghY tHUjJ.

gyjhu kzK fhzglJ.

11

MahsfS, brtjfS Vuhskhf bfhilfis th tHd.

lhik fhy bky gut bjhlaJ.

moik Kiw fhzglJ.

Fj fhy uhkz rkank brthF bgW saJ.

bg f njitid czJ bgf gWfgld.

Wghikdnu (r) - fzt wjl cl filnaW gHfij


bfhoUjd.

c{# cs khfhs vD Mya fhjhr fhy njtjhf


Ujjhf Ff ilwd.
jifa rKjha nfLf Fj fhy bjhnl gu, a rKjha

VwjhF bgU rhthyhf Ujd.

1.2.7

A Mfhy

r_f Vwjhf Ujd. rhf tHf Ujd.

rYif bgw uhkzF murf yfis khakhf tHd.

tujrizKiw gwglJ.

nAh goif, Fgnksh, u Hh bfhlhlgld.


A Mfhy eilbgw nAh goif iwa iyY

bfhlhlgLtJ FljfjhF.

A M - Fg nksh

12

gyt M fhy

rh Kiw fLikahf gwglJ.

uhkz ca r_f Ujd.

uhkzf yfis khafshf bgwd. tfSF nfhfis


guhkF bghW tHfglJ.

gyt fhy irtK, itztK jiHjd. khwhf j rkaK, rkz


rkaK ailjd.

ehakhf, Mthf rka tsF cjd.

1.2.8 nrhHnguuR fhy

nrhH fhy rhKiw gutyhf gwglJ.

tyif, lif rhf njhd.

njtjh Kiw nrhH fhy bjah njhaJ.

Vuhskhd nfhf flgld.

berbjh ts fhu bgabgwJ.


folfiy ts, bjh ts, gyt, nrhH fhyfl wj

jhfkhF.

1.2.9 bl Rjha M

bl Rjha M J rKjha mik khWjf fhzgld.

rKjha

uhkzfis

cathf

bfhl

gugiu

rhKiw

tHfUjJ.

kf moikahfnt eljgld.

r tHf eilKiwUjJ.

muhaU, JUaU gjh Kiwia mKfgLd.

vyh rka caFy bgfl gjh m tHf UjJ.

rh UJ Kfshf khatf rk mjJl eljgliy.

uhkzf ju w Jf J ah t flhakhfglJ.

1.2.10 #aefu, gh muRf fhy

ehF tif #hf Ujd.

thdsha folf kW Mlgu r_f thif UjJ.

kf gL, gU, thrid bghUf, kyf kW mfyfis


gagLd.

moikf Ujd. gbgf Ujd.

13

murf w rkaf J rjikl Ujd.

rka Rju UjJ.

bgf mukidf gbgfshf, ehoa kfuhf, gyF


Rkgtfshf Ujd. njtjh Kiw UjJ.

mur FLgf gyjhu kz tHfUjJ.

r tHf bgUikahf fUjglJ.

1.2.11

Kfyha nguu fhy

Kfyha fhy gy Inuha gafS, tffS ahF tjd.

caFod gy rYiff bgW thjd.

mg fhy JfSF ca gjf tHfgld.

brtjf brt khfshf, ViHf nghJkhd cz, cil,


thjd.

m, iz, gU tiff nghwit rhjhuz kf czthF.

be, vbz, iy kthf, c, rfiu iy mfkhf Ujd.


bl Rjha, Kfyhaf fhyfl fiy, folfiy ts,

tf ts iwa r_fY jhfij VgLsd.

1.2.12

kuhoa nguu fhy

yf ju thahf J t tN braglJ.

brs, kW rnjZK tf kuhoa gF tNfgliy. Kfyha


kW jfhz Rjh gF tNfgld.

J kj tsailjJ.

14

1.2.13

Mnya M ah

Mnya M f ts miljJ.

bgf iyia nkgLj y rlf awgld.

gntW r_f Uj thf njh, jhjgl kW bgf eyDfhf


nghuhod.

midJ kfSF Rjukhf thH ntL vw cz VglJ.

Mnyaiu vJ Mfhnf wurf, ghisafhuf s brjd.

ah nja njh tsailjJ.

gntW gFfS, mua mogilY, MaogilY Kj Kiwahf


xnu Fil bfhL tuglJ.
uk rkh# 1828 - uh#h uh nkhfuh bjhldh. uk rkh#

rhKiw, lhik, r, cUttghL Matiw fojJ. 1829 a


bgo r x rl bfhL tjh.
uk rkh# jiytf xUtuhd nfrt ru br Ka 1872
M ML rl go FHij Ukz, gyjhu kz jil bragld.
1875 M ML Ma rkh#ij Rth jahdj rut bjhldh.
ntjfis neh br vgJ mtuJ KHfkhF. R af tahf Vuhskhdtf Ug J rkaij gw Mujd. Ma rkh# tahf
bgf, jhjgl kf Kndw, rkg cz cz, jahdj My
ntjg Mait tsailjd.
1893 M ML mbgr jdh afij Mujh. af
fg, rKjhagia nkbfhL, a njr Ljiy afY
gnfwJ.
uhkUZz af:- 1897 M ML ntfhdj uhk UZz klij
bfhfjh ng Wdh. kj dF nrit brj kW gyf
Wtdf,

kUJtkidf,

bjhEg

Wtdf,

mdhij

yf

Matiw W rKjha nkghL gia brJ bfhL tUwJ.


K aff - iraJ mfkJ fh mfh afij 1875
bjhldh. Kfka Mnyh xal f WtglJ. mJ tsJ mfh
K

gfiyfHfkhW.

aff

gjhKiw

v,

bgf

Matfhf mUghL tjJ FljfjhF.

Koiu
ed fhy, flj fhy tuyh bt mikJsJ. nfL m
cz, mjdh isj ma fL of, f bgwjh Vgl flj fhy

15

mDgf, it midJ kj th gntW khwfis cUthsJ.


vbghGJ r_f flj fhy mDgtfis czwnjh mbghGJjh vfhy
thifia wghf cUth bfhs Ko.

1.3 kj th mua ts tuyh jhf


bra
a Rju nghuhl Ka ff FF fhynfhL jah brf.

1.3.1

J rkbt Augh ehff

efu thif thjd.

nklhd gFf nfhilf fod, nfhil gF kf FothG


Lf foUjd.

1.3.2

ntjfhy

Fy myJ FLg - ntj muaYF mogil.

gy FLgf izJ uhk MW.

uhk jiyt uhk.

ntj fhy gujf, kraf, aJf, Uf nghw gy muRf


Ujd. mu jiyt uh#.

ntj fhy Koah fhy.

thf murDF cj a nuhj, nrdh (giljsg) Mnah


Ujd.

rgh, r vw mitf Ujd. rgh vgJ C bgnah mla mit.


r bghJ kf uf mla mit.

mur jdJ tikia bgUf rlFf, ntf, ahff brjh.

fUy mfh, t mfh, muR j vd gy mfhf Ujd.

uhk rigf csh mikfshf UjJ.


uhk thf, rgh, r Mait ntjfhy jhf Ka TWfshF.

1.3.3

kfj muR fhy


6 who tl ah kfh#dgjf vdgL 16 bgU muRf
Ujd.

mtW y Koahf, y Foahf.

fhyngh wuRf tikahd muRF gjd.

kfj vG bgwJ.

16

1.3.4

bksa nguuR fhy

bksa Mia Wa ru Fj bksa.

tUF rhuU, mnrhfU M brjd.

ff nghUF mnrhf j rkaij jGdh.

bksa M Koah Kiwahf UjJ.

k, g vw mikruit Ujd. nuhj, kfhk, nrdhg,


tuh# Mnah Ujd.

isr M xUgF ytahf tNfglJ.

bksa uhQtF nrdhg jiytuhth.

kw cika, Fwa vd U f Ujd.

kf bjhif fzbfLfglJ.

khfhz jiyt MSe Mth.

ghlu efu mikig 6 FGfshf jd. xbthU FGit 5


mfdf tjd.
Koah Kiw, k g, uhQt, kwf, efu thf MSe

MF cgl khfhz thf Mait bksa nguu mua jhffshF.

1.3.5

rf fhy

rffhy jHf nru, nrhH, ghoa kuf M jd.

nru murf wjt nru brFLt.

nrhH murf wjt ffhy. t 11 FWy kdfis btngh


njhfojh. fyizia fodh.

ghoa nguu wjt jiyahsfhdJ brUbtw beLbra. t


jiyahsfhdJ ngh vfis btwh.

rf fhy gh, fh, X, e, ngf, M, makh vw filnaG


tsf Ujd.
Koah Kiw muR eilbgwJ.

1.3.6 Fj nguuR

Fj nguuir njhWjt $Fj.

Kjyh ruFjUF ulh ruFj, rKu Fj M brjd.

ulh ru Fj M fhy ghah vw d ga tUif


jh.

17

Fj nguurf UJ bgafis No bfhld.

khfhzf `f` vdglJ. MSef cgfr vdgld.

1.3.7 Ar nguuR

jhndtuij jiyefuhf bfhL M brjt Ar.

Ariu nf njhfojij InAhny fbtL TWwJ.

ff J ngh bjhLJ Ar bt bgwh. Jnt Ar


WnghuhF.

Ar M FwfSF fL jlid tHfglJ.

Ar M muR Mtzf ghJfhghf Ujd.

Mtzfhgff nyhJ vW miHfglJ.

Ar M f wghf ts miljJ.

1.3.8

gyt fhy

gytf uhUj bkhY, tl bkhY glaf btld.

gyt murf w bgnwh, tfjtk, #afjtk, ZQ


nfhg, k ZQ.

k ZQ, fsufis, nrhHfis bt bgwh.

fhy gytf Kjyh knfutk, Kjyh euktk, ulh


euktk Fljftf.

nfhf, Xa, ir, f tsailjd.

gyt M eF uikfgl M Kiw MF.

gyt muR gy nfhlfshf fgoUjJ.

muR mfhf nfhlij thf brjd.

murUF cjt wik f mikrf Ujd.

mur CW Mth.

MyafSF mur mj y bfhil njtjhd vdglJ.

uhkzfSF mur mj y bfhil uknja vdglJ.

Vf btlgL trha wghf eljJ.


uikfgl M, Jiw, folfiy ts, trha ts,

bfhila Mait gyt mua w jikfshF.

1.3.9

nrhH nguuR

nrhH fhy muaiy mJ bfhs fbtLf cjwd.

fhy nrhH kuig njhWjt #ahya nrhH.

18

Kjyh guhjf nrhH Kfhy nrhH murf Fljft.

Kjyh uh#uh#, mtuJ jt uhn#u M fhyf nrhHnguuR f


cia miljJ.

Kjyh FnyhJf 72 tf mla JFGit yifF mD


itjh.

nrhHf w mtfsJ M Kiw MF.

MF nguur jiyik tjh.

jir,

fif

bfhl

nrhHu

nghw

ukhlkhd

jiyefuf

cUthfgld.

bgUjd, Wjd vW miHfgl mfhu tf MF bghW


tjd.

nrhH nguuR klyfshf, kly gy tsehLfshf, tsehL gy


ehLfshf fgoUjd.

ehL vw gF gy jdhbgw uhkf Ujd.

klyf thfij mur Fyij nrj MSef ftjd.

tsehil bga ehlhU, ehL gFia ehlhU tjd.

efu thfij efujh vw mit tjJ.

nrhH M w rigfS, rig FGfS bfhl jdh Kiw


MF.

cunk% fbtL uhk rigf eltoifia twJ.

uhk rig cWduhf jFf zfgoUjd.

Flnthiy Kiw _y njj eilbgwJ.

30 ng bfhl uhk thf rig MW FGfshf J braglJ.

tha cWdf vif, uhkF uhk khWgoUjJ.


MKiw, bgUjd, Wjd mla mfhutf, klyf,

tsehLf, ehLf csla M murikf, uhk thf, Flnthiy Kiw


tf tsia bgUf yifF mDggl JFG nghw waf
nrhH nguu mua gfghF.

1.3.10 bl Rjha

.. 1206 Kj 1526 tiu moik, , Js, iraJ, nyho vd IJ btntW


trf tl ahit M brjd.

nfh KfkJl moikahf UJ tl a gFfSF MSeuhf


afglt F Ig Mth.

19

wj Mahshuhd JZ 1229 Igl UJ mDk gu bgW


mur Mdh.

gugiu muaiy bjhl itjt JZ.

tik thj ehgJ gil jitf bfhl ehgk FG cUthfglJ.

JZ j uah MQil jJ murit mkjh.

1266 eU KfkJ thR VJ wJlnt ghg muruhdh.

ghg jid iwtdJ H vW, iwtdh F mD itfglt


vW bgUikgL bfhlh.

ca Fod eltoiffis ffhf xwf afgld.

ghg FokfSF ilW brj MSefis jojh.

ah K nguuR crij bjhlJ f Mfhyjh.

caFod eltoiff xGF gLjgld.

kJ gJ, nghij kUJf Kjad jil braglJ.

mDk, nfiffS, HhfS elJtjF jil fglJ. vdnt


sf jfgld.

myh iyahd bgUgil itUjh.

FiufSF `jh vdgL NLnghL Kiw mKfgLjglJ.

mfho Ujf bragld.

mfho Uj myh fhy cUthfglJ.

jhaf mfhof ilf, muR jha lFf nghJkhd ms


jhaf U itfglJ.

midJ tifbghUfSF, iy za braglJ.

mfho

Kiwfis

gwhjtfSF

fLikahd

jlidf

tHfgld.

y msitia KjKjyhf VgLat myh Mth.

ytUth UjfSF Kndho Mth.

KfkJ Js Fghf ehza khw, jiyef khw njh-M-gF


t, FoahdtfSF jfh vD ntshflf tHf Matiw
brjh.

th nfh vw ntsh Jiw cUthfglJ. vGgJ yr %gh, 64 rJu


ik gu khgiz cUthfglJ.

ca Fod brhJf, gugiu thRfSF tHf cjult nuh


Js Mth.

20

Rjh nuh Js KjKjyhf ghrd t jh.

ghrdJfhf ry{ Kj thudh tiu 200 .. uF fhth


mikfglJ.

aKdh Kj [h tiu kbwhU fhth btlglJ.

yh rl l bgwhj 28 bghUf J t uJ braglJ.

moikf Ujd.

KWF nkgl a efuf Wtgld.

mdhijf, ifbgf eyDfhf th iru vw Jiw cUthfglJ.

ytr

kUJtkidf,

KfSF

Ukz

Mnyhrid

ikaf

VgLjgld.

Jf J ah t flhakhfglJ.

nyho trJ wj mur fj nyho.

rhiyf gGJ ghfgld. ghrd tr nkgLjglJ.

RjhDF cjahf eha vw gj UjJ.

th rhu vw Jiw bghWghs Ujd.

uhQtJiw mfh th m vdglh.

th rhy vgJ rka tfhuf Jiw. mj mfh rj vdglh.

Jiw jiytuhf jiyik fh Ujh.

cika Fj tHFf hah vD yha jrl UjJ.

JfSF jrl UjJ. bgUghY uhk grhaJf Td.

th h vdgLtJ nghFtuJJiw.

bl Rjhl khfhzf jhf vW khtlf jh vW


jh gy gfhdhfshf, gfhdhf gy uhkfshf Ujd.

uhk jiyt m, M mogil myF uhk, uhk fzf gth


Mth.
JZ cUtha ehgk FG, Kjbgzu uah gna,

myh mfho Uj, KfkJ Js bfhL tj jfh vD


ntsh flf thnfh vw ntshJiw, bgnuhh Js ghrd
lf, ajhf Wtgl efuf nghwit bl Rjha M
FljFj jhffshF.

1.3.11 #aefu gh muRf

rf kuig nrj AAuU, fU 1336 ML #aefiu Wd.

#a efu f wj nguur UZznjtuha Mth.

21

nguuR klyfshf, kly gy ehLfshf, ehL gy jyfsh, jy


gy uhkfis bfhL UjJ.

csh mikfSF KG mfhu tHfgoUjJ.

uhQt cs mfhf eha myJ ghisafhu vdglh. mtUF


tHfgl y `mku vdglJ.

1.3.12

Kfyha nguuR

bkhfyha nguuir Wa ghg

1526 Kj ghg ngh ghgUF uh nyhoF ilna eilbgwJ. j


isthf ah Kfyha M VgLjglJ.

ghgUF M bghWngwt kh.

kh 15 MLf MHJ, ehoHJ a ehoF btna thjh.

ilgl fhy N kud M eilbgwJ.

bh M murUF cjt ehF Ka d Ujd.

bh nguuR 47 rfhfshf fglJ.

xbthU rfhfY Kjik jh (rl, xGF) Kjik K (


tHFj) vw uL mfhf Ujd.

nguu jh vD thf UjJ.

isyf eyit, eLjukhdit, nkhrkhdit vd _W tiffshf


fgld.

