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Tel: 017 768 246

www.mathtoday.wordpress.com

ii

20



Tel : 017 768 246


Email: lim_phalkun@ymail.com
Website: www.mathtoday.wordpress.com

iii


- tan =

5
0o < < 90o

12

cos , sin
cot
- A = sin 4 x + 4cos 2 x + cos 4 x + 4sin 2 x
2
2
B = (asin x + b cos x) + (acos x b sin x)

41
sin
x
+
cos
x
=
-

29

sin x.cos x sin x


cos x
a 0 < x < 90o a 2
- tan x + cot x =

tan 3 x + cot 3 x a
=
cos a
-

m
n
p
=
, cos b =
, cos c
n+p
p+m
m+n


sin 2 a
sin 2 b
sin 2 c
M=
+
+
2 + 2cosa sin 2 a 2 + 2cosb sin 2 b 2 + 2cosc sin 2 c

Page 1

- x IR
6
6
1 3sin 2 xcos 2 x
. sin x + cos x =

1
1
1 1 4
(sin 8 x + cos 8 x) (sin 4 x + cos 4 x) + =
sin xcos 4 x
4
2
4 2

- tan x=

b
, a > 0 ,b > 0
a

cos 4 x sin 4 x
1

+
=
a
b
a+b
3

- tan=

b
, a 0 , b 0
a
cos4
3 2

sin 4
3

b2

1
=
3 2 3 2
a + b

cos4 x sin 4 x
1
+
=
-
a
b
a+b
a 0 , b 0 , a + b 0

cos10 x
a

sin10 x
b

1
=4
(a + b)

Page 2

-
=
cos

a
b
c
=
=
, cos
, cos
b+c
c+a
a+b

tan 2

+ tan 2 + tan 2 =
1
2
2
2

tan 3a tan 2a tan a


- tan 3a tan 2a tan a =
a

k
2

- a ; b ; c ; d
x

sin x sin 2x sin 3x sin 4x


= = =
a
b
c
d

x k ; k Z

a 3 (4b 2 d 2 )= b 4 (3a c)
- f k ( x ) =

1
(
k

sk x +i c nk ox ) k = 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; . .

f 4 ( x ) f 6 ( x ) =

1

1

Page 3

- a , b , c , d [ 0 ; ]

s a i+ 7ns b i= 4n( sc + 2is nd i)

c a o+ 7 c sb o= 4( s cc + 2 oc d )os

a o d ) =s7 c ( b o c )

2 c

- | a cos x + b sin x | a 2 + b 2
-
(

a+ b
xs+ a c i x ) no x( + bscs x )
io1 +n s
2

- 1 +
sin x

1
+

1 + 2ab
cos
x

a > 0 , b > 0 , 0 < x <


- x , y , z

cos x + cos y + cos z =


0
0
cos 3x + cos 3y + cos 3z =
cos 2xcos 2y cos 2z 0

Page 4

- x

sin4 x cos4 x
1
+

a
b
a+b

; (a > 0 , b > 0 )

=
f (x)
a

a sin 2 x + b cos 2 x + c + a cos 2 x + b sin 2 x + c

, b,c

a+b
+c
2

a + c + b + c f (x) 2

f (x)
-
2

f (x)=

1
1
2
2
+
+
+
sin
x
cos
x

sin 2 x
cos 2 x

Page 5

- x 60x 2 71x + 21 < 0


sin
< 0

3x 1
- 0 < <
( sin )

cos

+ ( cos ) sin > 1

- x (0,

)
4

(cos x)cos x > (sin x)sin x


- f x IR

x) 3cos x sin x
f (x) + 2f ( =
f (x) 2 x IR
-

f (x;y ) = ( acos x + b cos y ) + ( asin x + b sin y ) , a > 0 , b > 0


2

x; y IR f (x;y) (a + b)2

Page 6

- sin

cos
10
10

x 2 + (x y)2 4(x 2 + y 2 )sin 2

10

x, y IR
-

f (x)= 4(tan 2 x + cot 2 x) 12(tan x + cot x) + 9


x ( 0 ,

) f (x)
2

- S =cos 3
- 0 < a <

4
7
cos 3
+ cos 3
9
9
9

0
<
b
<

2
2
2

sin 2 a cos 2 a

1 a = b
+
=
sin b cos b

- P = cos 20o cos 40o cos 80o

Page 7

1
1
3 1
9 1
27
1
( + cos )( + cos )( + cos )( + cos
)=
2
20 2
20 2
20 2
20
16
-
cos

3
5
7
9 1
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
=
11
11
11
11
11 2

P=
(1 cot1o )(1 cot 2o )(1 cot 3o ).....(1 cot 44o )
-

P=
( 3 + tan1o )( 3 + tan 2o ).....( 3 + tan 29o )
- S =sin
- S = sin

2
4
+ sin 2
+ sin 2
7
7
7

2
4
8

+ sin
+ sin
7
7
7

-
8cos 3

n
n
n
1
+ 4( 1)n cos 2
4cos + ( 1)n +=
0 , n IN
7
7
7

Page 8

S =cos 3

3
5
T =cos4 + cos4 3 + cos4 5
+ cos 3
+ cos 3
7
7
7
7
7
7

cos

3
5

, cos
, cos
7
7
7

(E) : 8x 3 4x 2 4x + 1 =
0

3
5
+ cos
+ cos
7
7
7
3
3
5
5

N =cos cos
+ cos cos
+ cos cos
7
7
7
7
7
7

M =cos

3
5
P = cos cos cos

7
7
7

Q =cos 2

3
5
S T
+ cos 2
+ cos 2
7
7
7

cos7 x + cos7 (x +

2
4
63
) + cos7 (x + ) =
cos 3x
3
3
64

Page 9

cos x + cos y + cos z


cos(x + y + z)

- =

sin x + sin y + sin z


= a
sin(x + y + z)

a
cos(x + y) + cos(y + z) + cos(z + x) =

- x ]0; [

3 1
3 +1
+
=
4 2
sin x
cos x
-

64x6 112x4 + 56x 2 7= 2 1 x 2

tan6 x + (tan 2 x + 1)3 + (tan 2 x + 2)3 = (tan 2 x + 3)3


-

4sin (x + ) cos (x + ) = 3 + 2 2
4
12

Page 10

cos(n
=
+ 1)x 2cos xcos(nx) cos(n 1)x

, x IR , n IN

cos 7x cos x

128cos7 x 244cos5 x + 112cos 3 x 14cos x 1 =


0

- tan

sin 2 x 2 sin x.cos x + ( 2 1) cos 2 x =


0

tan x + 2 1
1

=
1 ( 2 1) tan x
3

- cos

cos

12
12

Page 11

2+3 6
3
2
cos
x
3cos
xcos
y
+
=

8

23 6
3cos 2 xcos y + cos 3 y =

5
8

3
8

+ cos 4x
- sin 6 x + cos6 x =

13
16

1
4

+ sin 3 2x
(sin 3 x + cos 3 x)2 =
-

1
2

(E) : x + (
2) x +
1 =
0 0 <
cos
2
3
2

(E) tan a
tan b

. a + b =
4

(E)

tan

12

Page 12

(P) =
: y f (x)
= x 2 sin 2(1 + sin )x + 5 sin
0 < <

(P)

0
- (E) : x 2 (m 2 m) x m + 2 =
tan a

tan b

. m a + b =
. m
. tan

12

Page 13

0
- (E) : x 3 (2m + 3)x 2 + 5x 3m + 2 =
tan , tan , tan
. A =

sin( + + )
m
cos cos cos

. m A = 4
. (E) m

m
- (E) : cos 3 xcos 3x + sin 3 xsin 3x =
. m =

3 3
8

. m

log 2 2 (sin x) + log

3
(2sin
x) =
0
2

Page 14

- (Un ) IN

1 1 Un 2
2

2
Un + 1
U 0=
=
2

, n IN

Un n

an 2 5
- a0 = 2 + 3 + 6
an + 1 =
2(an + 2)
n 0

2n 3
=
an cot
2 n IN
3

-
=
2 2cos

22

, =
2 + 2 2cos

23

, 2+ =
2 + 2 2cos

24

Page 15

- (Un ) Un = 2 .sin

n
4

n IN

2.cos

(n + 1)
n
n
= cos
sin

4
4
4

=
Un ( 2)n cos

n
(n + 1)
( 2)n +1 cos

4
4

Sn = U1 + U 2 + U 3 + ......... + Un n
- f IN IR

f (0) = 0
= 2f (n) + tan
f (n + 1)

n+ 2

f (n)

- (Un ) n

U 0 = 1 n IN : =
Un +1 Un cos a + sin a
0 < a <

Page 16

=
. V
n Un cot

a
(Vn )
2

lim Un
. lim (V0 + V1 + .... + Vn )

n +

n +

- (Zn )

1+ i 3
Z
=
0
2
( | Zn | Zn

1
Z
=
Z + | Zn | ) ; n IN
n +1 2 ( n

Zn =n (cos n + i.sin n ) , n IN
n > 0 , n ; n IR
- n
n + 1
n
n + 1
- (n ) n n

- n =0 cos 0 cos 1 cos 2 ....cos n 1


2

n n

Page 17

- (Un ) IN {0}

U 0 = 2

2 + Un , n IN
Un +1 =
. Un n
. Pn = U 0 U1 U 2 .... Un
-
(Un )

=
U 0 0=
; U1 1
=
: Un + 2 2Un +1 cos a Un
n IN
a IR
. Z
=
n Un + 1 (cos a i sin a) U n , n IN {0}
Z=
n + 1 (cos a + i sin a) Zn Zn
n
a
. Un n

Page 18

t
t a nt a nt a n
3
2
1
6
8
+ . . +. .
+
+
Sn =

c
c o cs o cs o s
1 6
8
4

a n+ 2n
.2

on+1
2

Sn n +
- (an ) d
Sn =

cos a1 cos a 2 cos a 3


cos an
+
+
+
...
+
cos d cos 2 d cos 3 d
cosn d

n = 1, 2, 3,...

Sn
=

sin an
cosn d sin d

sin a1

sin d

-.
1
1
2sin xcos(2nx)

=
2 + sin(2n 1)x 2 + sin(2n + 1)x [2 + sin(2n 1)x ] [2 + sin(2n + 1)x ]

. Sn =

cos(2kx)


( 2 + sin(2k 1)x )( 2 + sin(2k + 1)x )
k =1

Page 19

-.

1
=
cos(2nx)
2sin x

sin(2n + 1)x sin(2n 1)x

Sn = cos 2x + cos 4x + cos 6x + ..... + cos(2nx)


.

Tn =cos 2 x + cos 2 2x + cos 2 3x + ..... + cos 2 (nx)


.

Un =sin 2 x + sin 2 2x + sin 2 3x + ..... + sin 2 (nx)


tan 3 x
1
-. =
tan 2x tan x
2
1 tan x 2
n

. Sn

k =0

k
3 a
2
tan

n
2

1 tan 2 a
2n

Page 20

=
x cot x 2cot 2x
- tan


Sn= tan a +

1
a 1
a
1
a
tan + 2 tan 2 + .... + n tan n
2
2 2
2
2
2

-
n

Pn
=

2k x
2x
4x
2n x
tan
tan
x.tan
.tan
.....tan
=

k
n
2
4
2
2

k =0

-
n

2 x 2k
Pn
=
(1 tan k )
2

k =0

-
n

Pn =

k =1

2 k
1 + tan 2 x

2
2
k
1 tan 2

| x |< n + 2
2

Page 21

-
. Sn=

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ .... +
a
sin a sin a sin a
sin
2
22
2n

x
cot
1
2
-. 1 +
=
cos x cot x

1
Pn =
(1 +
)(1 +
cosa

1
a
cos
2

)(1 +

1
cos

a
2

).....(1 +

1
cos

a
2n

2
=
x tan 2x 2tan x
-. tan 2x .tan

. Sn =

a
k
2 a
2
tan
tan

k
k +1
2
2

k =0

-.
=
sin 3 x

1
( 3sin x sin 3x)
4

.
3
S=
n sin

a
a
a
a
+ 3sin 3 2 + 32 sin 3 3 + .... + 3n 1 sin 3 n
3
3
3
3

Page 22

-.=
2
.=
Sn

cos x

sin 2 2x

1
4cos 2

-.

a
2

1
42 cos

1
sin 2 x
+ .... +

1
4n cos 2

22

a
2n

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ .... +
a
sin a sin a sin a
sin
2
22
2n

. Sn=

sin(nx) cos(n + 1)x cos(nx)


-.
=

.cot x

n
n +1
n
cos x cos
x
cos x

sin x sin 2x sin 3x


sin(nx)
+
+
+
....
+
cos x cos 2 x cos 3 x
cosn x

. Sn =

cos(n 1)x
cos x cos(nx)

-.1 + tan x tan(nx) =


n

=
Pn
.

[1 + tan x tan(kx)]

k =1

Page 23

-.

1
1
=
tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)]
[
cos(nx).cos(n + 1)x sin x
. Sn =

p =1

1
cos(px) cos(p + 1)x

-.

tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)


= tan x [1 + tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x ]
.