`jh vw btgz mKfgLjglJ.

rhiyf w bgwd.

nghFtuJ uikfglJ.

ehF wtrhiyf mikJ rhiy tr nkgLjglJ.

bkhfyha nguu jiywjt nguur mg.

mg uh#u bfhif w thjJ.

kj r bfhif mtUF tuyh wlij jjJ.

gjhL

fhy

isriy

mogilahf

bfhL

ytUth

ehF

tifgLjglJ.

krjh Kiw wghf UjJ.

mgUF #Ah, #Ah fLgho M brjh.

h#fhDF thRngho muf bt bgwh.

muf va thif thjh. Jf J L ah t


fglJ. yh rka tsailjJ.

22

folfiy, Mf, ehF Kiwrhiyf mikJ rhiy nkghL,


ju mogil yf, krjh Kiwf nghwit Kfyhaf M
wafshF.

1.3.13 kuhoa muR

khuhoa nguuir cUth wgl elat th Mth.

bfhyh ngh Kiw wghf bt bgwh.

thF thf cjt vL mikrf bfhl mZl ujh UjJ.

bkhfyhanguuRF vuhf kuhoa muR braglJ.

1.3.14 Mnya M

ahghufhf tj Mnyaf gogoahf ahit M brjd.

Mnya M uil M bfhLtuglJ.

ahgufhf brid, bfhfjh Ma euf cUthfgL khfhz


iyF cajgld.

khtl mikF khtl Maf afgld.

ttN bra #jh Kiw cUthfglJ.

xbthU khtlY, khtl Ma ( Collector) cika kwK,


Fwa kwK bragl tif brjd.

1773 ttNiy uikf xGF Kiw rl awglJ.

1784 xGFKiw rl Uj bgW a rlkhf cUthaJ.

fhuth u jF mogil muR ntiyF Mfis akdf


brjh.

MnyaUF cjt a murfl Jizgill bty uth


mKfgLjglJ.

yt tNf uaJth Kiw, kfth Kiwfis bragLd.

ehLfis izgjfhf thR HF bfhifia bragLdh lA


u.

lA a khfhzfis brikgL ed murhf cUthdh.

lA fhy u ghijf mikfgld.

lA fhy jft bjhl khwf VglJ. j mD Kiw


tsailjJ.

ghisa vW miHfgl xU y uhkfis csla ygFfSF


cikahs

ghisafhu.

ah

VgLjglJ.

23

#aefu

fhy

iyahd yt Mnya M bjhl ws eilKiw csJ.

Mnya

bjh

bfhifah

Wbjhf

ejd.

rhiyf

nkgLjgld.
gntW wuRfshf J lj ehil ah vw bga xUizj
bgUik Mnyaiu rhU. My M isthf a vw cz
VglJ. njrgW, njr xWik vw cz VglJ. Foir bjhf
etiljhY, bjhJiw tsF My M fhuzkhF. M mik
Kiw, rlf, kwf, fUy mik Kiw, tUth, unt, jghJiw
nghw bghJ Wtdf thf Kiwf vyhnk Mnya M Kiw
jhfnk. flj fhy mDgtf tsna kj rKjha ts MF.

bra
jHf cs Ka tuyhW w f lf xWF fsgaz
brJ mif jahf.

1.4

kj th bghUshjhu ts tuyh jhf

mKf
tuyhW kjid ikakh bfhl ghl MF. kj thif mDgt
kLk r_f cz, kj ts, bghUshjhu kj kW gghL g tuyhW
sFwJ.

gil

fhy,

ilfhy,

ed

fhy

vw

ghFghLf

bghUshjhu gid fhngh.

1.4.1 gilfhy

ffhy giHa, a ffhy vd UtifgL. giHa ffhy cz njo


l bgaj kj a ffhy iyahf thH Kglh. Fiff
thj

kj

rkbt

gFf

bjhiy

nkbfhlh.

ntilahLj, oj, yFf tsj nghwt tsf


jfhy edgLjgLsJ.

cnyhf

fhy

jahfgl

btfy,

jfhyY

eilKiw

gagLjgLtUwJ. jnghJ Fahf gagL U bjah


gagLjgL csJ.

1.4.2 J rkbt ehff

ehff J e cs bkhfrnjhuh kW Augh efufis


cslsJ.

24

Ka bjh trha. ka Mah, ghuf, bkrgnlhah nghw


ehLfSl tf cw bfhoUjd. bghUf gidF vilffis
mfhyY gagLsd.

tf

fhy brfhy

vdgLwJ.

tfSF

cgnahf

bjaiy. Jrkbt ehf tfkud Ujd vgjF ngha


Mjhuf fgf csJ.

1.4.3 ntjfhy ehff

ka

MahUJ

ifg,

nghy

fzthf

tahf

grh

Fonaatf Maf vdgld.

thg gl khW Kiw eilbgwJ. a cH fUf, cuf


trhaF

gagLj

nghwit

ed

fhy

KndwF

Kndhoahf fjd vdyh.

1.4.4 bksa nguuR

Ka bjh trha MF. Foirbjhf ts miljd.


thg jilf mfwgoUjd. yt, Rf, bjh, mguhj,
ebfhil, Ruf, fhLf nghwit muRF tUth jjd.

bksa nguuR bghUshjhu brF efu thfnk Ka fhuzkhF.

1.4.5 Fj nguuR .. 320 - .. 550

ah Fj fhy bghfhy vdgLwJ. Fjf Ka tUth


yt MF. bfs vw bt ehzafS, dhuh vw jf ehzafS
murf btld. kf brt brl Ujd vd ghah
FLwh.

dh, yif, HF ah, nuh nghw ma ehLfSF thf brw


fhngh, nrhuh, nuh JiwKff Ujd.

cnyhf rhkhf, gL, ngir, Fiuf ma ehoUJ wFk brjd.


thf brf VWk bghUfis Fahf cg brjd.

1.4.6 rffhy

rffhy kf dh, nkF Mah, vJ, nuh ehLfSl thg brjd.


K, bjho, bfhif fh nghwit JiwKf godfshF.

jf, bt, br ehzaf gagLdhf nuhkha kW d


ehzaf ilJsik U ehLfSilna ya tf cwit
ygLJwJ.

25

ffhy foa fyiz _y W gbjh nkgL tUwJ.


tw nghJ yt uJ braglJ. J yt fl jSgo, tw
thuz Matiw idLwJ.

1.4.7 ilfhy - gytf

uhkf

jiw

bgUjd.

yf

jnghija

Kiwia

tYgLJtfhf, ntshik br yf, glglhj jR yf vd


fgoUjJ.

f mWj, jR bjh, jj ntiy, bgh eif brj Mait


wUjd. fh gL JF bga bgW ws jf itJsJ.

jnghija tf rf ngh kuhk tf rf UjJ. dh, vJ,


#hth, Rkuh, gkhl tf cw bfhoUjd.

jf bt ehza btld.

cH, gofh, fyig, fLeh, nl, cHF, fHR krho nghw vilfis
gagLd. it jfhy nyhuh vilia gagLJtJ nghwjhF.

1.4.8 nrhHnguuR

nrhH nguu Ka tUth yt MF. jid gzkhfnth bghUshfnth


bgwd. yf t brYJgit, tbrYjhjit vd ghFghL UjJ.

bghfhR, br, bt ehzaf Hf Ujd.

berths, bghbfhy, tf nghw gtif tjffsh tjf rf


mikfgL jnghija bjhyhs rf ngh ciHghsF KaJt
jjJ.

maehLfSl tf cw bfhoUjd.

1.4.9 ghoaf

kdf jkJ gl, bga jha jf ehzafis btld.

KJFF bjh, Fj tUthia muRF jjJ. fha Ka


JiwKfkhF. eho bghUshjhu brUjJ vd khnfhnghnyh vw
bt efu ga FLwh. JFo KJ vLF efukhf jfhy
xRwJ.

26

1.4.10 bl Rjhf M

ah bghUshjhu ts mayt fiz ftjJ. f KfkJ 17 Kiw


gilbaLJ j ehoF a bghUshjhuij ftJ brwh.

msF

mfkhd

tRik

kf

myh

fhy

fgoUjJ.

myh iyfLghL Kiwia mKgLat Mth. tUthJiwia


uikj Kj o Rjh myh Mth.

KfkJ Js milahs ehzaf btlh. trhF fl cj


mjh.

uhZh Js cHJiwia VgLdh.

F#uh, kygh, tfhs JiwKf bghUshjhu tsF lJ.

cz bghU, gz gf glgld.

ah ghuf tisFlh tahf bkrgnlhahF brfl ka jiufl


tahf InuhghF thf brjJ. J jfhy gdhL thg cwit
btgLJwJ.

1.4.11 #aefu nguuR

uha bjhfshd vbz vLj, bty fhRj, oj,


kghl brj nghw bjhf ts bgUjd. jfhyY
bjhf uhkf vbuhwd.

bgh, bt, jf _y F tUth bgwd. jR bjh, oj,


KJ Fj bjh ts jfhy edgLjgLsJ.

bgh ehzaf tHUjd. gntW vilf, msf tHUjd.

1.4.12 ehaf fhy

Ka bjh trha. vbz jahj, rfiu kW c jahj,


kghl brj, w, Mil bej ah jfhy bjhfis
mogilahf bfhoUjJ.

cnyhf bghUf wFk brJ VWkF m, rfiu, nrhs thrid


bghUf, gL, gU Jf mD Fj tUth bgwd.

27

1.4.13 Kfyhaf

bh br ehza kW bt ehzafis btlh. Rft


fglJ. gid l kL t fglJ. y ju
mogil yt fglJ.

mg fhy uh#h njhlkh gJ ML ytUth xgj _y tw


g brglglJ. `jfh Kiw _y fl mfgL kf Ja
JilfglJ.

yhT,

Muh,

gnj,

myfhgh

nghw

lf

bjhrhiyf

mikfgld.

1.4.14 kuhaf

nguuR fhLf Fahf Nj gFahF. vdnt is yf Fiw.


Ka bjh trha. cg I uL gF ytahF. viy
gFf brs, rnjZK vw U ytf tNfgld.

1.4.15 edfhy
Mnya M bghUshjhu iy

..

1600

#Ah

fhy

Ah

vgt

yhJ muR mDkl ahF tjh. 1858 ML nlha


nguuah ufld go ah Mnyaf neuo MF bragl
bjhlaJ.

ah gugiu uha bghUshjhu ijJ Fonaw ehL bghUshjhukhf


khaJ.

ifid bghUf iu mant ifidPf Jg miljd.

Mnya fhy bjh ts

1850 gU, rz, yf Ruf bjhlfglJ. 1852 ggh gU


tfhs rz bjhY 1913 v~F cg 1930 bk, fhj,
F, rfiu, fzho bjh ts bgwJ.

jHf bghUshjhu gF

ah bghUshjhu jiw bgw IjhL lfis o tUwJ.


ulh IjhL l bjh tsF Kjl jjJ.

bjhrhiy lfS

1. gU

nfha, mgh rKu

2. rfiu

U, nfha, kJiu, jrh, Gu

28

3. fhj

tfif, nj, Ubent, f

4. bk

jhiHJ, broehL, lhahu

5. urhaz -

JFo, uhngil, Utq

6. cnyhf

brid, nry, jrh, fhiuFo.

7. Wbjh -

tfh,U, fhiuFo, brid.

8. rhu

Fjh, nk^, ghgehr ( rhu) v, bent

(md rhu) fghf (mQ rhu)

VWk wFk bghUf F bgwnt thg jiHjJ.

muRlik tf _y bjh tsF cj mfgLwJ.

cyf t kW egh ( NABORD ) cj _y rhiy tr nkgLj


gLwJ.

jHf cz cg ts 1960 Mo jiw bgwJ.

1965 rhFgo Kiw gy ma Egfis F gRik uia,


fheil

ts

btik

uid,

ts

yuY rhjid gilJsJ.

gth, itif, nk^, rhj}, MahW, mkuht, UZz, guFs


nghw ghrd lf _y jHf cz cg Knd tUwJ.

1.5 kj th rka ts tuyh jhf

ah gntW rkafis jdfnj bfhl ehlhF. af midtU


rka cz ftf. Mf brtJnfh fUy ah vdyh.
cglf, gft ij, jkrhuf, uhkhaz, kfhghu nghw fhrf
ah Jf j fshF. yh, Ujt, brsuhoa, j,
rkz, a kj nghw gy rkajtf ah thwhf. vdnt
a ehffij g eh ma Kgo gntW rkaf mit bgWtJ
mta.

1.5.1 gil fhy J bt kf rkaiy

J rkbtduh .K. 3250 - 2750 tglgl r vw bg bjt kW


gRg vw M bjt W tghL flshf UgJ afjfJ.
tDF gRg vw bga cL. vUJf, gR, ghf, kuf tglij
iwa JfS gWwd. rfu, Rtfh cUt Kiu, Na
tghil FLwJ. Na ekfhu jnghJ tH csJ.

29

1.5.2 ntjfhy rka

aif rfis tgld. (c.jh) m, tUz, Na, ch, th,


rh.

tghLKiwf wj btY aif NHY eilbgwd. Kiwfis


Jf W g tUwd.

ntjfhy ukh, ZQ, t ca l bgwd. rlFfS


ntfS bgUd. uhkz kj caj tifahf fUjglh.

Jw iyia nghd.
aifia tgLj, ntf fkhjJt, jt, kWw, K milj

Mat eif nghwit ntjfhy Ka TWfshF.

1.5.3 jkjK rkz kjK

jkjK rkz kjK ah njhdhY bgUghyhd kfsh


gwgliy.

kfhu rkz kj 24 tJ jfu Mth. edif, ey,


edlij

vgJ

_W

udf

MF.

Ka

bfhif

mirahF.

rkz kj Rntjhgu, fgu vw uL thf jJ.

bfsjk j j kjij njhWjh. t ehF cikfis v tif


bfhifia Tdh. ehF cikf vgJ neh (, _, rhfhL
nghw Jgf), nehfhuz czj, neh F th (Miria mlFj),
neh F t Kjad MF. v tf vgJ ey eif; ey ngR;
ebyz; ebra; e thif; e Ka; e ; ey ahd
MadthF. itna neh F vtf MF.

bfsjk j miria filojh.

ealf, jk lf, Rj lf Mait bgsj rka fshF.

fZf fhy jkj kfhahz, dahd vw Uthf jJ.

1.5.4 bksa nguuR - mnrhf

ff ngh mnrhf kdkhwF t brjJ.

mnrhf kj rjik cilat. jk kfhkhufis aJ mwbefis


kfl gut brjh.

30

j rka khehoid ghlu Todh. jkj nghjidfis


ffY fbtLfY brJdh.

kf rfiuia yifF mD jkj yif gut t brjh.

1.5.5 Fj nguuR

ZQ mtjhukhf Fjf fUjgld. J Jkj mtjhu


bfhifF lJ.

rka r jik cilatfshf Ujd. vdnt j kj

jiHUjJ.

1.5.6 rffhy

IJ iz kfS IJ flfis tgld. ynfg iwtghL


brjd. F (KUf) Kiy (ZQ) kUj (u) bej (tUz)
ghit (bfhwit) MF.

eLf tghL tgld. g fl tghL nru brFLtdh


eljglJ vd ygfhu TWwJ.

Na, ru, e, kiyf, eru, Myku, bfhiw, flgku gh, vUJ,


ahid nghw aif kW yFfis tghL brjd. tghL jfhy
J rkaY eilKiwYsJ.

1.5.7 ilfhy - gytf fhyK J kj ts

J rka L J bgwJ. itzt, irt brthF bgwJ.


tdoia nrUnghJ viyaw g bgwgLwJ vwJ irt jhj.
njthu, ehyhua ugj gytf yakhF. gytf t
ZQit tgld.

gytf fhy mg, Rju, khfthrf nghw moahf thJ


tjd. ehakhf mWgJ _t Mt.

Mthf gUt Mt. tf itztij brf brjd.

fhy itzt tlfiy, bjfiy vd irtf M irt, uirt


vd f njhd.

ah g af guatf rfuhrhah, uhkhD# kW


kthrhah Mt. rfuhrhah nfhghL mitj vdgL. uhkhD#
nfhghL Jitj vdgL. kthrhah nfhghL lhitj vdgL.
$uf itzt tghL jykhF. j 3 tifahd w jJtf J
kj fhzgLwd.

31

J kj irt, itzt, bfskhu, ifgha rj vw 5 cf


csd. UD mjid c filna xnu r, xnu iwt vw
jJt ywd.

jk, mj, fhk, nkhr vw ehF bfhiffY Jf eif


bfhoUjd. LngwiltJ, Jf midtU VW bfhS fUjhF.