=
Sn tan x tan 2x + tan 2x tan 3x + ..... + tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x

1 + 2cos 2x
2cos
x
1

=
-.
1 + 2cos x
.

a
a
a
Pn =
(2cos a 1)(2cos 1)(2cos 2 1).....(2cos n 1)
2
2
2

Page 24

tan 3 x
1
( tan 3x 3tan x)
-. =
2
8
1 3tan x
. Sn =

k =0

k
3 a
3
tan

k
3

1 3tan 2 a

3k

- ABC a , b , c

, , = 3 (a b)(a 2 b 2 ) =
bc 2
- ABC a , b , c
A , B , C
p

cos

A
p(p a)
=

2
bc

bc .cos

A
B
C
+ ac.cos 2 + ab.cos 2 =
p2
2
2
2

Page 25

- ABC

tan A.tan B.tan C


tan A + tan B + tan C =

tan A + tan B + tan C 3 3


- ABC
cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C < 1
- ABC
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C > 2
- ABC

1
. cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot Ccot A =

2cot 2A cot A
. cot 2 A 1 =

. A ; B ; C
q = 2

Page 26

1
2

sin A

sin B

1
2

sin C

=
8

P(x) = tan 2 x + cot 2 x 2(tan x + cot x) + 27


Q(x) = tan 2 x + cot 2 x 8(tan x + cot x) + 87
0 < x <

- ABC
tan

A
B
C
, tan , tan

3
3
3

(E) : x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c =
0 3 + a=
- ABC sin

3b + c

A
a

=
2 2 bc

ABC ?

Page 27

=
BC a=
, AC b=
, AB c
- ABC

ABC
R
S

cos A cos B cos C R(sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C)


+
+
=

a
b
c
4S

- ABC
(sin A + sin B + sin C)2
/ (1 + cos A)(1 + cos B)(1 + cosC) =
2
cos A + cos B + cos C
sin A + sin B + sin C

1
/

3
2

- ABC
a2
. 1 cos A
2bc

a , b , c ABC
. (1 cos A)(1 cos B)(1 cos C)

1

8

Page 28

- ABC
2
2
2
. sin A = sin B + sin C 2sin B sin Ccos A

.
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C
cot A + cot B + cot C =

2sin A sin B sin C

- ABC A ,B ,C

cot A + cot B + cot=


C

1 1
1
1
+
+

2 sin A sin B sin C

ABC ?
- R S
ABC
2R 2
. (cot A + cot B)(cot B + cot C)(cot C + cot A) =
S
1
cos
A
cos
B
cos
C

ABC
.

Page 29

- n I N Sn = c
. cos

12


sin

o +ss
1 2

i n
1

12

. 4 Sn + 2 2 6 Sn + 1 + Sn = 0
- A B C r R

c

Ao+ c

sBo+ c

r
C
s o= 1 + s
R

0- A , B ,C ABC

y cot A +
=

2sin A

cos A + cos(B C)

0- ABC r R

sin

A 5 r
A
B
B
C
C

sin + sin sin + sin sin +


2
2
2
2
2
2 8 4R

Page 30

tan =

5
0o < < 90o

12

cos , sin
cot

cos , sin
cot
tan =

5
o
o
0 < < 90
12

2
1 + tan =

=
cos 2

1
=
1 + tan 2

1
cos 2

1
144
=
2
169
5
1+
12

0o < < 90o cos > 0


cos =

12

13

Page 31

tan =

tan cos =

sin =
=

cot

sin

cos

5 12 5
. =

12 13 13

1
12
=

tan 5

cos
=

12
5
12
;=
sin
;=
cot

13
13
5

Page 32

A = sin 4 x + 4cos 2 x + cos 4 x + 4sin 2 x


2
2
B = (asin x + b cos x) + (acos x b sin x)

A
B
A = sin 4 x + 4cos 2 x + cos 4 x + 4sin 2 x
2
2
1 sin 2 x= 1 cos 2 x
sin x + cos x =
2
2
cos x= 1 sin x

A
=
=

sin 4 x + 4(1 sin 2 x) + cos 4 x + 4(1 cos 2 x)


sin 4 x 4sin 2 x + 4 + cos 4 x 4cos 2 x + 4
(sin 2 x 2)2 + (cos 2 x 2)2

= | sin 2 x 2 | + | cos 2 x 2 |
2
2
0 sin x 1
0 cos x 1

Page 33

(sin 2 x 2) (cos 2 x 2)
A =
2
2
= 4 (sin x + cos x) = 4 1 = 3

B = (asin x + b cos x)2 + (acos x b sin x)2


= a 2 (sin 2 x + cos 2 x) + b 2 (sin 2 x + cos 2 x)

= a2 + b2

= 3, B
= a 2 + b 2
A

Page 34

41
sin
x
+
cos
x
=


29

sin x.cos x sin x


cos x

sin x.cos x
2
2
2
(sin x + cos x) =sin x + 2sin xcos x + cos x

41
sin
x
+
cos
x
=
sin 2 x + cos 2 x =
1

29

412 292 840


41
=
xcos x =
= 1 + 2sin xcos x 2sin
292
841
29
2

sin x.cos x =

420

841

Page 35

sin x
cos x :
41
sin
x
+
cos
x
=

29


sin x.cos x =

420
sin x
cos x
841

2
X

41
420
X+
=
0
29
841

=
X1

=
sin x

20
21
=
; X2
29
29

20
21
21
20
=
; cos x
=
sin
x
=
;
cos
x


29
29
29
29

Page 36

a 0 < x < 90
tan x + cot x =
a 2
o

tan 3 x + cot 3 x a

tan 3 x + cot 3 x a
a
tan x + cot x =
2
a2
(tan x + cot x) =
2
2
a 2 tan xcot x = 1
tan x + 2tan xcot x + cot x =

a2 2
tan 2 x + cot 2 x =
3
3
2
2
A + B = (A + B)(A A.B + B )
3
3
2
2
tan x + cot x = (tan x + cot x)(tan x tan xcot x + cot x)

= a(a 2 2 1)
= a(a 2 3)

3
3
a 3 3a
tan x + cot x =

Page 37

=
cos a

m
n
p
=
, cos b =
, cos c
n+p
p+m
m+n


sin 2 a
sin 2 b
sin 2 c
M=
+
+
2 + 2cosa sin 2 a 2 + 2cosb sin 2 b 2 + 2cosc sin 2 c

sin 2 a
sin 2 b
sin 2 c
M=
+
+

2 + 2cosa sin 2 a 2 + 2cosb sin 2 b 2 + 2cosc sin 2 c
2
1 cos 2 a =
(1 cos a)(1 + cos a)
sin a =
2
1 + 2cos a + cos 2 a =
(1 + cos a)2

2 + 2cos a sin a =

sin 2 a
(1 cos a)(1 + cos a) 1 cos a
=
=

2 + 2cosa sin 2 a
(1 + cos a)2
1 + cos a
sin 2 b
1 cos b
=

2 + 2cos b sin 2 b 1 + cos b
sin 2 c
1 cosc
=


2 + 2cosc sin 2 c 1 + cosc

Page 38

E =

1 cos a 1 cos b 1 cos c


+
+
1 + cos a 1 + cos b 1 + cos c

m
n
p
1
1
n+p
p+m
m+n
+
+
=
m
n
p
1+
1+
1+
n+p
p+m
m+n
1

n+pm+p+mn+m+np
1
=
m+n+p

E = 1

Page 39

x IR
1 3sin 2 xcos 2 x
. sin 6 x + cos 6 x =
1
1
1 1 4
8
8
4
4
(sin
x
+
cos
x)

(sin
x
+
cos
x)
+
=
sin xcos 4 x
.
4
2
4 2


1 3sin 2 xcos 2 x
. sin 6 x + cos 6 x =
3
3
2
2
3
(a + b) =a + 3a b + 3ab + b
3
3
3
a + b = (a + b) 3ab(a + b)
2
a = sin 2 x
b = cos x

sin 6 x + cos 6 x = (sin 2 x + cos 2 x)3 3sin 2 xcos 2 x(sin 2 x + cos 2 x)


1
sin 2 x + cos 2 x =
6
6
1 3sin 2 xcos 2 x
sin x + cos x =

Page 40

1
1
1 1 4
8
8
4
4
(sin
x
+
cos
x)

(sin
x
+
cos
x)
+
=
sin xcos 4 x
.
4
2
4 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(a + b) =a + 2ab + b a + b = (a + b) 2ab
4
4
2
2 2
2 2
a + b = (a + b ) 2a b
4
4
2
2 2
a + b = (a + b) 2ab 2a b
2

a = sin 2 x b = cos 2 x
sin 4 x + cos 4 x = (sin 2 x + cos 2 x)2 2sin 2 xcos 2 x
= 1 2sin 2 xcos 2 x

sin 8 x + cos 8 x = (sin 2 x + cos 2 x)2 2sin 2 xcos 2 x 2sin 4 xcos 4 x


=
(1 2sin 2 xcos 2 x)2 2sin 4 xcos 4 x
=
1 4sin 2 xcos 2 x + 2sin 4 xcos 4 x

f (x) =

1
1
1
(sin 8 x + cos 8 x) (sin 4 x + cos 4 x) +
4
2
4

Page 41

1
1
1
(1 4sin 2 xcos 2 x + 2sin 4 xcos 4 x) (1 2sin 2 xcos 2 x) +
4
2
4
1 4sin 2 xcos 2 x + 2sin 4 xcos 4 x 2 + 4sin 2 xcos 2 x + 1
=
4
2sin 4 xcos 4 x 1 4
= =
sin xcos 4 x
4
2
=

1
1
1 1 4
8
8
4
4
(sin
x
+
cos
x)

(sin
x
+
cos
x)
+
=
sin xcos 4 x

4
2
4 2

Page 42

b
, a > 0 ,b > 0
a

tan x=

cos 4 x sin 4 x
1

+
=
a
b
a+b

cos 4 x sin 4 x
1

+
=
a
b
a+b

tan x =

b
cos x
b
tan 2 x = tan x =
sin x
a
a

cos 2 x sin 2 x cos 2 x + sin 2 x


1
sin 2 x b
2 = = =
=
a
b
a+b
a+b
cos x a
cos 2 x
1
cos 4
a


=
(1)
=
2
a
a+b
a
(a + b)
sin 2 x
1
sin 4
b


=
(2)
=

2
b
a+b
b
(a + b)

(1)
(2)
cos 4 x sin 4 x
a
b
a+b
1
+
=
+
=
=
a
b
(a + b)2 (a + b)2 (a + b)2 a + b

Page 43

b
, a 0 , b 0
a

tan=

cos4
3 2

sin 4
3

b2

1
=
3 2 3 2
a + b

cos4

tan 3 =

3 2

sin 4
3

b2

1
=
3 2 3 2
a + b

b
sin
tan
=

=
cos
a

b
a

cos sin

= 3
3
a
b

cos 2 sin 2 cos 2 + sin 2


= =
=
3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2
a
b
a + b

cos 2
3

1
3

a + b
2

1
3

a + b

sin 2
3

1
3

a + b
2

Page 44

cos4

sin 4
3

a2

( a + b )
3

2 2

b2

( 3 a 2 + 3 b 2 )2

cos4
3 2

sin 4
a2 + b2
+=
=
3 2
3 2 3 2 2
b
( a + b )
cos4
3 2

sin 4
3

b2

1
3 2

a + b

=
3 2 3 2
a + b

Page 45

cos4 x sin 4 x
1
+
=

a
b
a+b
a 0 , b 0 , a + b 0

cos10 x
a

sin10 x
b

1
=4
(a + b)

cos4 x sin 4 x
1
+
=

a
b
a+b

(a + b)(b cos

x + a sin 4 x) =
ab

ab cos4 x + a 2 sin4 x + b 2 cos4 x + ab sin4 x ab =


0
a 2 sin4 x + b 2 cos4 x + ab (sin 4 x + cos4 x 1 ) =
0
a 2 sin 2 x + b 2 cos4 x 2ab sin 2 xcos 2 x =
0
(asin 2 x b cos 2 x) =
0

Page 46

cos 2 x sin 2 x cos 2 x + sin 2 x


1
=
= =
a
b
a+b
a+b
cos10 x
a
cos 2 x
1
=
=

4
a
a+b
a
(a + b)5

(1)

sin10 x
a
sin 2 x
1
=
=

4
b
a+b
b
(a + b)5

(2)

(1)
(2)

cos10 x
a

sin10 x
b

cos10 x
a

a+b

(a + b)

sin10 x
b

1
(a + b)4

1
=4
(a + b)

Page 47

=
cos

a
b
c
=
, cos
=
, cos
b+c
c+a
a+b

tan 2

+ tan 2 + tan 2 =
1
2
2
2

tan 2 + tan 2 + tan 2 =


1
2

1 cos
1 + cos

=
sin 2
=
, cos 2

2
2
2
2
a
1

1 cos
b+c b+ca
=
tan 2
= =
2 1 + cos 1 + a
b+c+a
b+c

b
1
1 cos
c+a c+ab
tan 2
=
= =
2 1 + cos 1 + b
c+a+b
c+a

c
1
1 cos
a+b a+bc
=
tan 2
= =
2 1 + cos 1 + c
a+b+c
a+b

Page 48

b+ca c+ab a+bc


+ tan 2 + tan 2 =
+
+
2
2
2 a+b+c a+b+c a+b+c

b+ca+c+ab+a+bc
tan 2 + tan 2 + tan 2 =
2
2
2
a+b+c
tan 2

tan 2

a+b+c
+ tan 2 + tan 2 =
= 1
2
2
2 a+b+c

tan 2

+ tan 2 + tan 2 =
1
2
2
2

Page 49

tan 3a tan 2a tan a


tan 3a tan 2a tan a =
a

k
2

tan 3a tan 2a tan a


tan 3a tan 2a tan a =
=
3a tan(2a + a)
tan
tan 2a + tan a
1 tan 2a tan a
tan 3a(1 tan 2a tan a) =
tan 2a + tan a
tan 3a tan 3a tan 2a tan a =
tan 2a + tan a
tan 3a =

tan 3a tan 2a tan a


tan 3a tan 2a tan a =

Page 50

a ; b ; c ; d
x

sin x sin 2x sin 3x sin 4x


= = =
a
b
c
d

x k ; k Z

a 3 (4b 2 d 2 )= b 4 (3a c)

sin x sin 2x sin 3x sin 4x


= = = = t
a
b
c
d

sin x = at
sin 2x = bt
sin 3x = ct
sin 4x = dt

sin 4x = 2sin 2xcos 2x

sin 2 4x = 4sin 2 2xcos 2 2x


=
sin 2 4x 4sin 2 2x(1 sin 2 2x)
=
d 2t 2
4b 2t 2 (1 b 2t 2 )