1.5.8

nrhHnguuR
nrhH nguurf irtf. kjr jik cstf. vdnt jklf
flgld. itztK, irtK jiHUjd. jir uftu Mya,
fif bfhl nrhHu t nfh, jir j e FljfJ.
Kjyh guhjf nrhH jgu eluh# nfhYF jfTiu ntjh. irt
yaf ts bgwd. jir nfh tD e Jf W
tgL tjyfshf csd.

1.5.9 ghoaf

$uf ufehj Mya, kJiu dh mk Mya, Ubent


beiyag Mya, $ tlgurh Mya, mif thya,
ehFne #a ehuhaz Mya nghw Myaf ghoauh flgL irt
itzt ikafshf fJ tUwd.

bgahth aa UgyhL, Mlh aa Ughit fbgw


itzt yafshF. khf khj Ughit, Ubtghit ghLtJ
kughf fJ tUwJ.

1.5.10

bl Rjhaf

Rjhaf yha rkaij rhjtf.

ilfhy Jwf K - J xWikF ghLgltf. kj d


xnw, iwt xUtnd vgJ tf bfhifahF.

yh g afF R~ af vg. mng fl vg KG


eif bfhoUjd. tythrhah,

uhkhdj, irja g

ya Fljftf Mth. FUehd a kjjiyt Mth.


t nfhghL Muj MF.

1.5.11 #a efu nguuR

#a efu nguurf J kjij gatf Mthf. Ug, kJiu,


Utzhkiy, jgu, fhu, Fgnfhz nfhfis JJ irt

32

bjhL Jsd. W nfhf FiyahJ, #aefu nguur


bjhoid, giw rhWwd. rka rhj ehzaf btlgld. irt
kW itzt jiHUjd.

1.5.12 ehaff

ehaff irt rkaij rhjtf. tf f tghL brjd. tehj


ehaf, UZzg ehaf, ug ehaf, Ukiy ehaf, itag ehaf
nghwtf brj nfh Ug irt rka tsF W f
nrwd.

uhkfkh K jfhF gzcj mJsh. it ehaff


rkabghiwl fJsd vgij bjthFwJ.

1.5.13 Kfyhaf fhy

Kfyhaf yha rkaij rhjtf.

mg Jf J Uj ah rkatia dh.

mg rka bghiwahs Mth. 1582 ` yh vw a rkaij nja


rkakhdh.

yh kj rhjtf xUtiu xUt rFnghJ myh mg vd


Tw ntL. iwt xUtnd. Udh Na, beU bjtfis
tglyh vwh. gntW kj Vf ntoa ey bfhiff TL
fyitna yh MF.

#Ah, h#Ah, xsuf r tFig rhjtf. 1679 L ah


t Jf J fglJ.

1.5.14 kuhoaf

kuhoaf J rkaij rhjtf. th rkabghiw cz ft.


th

siknyna

fhr

gW

cst.

rkagW

kuhoafsh rka kf kw cUthfglJ. Phdnjt, Vuh, Jfhuh


nghw J rka bgnahfsh ftuglt th. Rth uhkjhr th
Phd

Mf

FU

Mth.

kuhoa

vGF,

rka

xU

fhuzkhf

UjJ. fnzr kW aehj rh nfhf jrh kuhoafsh


flgld.

1.5.15 Jt rka

cy bgUghik kfsh gwgL tU xU kj. ah fbga


rkaf xW. kjij njhWjt naRehj. jnjhkh ghah
F tJ Jt rkaij gudh.

33

ah Jtij cgnjjtf nghJa Mth. 16 who


jHf gy gFf guaJ.

Jt rkaij Jt ghahf gud.

f ts g, mwiya g, kUJt g, mdhij y, tWik


f, ntiy th nghw r_f gfis brjd.

1.5.16 yha rka

ah mfkhf gus rkaf yhK xW. cUJ, Jjh,


ghuf bkh ngRwd. jHf yigf jiHna jhbkhahf
bfhLsd.

yh kj ah, r cf KakhdJ. xnu iwt myh


MF. dK IJ Kiw bjhGwd. cUt tghil btWwd.

kjij njhWjt KfkJ ef, Mth. yh vgJ iwt


Utoia ru milj vgJ bghUshF. kj j UFuh
MF.

1.5.17 a rka

FUehd a rkaij njhWjh. M uj a ntj yhF.


iwt xUtnd vW Tdh. cUttghil fojh. a rka
fil FU FU nfh Mth.

ah Rju bgw d midJ kjjtfSF k jJ rka


bghiwlik ehlhf fJ tUwJ. a muR midJ kjfis
rkkhfnt fUJ rkarhgw ehlhF.

1.6

kj thif fyhrhu gghL ts tuyh


jhf
ah caj gghL kuf kj th VgLa jhffis
fhgh.

1.6.1 Jrkbt ehff (m) gilfhy

Jrkbt ehff efuehff: bgaFs mik, Fa miwf,


btnaw tr, ll ef mik, bjUf ika tna f
btnaw, Rfhjhu mik, jhalF, cnyhf ntiyghL ah J
rkbt ehff btglhF.

34

1.6.2 ntjfhy - fhrfhy

ntj - fhr fhyf uha ehff mogilahf fjd. xUtDF


xU vw cdj thif thjd.

, a#&, rhk, mjtz ntjf, uhkzf cgljf, Uf,


Nuf, Muaf, cgntjf, ntjhjf, fhrf Kja
yaf a fyhrhu, gghL tsid jJt ts,
thda, kUJt Mat tsid vLJiuwd. jJt
bef, jk bef, fk idf, khiaUJ bgWj nghwit
a ggho Ka TWfshF.

1.6.3 bksanguuR

bksa nguu _jtUF kgjd. cfl m, cik ngRj


nghw caj ebd thif nkbfhld.

ghlu efuh gghoF, giw rhWwJ. efuh mik 6 FGfis


cslaJ. xbthU FGY 5 mfd Ujd. tfSF thaf
xJL bragL thf braglJ.

mnrhf j kj gutjF jk #a nkbfhlh.

1.6.4 FjnguuR

a ahghf, Rf, sturf _y a fyhrhu dh kW


bjHF Ma ehLfSF guglJ.

Fj murf Jkj fyhrhu fhtyuhf fjd.

Fjfhy

gghL

ts

ika

Fkhu

Fjuh

Wtgl

ehsjh

gfiyfHfkhF.

ulh ru Fj fhy 9 ytf fhjhr vgt jiyik


ytuhth.

Fj

fhy

rkaij

nghW

kdghik,

gghL

maehLfSF guajh ekJ fyhrhu mil ehLf nghwjf


jhUjJ.

1.6.5 rffhy

gil jHf ehffftf. Unjhg, RwjhUl Tothj,


gJ cgJ, <if, ez thda <LghL nghwt tytf. IJ
tif yf thjtf. fl thg w bgUjd.

nuhKl thf bjhl kW gghL bjhl bfhoUjd. gid


bghUf kiyngh FfgoUjhY w bghUis vtU fsthl
idfkhlhf vd godghiy cUufzdh FLwh.

35

bgf MfSF rkkhf fUjgld. bgo f, fij, ir, eld


nghwt nj bgUjd.

rffhy gghoid FL fshf, bjhfhfha, vLbjhif,


gJghL f fwd.

1.6.6 gytf

gytf

jiyefu

fhu

MF.

fhu

gghL

ikakhf

fUjJ. ya, fiy, g, Efisf ngh tsfgld.

gytf fhy tlbkh kW j yaf ts bgwd.


fhajrd,

ghujbtgh,

augj,

efygf

nghwit

FljFj fshF.

folfiy njj tf ghiw fol fiyia jHfF mKf


brjd. W tf fol tsia khkyu fhnwh.

Foahkiy irfbtL, jd thr Xa, gyt gghLF


rhW gftdthf W fhzgLwd.

1.6.7 nrhH nguuR

nrhH

nguu

Flnthiy

Kiwgo

uhk

rig

cWdf

njbjLfgL tha bgUkf vd miHfgld. Flnthiy Kiw


iwa csh njj KiwF Kndhoahf fjJ vdyh.

uhk rig uhk kf KG bghW UwJ. ikamuR jiypL iy.

nrhH fhy kf gntW rhfilna xWik UjJ.

cl fil VW tHf iy. rkabghiwilik UjJ.

nfhf, gf, Xaf ah kf gghil btgLJtdthf


csd.

bja fyhrhu btehLfY guajF rhwhf fnghoah cs


mnfhth nfhiy Twyh.

mnfhth nfh - fnghoah

36

1.6.8 fhy ghoaf

clfil VWj, njtjh , moikKiw Maitf Ujd.

gRit jkhf fUd. yh cgij btWjd. mur Kj bgUFo tiu


jiu J mkU tHf UjJ. bfhyhik nghwglJ. nfhf
ggho

mrhahf

Ujd.

gR

Jf

jkhf

fUjgLwJ.

1.6.9 bl Rjhaf

FLg bfsut W nghynt Kakhdjhf fUjgoUjJ. staJ


kz tH UjJ.

clfil VW tHf UjJ. bgf rkkhf eljgliy.

Kfilna gjh vw Kfiu m tHf filofglJ.


gyjhukz tH UjJ.

a yha folfiy kuf izJ njh yh folfiy


cUthdJ.

nghnyhFiu isahL, kj, m vJj, rJuf, L isahl


nghwit bghGJ nghfhF.

1.6.10 #aefu nguuR

UZznjtuha fhy Xa, ir, ehlf, ehoa Ma Jiwf ts


bgUjd. tlbkh bjYF bkh tsjd. mKjkhajh (bjYF),
ch gza (tlbkh) wj vLJfhlhf fwJ.

mZlf#f vw 8 ytf t mitia myfjd. kf Fiwf


clDFl fgld. Jf gghL fhgfkhf #aefu nguuR
fjJ.

Arhuh uhkrh nfh, lyrh nfh, Ug, Ughhnfh wj


gghL folf MF.

1.6.11 ehaff

ehaff

nfhfSF

mjzfSF

ebfhilf

tHajhf

fbtLf TWwd. tf id df, nfhilf, nfh


Ugf ah

ehaff fyhrhuij

W ugwd.

ebfhilf tHF ku W eilKiwYsJ.

#hKiw fLikahf UjJ. tyif, lif vd Ujd.


bfhjoikKiw tH UjJ.

37

f tghL Kiwia g irt rkaij Mjjd. bjg UHh,


nj UHh, iu UHhf eld; f tghL Jfsh
Wtiu

filofgL

ahfKiwahf

gila

tUwJ.

KiwjGna

Hhf,

nfh

jnghija

rlFf

Jf

brJ

tUwd.

irt klf, rka ya tsF bjhlhd. vdnt fh fygf,


jgu btgh, rj Rjh nghw f cUthd.

1.6.12

Kfyhaf gghL jhf

Jf neik, xGf wJ sd.

Kfyhaf Xa ghuf knfha XakhF. uh#u tif XaK,


gAh tif XaK W Xa ugwJ.

1.6.13

kuhoaf

kuhoa

ehL

NH

FWf

iwj

nfhil

gFahF.

jdif, lhKa cilatf. tf rka, bkh, ya ah


xUikghil btgLJtjhF.

kuhoaf rkabghiw ftf. midtU rk vw cdj jJtij


gatf. mZlujh vw mikruit UjJ. ngh brt
bfhyh myJ gJ jhF Kiwia ifahld.

1.6.14

ed fhy

My Mf af midtU xnu njr thgtf vw


vz nklJ.

bkfhny u Mybkhia gWbkhahf brjh.

r f, gha Ukzjil, jit kz Mj, bjhl to mKf, jgh


j Kiw ah ahF Mnya brj ma gghL brafshF.

Jfl Uj _l gHf, eiffis mfw a bgo u


bgR bfhiy jL rl bfhL tjh.

tWik fhuzkhf a ViH FHijf lDF VWk br bfhoa


gHf jil braglJ.

Mnya MnghJ y af My eil, cil, ghtid,


gHftHf nghwtiw khbfhL nkiyehL gHftHffis
gw bjhldhf.

38

ah Rju bgwJ cyf kf xWikF cyf mikF, gghL


tsF j KG Mjuid tHFwJ. ah TL fyhrhu
fbga xWik ria cUthFwJ.

ah gus Fahd j jyfis jf midtU tUif


tjh gy khy kf gghL bjhlF LwJ.

1. 7

kj thif fiy - folfiy ts tuyh


jhf
ah bgUik bghUa ir, eld, Xa, g kW fol fiyf

fF

bghkhF.

fiyf

tsnahL

cy

gntW

ghffUJ ahF tJ brw gy d kfS jfsJ fiyghid


L brWsd. a fiy tuyhW czf a ghuga,
gghoid dahf bfhlJ.

1.7.1 ffhy
ffhy Fiff thj kf, gwitf, yFf, kjf kW
mwhl gHf tHffis bghGJ nghfhf Fif Rtf Xafshf
tiujd. mitna mtf fhyfhd tuyhW rhWfshF.
bra: glf nrfj, W ehlff a eoj.

1.7.2 Augh fiy


Augh, bkhfrjhnuh fhy thjtf wj fiy kW fol fiy
tYef. Lf, efu folf, jha fsa, bghJ r Fs, eldkhL
khJ, rfu, fk Kiuf Kjyhdit y vLJ fhLfshF. lL
flgl efuf kf thjd.

1.7.3 j, rkz rka fhyf


f, f, ku kW fk ntf, u ntiy ghLf,
miunfh tot irjaf, fhuf, j, kfhu, ngh rtf iyf,
thif ff Mad cikahf ne fhgd nghW mikfgld.

1.7.4 bksa fhy


ruFj

mukid,

kuEQf

ntiyghLf,

rhueh

f,

rh fbgw , mj thf, mt g ntiyghLfis j


#hjf fijf , ku, yFf, Mlt, bgo cUtf, a - nuf

39

fiyia csla fhjhu fiy j mHa, mikahd cUt, gkuh,


mj ef, rjuh, nj, Alh, jry fhzgL gf a fiyF
vLJfhLf MF.
a fiyfshd kJuh, mkuht fiyf d mHa
gf brJfgLsd. bksa fhy ehzaf mtfsJ fiy kW mwhl
thif iyfis vLJiuwd.

rh

mnrhf

1.7.5 Rff fhy


j f, ffyhd th ghijfis mikJ, folfiy xU
UKidia Rff njhWjd. dhF mU cs gh#h fhu,
ira, m#hjh (9 v) ira, mkuht , g cs
Unjtij

fUl,

jfah

cs

ntRt,

ruhkh,

eh

iraf Rff fiywF vLJfhlhf fwd.

1.7.6 Fj fhy
Fjf folfiyia nfhfiy, Fiffiy vd Utifahf
fyh.
1. nfhfiy: fhthYs ZQ nfh ed Fjhu cs ght
nfh fh, jfah cs jAhuf nahfh cs jrhtjhu nfh

40

nghwit nfhfiyF wj vLJfhLfshF. J cs fh,


rhuehYs jk nghwit Ka fshF.
2. Fiffiy: m#jh, vnyhuh, mufhgh Fiff cs mHFf
f, bkhfuh{ u, cjt, mfz khlzh - Finfh, ghFir
Xaf - m#hjh 16tJ Fif cs wF stu, 17 tJ Fif
fhzgL

thif

Kjad

Fj

fhy

fiyF

wj

vLJfhLfshF.
mHa ntiyghLf cs Fj ehzaf, ir kW rka Mtij
sf Toa ehzaf mtfsJ fiyF cdj vLJfhlhF.

fhny Fif
m#jh Fif Xaf

1.7.7

Fhd fhy
Fhdf fhy nuf gh a gh izj fhjhufiy

tlnkF ah tsjJ.
rhSaf flfiyid a nfh fol fiy bjho
vd miHwd. Infhny cs yfh, Jif, F k Fonfhf
Mat uhl fol fiyid, fjfLfsh rhthf mikfgl Tiu
mikfis fhzyh. ulhtJ fukhj kid nyhfkfh njdh
flgl Ugh Mya KagF 150 mo s csJ. Mya
wgF M cauiyf mikfgLsd. nkY 50 rJu mo cs
fsh Md klg csJ. mklg nkTiu xnuf cUthd 16
fsh jhfgLsJ.

41

1.7.8

uhouTlf fiyg
vnyhuh mikfgLs ifyhrehj nfh xnu ghiwia FilJ

mjkhf cUthfgl ma gilghF. t cs jrhtjhu totf,


ifyhrij mirF uhtz, eldkhL t, Ukh, Ukh ir nfF
Kjait fhgtiu <ftyJ MF. vbglh Fif nfhf cs eluhr,
rjht totf fiyEQf fitahF.