Page 51

1
d2

=
t
1 2 (1)
2
b
4b
2

sin
=
3x 3sin x 4sin 3 x

sin
=
3x sin x(3 4sin 2 x)
=
ct at(3 4a 2t 2 )

c
t
(3 )
=

2
a
4a
2

( 2)

( 1)
( 2 )

1
d2
1

=
1

b 2
4b 2 4a 2
4b 2 d 2
4b4

3a c
4a 3

a 3b 4 a 3 (4b 2 d 2 )= b 4 (3a c)
a 3 (4b 2 d 2 )= b 4 (3a c)

Page 52

f k ( x ) =

1
(
k

sk x +i c nk ox ) k = 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; . .

f 4 ( x ) f 6 ( x ) =

1

1

f 4 ( x ) f 6 ( x ) =

1
f
x
=
(
)
(
4
4

1

1

s4 x +i c n 4 ox )

1
= [ ( s 2 xi +nc 2o x )2s 2 s i2 xnc 2o x ]
4

1
1 2 s i2 xnc 2o x s
=
4

f6 ( x ) =

1
(
6

f6 ( x ) =

1
(
6

1
1 3s
6

s6 x +i c n 6 ox )

x +sc

x )3 i 3os

i x cn

ox

nx c

i xs(

nox +sc

x)

)
Page 53

f 4 ( x ) f 6 ( x ) =

1 1 1
=
4 6 1

f 4 ( x ) f 6 ( x ) =

1

1

Page 54

a , b , c , d [ 0 ; ]

s a i+ 7ns b i= 4n( sc + 2is nd i)

c a o+ 7 c sb o= 4( s cc + 2 oc d )os

a o d ) =s7 c ( b o c )

2 c

s a i+ 7ns b i= 4n( sc + 2is nd i)



c a o+ 7 c sb o= 4( s cc + 2 oc d )os
s ai 8ns di = 4ns ci 7ns bi

c a o 8 c s d o= 4 c s c o 7 c s b
( s a i 8 sn d i)2 =n(4 s c
i 7 sn b )i2 (ni )

( c a o 8 c sd )o2 = (4 sc c o 7 c sb )o2 ( i )
(i ) (ii )

6 1 5c

1 c
2 c

a6 o d ) = 6s 5 (5c b6 o c )
a6 o d ) = s5 c ( b6 o c )

a o d ) =s7 c ( b o c )

Page 55

| a cos x + b sin x | a 2 + b 2

| a cos x + b sin x | a 2 + b 2
| a cos x + b sin x | a 2 + b 2

2
2
2
(acos x + b sin x) a + b

1
sin 2 x + cos 2 x =
(acos x + b sin x)2 (a 2 + b 2 )(sin 2 x + cos 2 x)
a 2 cos 2 x + 2ab sin xcos x + b 2 sin 2 x a 2 sin 2 x + a 2 cos 2 x + b 2 sin 2 x
+ b 2 cos 2 x

a 2 sin 2 x 2ab sin xcos x + b 2 cos 2 x 0


2
(asin x b cos x) 0

| a cos x + b sin x | a 2 + b 2

Page 56

a+ b
xs+ a c i x ) no x( + bscs x )
io1 +n s
2

a+b
(sin x + a cos x)(sin x + b cos x) 1 +

a+b
cos x = 0 sin x 1 +

- cos x 0 (1)

( 1)

cos 2 x

a + b 2 1
(tan x + a)(tan x + b) 1 +

2
cos 2 x

t = tan x

1
cos 2 x

=
1 + tan 2 x =
1 + t2

a + b 2
(t + a)(t + b) = 1 +
1 + t2

)
Page 57

a+b a+b 2
t + (a + b)t + ab 1 + t +
+
t

2 2
2

a+b 2
a+b
t

(a
+
b)t
+
1
+
2
2 ab 0

a+b
ab
t

1
2
+ 2 0

Bti
2

a+b
(sin x + a cos x)(sin x + b cos x) 1 +

2

Page 58

1 +
sin x

1
+

1 + 2ab
cos
x

a > 0 , b > 0 , 0 < x <

1 +
sin x

1
+
1 + 2ab

cos x

a
b
a
b
ab
)(1 +
)=
1+
+
+
(1 +
sin x
cos x
sin x cos x sin xcos x
AM GM

a
b
+

sin x cos x
(1 +

2 ab

sin xcos x

a
b
2 ab
ab
+
)(1 +
) 1+
sin x
cos x
sin x cos x sin x cos x

Page 59

(1 +

a
b
ab
)(1 +
) (1 +
)2
sin x
cos x
sin x cos x

(1 +

a
b
2ab 2
)(1 +
) (1 +
) (1 + 2ab )2
sin x
cos x
sin 2x

0 < x <

sin 2x 1
2

1 +
sin x

1
+
1 + 2ab

cos x

Page 60

x , y , z

cos x + cos y + cos z =


0
0
cos 3x + cos 3y + cos 3z =
cos 2xcos 2y cos 2z 0

cos 2xcos 2y cos 2z 0


=
cos 3a 4cos 3 a 3cos a
3
4cos
=
x 3cos x + cos 3x (1)
3
4cos
=
y 3cos y + cos 3y (2)
3
4cos
=
z 3cos z + cos 3z

(3)

(1) , (2) , (3)

4cos 3 x + 4cos 3 y + 4cos 3 z =


0
cos 3 x + cos 3 y + cos 3 z =
0

Page 61

( cos x + cos y + cos z =


0
0 )
cos 3x + cos 3y + cos 3z =

0
cos x + cos y + cos z =

cos z
cos x + cos y =
(cos x + cos y)3 =
cos 3 z
cos 3 x + 3cos x cos y (cos x + cos y) + cos 3 y =
cos 3 z
cos 3 z
cos 3 x 3cos x cos y cos z + cos 3 y =
cos 3 x + cos 3 y + cos 3 x =
3cos x cos y cos z
cos 3 x + cos 3 y + cos 3 z =
0 3cos xcos y cos z = 0
cos x = 0 cos y = 0 cos z = 0
cos x = 0 cos y = cos z

cos 2x cos 2y cos 2z =(2cos 2 x 1)(2cos 2 y 1)(2cos 2 z 1)


cos 2x cos 2y cos 2z =
(2cos 2 z 1)2 0

Page 62

sin4 x cos4 x
1
+

a
b
a+b

; (a > 0 , b > 0 )

sin4 x cos4 x
1

a
b
a+b
Cauchy Schwarz

sin4 x cos4 x (sin 2 x)2 (cos 2 x)2


+
=
+
a
b
a
b
sin4 x cos4 x (sin 2 x + cos 2 x)2
+

a
b
a+b
sin 2 x + cos 2 x =
1

sin4 x cos4 x
1


+

a
b
a+b

Page 63

=
f (x)
a

a sin 2 x + b cos 2 x + c + a cos 2 x + b sin 2 x + c

, b,c

a + c + b + c f (x) 2

a+b
+c
2

f (x)

a + c + b + c f (x) 2

a+b
+c
2

=
f (x)
a

a sin 2 x + b cos 2 x + c + a cos 2 x + b sin 2 x + c (1)

, b , c x IR : f (x) > 0

(1)

Page 64

=
f (x)

asin x + bcos x + c + acos x + bsin x + c

f 2 (x) = a + b + 2c + 2 (asin 2 x + bcos 2 x + c)(acos 2 x + bsin 2 x + c) (2)

A , B 0
A + B 2 A.B 2 A.B A + B

2 (a sin 2 x + b cos 2 x + c)(a cos 2 x + b sin 2 x + c) a + b + 2c


( 2 )

f 2 (x) a + b + 2c + a + b +
=
2c 4(
f (x) 2

a+b
+ c)
2

a+b
+ c (3)
2

P(x) = (asin 2 x + b cos 2 x + c)(acos 2 x + b sin 2 x + c)

Page 65

P(x) =
[ a(1 cos 2 x) + bcos 2 x + c] [acos 2 x + b(1 cos 2 x) + c]
P(x) = [(a + c) + (b a)cos 2 x] [ (b + c) (b a)cos 2 x]
P(x) = (a + c)(b + c) + (b a)2 cos 2 x (b a)2 cos4 x
P(x) = (a + c)(b + c) + (b a)2 cos 2 xsin 2 x

(b a)2 sin 2 x cos 2 x 0 , x IR

P(x) (a + c)(b + c) , x IR
(2)

f 2 (x) = a + b + 2c + 2 P(x) a + b + 2c + 2 (a + c)(b + c)


f 2 (x) (a + c) + (b + c) + 2 (a + c)(b + c)
f 2 (x) ( a + c + b + c )2
f (x)

a + c + b + c (4)

(3)
(4)

a + c + b + c f (x) 2

a+b
+ c x IR
2

Page 66

1
1
2

2
+
+
+
sin
x
cos
x

sin 2 x
cos 2 x

f (x)=

f (x)
f (x)=

(cos 2 x +

1
cos 2 x

cos4 x + 2 +

)2 + (sin 2 x +

1
cos4 x

1
sin 2 x

)2

+ sin 4 x + 2 +
1

=+
4 (cos4 x + sin 4 x) + (

sin x
=+
4 (cos4 x + sin 4 x)(1 +

1
sin4 x
1

cos x
1

sin xcos x
16
4 + (cos 2 x + sin 2 x)2 2sin 2 xcos 2 x (1 +
)
=
4

sin 2x
=

1
16
4 + (1 sin 2 2x)(1 +
)
4
2
sin 2x

Page 67

1
1
sin 2 2x 1 1 sin 2 2x
2
2

1+

16
4

sin 2x

17

1 2
16
17 25
4
+
(1

sin
2x)(1
+
)

4
+
=

4
2
2
2
sin 2x

f (x) =

1
16
5 2
4 + (1 sin 2 2x)(1 +
)

2
2
sin4 2x

m =

5 2

2

Page 68

x 60x 2 71x + 21 < 0


< 0

3x 1

sin


<0

3x
1

sin

f (x) = 60x 2 71x + 21


f (x) =0 60x 2 71x + 21 =0

= ( 71)2 4(60)(21) = 5041 5040 = 1

=
x1

71 1 7
71 + 39 3
=
=
, x2
=
120
12
120
5

f (x)= 60x 2 71x + 21 < 0

7
3
7
9

< x < < 3x <


12
5
4
5

Page 69

3
4
4
1
4
< 3x 1 <
<
<
4
5
5 3x 1 3

4

<
<
sin
<0

5
3x 1
3
3x 1

x 60x 2 71x + 21 < 0


<0

3x 1

sin

Page 70

0 < <
( sin )

cos

+ ( cos ) sin > 1

( sin )

cos

+ ( cos ) sin > 1

Bernoulli
(1 + x) 1 + x , x > 1 , > 0

1
sin

1
sin

1
sin

cos

1 sin

= 1 +
sin

cos

< 1+
cos

<

cos

cos (1 sin )
sin

sin + cos sin cos


sin

Page 71

( sin )

cos

>

sin
(1)
sin + cos sin cos

( cos )

sin

>

cos
(2)
sin + cos sin cos

(1)

(2)

( sin )

cos

+ ( cos )

sin

>

sin + cos
sin + cos sin cos

son + cos
>1
sin + cos sin cos

( sin )

cos

+ ( cos ) sin > 1

Page 72

x (0,

)
4

(cos x)cos x > (sin x)sin x

(cos x)cos x > (sin x)sin x

Bernoulli x

a
x > 1
a>1

(1 + x)a 1 + ax

0 < x <
cos x
(cos 2 x) sin x

cos x
cos x
=
(1 sin x) sin x .(1 + sin x) sin x

cos x
(1 sin x) sin x

> 1 cos x

Page 73


cos x
(1 + sin x) sin x

> 1 + cos x

cos x
(cos 2 x) sin x

> (1 cos x)(1 + cos x) =


sin 2 x

cos x
(cos x) sin x

> sin x

cos x
ln(cos x) sin x

> ln(sin x)

cos x
ln(cos x) > ln(sin x)
sin x
cos x ln(cos x) > sin x ln(sin x)
ln(cos x)cos x > ln(sin x)sin x
(cos x)cos x > (sin x)sin x