1.7.9

gyt
gyt fhy khkyu, ty, gyhtu, ehkf, jsth}, U

Mat knfutk fhy g fiyf kW Filtiu nfhf


neahf mikfglJ. kiy fhQ fJl nghL Jif, gh nk
cwF ZQ, UZz jhF nfhtjd kiy, jTil RkF bg wj
cjhuzf MF. gr ghlt ujf g fiyF wj cjhuz MF.
jzthr Fifnfhf Xa, g, ir Kja fiyfis bjthf
czJ fiyTlkhf fwJ.

ifyhrehj nfh - fhu


bra

1.

tlhu uha fiyf ga br bjhF jahf.

2.

ir, eld gfSF fsgaz nkbfhL mif jahf.

1.7.10

a - yha fiy
FJ kNf bl fol fiy gF wj vLJfhlh

sFwd. mtW f bgUgJ FJdh MF. mJ jeiy


nfhufS,

mHa

fbtL

vGJfS,

fis

jhF

fS

bfhLsJ. nkY #khfhdhkN myh jth[h Mait Kakhd


folfshF.

42

#h: khbgUrthd Rtf, rJuf, khl bjhFf nghw J


fiy mikl #h folf flglJ. uhdh foKofgl
mlhyh kN, #h gF wj vLJfhlhF. tfhs cs
ghLth
Mdh kN, F#uh rhgh efuJ mHa folf
bjah bjsyjhgh cs rhdh, lh cs kfkfth
f, # mo hf folf Mait a - yha fol
fiyF wj vLJfhLfshf fwd.
#aefu nguuR, gfiy, Xafiy Mat jgl ghia
cUthUjJ. UZz njtuha M fhy flgl A[huh nfhY
d flgl lyRth nfhY #aefu fol fiyF fwj
vLJfhlhF.

1.7.11

Kfyha fhy

ghg

- rhghYs #khkN,
bgwitahF.

ghgoYs

fhgh

kN

bh

- rrhuhYs fyiw, uhzyh vw giHa nfhil J -K


fllfiyF vLJfhlhf fwJ.

mg

- Muhnfhil, ~gnj nfhil folf A&kh fyiw,


#khkN, yj thrh, myfhghYs ehgJ f cs
mukidf Mad mg fhy flgl folf MF.

#Ah - mg fyiw- #Ahdh flgl kJ bjsyh fyiw


(Muh).
h#Ah - folfiy criyia miljJ. Mlgu tzgfoY, tskhd
wikahd myfY caJ wd. Muh, bl, yhT, fh,
fhZ, fhjhu, M{, mAkjhgh nghw gy lf mukidf
flgld.
thfh,
thM
nghwit myfhu Mguz mikF
wj vLJfhlhF. kQy
Rtfij fhzKokhdh
mJ
Jjh, mJ Jjh, mJ Jjh
vw thfh cs fbtL
t fiyeaij vLJiuwJ.
nkY
MuhYs
nkh
kN
#hkN X caj fiy totkhF.
Kjh{ kAh fyiwJ vGgbgw
jh{kAh cyf mjkhf fwJ.
kbwhU fbgw fiybghU k

jh{kfh

khrdkhF.

43

1.7.12 ir
1.

ntj fhy - ntjf ir irfgld. guj - ehoa rhu,


fUf, FH, ah, eu, fhW jhs thaf.

2.

FLah kiy ir fbtL.

3.

ehakhf, Mthf, g ghlf.

4.

ahfuh# Rthf, KJrh, j, ahkh rhf ir mikf mku


fhafshF.

5.

fehlf, Jjh ir Mad wj vLJfhLf.

eld
gujehoa, fjf, fj, xah, ghuh eldf

kW uha eld

fiyfS a ehoa fiyF rhWfshF.


bra

kj d Kndw tuyh gF g fyJiuahLf.

1.8

Koiu
tuyhW, aY ehff uL ff MF. kj njhaJ

Kj Wtiu gntW tsf bgWsh. ts vgJ flj fhy kj


th filoj gHftHff, mua, gghL, fiy, f midJ W
e thif jhfij VgLJwd. vdnt j jhff

e vfhy

thifF xU gofyhf mik vgJ cWahF.

1.9

ghit f

1.

Aggarwal J.C & Aggarwal S.P - Educational planning in India, Vol. I - concept publishing
company - New Delhi, 1992.

2.

Basham A.L., The wonder that has India, Rupa and Co, New Delhi - 1997.

3.

Naik J.P. & Syed Nurullah, A Student History of Education in India (1800 - 1973),
Macmillan co. of Indian Ltd., New Delhi, 1974.

4.

Majumdar, R.C., Raychandhuri, H.C.R., Datta. K., An advanced History of India,


Macmillan India Ltd., 1985.

5.

Mahajan. V.D., Ancient India - S.Chand & Co. Ltd. New Delhi (1990).

6.

Subramanian. N. Social, Cultural, History of Tamil Nadu (1336 - 1984), Ennes pub.
(2007).
44

myF - II

a muayik
(INDIAN CONSTITUTION)
mKf
a kf vyh ahffis brJ, mUghLgL, 1947 M
ML, Mf 15 M eh Rjuij bgwd.

vF gayhj kdf csnjh


vF xbthU kj jiy
jgLwnjh / mF kj
njitfis iw br
tskhd rKjha mik
(fP. uueh jhT)
fhy fl, nja jiytf xbthUt kdY, a
Fokf mogil njitfis iwntw Toa rkjk rKjhaij cUthf
ntL

vw

cW

nknyh

wJ.

NH

muayikig

cUthFjY, Rnjr muRfis xizJ, a xaij giljY,


aikahj

Kjik

gfshf

Ujd.

Wtiu

eh

gtU

muayik cUthfij, mj Ka mrfis mJ bfhtJ


mtakhwJ.

myFTWf
2.1

2.2

muayik
2.1.1

RjuF K muayik cUthd Kiw

2.1.2

muayik NH Muha gntW FGf mikj

2.1.3

muayik cUthFtjfhd Mjhuf

a muayik rl `Kfiu
2.2.1

Kf mF jJt nehff

2.2.2

waf, Fnfhf, nehff

45

2.3

2.4

a muayik waf
2.3.1

xatw muayik

2.3.2

beHh kW beG mik

2.3.3

tikahd ika muid bfhl khyf xa

2.3.4

ghuhSkw

2.3.5

taJnwh thFik kW xiwFoik

2.3.6

KG iwik bgw kfsh / kjrhgw rkjk FoauR

muR beKiw nfhghLf


2.4.1

kf eyid mila muR gw ntoa beKiwf

2.4.2

fha nfhghLfis bragLj tfhL mwbe


nfhghLf

2.5

2.4.3

gdhL mik Vgl tKiwf

2.4.4

mwbe nfhgho jhf

mogil cikfS flikfS


2.5.1

2.5.2
2.6

2.7

mogil cikf
2.5.1.1

rkJt cik

2.5.1.2

Rju cik

2.5.1.3

RulUJ ghJfhF cik

2.5.1.4

kjRju cik

2.5.1.5

gghL kW

2.5.1.6

brhJik

mogil flikf

Foik
2.6.1

Fokf / Fokf cikfS flikfS

2.6.2

muayik rl TWf

2.6.3

myFTWf

2.6.4

kfsh Fokf gF

2.6.5

kfsh btF Kanjit

2.6.6

Foik, taJnwh thFik

a muaik rl - kf wh kW ayhnjh ey kW
f bjhlila ruJf
2.7.1

kf ey bjhlila ruJf

2.7.2

whf ey bjhlila ruJf

2.7.3

f bjhlila ruJf

2.7.4

ayhnjh ey bjhlila ruJf

46

2.8

ah fKiw
2.8.1

mua f bgUik

2.8.2

mua ff gF gfS

2.8.3

mua ff Fiwf

2.8.4

f Kiwf tiff

2.9

Koiu

2.10

ghit f

fw braf
tHf gL

t.

myF

v.

TWf

1.

muayik

brKiw

nj i t g L
jftf

fyJiuahl muayik

tuf nrF l

g
-

rl

rl Kfiu

kw lf
yf
jff

Kfiu ef
2.

muayik

dhil

rl

rl jjik,

3.

muayik

yf
cjl

mogil

muayik

cikf,

rl

flikf,

bjhFUJ

bgf,

dh il

FHijf

jahf.
brhbgh

ayh

brhbgh

yf

FHijfSF

fHj jFj

jff,

muR w

jftf / muR

muR Jiw

lf

lf

Wtdf
mF
miff

2.1 muayik
muayik vgJ mu mfkha rlfis aW rlJiw,
bragLJ braJiw, rlfis iyehL Jiw Mat mik,
Fokf cikf, flikf; Fokf, muR - mu mff MatF
ilna y

bjhlf; mtiw xGFgLJ bfhiff Mat

bjhFng MF. muayik rlf xbthU ehoF aikahjJ MF.


it midJ rlfisl nkyhik bghUa Kjik rlfshF.

47

2.1.1 RjuFK muayik cUthd Kiw


uzRauha,

kfsh

Kiw,

taJtnjh

thFik,

mogil

cikf, flikf Mait nja fhuR khdfshf iwntwgld.


Rauha fdU, nja fhuR 1934 M ML Kj a uf
mla nguitia, a muayik xiw mikJ, a muayikig
cUthf ntL vW bjhlJ My muid tW tjd.
JFG (1942) (r lhnghL , bgh yhu kW A.V. mby[hl)
fhd JFG, a muayik mtaij VW bragld. t
isthf, a uf mla mua zarig mikfglJ. mrig,
jdJ gid 1946 org 9 M eh bjhlaJ. lhl rjhdjh fh
jiyiknaW eldh. org 11M eh lhl uhnruurh, muayik
nguit jiytuhf njbjLfglh. a LjiyF muayik
zarig iwahik bfhl mikghaJ. rig xU Ka cWduhf
#tAyh neU braglh.

#tAyh neU nehfkhd (OBJECTIVE RESOLUTION)


a muayik nguit Kj Tlbjhl, 1946 org 13 M eh,
nehf khdij, #tAyh neU K bkhjh. khd y khWjfSl
muayik rl Kfiuahf mikfglJ. 1949 mnlhg 17 M eh w
thbfL tahf muayik rl mfkhaJ.

2.1.2

muayik NH Muha gntW FGf mikj


mu mik, xa muR, khy muR t ilna ytToa cw,

mfhu gL, mogil cikf, Wghikd ey, gHFod ey, kw


kW mu gntW gkhzfis MtjF gntW FGf mikfgld.
a muayik nguit cWdfns gntW FGfY l
bgUjd.

RjuF tiuFG
1947 Mf 27 M eh, lhl .M. mngfh jiyik, muayik
tiu FG mikfglJ. v. nfhghyrh Iafh, myho UZzrh Ia,
nf.v. K, iraJ KfkJ rhJyh, v.khjtuh Mnah tiuFG
cWdfsht.

48

2.1.3

muayik cUthFtjfhd Mjhuf


a nja fhuR kheho khdf, bfhiff, 1935 a

rl, cyf ehLf muayik Vila w gf, FGf mif


Mat mogil, a muayik mikfglJ. muayik
cUthFtjfhd Mjhuf y fl mltiz bfhLfgLsd.

a muayik Mjhuf
1918

- ggh fhuR khehL - mogil cik khd

1928

nkhyh neU mif - mogil cikf t gJ cikf iwa mogil


cikfshf csd. ghuhSkw Kiw Wghikd ey

1931

fuh khehL - mogil flikf (42 MtJ


muayik Uj)

1935

a rl - a muayik 60 rjj
gF rlUJ bgwgLsJ - MSe,
mtru fhy ufld, ka - khy muR.

oZ

ghuhSkw Kiw, xiw Foik, rl


aWj.

mbkf muayik

FoauR jiyt, Jiw Rju, zuh.


muayik Kfiu bjhlf, mogil
cikf.

b#k

FoauRjiyt mtru fhy ufld

mayhJ (fha

muRbe nfhghLf

bfhif)
a muayik nguit, l sf thjF d, 1949 etg
26 M eh, muayikid VWbfhL, 1950 #dt 26 M eh, a
muayikig eilKiwgLd. lhl uhn#u urh Kj FoauR
jiytuhf gj Vwh. ehis nghW tz #dt 26M ehis FoauR
dkhf bfhlhLnwh.

49

2.2

a muayik rl Kfiu (PREAMBLE)


muayik

rlij

cUthatf,

jiyKiw

jiyKiwahf

tfhL vW fUa jJt bfhiff, kf, vfhy jiyKiwdl


tsf ntoa caj gf, nehff Matiw goaL Kfiuahf
gilJshf.

a kfsha eh
ahit xU iwahik thj nrhr beia rhj, kjrhgw
kfsh Foaurhf Wt cskhu cW TWnwh. r_f, bghUshjhu mua
ia jid, jid btgho, eif gwht, tgho KG
cikia, thif iyY, thfY, rkJtij, jkj ca
jFF,

eho

xWikF,

xUikghoF,

cWJizahf

Uf,

rnfhjuJtij tsf - cskhu cWL muayik rlij ekF ehnk


tH bfhnwh vW Kfiu bjhlFwJ.
1976 M ML, 42 MtJ muayik Uj nrhr, kjrhgw,
xWik kW xUikghL vw bfhif brhf nrfgld.

2.2.1 Kf mF jJt nehff


iwahik
nrhr
kjrhik
kfsh
FoauR

Rju
rkJt
rnfhjuJt
jeg fa
eho xWik kW xUikghL

2.2.2

waf, Fnfhf, nehff


a kf iwahik, kjrhgw nrhr kfsh FoauR vw

jJt bfhif brhf, a muayik wafis vLJiuwd.

50

r_f bghUshjhu fis, vz, fUJ, btghL, eif, tghL


cikf nghwtiw csla Rjuid, th - thG iyfhd
rkJtij,

eg

fa,

eho

xWik,

xUik

ghofhd

rnfhjuJtij ngfhjiy, mtiw midJ FokfS bgWgo


brjiy mu Fnfhf vgij Kfiu bjthFwJ.
r_f ey, bghUshjhu nkghL, jkj thif nkghLf a
mua nehfkhf Kfiu vLJiuwJ. nehffis miltjfhd
xWik, xUikghL, rnfhjuJt Matiw ngfhj Fokf flikf
vd Kfiu Ro fhLwJ.
mogil cikf, mwbe nfhghLf jkj kid ghJfhJ
kjthifF tnfhYwJ. ehlhSkw Kiw, taJnwh thFik jrhj
Jiw, xiwFoik, xa - khy muRfSilna mfhu gL Ma
midJ gfSF Kfiu KDiuia gilwJ. Kfiu a
muayik

fyfiu sfkhf fwJ.

Kfiu

FLs

jJtf sf nH FlgLsJ.
iwik: KG iwik bgw kfsh FoauR a muayik
waghF. f thF Vg, kfsh, kfSfhf, kfns cUtha
Foaunr ah MF. bghJnjj tna, taJnwh thFikdh, kf
ufis njbjLwd. bgUghik bgw ff ka - khy
muRfis mikwd. KG thf mfhu KGik, ghuhSkwF bghW
thj mikr FGl csJ. vdnt ghuhSkw Kiw caj jiyaha
iwik mfhu kflnk csJ.
nrhr - rkjk: kfilna r_f, bghUshjhu, mua iyf
rkthig, rk iyia bragLJtJ, jF thf, thif ju
Vw jhfis KoF bfhL tUtJ Mad nrhr nfhghil
VWbfhl a mu Ka flikahF.
kjrhik: vj kjij rhuhk, midJ kfSF KG Rju
bfhLJ, vj ilWf neuh tz kf kj Rjuij ngfhF
w nehFila bfhiffns kjrhikahF.
kfsh: blnkh (Demos ) vw brh kfis uh (Kratos) vw
brh muR myJ Mid FwJ. kf ufis csla

51

rlkwf, rlf a thfJiw tahf ehil twd. 326


MtJ go 18 taF nkgltf thFikia bgWwd. J
U. uh fh mtf ujkuhf UFnghJ bfhL tuglJ.
FoauR: ah xU ghuhSkw FoaurhF. MJiwF jiyt
`FoauR jiyt Mth. ghuhSkw U mit cWdf, khyf
rlkw cWdf Mnah mla njths FG _y kf bjhif
jhrhu Kiw, xiw khW thFgo, FoauR jiyt njbjLfgLwh.
a Foau midJ FokfS rlF K rkkhf fUjgLwhf.
- r_f bghUshjhu mua : mogil cikf, mu mwbe
nfhghLf r_f ia iyehLwd. ( 14 - 18 go) midJ kfS rkkhf
eljgl ntL vgJjh r_f ahF. ( 39 go) thifF njitahd
tUth bgWj, bghJeyDF cjkhW gLj, rkkhd ntiyF rkkhd Ca,
bghUshjhu nkghL lf bghUshjhu ia iyehLwd. taJnwh
midUF thFik, Fwjlidf ga ghJfh Kiwf, murik
rl _y ghJfh bgWj Mait mua ia ghJfhwd.
Rju: Rjuij nja, jeg, mua, bghUshjhu Rjuf vd
tifgLjyh. cthGj, Rjukhf Uj, ngRik, fUJ btghL,
eif, gwht, tghL cik nghw mogil cikf kf myJ
jeg Rjuij ghJfhwd. xbthU cikF fuhf xU flik cL.
rkJt: kj, d, rh, gh, wl Ma mogilf ahr
ghuhLjiy jJ midtiu rkkhf elJj, rkJt mogil
gghF. rl K midtU rk, rkkhd ghJfh, ntiyf rkth,
ja Wghikd FokfSF muR gf ngha uJt Mad
rkJtij nkgLJwd.
rnfhjuJt: a midtU rnfhjuf; midtU a vw
czit rnfhjuJt vw bfhifia czJwJ. rnfhjuJt vgJ
jeg faij eho xWikia cW br nehfKilaJ.
gntWgl ntWikfis fisJ nja xUikghoid iyehl ToaJ
rnfhjuJt MF.
fa: mogil cikf, mwbe nfhghLf, Rju, rkJt,
rnfhjuJt jkj faF t nfhYwJ. jkj fa,
jkj ts rKjha KGikfhd tsF ttFwJ.