Page 74

f x IR

x) 3cos x sin x
f (x) + 2f ( =
f (x) 2 x IR

f (x) 2 x IR

x) 3cos x sin x
f (x) + 2f ( =

(1)

x x (1)

f ( x) + 2f (x)
= 3cos x + sin x

(2)

x) 3cos x sin x 1
f (x) + 2f ( =

2f (x) + f ( =
x) 3cos x + sin x 2

3f (x)

=
3cos x 3sin x

Page 75

(x) cos x + sin x


f=

=
f (x)
=
=

2
2
cos x +
sin x)
2
2

2 (sin cos x + sin x cos )


4
4

2 sin( + x)
4

2 (

x IR : sin(

+ x) 1
4

f (x) 2 x IR

Page 76

f (x;y ) = ( a cos x + b cos y ) + ( a sin x + b sin y )


2

( a > 0

, b>0

x; y IR f (x;y) (a + b)2

f (x;y ) = ( a cos x + b cos y ) + ( a sin x + b sin y )


2

= a 2 (cos 2 x + sin 2 x) + b 2 (cos 2 y + sin 2 y) + 2ab(cos xcos y + sin xsin y)


= a 2 + b 2 + 2abcos(x y)
f (x;y) = a 2 + b 2 + 2ab cos(x y)
x;y IR : cos(x y) 1

f (x) a 2 + b 2 + 2ab =(a + b)2

f (x;y) (a + b)2

Page 77

sin

cos
10
10

x 2 + (x y)2 4(x 2 + y 2 )sin 2

10

x, y IR

sin

2
10

=
sin

cos

10
10

2 10

2
3
3
= sin( ) = cos
10
2 10
10

sin 2a = 2sin acosa


cos 3a 4cos 3 a 3cos a
=

Page 78

3
cos = cos
10
10
10

3
2sin =
cos
3cos 4cos
10
10
10
10

2sin = 3 4cos 2
10
10

2sin =3 4(1 sin 2 )


10
10
2sin

4sin 2

t sin
2sin 1 =
0 =
>0
10
10
10

4t 2 2t 1 = 0 , ' = 1 + 4 = 5 > 0

1 5
1+ 5

=
t1
< 0 , t2 =
4
4
sin
cos

1+ 5
sin 2
+ cos 2
=
1
=
10
10
10
4

1+ 5 2
10 2 5
=
1(
) =
10
4
4

cos

10 2 5

=
10
4

Page 79

x 2 + (x y)2 4(x 2 + y 2 )sin 2

10

f (x;y) = x 2 + (x y)2 4(x 2 + y 2 )sin 2


f (x;y) = x 2 + x 2 2xy + y 2 4(x 2 + y 2 )(

= 2x 2 2xy + y 2 4(x 2 + y 2 )
= 2x 2 2xy + y 2 (x 2 + y 2 )

10

1+ 5 2
)
4

6+ 2 5
16

3+ 5
2

1 5 2
1+ 5 2
x 2xy
y
2
2
5 1 2
5 +1 2
=

x + 2xy +
y
2
2

5 1
x+
2

5 +1
y 0 , x, y IR

x + (x y) 4(x + y )sin
2

10

Page 80

f (x)= 4(tan 2 x + cot 2 x) 12(tan x + cot x) + 9


x ( 0 ,

) f (x)
2

f (x)
f (x)= 4(tan 2 x + cot 2 x) 12(tan x + cot x) + 9
t = tan x + cot x 2 tan x cot x = 2
t 2 = (tan x + cot x)2 = tan 2 x + cot 2 x + 2
tan 2 x + cot 2 x =
t2 2
2
2
f
(
x
)
=
4
(
t

2
)

1
t
+
9
=
(
2
2
t

3
)
8

t 2 2t 3 4 3 =
1 f (x) 1 8 =7

f (x) 7

Page 81

S =cos 3

4
7
cos 3
+ cos 3
9
9
9

S =cos

4
7
cos 3
+ cos 3
9
9
9

cos 3a
=
3
=
a
cos

4cos 3 a 3cos a

3
1
cosa + cos 3a
4
4

S=

3
4
7 1
4
7
+ cos ) + (cos cos
+ cos )
(cos cos
4
9
9
9
4
3
3
3

4
7
+ cos
M =cos cos
9
9
9
cos

4
13
=
cos
9
9

Page 82

7
13
M =cos + cos
+ cos
9
9
9

2M sin

2sin
3

7
13

sin
=2cos sin + 2cos sin + 2cos
3
9
3
9
3
9
3

2 .M

3
4
2
10
4
16
10
=sin sin( ) + sin
sin + sin
sin
2
9
9
9
9
9
9

2M

3
2
16
7
= sin + sin
= 2 sin cos( ) = 0
2
9
9
9

M = 0
N = cos
S =

4
7 1 1 1 3
cos
+ cos
= + + =
3
3
3 2 2 2 2

3
1
3
M+ N=

4
4
8

3
S =cos

4
7 3
cos 3
+ cos 3
=
9
9
9 8

Page 83

0 < b <

2
2

0 < a <

sin 2 a cos 2 a

+
=
1 a = b
sin b cos b

sin 2 a cos 2 a

+
=
1
sin b cos b

sin4 a cos4 a
(sin b + cos b)
+
=
1
sin 2 b cos 2 b

Page 84

sin a + cos a +
4

cos 2 b
sin 2 b

1 2sin a cos a +
2

sin a +

cos 2 b
sin 2 b

sin 2 b
cos 2 b

sin a +
4

cos4 a =
1

sin 2 b
cos 2 b

cos4 a =
1

sin b
cos b 2
2
sin
a
cos
a) =
0

sin b
cos
b

cos b 2
sin b
sin a =
cos 2 a
sin b
cos b

sin 2 a
2

cos a

sin 2 b
cos 2 b

tan 2 a = tan 2 b
0 < a <


a = b
0
<
b
<

2
2

Page 85


P = cos 20o cos 40o cos 80o

P = cos 20o cos 40o cos 80o

cos180o i sin180o =
1
=
z cos 20o + i sin 20o z 9 =+

1
z+
1
z2 + 1
o z+z
z
( z = )
cos=
20
= =
2
2
2z
z
z2 + z 2 z4 + 1
z4 + z 4 z8 + 1
o
cos
=
40
=
; cos
=
80
=
2
2
2
2z
2z 4
o

(z 2 + 1)(z 4 + 1)(z 8 + 1) (z 2 1)(z 2 + 1)(z 4 + 1)(z 8 + 1)


=
8z 7
8z 7 (z 2 1)

z16 1
z7 1
1
= =
=
8(z 9 z 7 ) 8( 1 z 7 ) 8
P

cos
=
20o cos 40o cos 80o

1

8

Page 86

1
1
3 1
9 1
27
1
( + cos )( + cos )( + cos )( + cos
)=
2
20 2
20 2
20 2
20
16

1
2

P =
( + cos

1
3 1
9 1
27
)( + cos )( + cos )( + cos
)
20 2
20 2
20 2
20

1
3n
=
+ cos

2
20


n = 0
3

1
2

+ cos a =

sin

1
a 1
a
+ 1 2sin 2 = (3 4sin 2 )
2
2 2
2

3a
a
a
a
a
=3sin 4sin 2 =sin (3 4sin 2 )
2
2
2
2
2

3a
sin
a
2
3 4sin 2 =
2 sin a
2

Page 87

3a
sin
1
1
+ cos a = 2
2
2 sin a
2

3n +1
3n 1 sin 40
1
3n
.
a =
+ cos
=
n

2
20
20 2 sin 3
40

P
=

n=0

3n +1
81
1 sin
1 sin
1
40 =
40
.=
.
16
2
3n 16 sin
sin

40
40

81
40

40

) sin
sin = sin(2 + =


40

1
1
3 1
9 1
27
1
( + cos )( + cos )( + cos )( + cos
)=

2
20 2
20 2
20 2
20
16

Page 88


cos

3
5
7
9 1
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
=
11
11
11
11
11 2


=
z cos

z 1 1 = 1
+ i.sin

11
11

z11 z 1 z
1
W =z + z + z + z + z =
=
=
z2 1 z2 1 1 z
3

1 z = 1 cos

i sin = 2sin (sin i cos )


11
11
22
22
22

1
1

1
=
+ i cot
W=

2
2
22
2sin (sin i cos )
22
22
22

W cos

3
5
7
9
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
11
11
11
11
11

cos

3
5
7
9 1
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
+ cos
=

11
11
11
11
11 2

Page 89

P=
(1 cot1o )(1 cot 2o )(1 cot 3o ).....(1 cot 44o )

1


1 cot a =
sin a cos
=
a

cos a sin a cos a


=
sin a
sin a

2 sin(45o a)

sin(45o a)
1 cot a =
2
sin a
P =

44o

44o

o (1 cot a ) =

=
a 1=
a

sin(45o a)
2

sin
a

1o

( )

sin 44o.sin 43o.....sin1o


22
=
2
.
2
sin1o.sin 2o......sin 44o
44

P =
(1 cot1o )(1 cot 2o ).....(1 cot 44o ) =
222

Page 90

P=
( 3 + tan1o )( 3 + tan 2o ).....( 3 + tan 29o )

P
=

(
29

3 + tan k o

k =1

3 cos k o + sin k o
3 + tan k =3 +
=
o
cos k
cos k o
sin k o

2cos(30o k o )
cos k o

2cos(30o k o )
P =

o
cos k

k =1
29

229 cos 29o cos 28o.....cos 2o cos1o


29
=
2
cos1o cos 2o.....cos 28o cos 29o
( 3 + tan1o )( 3 + tan 2o ).....( 3 + tan 29o ) =
229

Page 91


2
S =sin

2
4
+ sin 2
+ sin 2
7
7
7

2
S =sin

2
4
+ sin 2
+ sin 2
7
7
7

2
4
8
1 cos
1 cos
1 cos
7
7
7
+
+
S =
2
2
2

3 1
2
4
8
=
( cos
+ cos
+ cos
)
2 2
7
7
7

T = cos

2
4
8
+ cos
+ cos
7
7
7

5
3

) + cos ( ) + cos ( + )
7
7
7
5
3

=
cos
cos
cos
7
7
7

= cos (

Page 92

2sin

7
2T sin

=
2cos sin 2cos sin 2cos sin
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

=
2cos a sin b

sin(a + b) sin(a b)

=
2cos sin 2cos sin 2cos sin
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

6
4
4
2
2
2Tsin =
( sin
sin ) (sin
sin ) sin
7
7
7
7
7
7

= sin( ) = sin
2Tsin = sin
7
7
7
7
2T sin

1
T =
2

3 1 1
7
S = ( ) =
2 2 2
4

2
4 7
+ sin 2
+ sin 2
=
7
7
7 4

S =sin

Page 93


S = sin

2
4
8

+ sin
+ sin
7
7
7

sin

sin

2
5
4
3
8

, sin
, sin
= sin
= sin
= sin
7
7
7
7
7
7

8
4

> sin =
sin
sin
>0

7
7
7
7

5
3

+ sin
sin
>0
S = sin
7
7
7

S 2 = sin 2

5
3

5
3
5

+ sin 2
+ sin 2 + 2sin sin 2sin sin 2sin sin
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
2 5
2 3
2

M = sin

+ sin

+ sin

Page 94

2
3 1
=

2 2
3 1
=
2 2

10
6
2
+ cos
+ cos
7
7
7
2
3

cos(

+
)
+
cos(

)
+
cos(

7
7
7

3
5

( cos
)
cos cos
7
7
7

cos

5
3

cos
cos
7
7
7

cos
T =

2sin

2T sin

=
2cos sin 2cos sin 2cos sin
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

=
2cos a sin b

sin(a + b) sin(a b)

=
2cos sin 2cos sin 2cos sin
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

6
4
4
2
2
2Tsin =
( sin
sin ) (sin
sin ) sin
7
7
7
7
7
7

2Tsin = sin
= sin( ) = sin
7
7
7
7
2T sin

Page 95

T =
N = 2sin

1
3 1 7
M = + =
2
2 4 4

5
3
5

sin
2sin sin 2sin sin
7
7
7
7
7
7

2
8
4
6
2
4
cos
cos
+ cos
cos
+ cos
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
8

cos
0
=
cos
=
2sin .sin( ) =
7
7
7
= cos

S 2 = M + N =
S =

7
7
+0=
S > 0
4
4

S = sin

2
4
8
7
+ sin
+ sin
=

7
7
7
2

Page 96

8cos 3

n
n
n
1
+ 4( 1)n cos 2
4cos
+ ( 1)n +=
0 , n IN
7
7
7

3n
sin 4n
= sin (n
)
7

2n
2n
3n
3n
cos
sin(n )cos
cos(n )
=
sin
7
7
7
7
n
n
n
n
n
4sin cos
( 2cos 2
) ( 1)n
1 ) =0 (3sin
4sin 3
7
7
7
7
7
n
n
n
n
n
4sin cos (2cos 2
1 ) = ( 1)n .sin
(3 4sin 2
)
7
7
7
7
7
n
n
n
8cos 3
)]
4cos
= ( 1)n . [ 3 4 ( 1 cos 2
7
7
7
n
n
n
8cos 3
4cos
= ( 1)n .4cos 2
+ ( 1)n
7
7
7
n
n
n
+ 4( 1)n cos 2
4cos
+ ( 1)n +1 =0
8cos 3
7
7
7
2sin

8cos 3

n
n
n
1
+ 4( 1)n cos 2 4cos + ( 1)n +=
0 , n IN
7
7
7

Page 97

S =cos 3

3
5
T =cos4 + cos4 3 + cos4 5
+ cos 3
+ cos 3
7
7
7
7
7
7

cos

3
5

, cos
, cos
7
7
7

(E) : 8x 3 4x 2 4x + 1 =
0

3
5
+ cos
+ cos
7
7
7

3
3
5

5
N =cos cos
+ cos cos
+ cos cos
7
7
7
7
7
7

M =cos

3
5

P = cos cos cos


7
7
7

Q =cos 2

3
5
+ cos 2
+ cos 2
7
7
7

S
T

Page 98

cos

3
5

, cos
, cos
7
7
7

(E) : 8x 3 4x 2 4x + 1 =
0
=
xn cos

2n 1
=
, n 1 , 2 , 3 (E)
7

(2n 1)
(2n 1)
(2n 1)
4cos 2
4cos
+1=
0
7
7
7
(2n 1)
(2n 1)
(2n 1)
1 ) + 1 4 (1 sin 2
4cos
( 2cos 2
)=
0
7
7
4
(2n 1)
2(2n 1)
(2n 1)
( 3 4sin 2
4cos
cos
)=
0
7
7
7
2(2n 1)
4(2n 1)
(2n 1)
(2n 1)
4sin 3
sin
sin
3sin
7
7
7
7
=0
4.