52

xWik xUikghL: Rju, rkJt, rnfhjuJt Mait eho


xWik xUikghoF t nfhYwd. xj Fokf fUJfis kj,
kJ VW bfhSj, bgUghikd fUij VW bfhSj, L
bfhLj, TLw ezf, xWik, xUikghL Ma khf kfshF
aikahj gfshF. xWik xUikghL nja tsF L
aikahj Foik gfshF.
nkny

FlgLs

a muayik

cehoahf sF

jJtf, mogil cikfshf, mwbe nfhghLfshf kW cs rl


wafshf a muayik KGtJkhf gu fhzgLwJ. it
midJ nghWjYFa jJt befshF.

2.3 a muayik waf


(SALIENT FEATURES)
2.3.1 xatw muayik
a muayik gntW gkhzf jjik thjjhf
fwJ. fl sfkhf vGjgl muayikghF. 22 gFf 395 ruJf
8 mltizf csla mikghf eilKiwgLjgl a muayik
jbghGJ

445

fSl

12

mltizfis

24

gFf

csla

94

muayik Ujf bragL fwd. vj KughLfS vHTlhJ


vgjfhf,

mu

midJ

TWfS

bjthf

sfkh

tiuaWfgLsd. tiw KughLf Vglh, mtiw F


bghW JiwF mfgLsJ. muayik ghJfhtydhf, Jiw
brayhWj FljfjhF.
a muayik y mikf kufS, tHfhWfS (Customs &
Conventions) l bgWsik FljfitahF.

2.3.2 beHh kW beG mik


beHh kW beG jik a muayik wjikahF.
vLJfhlhf 2, 3, 4 kW 169 khyf iz, mik kW bga
khw bjhlghd fis, ika muR rlrigf bgUghik Mju
mogil

khwyh.

368

MtJ

ruid

rhj

rlf

iwntw

UrlrigF 2/3 cWdf Kiy w bgUghik mogiljh

53

khw aY. vdnt beG kW beHh jik a muayik


wafshF. 57 MLf 94 muayik Ujf bfhLtuglit
beG jikia btgLJwJ.

2.3.3

tikahd ika muid bfhl khyf xa


a muayikgo Tlh murhf KiwF t tFfgLsJ.

ika khy muRfSF ilna mfhuf gFfgLsd. Tlh Kiw


mogil muayik mrfshf vGjgl j muayik UjKiw,
Rjukhd Jiw, khyf xj , khy muir ghfToa ika khy cw bjhlghd mfhuij khw ayhik Kjad muayik l
bgWsd.
xiwah muRfhd gntW jikfS nkyhik brwd. 1. va
mfhuf ika mul csd. mfhu gL ika muRnf mfkhf
xJfgLsd. 2. xiw Fo cik 3. 356 & 357 ruJfgo khyf
muayik Wtdf, Wtdf bragl Koahj Niy beUfo
iyia (State of Emergency) ufldgLJ mfhu FoauR jiytUF
bfhLfgLsik

Ma

jikf

xiwah

Kiw

wid

btgLJwd.
tikahd ika muid bfhl khyf xakhf a
muayik fwJ. kj, bkh, d, gghL Ma ntWikf,
xWikahd a xaij bragLJ neh tikahd ika muid
bfhl khyf xa mikfgLsJ.

2.3.4

ghuhSkwKiw
ghuhSkw kfsh a muayik kbwhU wghF. FoauR

jiyt jiyik MJiw aFwJ. cikahd thf gfis ujk


mikrU, mt mikr FG nkbfhwd. ka rlkwkha
ghuhSkw nyhrig, uha rig vw U mitf csd. taJnwh
thFik tahf nyhrig ( mit) cWdf njbjLfgLwd.
nkyit uju mfkhF.
muayik ruJf 152 Kj 237 tiu khy thf g
FLwd. MSe khy thf jiyt Mth. cikahd thf

54

gfis, Kjyikr cl mikruit iwnt tUwd. y khyf


uL mitf csd. jHf rlrig kLnk csJ. cWahd iyghL
bghW f ghuhSkw Kiwna kf njitfis brwd vW
lhl. mngf Tsh.

2.3.5 taJnwh thFik kW xiw Foik


ah a Foik kLnk tHfgLsJ. 18 taF
nkgltfSF kLnk thFik tHfgLwJ.

2.3.6 KG iwik bgw kfsh, kjrhgw rkjk FoauR


a muayik Kfiu KGiwik bgw kfsh, kjrhgw
rkjk

FoauR

Matid

tWJwJ.

kfilna

rkthig,

rkiyia guhkgJ a mu flikahF vgJ KfiuUJ


bjthwJ.

2.4 muR beKiw nfhghLf


(Directive Principles of State Policy)
rlf aWnghJ mtiw eilKiwgLJnghJ gw ntoa
fUJf bfhl bjhFng muR beKiw nfhghLf vdyh. a
muayik Kfiu FlgLs rka, bghUshjhu, mua, , rkJt,
Rju, xWik, xUikghL, rnfhjuJt, jkj fa Matiw
iyehLtjF

tfhlty

bfhiffshf

muR

beKiw

nfhghLf

fwd. it jhf jik bgwitahF. a muayik ehfh


ghf, murhf rl aW bghGJ gw ntoa mwbe nfhghLf
tFfgLsd.
buR u khl cik ufld, mbkf Ljiy ufld,
mayhJ muayik, fha bfhiff jhfdh muR beKiw
nfhghLf cUthd.
a muayik ehfhtJ gF 36 Kj 51 f tiu cs
gF muR beKiw nfhghLf l bgWsd. mogil cikfSF
kw cjuthj UFnghJ, mwbe nfhghLfSF jhf cjuthj
kLnk csd. iwa iy mwbe nfhghLf mf KaJt bgW
tUwd.

55

2.4.1 kf eyid mila muR gw ntoa beKiwf


ruJ 38

- r_f

bghUshjhu

mua

nja

th

midJ

mikfY UFgo rKjha mikig cUth kf


eyid ngz ntL. tUth Vw jhit f ntL.
ruJ 39

- midtUF thif njitfis gutyh mj, rKjha


bghU tsfis bghJ eyDfhf ahakhd Kiw gLj.

kf bghJ eyDF nfL is tz tsfS, cg


Xl kL Ftij jLJ bghUaiy uikj.
M,

bgfSF,

rkntiyF

rk

Ca,

cl

eyF

CW

isfhj ntiy thfis M, bg FHijfSF mj.


FHijfis, isPfis RulUJ xGf nfLfUJ
ghJfhj.
ruJ 39 A

- rk ytr rl cj mj.

ruJ 41

- midtUF

ciHgjfhd

cikia

bgW

cikia ghJfhgJl, ntiyanwh Knah, ahs,


cl CdKnwh MnahF muR cj mj.
ruJ 42

- gtjF njitahd ahaK, kjhkhdK mikj


gNHfis mikj kW kfUF kfngW cj
mj.

ruJ 43

- bjhf thf bjhyhs gnfF t tFj.

ruJ 44

- FokfSF xnu khahd Foika () rl.

ruJ 45

- gjhL fhyF 14 taJ tiu ytr flha f


mj.

ruJ 48

- ntshik - fheilts - ed ma Kiw tsj.

ruJ

- RWNHiy ghJfhJ nkgLJj kW fhLfis td

48A

yFfis fhj.
ruJ 49.

- nja id df, lf, bghUfis ghJfhj.

ruJ 50

- thfJiwUJ Jiwia jgLJj.

56

2.4.2

fha nfhghLfis
nfhghLf

ruJ 40

bragLj tfhL

mwbe

- uhk grhaJfis cUth mit jdh mikfshf


bragl brj.

ruJ 43

- ntshik - bjhrhiy - ciHghsf thtjfhd Ca


- gNHf - r_f - gghoF KGikahd thf
VgLJj - Fghf uhk gFf jeg - TLw
mogil

Foir

bjhfis

tsj,

bghUshjhu jhjgl d - gHFod - ew


d - ey ngQj - r_f m - RulUJ
ghJfhj.
ruJ 47

- ClrJ juij thif juij caJj; kJ kW


CW isF kUJfis jil brj.

ruJ 48

- fheil ts nkgLj - mtiw bfhYtij jLj.

2.4.3 gdhL mik Vgl tKiwf


51 - rtnjr rkhjhd kW ghJfh - r_f cw.
rtnjr rlij kj - uridfSF ngRthij _y
fhgij CFj.

2.4.4 mwbe nfhgho jhf


#jh Kiw x
kd kha x
bjhfis nja kakhf
IjhL lf - gntW lf - ntiy th
thifju caj
flha f eilKiwgLj.

2.5 mogil cikfS flikfS


(Fundamental Rights and Duties)
kfSF brhJik, ngRik nghw mogil cikfis a
muayik III M gF bjthf FLwJ. ikf gfglh

57

kwij mQ, mogil cikfis bgwyh. cikfis bgWtJ nghnw


flikia MWtJ mtakhF. muayik rlf, nja bfho, nja j
Matiw kj, ehil ghJfhj nghw gndhU mogil flikfis
tWJwd. it 86 MtJ Uj tahf fgLsd.

2.5.1

mogil cikf
a muayik, Fokf Rjukhf thtjF njitahd cikfis

mogil cikfshf bfhLJsJ. jkj,


eyij

ng

ghJfhgjfhf

j brhj eyJl, rKjha

cUthfgl

beKiwna

mogil

cikfshF.
rkJt cik, Rju cik cl mogil cikf, jkj
f, m MSik tsF ttFJ, jkjid nkgL mt tahf
rKjha kW njr nkghoF cWJizahf csJ. mogil cikf
kWfgLwbghGJ, kwf KiwpL brJ bgwyh.
cikf kjdh ey thif thH ayhJ vgJ yh
fUjhF.

khl

cikufld

Kj

Kj

uR

unghJ

btlglJ. cik knrhjh (Bill of Rights) nguifia mbkff 1791


Uj _y muayik izjd. Ia ehL rig kj cikfis
tW tUwd.
ah mogil cikf, mua kW rlahd rkJtJl,
rKjha rkJtij mil nehfJl cUthfgl fhuzdh, a
muayik mogil cikf jjik bgwjhf sFwJ.
a muayik _whtJ gF VG tifahd mogil cikf
bjhFfgLsd. mit 12 Kj 35

tiu cs ruJf mlsd.

2.5.1.1 rkJt cik


ruJ 14

- rl K midtU rk - rkJtF rl ahd


ghJfh.

ruJ 5

- rka, rh, gh, d, w mogil ahiu ntWgLj


TlhJ.

ruJ 16

- bghJg kW ntiy th rk th.

58

ruJ 17

- lhik x. tbfhLik jL rl mf mfhuK


jhjgltfSF ghJfh tHFwJ. thuz tHFtJ
FlgLsJ.

ruJ 18

- muR mDk bgW glfis jil brj. r_f kW


f mogil gLjgnlh, jhjgl tFdF
gHFodF - w rYif - l xJL, tHFtJ jil
brahik.

2.5.1.2
ruJ 19

Rju cik
- ngR kW fUJfis btL cik.

1.

Mj Tlf elJ cik.

2.

ngR kW fUJfis btL cik.

3.

eho ghJfhF rff, fHff VgLJ cik.

4.

ah vj gFY thG cik kW ahUJ vF brY


cik.

5.

brhJf thFj - itJ bfhSj - w.

6.

rl mDkfToa U bjh br cik.

7.

eho ghJfhF gf isgjhfnth btehL cw ghgjhfnth


bghJ xGF Mait mf Toajhfnth Uf TlhJ.

ruJ 20

- FwfSF jlid mgJ ga ghJfh.

ruJ 21

- c kW jeg Rju ghJfh

2.5.1.3 RulUJ ghJfhF cik


ruJ 23

- kj ahghuij, flhagLJ ntiythig jil


brj.

ruJ 24

- bjhrhiy kW Ruf gf 14 taF cs


FHij bjhyhsf gbrtij jil brj.

2.5.1.4 kjRju cik


kjij g gutjfhd Rju - muR f Wtdf
kjnghjid fj TlhJ.

2.5.1.5

gghL kW f cik

ruJ 29

Wghikd bkh gghil ghJfhj, Wghikdiu


ghJfhF cik.

ruJ 30

- Wghikd

tF cik.

59

Wtdfis

brj

kW

2.5.1.6

brhJik

ruJ 31

- jglt myJ Wtd brhJfis cilikahf


tf cik.

ruJ 31 A

- muR bghJ eyDfhf jah brhJfis vLJbfhL


HL mfyh.

ruJ 31 B

- #jh Kiw xfglJ. 1979 - 44 MtJ Uj go


brhJik mogil cik goaUJ mfwglJ.

ruJ 32

- Fokf brhJik kfDF, kfSF rk. nkY j


cik a Fokf mogil cikfis ghJfhwJ.
mogil cikf ghfglh Fo kf kw brY
cik.
(44-tJ mua mik Ujgo mogil cikUJ
brhJik fgL lJ. Mdh 300 (m) rugo mua
mik l cikahf mfgLsJ).

braghL
a Fokf mogil cikf g fyJiuahLf.

2.5.2

mogil flikf
cikfS flikfS xU ehza Ugff. xU cikF

izahf xU flik cL. xGfhf iwntwgl cikUJ flikf


vGwd. xbthUtU jf flikia iwntdh cikf fhfgL.
cikf

gfSF

bjhl

bfhlit.

Mwgl

ntoa

flikfSF gyhfnt jugLwd vW bAuhL yh TWwh.


a muarl gF IV m,

51 m cs 42 MtJ muR

rlUj a Fokf flikfis tWJwJ. mitfshtd;


1.

mua rll, nja d, nja bfho kW nja jF k


mj.

2.

nja Rju nghuhl uf cdj cz idJ ngQj.

3.

ekJ eho iwik, xWik kW xUikghL iyWJjY ghJfhjY.

4.

eho ghJfhfhf brayhw, njit Vglh ghJfh g


<Lgl.

60

5.

kj, bkh, d, tF ntWikfis JwJ rnfhju czl nja


xWik Xf brj.

6.

eKila gghL gKf ghuga fyhrhu nkikia kj


ghJfhj.

7.

fhL,

V,

Fs,

MW

kW

yFf

nghw

aif

tsfis

RWNHiy ghJfhj - nkgLJj.


8.

ma kdghik kjnea, M kdghik, Uj, jid


Matiw nkgLj.

9.

eho bghJ brhJfis mfiwl ghJfhj, tKiwia ifl.

10.

ehL jDila KaY, rhjidfY bjhlJ KndW tif


midJ JiwfY jkj kW TL eltoiff nkikF
ghLgLj.

11.

bgnwhf myJ ghJfhtyf, 6 Kj 14 taJ tiu cs FHijf f


bgWtjF thid VgL bfhLf ntL. flik 2002 M ML
86 MtJ muayik Ujgo izfglJ MF.

braghL
a Fokf mogil flikf ga fUJfis nrfJ fLiu vGJf.

2.6 Foik
(CITIZENSHIP)
Fokf / Fokf vd bghUgL or vw My brh
vw y thijUJ bgwgljhF. City / States nuf efu eho
thjtfis Fj mbrh, W Fokfis FgjF gagLjgLwJ.
xU eho thG kj, mj eho Fokf / Fokf Mth. ehL
thf braf, ah xUt gF bfhwhnuh, mt mj eho Fokf /
Fokf vd mlho TWwh.
xU ehoF, j egUF ilyhd rlahd cwnt Foik vd
Flyh. jgo jeg ehoF flikgLwh. ehL mtUF ghJfhgf
K tUwJ. j cw nja rlfdh begLjgLwJ; rtnjr
rlfsh MffgLwJ.

2.6.1 Fokf / Fokf cikfS, flikfS


(1)

ehil fhf Fokf / Fokf gagLJ Foik kW mua cikf

(2)

ehofhf Fokf / Fokf MW bghJey ngQtJ cl flikf

(3)

Fokf / Fokf ehL gWl Uj.

nghwit Fokf / Fokf cikfS flikfS MF.

61

2.6.2 muayik rl Foikikf


muayik rl 5 Kj 8 tiuyhd f Foikia
FokfDF / FokfSF mwd.
1.

ah wJ ahnyna tgtf.

2.

ah wfhk ah thgtf bgnwhf xUt ah


wUf ntL.

3.

ah wfhk bghJthf ah IJ MLfSF nkyhf


tgtf.

4.

ah tJ 1947 kh Kj njF d ghjhDF FobgaJ,


d Fonaw mDk_y L ahnf Uatf.

5.

ghjh tJ 1947 #&iy 19 M njF d ahF


Fobgajtf myJ mj njF Kd ahF tJ nf MW
khjfSF nk tJ Kiwgo g brJ bfhltf.

6.

ahF btna twtf - mtfns ah wUf


ntL

myJ

mtf

bgnwhf

xUtnuh

myJ

ghoa

ghlkhf xUtnuh ah wUf ntL. nkFltf


a Foik bgw jFilatf Mthf.

2.6.3
1.

Foik rl 1955
1950 #dt 26 M njF d ah wj midtU a
Fokfsht.

2.

1950 #dt 26 M njF d ah btna wwt jij


wnghJ a Fokfdhf Ujh - y gjidfSF cgL mgo
wjtfS a Fokfshthf.

3.

y gjidFgL Fl Kiw g brJ bfhgtfSF


Foik mfgL.

4.

y gjidFgL, aghfF Kiwgo zgj _y


btehodU a Foik bgwyh.

5.

Foikia Jwg _yK, yfhuzfsh ggj _yK a


Foikia Hf nto tU.

nkFlit Foik rl 1955 mrfshF.

62

2.6.4

kfsh Fokf gF
kfsh Fo kf gF kfjhdjhF. MgtU MsgLtfS

kfns:, rlfS murik rlfS kLnk xU ehil cdj Mf KoahJ.


Fokf ilwh Ka, MtK, MwY, ehil cdj MFwd vd
neU FLsh.
rlgo elj, tbrYJj kW rKjhaFa njitfnshL,
kfsh mua KidnghL gnfw, muR eltoiffSF bghW Vw
Mait kfsh Fokf gF MF. mogil cikf, mu
begLJ nfhghLf, mogil flikf FoikF khfis nrwd.
Fokf flikfS kfsh xiw xW rhJsd.

2.6.5

kfsh btF Ka njitf


mua z, m wD bfhl Fokf

xJiH -

ehL elf <LghL gnf, cik flikfis ghJfhJ thj, xj


Fokf

Foik

kW

bghUshjhu

cikfis

ghJfhj, xWik

xUikghil ng fhj Mait kfsh bt bgWtjF aikahj


njitfshF.

2.6.6

Foik, taJnwh thFik


a FokfSF xiw Foik tHfgLsJ. 18 taJF

nkgltf thff jFilatf Mt. njj Miza thfhs


milahs

milia

tHFwJ.

ufa

thbfL_y

njjf

eilbgWwd.
kd Uj,

mthik

wj btpL

nj brj

Kiwgo
tbrYJgt

njrgW

Fokf /

wUF cjj wUl

Fokf

xJiHj

g neikahf,

ehL rlF

cikahf <Lgl.

goj

63

braghL
a muayik rl kW Foik g M brf.

2. 7

a muayik rl - kf, wh kW ayhnjh


ey & f bjhlila ruJf

2.7.1

a muayik rl kf ey bjhlila
ruJf

ruJ 14

- rlF K midtU rk.

ruJ 15

- kj, d, rh, gh, wl Mat mogil vj


ghFghL bra TlhJ.

ruJ 15 (3)

- kf kW FHijf f nkghoF muR w


eltoif nkbfhs vj jil Uf TlhJ.

j ruid iy ehL tz kw fS btahsd.


j ru mogil bgfSF ntiyth kW f Wtdf
l xJL bragLsd.
csh Jiw _ xU gF l xJL bragLsJ.
ruJ 21

- thif thtjF, jkj RjuF ghJfh


mj.

j ru mogil tHfgLs kw f, bgfSF


iHfgL ghd bfhLikfis vJ bgf cikfis fhf t
brJsd. nkY,
grhu <Lgl bgfis, mUJ L, mtf kWthF,
mtf f kW ntiyth gF t mikfgLsd.
jhjgl kW gHFod bgfSF ghJfh mwd.
g

lf

vj

ghd

bfhLikf

nelTlhJ

vgjfhf jiyik kw be Kiwfis tFJsik Fl jfjhF.


ruJ 23

- bfhjoik, irbaLgJ, flhajh g <LglbrtJ


nghwit jil bragLsd.

ruJ 42

- kjnea mogil bgfSF kfngW cjf, g


bgfSF kfngW Lf mfgLwd.

64

ruJ 51 m (3) - xWik rnfhjuJt iyehLj, bgf kF F


isf Toa vj braY <LgLtJ tikahf jil
bragLsJ.
ruJ 300 (m)

- brhJik

bjhlilaJ.

tahf

jKndhf

mDgj brhY gF fglj _ynkh, guhk


fhuzkhfnth, gr _ynkh bgw brhJf J, j
brhj Ka _yK brhJ rghf, thf mtiw
mDgf bgfSF cik cL. bgf jdkhf
bgwit bgfSFa brhJfshF. a brhJik
Ujrl Kj Kj bgfSF brhJik tHaJ.
1982 nkY y f nrfgld. jgo jit
kUkfSF kW ngu FHijfSF FLg brh gF
cL vgJ tWjglJ.
ruJ 494

- bg, jDila fztid rl mDkfgLs VnjD


xU fhuzdh thfuJ brj, kWkz br cik
cL.

kf nkghoF nH FlgLs rlf awgLsd.

2.7.2

1954 -

w Ukzrl

1955 -

J Ukzrl

1955 -

J thR cikrl

1956 -

J ikdf kW fhoa rl

1956 -

bgf kW Wa jhd xGfyh ahghu jilrl.

1961 -

J jbjLj kW tdhr rl

1972 -

kUJt fUij rl.

a muayik rl whf ey bjhlila


ruJf

ruJ 23

- bfhjoik, irbaLgJ kW flhajh g <Lgl


brtJ nghwit jil bragLsd.

ruJ 24

- bjhyff Kjat FHijfis ntiyF mkJtij


jil brj. gdhF taFFiwj vj FHijia
bjhyf myJ Ruf gF mkj TlhJ. vj
fLikahd g brtjF whfis gagLj TlhJ.

65

nkny FlgLs ruJfis eilKiwgLJ bghUL gntW


rlf iwntwgld. mitahtd - bjhrhiyf rl (1948) Ruff
rl (1952) nkhlh nghFtuJ bjhyhs rl (1951) ahgh fg
nghFtuJ rl (1958) o - fbu bjhyhs (gNH) rl (1966) FHij
bjhyhs (jil kW xGFKiw) rl (1986).

muR beKiw nfhghL


ruJ 39 (m)

- M - bg - bjhyhs cl ey ; FHijf suha


ghfglhk

taF

tikF

xthj

gfis

nkbfhSkhW flha gLjYF jilj


ruJ 39 (C)

- FHij gUtK, sik RulUJ ghJfhfgLj.

ruJ 45

- gdhF taJ tiu midJ whfSF ytr f tr

ruJ 51 m (K) - 6 Kj 14 taJ tiu FHijf fbgw Niyia


VgLJtJ bgnwh myJ ghJfhghs flikahF.
1960 FHijfis RulUJ ghJfhf ey Mnuhakhd
NH FHijf mit tsf, FHij fhgff VgL mt s
Fwthfis,

wffgl

FHijfis

jf

itj

bghUL

FHijf ey rl awglJ. 1979 M ML, rtnjr FHijf


Mlhf bfhlhlglJ FljfjhF. 1986 M ML awgl s
Fwthf rl, irbaLg <LgoUF FHijf, lw mdhij
FHijf, bgnwhf UJ mtfsJ guhkUJ LgL Fwthfshf
kha FHijf, elij bfl thif <LgLs FHijf, grhu
<LgLjgL FHijf Mnahiu dfL, mtf ey ghJfhf t
brJsJ. rl s Fwthf eyfHf vw mikig xbthU khy
msY

VgL,

wffgl

Fwthfis

KiwgLj

tifbrJsJ. Fw bragl 16 taJFgl WtfS 18 taJFgl


WfS s Fwthfshf tiuaWfgLwhf. s Fwthf fhgf,
w Lf, ffhF Lf, s Fwthfis gL
ffhF Lf Matiw tf rl t nfhaJ.

2.7.3

a muayik rl f bjhlila ruJf

ruJ 21 A

- f cik - rl ahf ytr kW flha fia 6 Kj


14 taJFgl whfSF khy muR tHfyh.

66

ruJ 15 (5)

- r_f kW f mogil ja d, jhjgl


d kW gHFod Mnah muR cj bgW Wtdf
kW jah Wtdf gYtjF khy muR w
VghLf bra jilnaJ iy.

gF III ruJ 29 - xbthU FokfDF FokfSF mtf U gghL


kW f cikf ghJfhfgLwJ.
ruJ 30

- kj,

bkh

mogil

cs

Wghikd

jf

Uggo, f Wtdfis cUth, tF cik


tHfgLwJ.
ruJ 45

- gdhF taJtiu midJ FHijfSF ytr kW


flha f tr brj ntL.

ruJ 46

- jhjgl d, gHFod kW Vida gLjgl


d f kW bghUshjhu eyid nkgLJj.

ruJ 338

- nja jhjgl d kW gHFod ey Miza.

ruJ 340

- r_f kW f iy ja tFd thifia


MJ, juij nkgLJ gJiuf brkhW, gLjgl
tFd

Mizaij

aF

mfhuij

FoauR

jiytUF tHsJ.
ruJ 350 A

- bkhrhj W ghikd FHijf ey fhgJ, FiwjJ


bjhlf fidahtJ mtf jhbkh bgWtjfhd
thfis VgLJ bghW, muF mfgLsJ.

braghL
r_f ma kw cjl muayik rl g fUjuf elJf.

2.7.4

ayhnjh ey bjhlghd ruJf

ruJ 41

- muRF

jDila

ntiyawtfSF,
nehdh

bghUshjhu

tajhdtf,

ghfgltf,

iyF

Vg

cley

Fatf,

ayhnjhf

MnahF

gahWtjF f bgWtjF kW bghJthd cj


bgWtjF VghL br cik mfgLwJ.

67

cl, kd af FiwghLilnah, ayhnjh Mthf. Fghf f,


th, cl kW _isFiwghLf cs ayhnjhF, muR, eylf tna
mtf tsF eltoiffis nkbfhL tUwd.
nfhjh fFG (1966) fia ayhnjhUF, gadF tif
bfhLfgl ntL vW tWJwJ. 1986 kW 1992 nja f
bfhiff ayhnjhfSfhd w fF KaJt mfgLsd.
1956 M ML, r_f eyJiw, ayhnjh w f bghWig
nkbfhlJ. 1971 ayhnjh xUiz f lij ka muR
bjhlaJ. 1987 M ML, jid f JiwF kh mikjd. muRl,
jdht bjhL WtdfS izJ bragLwd.

braghL
1.

ayh FHijfSF muR w lf g tlhu ts


mYtiu bfhL brhbgh fj brf.

2. muayik rl g yf cjl xU fLiu cUthFf.

2.8

ah fKiw
mua ff Foah Ka mrkhf sFwJ. uJt

kfsh bghJkf fUij cUthFtjF, murhfF FokfSF


ilna

Ugjf

bjhlid

VgLJtjF,

murhf

KGikahf

bragLtjF mua f Kiw aikahjjhF.

2.8.1

mua f bgUik
VW bfhl y bfhiff mogil TL Kaah nja

eyid KndWtjfhf mikfgL kf FGnt mua fahF vgJ


g TwhF.
mua ff vgJ y bfhiff mogil mikfgl
mikghF. jifa mikf, murhfij mikf KgLwd vW nk
It jdJ fUid bjjh.

2.8.2

mua ff gF gfS
mua ff lfis bfhiffis thFWfshf, nkil,

brjhf, kf bjhl rhjdf, JL uRuf Mat tahf


thfhsfSF mwd. kf Mjuid uLwd. ntghsfis
njbjLJ njj nghoLwd. njj bgUghik bjhFf bt
bgw mua f murhfij mikwJ. thFWfis iwntw l fhy

68

lfis, FWa fhy lfis tFJ murhfij elJwhf.


vfd murhf fG Fiwfis Rofho kfis gila
brwd. MS fd jf jtWfis UJtjF th VgLwJ.
MS fd bgUghikduJ Mju Fiwahk ftdJl bragLwd.
bgUghikia HFnghJ gjUJ y khW fF l mwd.
f Kiwdh kLnk u mikahd Kiw murhfij khaikf
aY.

2.8.3

mua ff Fiwf
xbthU f jf nfhghoid fJ, kwfia fJ

ng, bghJkfis FHg MJtJ fKiw khbgU FiwahF.


bfhifia KitJ kf jidia LtjF gyhf kf
kdbtG lgLwJ.
vff,

vbghGJ

vgij

bfhiffshf,

fld

khdfis bfhL tUt Kidghf csd. NH gaDs


rlfS Kakhd mtrukhd rlfS iwntw Koahj NH VgLwJ.
fgW, jiytf J gW VgL, njrgW kwJ, xWik xUikghL FiwJ,
s kdghik njhW NHY VgLwJ. itah fKiw FiwfshF.

Fiwf F tf
bghJf ts. rh, mrK yhj eLiyahd br jhf,
kf bjhl rhjdf, njrgWf f jiytf, bghJkf fUJ
Kiwahf cUthfgLj, Fokf MSik ts, Kiwahd z
Maitfdh f Kiwf FiwghLfis f Ko.

2.8.4

fKiwf tiff
xUfKiw,

Uf

Kiw,

gyf

Kiw

vgJ

Kiwf

tiffshF.
xU f Kiw: dh, uZah nghw ehLf xnuf bragLwJ.
bghJlik ehLf f f kLnk bragLwJ.
Uf Kiw: mbkfh, yhJ Ma ehLf njj bt bgw
f

MS

fahf

njhw

vfahf

bragLwJ.

mbkfh #dehaff, FoauR f vw uL ff csd.


gyf Kiw: ah gyf Kiw csJ. gntW ff Uwd.
gyf Kiwdh gntW ntghsf njj nghoLwhf. wj

69

ntghsiu

bj

br

th

VgLwJ.

itna

gyf

Kiw

jjikahF. Tl murhf mikf gyf Kiw thf


mfkhf Uwd.

2.9 Koiu
a muayik rl mtru nfhy m bjj nfhy my.
1934 MuJ 1949 tiu cyf ehLf mua mik rlfis MJ
cUthfgl xW. jkj kh wF rlij kJ thnth.
Fiwfsw bgUikF ahit cUthFnth.

2.10 ghit f
1.

Agarwal, R.C. - Contitutional History of India and National Movement, New


Delhi, 1981.

2.

Bakshi, P.M. - The constitution of India Universal Law Publishing, New Delhi
(2000).

3.

Basu. D.D. - Introduction to the constitution of India, 18th Edition, New Delhi
(1996).

4.

Basu D.D.

5.

Keshyap Subhash. C - Our Contitution - An introduction to Indias constiution


and constitutional Law, New Delhi, 2004.

6.

Keshya Subhash. C, Citizen and the constitution, pub. div. I&B Min. GOI pub.
New Delhi, 1997.

7.

Natarajan. A.S, - a mua rhrd, 1997, ghyh gnfr - brid 14.

8.

Shukla V.N., - Contitution of India, 8th Edition, Lucknow (1990).

- Commentary on the contitution of India, 7th Edition, (1993).