(2n 1)
2(2n 1)
(2n 1)
2sin
2sin
sin
7
7
7
4(2n 1)
3(2n 1)
sin
sin
7
7

=
0 (*)
(2n 1)
(2n 1)
sin
sin
7
7
(2n 1)
n IN : sin
0
7
8cos 3

Page 99

( * )
4(2n 1)
3(2n 1)
sin
=
0
7
7
(2n 1)
(2n 1)
2sin
cos
=0
7
2

sin

0 = 0
cos

3
5
(E)
, cos
, cos
7
7
7

M , N , P

3
5

x1 cos
=
=
, x 2 cos
=
, x 3 cos
7
7
7
8x 3 4x 2 4x + 1 =
0

b
1
=
+
a
2
c
1
N=
x1x 2 + x 2x 3 + x1x 3 =
=

a
2

M=
x1 + x 2 + x 3 =

x1x 2x 3 =

P =

d
1
=

a
8

Page 100

3
5 1
+ cos
+ cos
=
7
7
7
2

3
3
5

5
1
N=
cos cos
+ cos cos
+ cos cos
=

7
7
7
7
7
7
2

M =cos

3
5
1
P = cos cos cos
=
7
7
7
8

Q =cos 2

3
5

+ cos 2
+ cos 2
7
7
7

Q = x12 + x 22 + x 32

= (x1 + x 2 + x 3 )2 2(x1x 2 + x 2x 3 + x1x 3 )


1
1
5
=M 2 2N = 2 ( ) =
4
2
4
Q =cos 2

3
5 5
+ cos 2
+ cos 2
=
7
7
7 4

S
T
S =cos 3

3
5
+ cos 3
+ cos 3
7
7
7

Page 101

S = x1

+ x23 + x33

3
5
x1 cos
(E)
=
=
, x 2 cos
=
, x 3 cos
7
7
7

8x 3 4x 2 4x + 1 =
0 (1)
1
1
1

8x 2 3 4x 2 2 4x 2 + 1 =
0 (2)

3
2
0 (3)
8x 3 4x 3 4x 3 + 1 =
(1) , (2) , (3)
8 ( x13 + x 23 + x 33 ) 4(x12 + x 22 + x 32 ) 4(x1 + x 2 + x 3 ) + 3 =
0
8 S 4Q 4 M + 3 =
0

5 1
Q+M 3 4 + 2 3 7 3 1
S =
=
= =
2
8
2
8 8 8 2
S =cos 3

3
5 1
+ cos 3
+ cos 3
=
7
7
7 2

T = cos4

3
5
+ cos4
+ cos4
= x14 + x 24 + x 34
7
7
7

Page 102

(1) , (2) , (3) x1 , x 2 , x 3

8x 4 4x 3 4x 2 + x =
1
1
1
1 0 (1')

4
3
2
0 (2')
8x 2 4x 2 4x 2 + x 2 =

4
3
2
8x

4x

4x
0 (3')

3
3
3 + x2 =
(1') , (2') , (3')

8 T 4 S 4 Q+M =
0
T =

S+Q M 7 1 3

= =
2
8 8 8 4

T =cos4

3
5 3
+ cos4
+ cos4
=
7
7
7 4

Page 103


cos7 x + cos7 (x +

2
4
63
) + cos7 (x +
)=
cos 3x
3
3
64

cos7 x + cos7 (x +

2
4
63
) + cos7 (x + ) =
cos 3x
3
3
64

En (x) =cosn x + cosn (x +

2
4
) + cosn (x + ) (i)
3
3

=
cos 3x 4cos 3 x 3cos x
3
=
x
cos

3
1
cos x + cos 3x
4
4

cosn 3 x

cosn x
=

3 n 2
1
cos
x + cos 3xcosn 3 x (1)
4
4

Page 104

2
3 n 2
2 1
2
cosn (x +=
)
cos (x + ) + cos 3xcosn 3 (x + ) (2)
3
4
3
4
3
4
3 n 2
4 1
4
cosn (x +=
)
cos (x + ) + cos 3xcosn 3 (x + ) (3)
3
4
3
4
3
(1); (2)
(3)

En (x)
=

3
1
En 2 (x) + cos 3x En 3 (x) (ii)
4
4

=
n 0=
; n 1=
, n 2
(i)
E0 (x) = 3
E1 (x) =cos x + cos(x +

2
4
) + cos(x + )
3
3

1
3
1
3
E1 (x) =
cos x cos x
sin x cos x +
sin x =0
2
2
2
2
1
3
1
3
E2=
(x) cos 2 x + ( cos x
sin x)2 + ( cos x +
sin x)2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
E2 (x) = cos 2 x + sin 2 x =
2
2
2

Page 105

=
n 3=
; n 4=
, n 5=
; n 7
(ii)
3
1
3
E3 (x) =
E1 (x) + cos 3x E0 (x) =
cos 3x
4
4
4
3
1
9
E4 (x) =
E2 (x) + cos 3xE1 (x) =
4
4
8
3
1
9
3
15
E5 (x) = E3 (x) + cos 3x E2 (x) = cos 3x + cos 3x = cos 3x
4
4
16
8
16
3
1
45
9
63
E7 (x) = E5 (x) + cos 3x E4 (x) = cos 3x + cos 3x = cos 3x
4
4
64
32
64
cos7 x + cos7 (x +

2
4
63
) + cos7 (x + ) =
cos 3x
3
3
64

Page 106

cos x + cos y + cos z


cos(x + y + z)

sin x + sin y + sin z


= a
sin(x + y + z)

a
cos(x + y) + cos(y + z) + cos(z + x) =

a
cos(x + y) + cos(y + z) + cos(z + x) =
ix

=
u e=
, v eiy
=
, w eiz

u + v +=
w

( cos x + cos y + cos z ) + i ( sin x + sin y + sin z )

z)
uvw
= ei(x + y +=
cos(x + y + z) + i sin(x + y + z)

cos x + cos y + cos z sin x + sin y + sin z


= = a
cos(x + y + z)
sin(x + y + z)

(cos x + cos y + cos z) + i(sin x + sin y + sin z)


=a
cos(x + y + z) + i cos(x + y + z)

Page 107

u+ v+w
=a
uvw
1
1
1
+
+
=
a
vw uw uv
e i(y + z) + e i(x + z) + e i(x + y) =
a

cos(x + y) + cos(y + z) + cos(z + x) =


a
0

sin(x + y) + sin(y + z) + sin(z + x) =

a
cos(x + y) + cos(y + z) + cos(z + x) =

Page 108

x ]0; [

3 1
3 +1
+
=
4 2
sin x
cos x

x ]0; [

3 1
3 +1
+
=
4 2 (1)
sin x
cos x

12



3 4

= sin

sin

= sin cos sin cos


3
4
4
3
=

3 2
2 1
.

. =
2 2
2 2

6 2
4



cos
=
cos

12
3 4

Page 109

= cos cos + sin sin


3
4
3
2
1 2
3 2
6+ 2
=.
+
.
=
2 2
2 2
4
(1)

3 1
3 +1
2 2 + 2 2 =
2
sin x
cos x
6 2
6+ 2
4
4
+
=
2
sin x
cos x

sin
cos
12 +
12 =
2
sin x
cos x

sin cos x + sin xcos =


2sin xcos x
12
12

sin + x =
sin 2x
12

0 < x <
x {

11

x =
x =
36
2
12

11
;
}
12
36

Page 110

64x6 112x4 + 56x 2 7= 2 1 x 2

64x6 112x4 + 56x 2 7= 2 1 x 2

(1)

1 x 2 0 x [1 , 1 ]

=
4a cos(a + 3a)
cos

= cosacos 3a sinasin 3a
= cosa(4cos 3 a 3cosa) sina(3sina 4sin 3 a)
= 4cos4 a 3cos 2 a 3sin 2 a + 4sin4 a
= 4cos4 a + 4(1 cos 2 a)2 3(cos 2 a + sin 2 a)
= 8cos4 a 8cos 2 a + 1
cos
=
5a cos(a + 4a)

Page 111

= cos acos 4a sin asin 4a


= cos a(8cos4 a 8cos 2 a + 1) 2sin asin 2acos 2a
= 8cos5 a 8cos 3 a + cos a 4sin 2 acos a(2cos 2 a 1)
= 8cos5 a 8cos 3 a + cos a 4(1 cos 2 a)(2cos 3 a cos a)
=
16cos5 20cos 3 a + 5cos a

cos
6a 2cos 2 =
3a 1 2(4cos 3 a 3cos a)2 1
=
= 32cos6 a 48cos4 a + 18cos 2 a 1
cos=
7a cos(6a +=
a) cos 6acosa sin 6asin a
= cosacos 6a 2sin asin 3acos 3a
=
cosacos 6a 2sin a(3sin a 4sin 3 a)(4cos 3 a 3cosa)
= 64cos7 a 112cos5 a + 56cos 3 a 7cosa
x = cos t t [ 0 , ] (1)

64cos6 t 112cos4 t + 56cos 2 t 7= 2 1 cos 2 t


64cos6 t 112cos4 t + 56cos 2 t 7 =
2sin t
cos t 0

Page 112

64cos7 t 112cos5 t + 56cos 3 t 7cos t =


2sin t cos t
cos 7t = sin 2t

=
cos
7t cos( 2t)
2

7t
=
2t + 2k

7t =
+ 2t + 2k ' , k;k ' Z

2
2k

t
=
18 + 9

2k '
t =
, k ; k ' Z
+

10
9

t [ 0 , ] t

5 9 13 17 3 7
; ; ;
;
; ;
} cos t 0
18 18 18 18 18 10 10

t (1)
2

t {

x { cos

5
13
17
3
7
;cos ;cos
;cos
;cos ;cos
}
18
18
18
18
10
10

Page 113

tan6 x + (tan 2 x + 1)3 + (tan 2 x + 2)3 = (tan 2 x + 3)3

tan 6 x + (tan 2 x + 1)3 + (tan 2 x + 2)3 = (tan 2 x + 3)3

+ k , k Z
2

=
t tan 2 x , t 0
t 3 + (t + 1)3 + (t + 2)3 = (t + 3)3
t 3 + (t 3 + 3t 2 + 3t + 1) + (t 3 + 6t 2 + 12t + 8) =t 3 + 9t 2 + 27t + 27
3t 3 + 9t 2 + 15t + 9 =t 3 + 9t 2 + 27t + 27
2(t 3 6t 9)

=
0

(t 3 27) (6t 18) =


0
(t 3)(t 2 + 3t + 9) 6(t 3) =
0
(t 3)(t 2 + 3t + 3) =
0

Page 114

t 3 = 0 t = 3

0 = 9 12 < 0
t + 3t + 3 =
2

t = 3 tan 2 x = 3

tan 2 x 3 =
0
(tan x 3)(tan x + 3) =
0
tan x 3 =
0 tan x = 3
x =

+ k , k Z
3


0 tan x = 3
tan x + 3 =
x =

+ k , k Z
3

Page 115

4sin (x + ) cos (x + ) = 3 + 2 2
4
12

4sin (x +

) cos (x + ) =
4
12

3+ 2 2

2sin a cosb= sin(a + b) + sin(a b)

2 sin(x + + x + ) + sin(x + x ) = 3 + 2 2
4
12
4
12

2 sin(2x + ) + sin = (1 + 2)2


3
6

2sin(2x + ) + 1 = 1 + 2
3
2

sin(2x + ) =
3
2

Page 116

2x
+
= + 2k

3 4

2x + = + 2k

3
4

x =

, kZ

5
+ k , x = + k ; k Z
24
24

Page 117

cos(n
=
+ 1)x 2cos xcos(nx) cos(n 1)x

, x IR , n IN

cos 7x cos x

128cos7 x 244cos5 x + 112cos 3 x 14cos x 1 =


0

=
+ 1)x 2cos xcos(nx) cos(n 1)x
cos(n
cos(n + 1)x + cos(n 1)x =
2cos

(n + 1)x (n 1)x
(n + 1)x + (n 1)x
.cos
2
2

2cos x.cos(nx)
cos(n + 1)x + cos(n 1)x =

cos(n
=
+ 1)x 2cos x cos(nx) cos(n 1)x

Page 118

cos 7x cos x

=
+ 1)x
cos(n

2cos xcos(nx) cos(n 1)x

cos 2x
n = 1 =

2cos 2 x 1

= 2 cos 3x
n=

2cos xcos 2x cos x

= 2cos x(2cos 2 x 1) cos x


= 4cos 3 x 3cos x

=
3 cos 4x 2cos xcos 3x cos 2x
n =
= 2cos x(4cos 3 x 3cos x) (2cos 2 x 1)