70

myF - III
ka - khy - csh murikf
mKf
a muayik rl rlf rlkhf csJ. Jnt
Kjikahd, mogilahd Mtz MF. J njr Ughwiy (The will of
the Nation) ugwJ. a eho r_f, bghUshjhu, mua ga
bfhiff l bgWsd. j mogil a M Kiw _wLF
M mikig bfhLsJ. mit
1. ka muR (Central Government)
2. khy muR (State Government)
3. csh thf (Local Self Government)

myFTWf
3.1

ka muR
3.1.1
FoauR jiytuhf jFf
3.1.2
FoauR jiyt mfhufS gfS
3.1.3
a ujk
3.1.4
ehlhSkw
3.1.5
crkw

3.2

khy rlkw
3.2.1
khy rlkw gf
3.2.2
MSe mfhuf
3.2.3
Kjyikr
3.2.4
khy Jiw

3.3

csh mikf
3.3.1
grhaJ uh{ rl
3.3.2
jehL grhaJ uh{ rl - 1994
3.3.3
uhk Cuh
3.3.4
Cuh xa
3.3.5
khtl Cuh
3.3.6
khy njj Miza
3.3.7
grhaJ f
3.3.8
khtl lFG
3.3.9
efw csh mikf

3.4

Koiu

3.5

ghit f

71

fw braf
t.

myF

v.

TWf

tHf g L
brKiw
g

1. ghuhSkw kh
ghuhSkw

nj i t g L
jftf

tuf nrF l

ghuSkw

tFgiw

bragL j

ghuhSkw

kw
lf
-

bragL
j
bragLj,
eoj.
2. ghuhSkw mif
rkj /
rlkw
M brj

ghuhSkw/

Wtdf

rlkw Tl

bjhiyfh

eilbgW fhyf

ghJ

bjhiyfh

mif
jahj /

ghJ bragLj

M brj

Wtd

neuo

c gF cs

kw,

ghitLj

Cuh kw /

rhj

efuh,

jM

efuh / khefuh

gF

khefuh

mif

Tl eilbgW

cs

jahj

nghJ mit

Cuh

bragL jij

kw /

ghitLj

efuh /

3. Cuh

khefuh
4. ika muR
khy muR

xgh jah

yf

brj

yf
brjh
kW

mfhu

jff

goJ ika,
khy muR
mfhu
gf
xgh
jah
brj.

72

3.1

ka muR
ah cyf msnyna l muayik bfhl, kjrhgw, FoauR

ehL MF. FoauRjiyt j bgausyhd ( Nominal ) M jiyt. ujk


jiyikyhd mikruit Mizgona bragLwh. vdnt FoauR jiyt
bgausyhd mfhuij (Golden Zero ), ujk mikr cikahd mfhuij
bfhLsh.

3.1.1

FoauR jiytFa jFf

1.

a Fokfdhf Uf ntL.

2.

35 taJ iwjtuhf Uf ntL.

3.

ehlhSkw U mitfY, khy rlkw mitfY cWduhf


Uf TlhJ.

4.

ka, khy muR g Uf TlhJ.

njj
FoauR jiytiu njths FG kiwKfkhf njbjLwJ. njths
FG ehlhSkw U mitfY cs njbjLfgl cWdf, khy
rl nguitf njbjLfgl cWdf csd. jhrhu uJt
Kiwia (Single Transferable Vote) g FoauR jiyt njbjLfgLwh.
crkw jiyik g FoauR jiytUF gj ukhz brJ itwh.

FoauR jiyt gjfhy


FoauR jiyt gj Vw ehUJ IJ ML fhyJF gj tgh.
gj fhy Koj dU mLj FoauR jiyt bghWngF tiu gj
ogh. t gj yf Udh uhdhkh fojij Jiz FoauR jiytUF
mDg ntL. t L njbjLfglyh. tiu Fw rhuiz
(Impeachment) _ykhf kLnk gj f bra Ko.

3.1.2

FoauR jiyt mfhufS gfS


a

FoauR

jiytUF

Vuhskhd

mfhuf

csd.

bgUghikahdit, bgausyhd mfhufshF. tHfkhf FoauR jiyt


ujk mikr Mnyhridgona M bra ntL. mrhjhuzkhd NH
FoauR jiyt j Uik (Discretion ) mfhuij gagLJth.

m) M mfhuf ( Executive powers)


FoauR jiyt a eho jiyt. vdnt M mfhuf midJ
tl csJ. tuJ M mfhuf ehlhSkw rlaW mfhu tiu

73

csJ. murhf brJ bfhS clgoiffS, M mfhufS tUF


cglit.

eho

jiyt

vw

iy

ka

murhf

rlfis

eilKiwgLj khyfSF cjuL mfhuK FoauR jiytUF cL.

M) thf mfhuf (Administrative Powers)


a eho midJ thf akdfS, cjufS, mWjfS
FoauR jiyt bganyna btlgLwd. ujk, mikrf, ml
b#du, jif jiyt, crkw jiyik g kW gf, ca
kw gf, khy MSef, midtU FoauR jiytuh akd
bragLwd. ijnghynt khyfSF ilnaahd f, ka
njthiza, f nghw thf Mizafis aF mfhuK
FoauR jiytUF csJ. mikruit FG vLF midJ Kofis ujk
mikr FoauR jittUF bjf ntL.

) rlkw mfhuf ( Legislative Powers )


FoauR jiyt gj ehlhSkwJl izj xwhF. t
ehlhSkw cWd iy. vD ehlhSkw g KGikahd mfhu
tUF cL. FoauR jiytUF ehlhSkw Tlij Tlnth, ofnth,
xnghlnth, myJ fiyfnth mfhu csJ. nkyit, Hit cWdf
TL Tlij jiyiknaW elj tUF mfhuKL. xbthU ML
ehlhSkw TL Tl murhf bfhiff, lf g xj bgw
wnf rlkhF. knrhjhf tuJ xj bgw dnu ehlhSkw
mKf bragL. ehlhSkwF njitgo brf mDg cikL.
ehlhSkw U mitfSilna VgL ffis f t Tlij
Tlyh. ehlhSkw Tl bjhl yhjnghJ FoauR jiyt mtru
rlfis wfyh.

<) Jiw mfhuf


crkw gfis afnth, fnth tUF mfhuKL. t
jiyW ( Fountain - Head of Justice ) . vdnt tUF Fw k,
jlid Fiw, jlid xit ga mfhu csJ. cr kw
rl Mnyhrid bgwyh. FoauR jiytUF vuhf tHF bjhlunth, HL
ntlnth KoahJ.

c) Jiw mfhuf (Financial powers)


ML tu bry fzF tuJ rhghf ehlhSkw mfgLwJ.
tuJ gJiu vj knrhjh mKfgLj KoahJ. midJ

74

knrhjhfS FoauR jiyt xjiy bgw dnu rlkhF. f


FoauR jiytuh afgLwJ. FoauR jiytjh eho iy cWahf
csjh vd khwh.

C) uhQt mfhuf ( Military Powers)


FoauR

jiyt

eho

KgilfSF

(jiugil

flgil

khdgil) jiyt Mth. Kgilf jiytiu tnu awh. mik


fhyY, ngh fhyfY, beUfo neuY KgilfS tuJ flisF
fLglit. nghfis bjhlfnth, Wjnth clgoif brJ bfhsnth
FoauR jiyt Miz njitgLwJ. cehL sianah, btehL
gilbaLfisnah Kaof uhQtij gagLJ KG mfhu tUF
cL.

v) beUfo iy mfhuf ( Emergency Power )


beUfo iy 3 tifgL. mit,
1. bt beUfo iy
2. c beUfo iy
3. beUfo iy

1. bt beUfo iy
ah J w ehLf ngh bjhLfnth, myJ Mufnth MgJ
Vglhnyh FoauR jiyt bt beUfo iy ufld brayh.

2. cbeUfo iy
njr nuhj, r_f nuhj kW Mj sah eho rl, xGF
Fiyjh FoauR jiyt ehL KGtJnkh myJ ghfgl gFnfh c
beUfo iy ufld brayh.

3. beUfo iy
ah ghJfhnfh, myJ mj ehzaJnfh gh
Vglh FoauR jiyt beUfo iy ufld brayh.

3.1.3

a ujk (The Prime Minister of India)


FoauR jiyt ujkiu awh. ujk mikrfis awh.

mikrf 3 tifgLt.

75

1. mikr FG myJ fhbd mikrf


xbthU

fhbd

mikrU

xW

myJ

xWF

nkgl

yhfhfSF bghWghdtf.

2. uh#hf mikrf
tf ulh KaJt thj yhfhfSF bghWghdtf.

3. Jiz mikrf
mikrfSF cj brgt.
3 tif mikrfis cslanj mikruit MF.

mikrf Ka gf
1. thf g
2. rlkw g
3. g
4. beUfo fhy g

ujk
a ehlhSkw tjh Mjiyt. t FoauR jiytuh
afgLwh. murhf cikahd mfhuf ciwl tnu.
eilKiw ujk, ehlhSkw kfsit mW bgUghik
eif bgWs f, myJ Tl ff jiytuhf Ugh.

ujk mfhufS gfS


1. mikrf akd
mikrfis njbjLgJ ujk j wik MF.
ujkUF KG Rju cL. tuJ Mnyhridgona FoauR jiyt
mikrfis awh. mikriuitia kh mikfnth, a mikriu
nrfnth, mikrfis yfnth myJ mikruitia fiyfnth ujkUF
KG mfhu cL.

2. mikruit jiyt
ujk mikruitf jiyt. mnjnghW t mikr FG myJ
fhbdo jiytUkhth. TlfSF t jiyik jhFwh. xbthU
bfhif Ko mikrf FGjh khfgLwJ. ujk wikahd,
bjhiynehFila, jjikna mikruitia Xuahf bragl itwJ.

76

3. ujkU, FoauR jiytU


ujk murhf jiyt; FoauR jiyt eho mg; mikr FG
vLF Kofis clDFl FoauR jiytUF bjf ntoaJ ujk
flikahF. FoaRu jiyt nfF jftfis bfhLf ujk flikgLsh.
ujk, murhfF, FoauR jiytUF ilna iz ghykhf
bragLwh. ujk, FoauR jiyt UtU muayik rl U
ffsht.

ujkU ehlhSkwK
bgUghik gyKila f myJ Tl f jiyt vw
Kiw ehlhSkw eltoiff ujk g FljfJ. midJ
murhf khdfS, knrhjhfS, ujk mDkl ehlhSkw
bfhL tugLwJ. ujk murhf bfhiffis mit mwh. mit
mikia, fLghil, fhf ujk rghehaUF Jizahf csh.

kfsitjiyt
ujk `kfsit rghehafUF tU kfsit jiyt. t kfsit
cWduhf yho jdJ fia rhj _jt xUtiu rghehafuhf
awh. ujk f ntWghL mitYs midJ cWdfSF
bghWghdt vw czit VgLj ntoaJ mtakhwJ. ehlhSkw
Tlij Tl, xitf, fiyf ujk Ko brwh. mikrf
brawid kL brwh. ehlhSkw Tlf KobtLf ayhj
iy mtru rlfis wf brwh. murhf bfhiffis, f
lfis xUizwh. ujkUF flikfisl bghWf mf. t
ehlhSkw murhf Kiw F ikakhf csh.

gdhL mua ujk gF


rtnjr mua ujk Ka gfhWwh. cyf ehLfSl ezit
tsgnj ujk Ka flikahF. ujk rtnjr uridf ga ah
iyia cyf muFf s ngRwh.

3.1.4

ehlhSkw (Parliament)
FoauR jiytiu U mitfis nrjnj ehlhSkw MF. a

ehlhSkw <uit kw Kiwia rhjJ.


1. uh{a rig (Rajya Sabha ) myJ ehlhSkw nkyit
2. kfsit (Lok Sabha ) myJ ehlhSkw Hit

77

ghuhSkw

1. khyfsit (Rajya Sabha)


khyfsit cWdf 3 tifgLt.
1. khyf uf
2. a unjrf uf
3. akd uf

1. khyf uf
xbthU khyK mj kf bjhifnfg cWdfis njbjLJ
mDt. tf khy rl nguit njbjLfgl cWdfsh
njbjLfgLt. jF khw Toa xiw thF L jhrhu uJt
Kiw gwgLwJ.

2. a unjrf uf
khy uf nghnw tfS njbjLfgLwd.

3. akd uf
ya, fiy, ma, r_f nrit Ma Jiwf w m,
eilKiw mDgtKila 12 ngiu FoauR jiyt awh.

khyfsit cWdFa jFf


1.

a Fokfdhf Uj ntL.

2.

30 taJ KoUf ntL.

3.

ehlhSkw bjhF thfhsuhf g bragoUf ntL.

78

4.

ka, khy muR Cauhf Uf TlhJ.

5.

khyfsit cWduhtjF kw jil Uf TlhJ.

6.

kdts Fiwjtuhf Uf TlhJ.

7.

kfsit cWduhf Uf TlhJ.

gjfhy
khyfsit cWd gj fhy 6 MLf. tf _ xU
gFd

ulhLfSF

xU

Kiw

bgWt.

thW

fhahF

gjfSF a uf njbjLfgLt. khyfsit ujukhdJ.


khyfsit cWd vif 250. jeho khyfsit cWd
vif 18.

khyfsit jiyt
FoauR Jiz jiyt gjYst khyfsit jiyt Mth. t
khyfsit cWd my. vdnt tUF mit thfF cik iy.
vD thFf rkkhf jh Ko br thif ( Casting Vote ) mJ
fYF fhgh. Tl eltoiffis mikl xGfhf, kugik
fhJ el brth. tiu gj f bra ntLkh mJ ga khd
khyfsit iwntwgL, kfsit VW bfhsgl ntL.

khyfsit mfhufS gfS


khyfsit mfhuf kfsit mfhufSF izahdit.
Mdh `gz knrhjhf (Money Bills) kfsit kLnk mKfgLj ntL.
khyfsit mikrf rkF murhf bfhiff, lf Matiw
cWdf krd brt. rl Ujf bra khyfsit xj
flha njit. cr kw kW ca kw gfSbfuhf khd
iwnt kfsit xj bgW gj f brtjfhd khdij
bfhL tU mhu khyfsitF kLnk caJ. ehL beUfo iyF
cgLnghJ khyfsit bjhlJ bragL M eltoiffis mfiwnahL
ffhF.

2.

kfsit (Lok Sabha)


ehlhSkw Hit nyhrgh myJ kfsit vd miHfgLwJ.

j cWdf kfsh neuoahf njbjLfgLwd. khy kf bjhif


vif

mogil

cWdf

vif

mikJsJ.

xbthU

cWdU 5 yrJF FiwahkY 7.5 yrJF fhkY cs thfhsfsh

79

njbjLfgLwd. it ju uL Mnyh aiu, xU jhjgl


tFdiu cWduhf FoauR jiyt awh. jnghJ cs kfsit
cWdf

vif

545.

jehoUJ

39

kfsit

cWdU

ghonrUJ X cWdU kfsh njbjLfgLwd.


`taJ tnjhUF thFik vw mogil 18 taJ ua M / bg
thfhsf kfsitF thfwd.

kfsit cWdFa jFf


1.

a Fokfdhf Uf ntL.

2.

25 taJ uatuhf Uf ntL.

3.

nghoL bjhF Fl MLf tUf ntL.

4.

ka khy muR g Ca bgW gj Uf TlhJ.

5.

kfsit cWduhtjF kw jil Uf TlhJ.

6.

kd ts FiwnjhU, thyhdtfS nghol jF iy.

gjfhy
kfsit cWdf IJ ML fhyF njbjLfgLwd.
gjnaif muayik rlF Rthrkhf Ugjhf, eho
xWikia ngh fhgjhf cW mf ntL.

kfsit mfhuf, gf
1. rlaW mfhu
kfsit

cWdf

kfsh

neuoahf

njbjLfgLtjh

khyfisit cWdfisl tfSF mfhuf mfKsJ. tf


kfSF g brhY bghWilatf. gz knrhjhf kfsit kLnk
bfhL tu Ko. J FJ KG mfhu kfsitF cL. rlawY
kfsit gF bgaJ. rlUj U mitfSF rk mfhu csJ.

2. thf mfhuf
ujkU mtuJ mikrfS kfsitF bghWghdtf. ujk
mikruitF, mikrf mtf rhj JiwF g brhy flikL.
mu

bfhiffS,

lfS,

braghLfS

mit

cWdfsh

fLikahf kfgL. eifyh khd _y vf cWdf


murhf jtWfis, gydfis CHfis, Rofhl Ko.
mkhd iwntdh muR gj yf ntL.