= 8cos4 x 8cos 2 x + 1

= 4 cos 5x 2cos xcos 4x cos 3x


n =

= 2cos x(8cos4 x 8cos 2 x + 1) (4cos 3 x 3cos x)


= 16cos5 x 20cos 3 x + 5cos x

Page 119

=
n =
5 cos 6x 2cos xcos 5x cos 4x
= 2cos x(16cos5 x 20cos 3 x + 5cos x) (8cos4 x 8cos 2 x + 1)
= 32cos6 x 48cos4 x + 18cos 2 x 1

=
6 cos 7x 2cos xcos 6x cos 5x
n =
cos 7x = 64cos x 112cos x + 56cos x 7cos x
7

128cos7 x 244cos5 x + 112cos 3 x 14cos x 1 =


0 (1)
(1) 2

1
=
0
2
1
cos 7x =
2

64cos7 x 112cos5 x + 56cos 3 x 7cos x

7x =

21

x = +

2k

+
, kZ
+ 2k x =
21
7
3

2k
2k '
, x=
+
; k;k ' Z
7
21
7

Page 120

tan


sin 2 x 2 sin x.cos x + ( 2 1) cos 2 x =
0

tan x + 2 1
1

=
1 ( 2 1) tan x
3

tan
tan 2a =

2tan a
1 tan 2 a

2tan

a =

tan =
4 1 tan 2
8

Page 121

1=

2tan

1 tan 2

tan 2

+ 2tan
1 =
0
8
8

t = tan t > 0
8
t 2 + 2t 1 = 0 ; ' = 1 + 1 = 2
t1 =1 + 2

tan=
8

2 1

, t 2 =1 2 < 0 (
)


sin 2 x 2 sin x.cos x + ( 2 1) cos 2 x =
0
cos 2 x 0

tan 2 x 2 tan x + ( 2 1) =
0 .
t = tan x

0
t 2 2 t + ( 2 1) =
0 a + b + c =

Page 122

=
t1 1 ; =
t2

- t = 1
-=t
x =

2 1

tan x = 1 x =

2 1 tan=
x

+ k , k Z
4

2 1

+ k , k Z
8

x =

+ k , x =
+ k , k Z
4
8

tan x + 2 1
1
=
1 ( 2 1) tan x
3

tan=

2 1

8 = 3

3
1 tan x.tan
8

tan(x + ) =
tan
8
6
tan x + tan

x +

=
+ k x=
+ k , k Z
8 6
24

Page 123

cos

cos
12
12

2+3 6
3
2
cos
x
3cos
xcos
y
+
=

8

23 6
3cos 2 xcos y cos 3 y
+
=

cos

12

cos
= cos(


cos

12
12


)
3 4

= cos cos + sin sin


3
4
3
4

1 2
3 2
2+ 6
=.
+
.
=
2 2
2 2
4

Page 124

7
12

= cos(

cos


+ )
3 4

= cos cos sin sin


3
4
3
4

1 2
3 2
2 6
=.

.
=
2 2
2 2
4

=
cos
12

2+ 6
7
, cos
=
4
12

2
4

2+3 6
3
2
cos
x
3cos
x
cos
y
(1)
+
=

8

23 6

2
3
+
=
3cos
x
cos
y
cos
y
(2)

8
(1) (2)

2 2
cos 3 x + 3cos 2 xcos y + 3cos xcos 2 y + cos 3 y =
8

2
( cos x + cos y )3 =
( )3
2
2
cos x + cos y =(3)
2

Page 125

(1)

(2)

6 6
cos 3 x 3cos 2 xcos y + 3cos xcos 2 y cos 3 y =
8
6
( cos x cos y )3 =
( )3
2
6
cos x cos y =(4)
2
(3)

(4)

2+ 6
2
2+ 6
cos x =
4

2cos x =

cos x = cos

12

x =

+ 2k , k Z
12

(3)

(4)

2 6
2
2 6
cos y =
4

2cos y =

Page 126

cos y = cos
x =

7
12

y =

7
+ 2k , k Z
12

y
=

+ 2k , k Z
+ 2k , k Z

12
12

Page 127

5
8

3
8

+ cos 4x
sin 6 x + cos6 x =

13
16

1
4

+ sin 3 2x
(sin 3 x + cos 3 x)2 =

5
8

3
8

+ cos 4x
sin 6 x + cos6 x =
2

sin 2 x + cos=
x 1

; x IN

( sin 2 x + cos 2 x )3 =
1

sin 6 x + 3sin 4 x cos 2 x + 3sin 2 x cos4 x + cos6 x =


1
sin 6 x + cos6 x + 3sin 2 x cos 2 x ( sin 2 x + cos 2 x) =
1
sin 6 x + cos6 x + 3sin 2 x cos 2 x =
1
3
sin 6 x + cos6 x + sin 2 2x =
1
4
3 1 cos 4x
sin 6 x + cos6 x + (
)=
1
4
2
3 3
5 3
sin 6 x + cos6 x =1 + cos 4x = + cos 4x
8 8
8 8

Page 128

13
16

1
4

+ sin 3 2x
(sin 3 x + cos 3 x)2 =
13
16

sin6 x + 2sin 3 xcos 3 x + cos6 x = + 2sin 3 xcos 3 x

5 3
13
1
+ cos 4x =
cos 4x =
8 4
16
2
4x =

+
, kZ
+ 2k x =
12 2
3

Page 129

(E) : x 2 + (

1
2
2) x +
1 =
0
cos
3

0 <

2
(E) tan a

tan b

. a + b =
4

(E)

tan

12

Page 130

a+b=
.

4
tan a
tan b (E)

tan a + tan b =
2

1
(1)
cos

b

tan a tan=

2
1 (2)
3
tan a + tan b
(3)
1 tan a tan b

tan(a + b) =

(1)
(2) (3)

1
2
3 (2cos 1)
cos
tan(a
=
+ b)
=
2
1 (
1) (2 3 2)cos
3

a + b =

Page 131

3(2cos 1)
= 1
(2 3 2)cos

2 3 cos =
3 2 3 cos 2cos
cos =

3
2

0 < =
2

(E)

2
2

2
2) x +
1=
0
= (E) x + (
6
3
3
=
(

2
2
2)2 4(
1)
3
3

4(7 4 3) 4(2 3)2


=

=
3
3

1
(
x1 =
2

1
x2 = (
2

x1=

2
42 3
)=
+ 2+
3
3

1
3

2
42 3
+ 2
)= 2 3
3
3

1
, x 2= 2 3
3

Page 132

tan
x1=
tan a =

12

1
, x 2= 2 3
3

1

tan b= 2
3

tan a =
a =

a
+
b
=

6
4
3


a= =
b =
4
4 3 12
tan

= 2 3
12

Page 133

(P) =
: y f (x)
= x 2 sin 2(1 + sin )x + 5 sin
0 < <

(P)

(P) =
: y f (x)
= x 2 sin 2(1 + sin )x + 5 sin
(P)

f (x) > 0 , x IR

Page 134

af > 0

' < 0
a=
f

sin > 0 ; ] 0 ; [

'
=
(1
+
sin

)
sin (5 sin )

' = 1 + 2sin + sin 2 5sin + sin 2


=
' 2sin 2 3sin + 1
=
' (2sin 1)(sin 1)
' < 0

1
< sin < 1 0 < <
2

<

<


6
2
(P)

< <

6
2

Page 135

0
(E) : x 2 (m 2 m) x m + 2 =
tan a

tan b

a+b=
. m

. m
. tan

12

. m
a+b=

=
(m 2 m)2 + 4m 8 0
tan a
tan b

Page 136

tan a + tan b =
m 2 m (1)

m + 2 (2)
tan a .tan b =
tan a + tan b
tan(a + b) =
1 tan a.tan b

tan

tan a + tan b
=
3
1 tan a.tan b
tan a + tan b
3 =
(3)
1 tan a.tan b

(1)
(2) (3)

m2 m
3=
m 2 (1 + 3) m + 3 =
0
1+ m 2

0
a + b + c =
=
m1 1=
, m2

- m = 1
- m =

= (12 1)2 + 4.1 9 = 4 < 0

( )

3 = (3 3)2 + 4 3 8 = 4 2 3 > 0

m = 3

Page 137

. m

0
m = 3 x 2 (3 3)x 3 + 2 =
0 x1= 1 , x 2= 2 3
a + b + c =
. tan

12

=
x1 tan
=
a 1 a =
4

a + b = b =


=
3 4 12

x 2= tan b= tan

= 2 3
12

tan

= 2 3
12

Page 138

0
(E) : x 3 (2m + 3)x 2 + 5x 3m + 2 =
tan , tan , tan
. A =

sin( + + )
m
cos cos cos

. m A = 4
. (E) m

. A =

A=

sin( + + )
m
cos cos cos

sin[ + ( + )]

cos cos cos

Page 139

sin cos( + ) + sin( + )cos


cos cos cos
sin cos cos sin sin sin + sin cos cos + sin cos cos
=
cos cos cos
= tan tan tan tan + tan + tan
= tan + tan + tan tan tan tan
=

tan , tan , tan (E)

2m + 3
tan + tan + tan=


tan tan + tan tan + tan tan = 5

tan tan tan=


3m 2

A =2m + 3 (3m 2) =m + 5

m + 5
A =
A=4
. m

m + 5
A =

4 m = 1
m + 5 =

Page 140

. (E)

0
m = 1 (E): x 3 5x 2 + 5x 1 =
x 3 5x 2 + 5x 1 = (x 1)(x 2 4x + 1)

x=1
(x 1)(x 4x + 1) =
0 2
0
x 4x + 1 =
2

' = 4 1 = 3

x1 =
2 3 , x2 =
2+ 3

x { 2 3 ; 1 , 2 + 3 }

Page 141

m
(E) : cos 3 xcos 3x + sin 3 xsin 3x =
. m =

3 3
8

. m

. m =

3 3
8

sin
=
3x 3sin x 4sin 3 x

=
sin 3 x

1
(3sin x sin 3x)
4


=
cos 3x 4cos 3 x 3cos x

=
cos 3 x

1
(3cos x + cos 3x)
4

(E)

Page 142

1
1
(3cos x + cos 3x)cos 3x + (3sin x sin 3x)sin 3x =
m
4
4
3cos x cos 3x + cos 2 3x + 3sin x sin 3x sin 2 3x =
4m
3(cos 3x cos x + sin 3x sin x) + (cos 2 3x sin 2 3x) =
4m
3cos 2x + cos 6x =
4m
4cos 3 2x = 4m
cos 2x = 3 m
m =

3
3 3
cos 2x =
2
8

x =

+ k ,k Z
12

. m
1 3 m 1
m [ 1 , 1]

Page 143

log 2 2 (sin x) + log

3
(2sin
x) =
0
2

log 2 2 (sin x) + log

3
(2sin
x) =
0
2

sin x > 0 2k < x < + 2k , k Z


log 2 2 (sin x) + log

3
(sin
x) + log
2

log 2 2 (sin x) + 3log

2=
0

(sin x) + 2 =
0

t = log 2 (sin x) t 2 + 3t + 2 =
0
b= a + c t1 =
1 , t 2 =
2

Page 144

- t =

1 log

sin x =

(sin x) = 1

1
2

x
=
+ 2k

3
x=
+ 2k = + 2k , k Z

4
4

- t =

2 log

sin x =

(sin x) = 2

1
2

=
+ 2k
x

5
x=
+ 2k = + 2k , k Z

6
6

Page 145

(Un ) IN

1 1 Un 2
2

2

U 0=
=
Un +1
2

, n IN

Un n

Un n

=
U

2
= sin
2
4

1 1 U0
=
2
2

=
U1

1 1 sin 2
4 sin
=
2
8

p Up = sin p + 2
2

(p + 1) Up + 1 = sin p + 3

Page 146

Up +1 =

1 1 Up 2
2

Up = sin p + 2
2

Up +1 =

1 1 sin 2

2p + 2

1 cos p + 2
2
= =

2

= sin p + 3
2
Un = sin

2n + 2

2sin 2

2p + 3
2

Page 147

an 2 5
a0 = 2 + 3 + 6
an + 1 =
2(an + 2)
n 0

2n 3
=
an cot
2 n IN
3

2n 3

=
2
an cot
3

n = 0
=
a0 cot

2
24

2
+
cos
2cos
1
cos

24
24
12
= =
=
cot

24 sin
2sin cos
sin
24
24
24
12

6+ 2
1 + cos( ) 1 +
4+ 6 + 2
3 4
4
=
=
=

6 2
6 2
sin( )
3 4
4

Page 148

4( 6 + 2) + ( 6 + 2)2
cot
=
24
4
4( 6 + 2) + 8 + 4 3
=
4
=2 + 2 + 3 + 6
a0 =

2+ 3+ 6

2n 3
an cot
=
2
n = 0
3

2k 3

k ak cot
=
2

k + 1

2k 2
=
2
ak +1 cot

3

2k 3
ak 2 5
ak + 1 =
ak cot
=
2
3
2(ak + 2)

Page 149

2k 3

cot
2 5

ak + 1 =
2k 3
2cot
3

2k 3
2k 3
cot
4cot
1
3
3

ak + 1 =
2k 3
2cot
3

2k 3
1
cot
3

2
k
3

2cot
2

cot 2 a 1
cot 2a =
2cot a

2k 2

=
2
ak +1 cot

3

2n 3
an cot
=
2
3

Page 150

=
2 2cos 2 , =
2 + 2 2cos 3 , 2 + =
2 + 2 2cos 4
2

=
2 2cos 2 , =
2 + 2 2cos 3 ,

2
2

2+ 2+ 2 =
2cos

24

2 + 2 + 2 + ......... + 2 =
2cos n + 1

(n)

Page 151

An =

2 + 2 + 2 + ...... + 2 n IN

(n)

A
=

=
2 2cos

Ap = 2 + 2 + 2 + ...... + 2 = 2cos p +1

2
(p)

p + 1 Ap + 1 = 2cos p + 2

Ap +=

2 + Ap

Ap = 2cos p + 1
2
Ap +1 =
2 + 2cos

2p +1

=
4cos 2

2p + 2

=
2cos p + 2

2 + 2 + 2 + ......... + 2 =
2cos n + 1

(n)

Page 152

(Un ) Un = 2 .sin

n
4

n IN

2.cos

(n + 1)
n
n
= cos
sin

4
4
4

=
Un ( 2)n cos

n
(n + 1)
( 2)n +1 cos

4
4

Sn = U1 + U 2 + U 3 + ......... + Un n

(n + 1)
n
n
sin

- 2.cos = cos
4
4
4

+ b) cos acos b sin asin b


cos(a=

Page 153

(n + 1)
2 cos=
4

n
+ )
4 4
n

2(cos cos i sin sin )


4
4
4
4

2 cos(

=
2 cos

(n + 1)
2
n
2
n
n
n
=
2(
cos

sin ) =
cos
sin
4
2
4
2
4
4
4

2.cos

(n + 1)
n
n
= cos
sin
4
4
4

=
Un ( 2)n cos

n
(n + 1)
( 2)n +1 cos
4
4

(n + 1)
n
n
sin
2.cos = cos

4
4
4
n
4

sin
= cos

n
(n + 1)
2 cos
4
4

( 2)n

n
4

2)n sin
( 2)n cos
(=
n
=

Un ( 2 ) cos

n
(n + 1)
( 2)n +1 cos
4
4

n
(n + 1)
( 2 )n + 1 cos
4
4

Page 154

Sn = U1 + U 2 + U 3 + ......... + Un

n

Sn
=

k
(k + 1)

k
k +1
(
2)
cos

(
2)
cos

4
4

k =1

2 cos

(n + 1)

( 2)n +1 cos
4
4

Sn = 1 ( 2 )n + 1 cos

(n + 1)
4

Page 155

f IN IR

= 2f (n) + tan n + 2
f (0) = 0
f (n + 1)
2
f (n) ?

f (n )
f (n + 1) = 2f (n ) + t

a n+ 2
2

2n

1
1
1
f
(
n
)
f
(
n
)
=
+
t
n
n 1
n
2
2
2
t
t

2a =a

2t
1 t

a a
n=
2
a at

an+ 2
2

(1)n

2t n a a
n2
=
a c a an t o2 ana c at t noa

a = c n a o 2 c t 2ao a =

2n + 2

Page 156

an+ 2 = cn n+o2 2 c t n+o1


2
2
2

(2 )

() ()

1
1
1
f
(
n
1
)
f
(
n
)
+

=
c
n
n 1
n
2
2
2

2n + 2

n 1

n 1 1
1
1
[ k f (k + 1) k 1 f (k ) = ][ k c
2
k =0 2
k =0 2

f (n ) 2f (0) =
n 1

c
n 1

2n + 1

c
n 1

2k + 2

o f (n ) = ct

t n+1
2
1
o k 1 c
2

t ]
k +1

2n + 1

f (n) = cot n + 1
2

Page 157

(Un ) n

U 0 = 1
Un +1 Un cos a + sin a
n IN : =
0 < a <

=
. V
n Un cot

a
(Vn )
2

lim Un
. lim (V0 + V1 + .... + Vn )

n +

n +

. (Vn )

=
V
n Un cot

a
a
V
=
U

cot
n +1
n +1
2
2


=
Un +1 Un cos a + sin a
Vn +=
1 Un cos a + sin a cot

a
2

Page 158

a
a
a
=
Un cos a + 2sin cos cot
2
2
2
a
a
a
a
=
Un cos a + cot (2sin cos tan 1)
2
2
2
2
a
sin
a
a
a
2 1)
Un cos a + cot (2sin cos
=
2
2
2 cos a
2
a
a
a
Un cos a + cot (2sin 2 1)
; cos a =
1 2sin 2
=
2
2
2
a
a
Un cos a cot cos a =
(Un cot )cos a
=
2
2
= Vn cos a
Vn + 1 = Vn cos a (Vn )

U 0 cot
cos a
V0 =

a
a
1 cot
=
2
2

. lim (V0 + V1 + .... + Vn ) lim Un


n +

n +

1 qn + 1
a 1 cosn +1 a
V0 + V1 + ... + Vn = V0
= (1 cot ).
1q
2
1 cos a

Page 159

a 1 cosn +1 a
lim (V0 + V1 + .... +=
Vn ) lim (1 cot )

2 1 cos a
n +
n +
0 < a <

0 < cos a < 1


lim cosn +1 a = 0

2
n +

a
1 cot
2
lim (V0 + V1 + .... + Vn ) =
1 cos a
n +

=
V
n Un cot

a
a
V
+
cot
U=
n
n
2
2
a
2

Vn =V0 qn =(1 cot )cosn a

a
2

Un =
(1 cot )cosn a + cot
lim Un=
n +

a
2

a
a
a

lim (1 cot )cosn a + cot = cot


2
2
2
n +

lim cosn a = 0
n +

lim Un = cot
n +

a

2
Page 160

(Zn )

1+ i 3
Z
=
0
2
( | Zn | Zn

1
Z
=
Z + | Zn | ) ; n IN
n +1 2 ( n

Zn =n (cos n + i.sin n ) , n IN
n > 0 , n ; n IR
- n
n + 1
n
n + 1
- (n ) n n

1
2
n 1
- n =0 cos 0 cos cos ....cos
2
2
2
n n

Page 161

- n n + 1 n n + 1
Zn =n (cos n + i.sin n )
Zn + 1 =
n +1 (cos n +1 + i sin n +1 )

Zn + 1
=

1
( Zn + | Zn | )
| Z n | = n
2

)
n +1 (cos n +1 + i sin n +1=

1
(cos n + i.sin n ) + n
2 n

1
n +1 (cos n +1 + i.sin n +1 ) =n (1 + cos n + i.sin n )
2

n +1 (cos n +1 + i.sin n +1 ) =
n cos n (cos n + i.sin n )
2
2
2

n+1 = n c o ns

n+1 =

n
2

n
n
n + 1 =

cos

n +1
n
2

Page 162

- (n ) n n

1
n + 1 = n
2
( n ) q =

n =0 qn

1+ i 3

=cos + i.sin
2
3
3

Z0 =0 (cos 0 + i sin 0 ) =
0 = 1 ; 0 =

n = . n
3 2
3

- n =0 cos 0 cos 1 cos 2 ....cos n


2

n cos n n +1 = cos n
n + 1 =
2

k=
n 1
n 1
k + 1 k =

cos( k )
=

k
=

0=
k

= cos 0 .cos 1 .cos 2 .........cos n 1


0
2
2
2

Page 163

n =0 cos 0 cos

cos 2 ....cos n 1
2
2
2

n
n
n
sin =
=

2sin
cos
2sin
cos
n
n +1
2

n
( n +1 =
) cos n = 1 .
2

sin n
2 sin n +1

sin n 1
1 sin 0 sin 1
1 sin 0
=
.
.
.....
.
n sin sin
n
sin n
2
2 sin n
1
2

sin
1
3
1
3

=
=
.
n
n +1

1
1
2 sin( . ) 2
sin( . n )
3 2n
3 2

Page 164

(Un ) IN {0}

U 0 = 2

2 + Un , n IN
Un +1 =
. Un n
. Pn = U 0 U1 U 2 .... Un

Un n

U=
0

=
2 2cos

U1 = 2 + U 0 = 2 + 2cos = 2cos
4
8
4

p Up = 2cos p + 2
2

(p + 1) Up + 1 = 2cos p + 3
2

Page 165

Up +=

2 + Up Up = 2cos

Up +1 =
2 + 2cos

Un = 2cos

n+ 2

2p + 2

=
4cos 2

2p + 3

p+ 2

=
2cos p + 3

. Pn = U 0 U1 U 2 .... Un
sin 2a = 2sin acosa 2cos a =
n

=
Pn

=
(2cos
)
k+2
2=
0
k

=
(Uk )

=
k 0=
k

sin

sin k +1
sin
1
2
2
( =
) =

sin
sin
0 sin
2k + 2
2n + 2
2n + 2

Pn =

sin 2a
sin a

2n + 2

Page 166


(Un )

=
U 0 0=
; U1 1
=
: Un + 2 2Un +1 cos a Un
n IN
a IR
. Z
=
n Un + 1 (cos a i sin a) U n , n IN {0}
Z=
n + 1 (cos a + i sin a) Zn Zn
n
a
. Un n

. Z=
n + 1 (cos a + i sin a) Zn

Zn = Un +1 (cos a i sin a)Un

Zn +1 = Un + 2 (cos a i sin a)Un +1

Page 167

= 2Un +1 cos a Un (cos a i sin a)Un +1


=
(cos a + i sin a)Un +1 Un
Un
)
cos a + i sin a
= (cos a + i sin a) Un +1 (cos a i sin a)Un
= (cos a + i sin a) Un
=+
(cos a i sin a)(Un +1

Z=
n + 1 (cos a + i sin a) Zn
Zn n
a
Z=
n + 1 (cos a + i sin a) Zn (Zn )

=
q cosa + i sin a

Z0 =
U1 (cos a i sin a)U 0 =
1

Zn = Z0 qn = (cosa + i sin a)n = cos(na) + i sin(na)


Zn cos(na) + i.sin(na)
=

Page 168

. Un n

Zn = Un +1 (cos a i sin a)Un (1)


Zn = Un +1 (cos a + i sin a)Un (2)

(1)
(2)

Zn Zn =
2i sin a Un

Un =

Zn Zn
sin a 0
2i sin a


=
Zn cos(na) + i sin(na) =
Zn cos(na) i sin(na)

Un =

sin(na)
sin a

Page 169

t
t a nt a nt a n
3
2
1
6
8
+ . . +. .
+
+
Sn =

c
c o cs o cs o s
1 6
8
4

a n+ 2n
.2

on+1
2

Sn n +

tan 2x =

2tan x
1 tan 2 x
2tan x

tan 2x tan
=
x

1 tan x
2

tan 2x tan x =
tan x.

tan
=
x

tan x + tan 2 x
1 tan 2 x

1 + tan 2 x
1 tan 2 x

1 t a2 xn
s
c o2x =

1 + t a2 xn

tan x
cos 2x

tan 2x tan x = (*)

Page 170

x = k + 2 (*)
2

tan k +1 tan k + 2
2
2

S
=

t
n

k =1
n

=(
=t

tan k + 2
2
=

cos k +1
2

a k +1 nt
2


a k + 2 n
2

t at a )n+ ( n t at a n) + .n +. ( . t n+1a t nan+ 2 )


4
8
8
1
6
2
2

a t n an + 2 =n1 t an + 2 n
4
2
2

S
1
t
a
n
=

n
n + 2
2

=0
t a nn
l i m
n +
2 +2

Sn = 1
nli+ m

Page 171

(an ) d
Sn =

cos a1 cos a 2 cos a 3


cos an
+
+
+
...
+
cos d cos 2 d cos 3 d
cosn d

n = 1, 2, 3,...

Sn
=

sin an
cosn d sin d

sin a1

sin d

=
Sn

sin an
cosn d sin d

sin a1
sin d

(an ) d

an +=
1 an + d
sin an =
d) sin an cos d + sin d cos an
+ 1 sin(an + =
cosn + 1 d 0

sin an +1

cosn +1 d

sin an cos d + sin d cos an

cosn +1 d

Page 172

cos an cos d sin an +1 sin an

n
n
+
1
cos d sin d cos
d cosn d
n

Sn

p =1

S=
n

cos d sin ap +1 sin ap

p +1
p
sin
d
d cos d
cos

sin an +1
sin a1
cos d sin an +1 sin a1

sin d cosn +1 d cos d cosn d sin d sin d

Sn

sin an
cosn d sin d

sin a1

sin d

Page 173

.
1
1
2sin xcos(2nx)

=
2 + sin(2n 1)x 2 + sin(2n + 1)x [2 + sin(2n 1)x ] [2 + sin(2n + 1)x ]

cos(2kx)
. Sn =


( 2 + sin(2k 1)x )( 2 + sin(2k + 1)x )
k =1
n

.
f (x)
=

1
1

2 + sin(2n 1)x 2 + sin(2n + 1)x


sin(2n + 1)x sin(2n 1)x
( 2 + sin(2n 1)x )( 2 + sin(2n + 1)x )

2sin x cos(2nx)

=
( 2 + sin(2n 1)x )( 2 + sin(2n + 1)x )

Page 174

cos(2kx)
. Sn =

+
+
2
sin(2k
1)x
2
sin(2k
1)x
(
)(
)

k =1
n

1
2sin x

Sn

1
1

2 + sin(2n 1)x 2 + sin(2n + 1)x

k =1

1
1

2 + sin x 2 + sin(2n + 1)x

1
sin(2n + 1)x sin x
.
=
2sin x ( 2 + sin x )( 2 + sin(2n + 1)x )
1
2sin x

sin(nx)cos(n + 1)x
sin x ( 2 + sin x ) (2 + sin(2n + 1)x)

Sn =

sin(nx)cos(n + 1)x

sin x ( 2 + sin x ) (2 + sin(2n + 1)x)

Page 175

=
cos(2nx)

1
2sin x

sin(2n + 1)x sin(2n 1)x

Sn = cos 2x + cos 4x + cos 6x + ..... + cos(2nx)


.