80

3. Jiw mfhuf
cr kw kW cakw gfis FtJ Fj khdij
thFnghJ kfsit, kwngh bragLwJ. jF FoauR jiyt,
FoauR Jiz jiyt kfsit xj njit. beUfo iy ufld
kfsitah mffgl ntL. rtnjr clgoiffis eilKiwgLJ
mfhu kfsitF cL.

kfsit rghehaf
rghehaf kfsit jiyt Mth. kfsit _j cWd kfsit
rghehafuhf njbjLfgLwh. tuJ gjfhy 5 MLf. tuJ
gjfhy KoKd kfsit fiyfglh, a mit mikfgL tiu
tnu gj ogh. rghehaf L njbjLfglyh. mit bgUik,
tF nfL isjh, mFwfhf gjf braglyh. rghehafiu
mtkgJ muR rlij mtkgjhF.

kfsit rghehaf mfhufS gfS


rghehafUF thd mfhuf cL. mit,
1.

mit eltoiffis fanjhL, fLghnlhL Kiwahf elJj.

2.

Ra fLgho fis elJ bfhS cWd J jf eltoif,


vrj, foj, btnaWj nghwtiw nkbfhs.

3.

vj cWd vts neu ngr ntL vgij khj.

4.

thjf fhy viyia zj.

5.

mit elFnghJ ghitahsfSF mDk mj.

6.

mit eltoiffis rahf g brj, jilbragl ngRfis


FW Fj.

7.

cWdf mfhuf, rYiff kwW fhikfis ghJfhj.

8.

knrhjhf, gzknrhjhf nghwtF rhwj.

9.

U mitf TL TlF jiyik jhFj,.

10.

nf neunghJ nffgl ntoa nffis mt tiria


Ko brj.

11.

kfsit FGf jiytfis, cWdfis aj.

12.

kfsitF FoauR jiytUF ilna jft bjhl ghykhf Uj.

81

13.

mit vj cWdU ifJ braglhk ghJfhj.

14.

cWdf tHFf rh brhy mDkj

15.

cWdf gj yf fojfis VW bfhSj.

16.

kfsit brayf jiytuhf bragLj.

3.1.5

crkw ( The Supreme Court)


crkw xU jiyik gia, ehlhSkw mtnghJ zF

vif bfhl gfis bfhlJ. njit Vgo FoauR jiyt


jfhf gfis akd brayh. cr kw gfis FoauR jiyt
akd brwh. crkw jiyik gia g_ mogil agJ
ku. gfis gj f brtjF f Fj eilKiwia gw
ntL. cr kw gf jnghija vif 26 MF.

crkw mfhuf
crkw kw Mtzfis gukhf ghJfhwJ. cr kw
mfhuf _W tifgL. mit,

1. Kj rhuiz mfhu (Original jurisdiction)


m)

ka muRF, xW myJ mjF nkgl khyfSF ilyhd


tHFfis rhJ gj.

M)

khyfSilna tHFfis rhJ gj.

ka muR khy muR xUwK, khyf kWwK UJ bjhlU


tHFfis rhJ gj.

2. nkKiwpL rhuiz mfhu ( Appellate )


khyfYs ca kw fis vJ tU tHFfis rhJ
gj.

3. Mnyhrid mfhu ( Advisiory )


FoauR jiytUF njitahd neuf rl Mnyhrid tHFwJ.
jf fhuzfSF Mnyhrid Tw kWgJ.

w mfhuf ( Miscellaneous powers)


kf mogil cikfis ghJfhgjF njitahd cjufis
wfyh. kw mtkfhf rgjgltfis miHJ rhJ
jofyh. jf fhuzfSfhf vt J Mizfis ( Writes ) wfyh.

82

crkw f, kwfis fLgLJ. cr kw kLnk


duh (Judicial Review) bra Ko. bghJ ey tHFfis (Public Interest Petitions)
rhJ tHF.

braghL
kh ghuhSkw mikJ eof brj.

3.2 khy rlkw


ika muR mikig nghynt khy muR mik fhzgLwJ. a muR
Tlh muR Kiwia gWwJ. ah 28 khyfS 7 a
unjrfS csd. xbthU khyY muR jiyt ftd / MSe
Uwh. a unjrF cj MSe jiyik twh. rlJiw,
thf Jiw, Jiw nghw _W Ka Jiwf mul fhzgLwd.
ahYs midJ khyY rlkw csJ. rlkw U
mitfshtd.
1. rl nguit ( mit)
2. rl nkyit (nk mit)
y khyf mit kLnk bragLwJ. jeho mit kLnk
bragLwJ.
1. rl nguit: cWdf bghJkfsh neuoahf njbjLf
gLwhf. rlnguit Fiwjgr cWdf 60, cajgr cWdf 500
MF. rlnguit cikahd mfdf vif khy kf
bjhifia bghUjJ. jeho njbjLfgl cWdf 234, akd (My
a) cWdf bkhj 235 cWdf csd. rl nguit TlF
jiyik tgt rghehaf Mth. tf gj fhy 5 MLf MF.
2. rl nkyit (jhurh): rlnkyit mfdf bghJksh
neuoahf njbjLfgLtiy. rl nguit mfdf 3 1 gFF
nkyhj vifs mfdf 30 taJ cstf rlnkyit cWd
Mfyh. tf gjfhy 6 MLf. J ujukhd mit MF. rlnkyit
TlF mitjiyt jiyik twh.

3.2.1

khy rlkw gf
khy

rlkw,

khy

goaUJ

bghJgoaUJ

rlaWwJ. _WKiw rl tiu thfgl dnu xj mfgL.


d MSe xjYl rlkhfgL. khy rhj braf

83

rlkw fLgLJwJ. rl nguit brafSF mikruit bghW


twJ. Mifah rlrig thf rigia fLgLJwJ. rl nkyitia
l rlnguit mfhufJ.

braghLf
fsg

bjhlg :

rl nguit ghitL, cWneh mif jahf.


a khyf a unjrf bgafis bjhFf.

khy brayh (m) thfJiw


MSe : khy brayh Jiw jiyik bghWid tgt MSe
Mth. ika mu Mnyhridgo 5 MLfSF FoauR jiytuh MSe
afgLwh. 35 taJ ua a Fokf / Fokf MSe akdF
jFahdt Mth.

3.2.2

MSe mfhuf
rlJiw, thfJiw, Jiw, Jiw nghwtJ MSe

mfhufis bgUwh. ruJ 154 go khy brayhJiw


mfhuf ah muayik brago MSel csJ
1. thf mfhu: khy mu midJ thf Kof kW braf
midF xj mgt MSe Mth. MSe Kj mikriu kW Kj
mikr

Mnyhridgo

mikrfis

kW

mu

jiyik

tHfPiu, muR gahs njFG cWdfis akd brwh.


2. rl thf: rlkw Tl miH Lj, rlrig xitj,
kW rligia fiyj nghw mfhufis MSe bgWsh. vyh
rlfS tUila xjiy bgw ntL. rlnguit, bra yhjnghJ
mtru rlij wf mfhuKL. nkyit cWdf yiu t
akd brwh.
3. mfhu: bjhlila rl tiuit mKfgLJtjF K
MSe xj bgw ng rl nguit itfgl ntL.
4. mfhu: jiyik g kW Jiw ca mYtyfis akd
brj, khWj brj myJ gj catj nghw mfhufis MSe
bgUwh. mtrufhyf M bghWig FoauR jiytnu Vf,
Mnyhrid brhy cik cL. khy muR fiyJ nghdh MSenu cikahd
mfhu bgWwh.

84

3.2.3

Kjyikr
njj bt bgw / bgUghik bgw f jiytiu MSe miHgh.

khy thf Vf w mikrfis goal mgh. bgUghik bgw


f jiytiuna khy Kjyikruhf agh.
mikruit: khy cik thf mikr mitl csJ.
Kjyikr j mikr FG cWdf goaiy MSe xj bgW mgh.
mikrf gjfhy 5 MLfshF.
mfhuf: mikr mit khy rlkwF bghW thjJ.
rlkw mikrf gnfW fyJiuahlyh. dnu muR knrhjh kW
knrhjh rlkhfgL. vdnt beUa cw, mikr mitF, khy
rlkwF cL.

braghLf
ika khy mu thf mfhufis xik brf.
.. 1947 Kj jeho M brj Kjyikrf bga goa jah
brf.

3.2.4

khy Jiw
ah xbthU khyY Jiw csJ. F jiyik g

kW w gfS csd. FoauR jiytuh jiyik g afgLwh.


jFf: jiyik kw jiyik g a Fokfdhf Uf
ntL. kw gahf, FiwjJ 10 MLf myJ jiyik kw
tHFiuPuhf 10 MLf gUf ntL. t 62 taJ Ko X
bgWth.
mfhuf kW

gf:

khy cika kW Fwa

tHFfis rhF caj kw Jnt MF. khtl kwUJ tU


tHFfis rhF nkKiwpL kwkhf khy cakw fwJ. J
kwfSF Mnyhridf kW rl tiufis mwJ.
kwf: xbthU khtlY xU khtl kw csJ.
khtl cika Fwa rhF ca kw Jnt MF. khtl
gia khy MSe akd brwh. j khonuL Fwa
kwK, K cika kwK csd.
tUthJiw kw: j khtlkw mik. khtl
Ma, jhjh Mnah bragLt. khtl Ma khtl tUth
mYty Mth. khtl Mal nk KiwpL brayh.

85

braghL
ehlhSkw kW rlkw Tl bjhl fhyf bjhiyfh cjl
fLzJ mif rkj.

nyhmjhy
eho gy khtlf nj lF tHFfis KoJitF
gia brwJ. cika kwF rkkhf kw fUjgLwJ.
FLgkw: 1984 M ML FLg kw rlgo kw
nehf, rkhjhdgLJj, iuJ tHFfis KoJitj nghw gfis
FLg kW Ukz tfhu brwJ.

braghLf
ca kwmfhufS gfS g fLiu tiuf.
fsg: efu cs kwfis ghitL, cWneh gfis
g brj.

3.3

csh mikf
a ehL _wLF Maikig bfhLsJ. mitahtd
1. ika muR myJ eLt muR
2. khy muR
3. csh mikf

ef ghfh, 11-tJ mltiz


uhk Cuh, 12-tJ mltiz

nrhH M csh mikf wghf bragld. Flnthiy Kiw


_y csh jiytf njbjLfgld vd cunk% fbtL
bjthf FLwJ. nkY fbtL uhk rigf g, thaf
mikJ bghJ mYtfis ftjJ g FLwJ. #aefu muY uhk
mYtyf afgld. Mnya M ituh g u fhy
1884 jy Ra M l eilKiwgLjglJ. mjgo yh nghLfS,
jhYfh nghLfS VgLjgld.
a ehL Rju milj wF jhYfh, yh nghLf

xfgld.

uhk grhaJ a, efuhf, khefuh nghw csh mikf


cUthfgld. gntW fhuzfsh csh mikf etiljd. gy
csh mikf fiyfgld. gntW mua fhuzfsh csh
mikf njj eilbgwiy. vD mit midJ j mfhf
bragld.

86

3.3.1

grhaJ uh{ rl
ah c ehoaha uhkf kW csh mikfSF J

Co mitfSfhd njj eilbgw Kdh ujk U uhfh mtfsh


cUthfglnj grhaJuh{ rl MF. a muayik 73 MtJ kW
74 MtJ Ujfsh grhaJuh{ rlK, ef ghfh rlK iwntwgld.
khy muRf jj khy y Niynfg jahd rlfis cUthf
J t tifbrjJ.

grhaJ uh{ rl wf
1.

rl _y uhk, grhaJ, xa kW khtl ms mfhu


gut tHfgLsJ. csh mikf jf njitfis tsia
jhfshfnt lL iwnt bfhS thig mJsJ.

2.

ka

khy

muRfSF

izahd

mfhuij

rl

csh

mikfSF tHsJ. csh mikfis midJ khyfY


foghf mKgLj rl cWbrjJ. fhy jhjnghJ csh
mik cUthfijnah braghilnah jl KoahJ.
3.

ehlhSkwF,

rlkwF

MLfSF

xUKiw

njj

eilbgWtJngh, csh mikfSF 5 MLfSF xU Kiw njj


eilbgw rl tWJwJ. csh mikfis khy muR fiyjh
clnd 6 khjF njj eljgl ntL.
4.

csh njjiy elj khy ms cag jF bfhl khy njj


f Miza afgLsh.

5.

grhaJ uh{ mik uhk, xa, khtl vw _wLF bfhlJ.


ijnghW efghfh ng%uh, efuh, khefuhfis bfhlJ. it
jj csh kwf MF.

6.

jhjgltf, gHFodUF mgF kf bjhif mtfUF


rjjF Vg l xJL bragL. midJ gjfY (nka,
grhaJ jiyt, xajiyt, khtl jiyt kW cWdf)
_ xU gF bgfSF xJL bragL.

7.

trha, ynkghL, fheil, ts, ghrd, r_f fhLf, rhiyf,


rhiy sFf, f, tWik x, yff, Rfhjhu, FLg ey, bghJ
nahfKiw nghw 29 tifahd flikfis MWtjF grhaJ
mikfSF cik tHfgLsJ.

87

8.

khy ms grhaJ f xW xJoF Mnyhrid Tw


cUthfgLsJ.

9.

khtl ms njbjLfgl cWdf khtl lFG mikJ


ts lfis cUthFt.

3.3.2

jehL grhaJ uh{ rl - 1994


jehL grhaJ uh{ mik _wLFis bfhlJ.
1. uhk Cuh
2. Cuh xa
3. khtl grhaJ
uhk Cuh kfbjhif 500F Fiwahk Ug. xbthU uhk

CuhY 5F FiwahkY 15 F fhkY cWdf Ug. j


cWdfis thfhsf neuoahf njbjLg.

jehL grhaJ uh{ rl Uj - 2006


1994, jehL grhaJ rlgo csh mik khefuh nka,
efuh

jiytf,

grhaJ

jiytf,

kfsh

neuoahf

njbjLfgld. bryfis, fhy uaij jgjfhf, 2006


jehL grhaJ uh{ rl Ujgo khefuh nka, efuh jiyt, uhk
Cuh xa jiytf nghw gjfis thL cWdf kiwKf njj
_y njbjLwd.

3.3.3

uhk Cuh
kf bjhif 500F Fiwahk cs uhkf uhk Cuh

mikfgLsJ. jeho 12,618 Cuh kwf csd. Cuh


njbjLfgl thL cWdf jfSF jiyt kW Jiz jiytiu
njbjLg. uhk Cuh cs vyh thfhsfS uhk rig cWd
Mt. MLF 3 Kiw uhk rig foghf TlglntL; Cuh kw
jiyt uhk rig jiytUkhth.
6 khjfSF xU Kiw uhkrig flha Tlgl ntL. Cuhf
ML lfis mfj, tu bry lij mfj, Cuh
gfis ffhj, it uhk Cuhf gf. Cuh kw jiytnu
uhkrig, kW Cuhkw Tlfis TLth. midF tnu jiyik
tgh.

88

3.3.4

Cuh xa
_wLF Cuh mik ulhtJ iy Cuh xa MF. J

xbthU ts tlhuY mikfgL. jeho 385 Cuh xaf


csd.

xa

cWdfis

njbjLwd.

njbjLfgl

mogil
cWdf

thfhsf
vif

neuoahf
1/5

gF

vifF rkkhd cWdfis Cuh kw jiytf kiwKfkhf


njbjLg. Cuh xaij rhj ehlhSkw cWd, rlkw cWd
kW khyfsit cWd midtU Cuh xa cWdfshf Ug.
thW J Itif cWdfis bfhl mikghf UF. Cuh xa
cWdf jfSF xU jiytiu, Jiz jiytiu njbjLg. jiyt
nrk vd miHfgLth.

jiyt flikf

Cuh xa Tlij TLj.

a rlgo flikfis brj, mfhu brYJj,

Mtzfis ifahSj

muRF, Cuh xaF ilna ghy ngh bragLj.

3.3.5 khtl Cuh


xbthU tUth khtlY khtl Cuh bragL 20,000 kf
bjhif bjhFfshf khtl grhaJ fgL. thfhsf khtl CuhF
xU cWdiu f mogil njbjLg. njbjLfgl khtl grhaJ
cWdf vifF <lhf 1/5 gF cWdfis Cuh xa jiytf
njbjLg. mj tUth khtl thfhs goa l bgWs
ehlhSkw kfsit cWd, rlkw cWd, kW ehlhSkw nkyit
cWd khtl Cuh cWdfshf bragLt. thW J Itif
cWdfis bfhl mikghf UF.

khtl Cuh kw jiyt gf

khtl Cuh kw Tlij TLj.

grhaJ

uh{

mF

cikfis

flikfis

mfhuij

bragLJj.

khtl Cuh Mtzfis ifahSj.

muRF, khtl CuhfSF ilna a eYwit VgLJj.

89