Tn =cos 2 x + cos 2 2x + cos 2 3x + ..... + cos 2 (nx)


.

Un =sin 2 x + sin 2 2x + sin 2 3x + ..... + sin 2 (nx)

=
cos(2nx)
.

1
2sin x

2sin(
sin p sin q =

sin(2n + 1)x sin(2n 1)x

pq
p+q
) cos(
)
2
2

Page 176

(2n + 1)x , q =
(2n 1)x
p =
q 2x , p =
+ q 4nx

p=
2sin x cos(2nx)
sin(2n + 1)x sin(2n 1)x =
1
2sin x

=
cos(2nx)

sin(2n + 1)x sin(2n 1)x

. Sn = cos 2x + cos 4x + cos 6x + ..... + cos(2nx)


Sn =

1
=
2sin x

[cos(2kx)]

k =1

[sin(2k + 1)x sin(2k 1)x]

k =1

1
=
[ sin(2n + 1)x sin x]
2sin x
1
sin(nx) cos(n + 1)x
2sin(nx)cos(n
=
+ 1)x ]
[
2sin x
sin x
Sn =

sin(nx)cos(n + 1)x

sin x

Page 177

. Tn =cos 2 x + cos 2 2x + cos 2 3x + ..... + cos 2 (nx)


Tn =

k =1

cos 2 (kx) cos 2 a = 1 + cos 2a

Tn=

1 + cos(2kx) n 1
=
+ Sn

2
2 2
k =1

Sn =

sin(nx)cos(n + 1)x
sin x

Tn=

n sin(nx)cos(n + 1)x
+

2
2sin x

Un =sin 2 x + sin 2 2x + sin 2 3x + ..... + sin 2 (nx)


Un =

k =1

sin (kx) =
1 cos 2 (kx) =
n Tn

k =1

n sin(nx)cos(n + 1)x
+
Tn=

2
2sin x
Un=

n sin(nx)cos(n + 1)x


2
2sin x

Page 178

tan 3 x
1
. =
tan 2x tan x
2
2
1 tan x
n

. Sn

k =0

k
3 a
2
tan

n
2

1 tan 2 a
2n

tan 3 x
1
. =
tan 2x tan x
2
1 tan x 2
1
tan x
tan 3 x

tan 2x tan
=
x
tan
=
x

2
2
1 tan x
1 tan 2 x
tan 3 x
1
=
tan 2x tan x
2
1 tan x 2

Page 179

. Sn =

k =0

k
3 a
2
tan

k
2

1 tan 2 a
2k

a
tan 3 x
1
=
tan 2x tan x x = k
2
2
2
1 tan x
a
tan 3 k
1
a
a
2
tan k 1 tan k
=
a
2
2
1 tan 2 k 2
2

Sn
=

a
a
k 1
k
2
tan
2
tan

k 1
k
2
2

k =0

1
a
tan 2a 2n tan n
2
2

=
Sn

1
a
tan 2a 2n tan n
2
2

Page 180

=
x cot x 2cot 2x
tan


Sn= tan a +

1
a 1
a
1
a
tan + 2 tan 2 + .... + n tan n
2
2 2
2
2
2

=
x cot x 2cot 2x
tan
=
A cot x 2cot 2x

1

cot
x
=

tan x

1
1 tan 2 x
cot
=
2x =

tan 2x
2tan x

Page 181

1
1 tan 2 x
=
A
2(
)
tan x
2tan x
1 1 + tan 2 x
= tan x
tan x

=
x cot x 2cot 2x
tan


1
a 1
a
1
a
Sn= tan a + tan + 2 tan 2 + .... + n tan n
2
2 2
2
2
2
n

a
1
tan
k
k
2
2

k =0

a
a
1
(cot
2cot
)

k
k
k 1
2
2

k =0 2

a
1
a 1
a
1
cot
cot
cot
=

=
2cot 2a
k
k
k 1
k 1
n
n
2
2
2
2
2
k =0 2

Sn= tan a + 1 tan a + .... + 1 tan a = 1 cot a 2cot 2a


2
2
2n
2n 2n
2n

Page 182

Pn

2k x
2x
4x
2n x
tan x.tan .tan .....tan
=
tan
k
2
4
2
2n
k =0

Pn

sin a
2sin 2 a
2sin 2 a
tan
=
a =
=
cos a 2sin a cos a sin 2a

a = k tan k =
2
2

Pn

2sin 2
sin

2k
2x

2k

2k +1 x
2n +1 x
sin
sin
n
k
n
2k
2n +1 1
2
2
.
=
2 .
2
k 2x
sin 2x
2

sin
k = 0
2k

n +1 1)

Pn = 2(2

sin
.

2n +1

2n
sin 2x
Page 183

2 x 2k
Pn
=
(1 tan k )
2

k =0

2 x 2k
=

Pn
(1 tan k )
2

k =0

cos 2

1 =
tan 2 k

2x
2 x

sin
cos
2k =
2k
2k
x
x
cos 2 k
cos 2 k
2
2

2k x
n cos
k 1
cos 2x
2
Pn =
=

k +1 x
2
2n +1 x

cos
cos
k =0

2k
2n

Pn =

cos 2x
cos

2n +1

2n

Page 184

Pn =

k =1

2 k
1 + tan 2 x

2
2
k
1 tan 2

| x |< n + 2
2

cos 2a =
k +1

cos 2

1 tan 2 a
1 + tan 2 a

x=

1 tan 2 2k x
1 + tan 2 2k x

cos 2 2k sin 2 2k cos 2k +1 x



=
tan 2
1 =
2 k
cos 2 x
cos 2 2k x
2 k

1 + tan 2 2k x
(1 tan 2 x)
2 k

cos 2 2k x
cos 2 2k +1 x

cos 2 2k x
cos 2 2x
=
Pn =

2 k + 1
2 n +1
x cos 2 x
k =1 cos 2
n

Page 185

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

Sn=

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ .... +
a
sin a sin a sin a
sin
2
22
2n

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

(x) cot x cot 2x


f=
=

cos x cos 2x

sin x sin 2x

cos x 2cos 2 x 1

=

sin x 2sin x cos x


2cos 2 x 2cos 2 x + 1
1
=
2sin x cos x
sin 2x

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

Page 186

1
1
1
1
+
+ .... +
. Sn= sin a +
a
a
a
sin
sin 2
sin n
2
2
2
Sn =

k =0

sin

2k

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x
n

Sn
=

a
a

cot
cot

k +1
k
2
2

k =0

cot

n +1

cot a

=
Sn cot n + 1 cot a
2

Page 187

x
cot
1
2
. 1 +
=
cos x cot x

1
Pn =
(1 +
)(1 +
cosa

1
a
cos
2

)(1 +

1
cos

a
2

).....(1 +

1
cos

2n

x
cot
1
2
. 1 +
=
cos x cot x

A(x)= 1 +

1

cos x

x
x
2x
2x
2cos
2cos
sin
cos
sin x
cos x + 1
2
2
2
2
= = =
=
x
x
cos x
cos x
cos xsin
cos xsin
2
2
x
x
cos sin x
cot
x
2.
2
tan
tan x
= =
=
x
2
cot x
sin cos x
2

Page 188

x
cot
1
2
1 +
=
cos x cot x

1
1
1
1
Pn =
(1 +
)(1 +
)(1 +
).....(1 +
)
a
a
a
cos a
cos
cos 2
cos n
2
2
2
a

cot
n

k +1
1
2
= 1 +
]
= [
a
a

cos k k 0 cot k
k 0=
2
2

Pn = tan n + 1 .cot a
2

Page 189

2
=
x tan 2x 2tan x
. tan 2x .tan

. Sn =

a
k
2 a
2
tan
tan

k
k +1
2
2

k =0

2
=
x tan 2x 2tan x
. tan 2x .tan

f (x) tan 2x 2tan x tan 2x =


=
=
f (x)

=
=

2tan x
1 tan x
2

2tan x
1 tan 2 x

2tan x

2tan x 2tan x(1 tan 2 x)


1 tan 2 x
2tan x 2tan x + 2tan 3 x
1 tan 2 x

2tan 3 x
2tan x
2
2
= =
=
.tan
x
tan
2x.tan
x
2
2
1 tan x 1 tan x
2
=
x tan 2x 2tan x
tan 2x .tan

Page 190

. Sn =

a
k
2 a
2
tan
tan

k
k +1
2
2

k =0

2
tan 2x .tan
=
x tan 2x 2tan x

x = k +1
2

tan k 2tan k +1
tan k tan 2=
k +1
2
2
2
2
n

a
a
a
k
k +1
n +1
Sn =
2
tan
2
tan
tan
a
2
tan

k
k +1
n +1
2
2
2

k =0

a
a
k
2 a
n +1
Sn
tan a 2
tan n +1
=
2 tan k tan k=
+1
2
2
2

k =0

Page 191

=
sin 3 x
.

1
( 3sin x sin 3x)
4

.
3
S=
n sin

a
a
a
a
+ 3sin 3 2 + 32 sin 3 3 + .... + 3n 1 sin 3 n
3
3
3
3

sin 3 x
=
.

1
( 3sin x sin 3x)
4

sin
=
3x sin(x + 2x)

+ b) sin acosb + sin b cosa


sin(a=
= sin x cos 2x + sin 2x cos x
=sin x(1 2sin 2 x) + 2sin x cos 2 x

=sin x(1 2sin 2 x) + 2sin x(1 sin 2 x)


=sin x 2sin 3 x + 2sin x 2sin 3 x

= 3sin x 4sin 3 x

Page 192

sin
=
3x 3sin x 4sin 3 x

1
( 3sin x sin 3x)
4


=
sin 3 x
.
3
S=
n sin

a
a
a
a
+ 3sin 3 2 + 32 sin 3 3 + .... + 3n 1 sin 3 n
3
3
3
3
n

Sn =

k 1 3 a
sin k
3
3
k =1

sin 3 x
=

1
( 3sin x sin 3x)
4

1
Sn =
4

k =1

sin

a
a 1 n
a
k 1

=
sin a)
3
sin
(3
sin

3k
3k 1 4
3n

Page 193


.=
2

cos x

sin 2 2x

.=
Sn

1
4cos 2

a
2

1
sin 2 x
1

42 cos

+ .... +

1
4n cos 2

22

a
2n

. =
2

cos x

sin 2 2x

1
sin 2 x

1
sin 2 x + cos 2 x
1
4
+
=
=
=
cos 2 x sin 2 x
sin 2 x cos 2 x
sin 2 x cos 2 x sin 2 2x
1

cos x

=
2

sin 2x

1
2

sin x

=
Sn

1
4cos 2

a
2

1
42 cos

a
22

+ .... +

1
4n cos 2

a
2n
Page 194

1
1

S
.
=

n
k
a
4

cos 2 k
k =1
2

cos x

=
2

sin 2x

1
2

sin x

4
1

Sn k (
)
a
a
k =1
4
sin 2 k 1 sin 2 k

2
2

n
1
1
1
1
1
1
=

=
.
.

k 1

k
2
a
a
k =1 4
4
sin
a
2
2 a

sin k 1
sin k
4n sin 2 n

2
2
2
n


=
Sn

1
2

sin a

1
4n sin 2

2n

Page 195

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ .... +
. Sn=
a
a
a
sin a sin
sin 2
sin n
2
2
2

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

(x) cot x cot 2x


f=
=

cos x cos 2x

sin x sin 2x

cos x 2cos 2 x 1
=

sin x 2sin x cos x


2cos 2 x 2cos 2 x + 1
1
=
2sin x cos x
sin 2x

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

Page 196

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ .... +
a
sin a sin a sin a
sin
2
22
2n

. Sn=

Sn =

k =0

sin

1
= cot x cot 2x
sin 2x

2k

Sn
=
=

a
a

cot
cot

k +1
k
2
2

k =0

cot

n +1

cot a

=
Sn cot n + 1 cot a
2

Page 197

sin(nx) cos(n + 1)x cos(nx)


.
.cot x
=

n
n +1
n
cos x cos
x
cos x

sin x sin 2x sin 3x


sin(nx)
+
+
+
....
+
cos x cos 2 x cos 3 x
cosn x

. Sn =

sin(nx) cos(n + 1)x cos(nx)


.
=

.cot x

n
n +1
n
cos x cos
x
cos x

cos(n + 1)x
= cos(nx + x)

=
+ 1)x cos(nx)cos x sin(nx)sin x
cos(n
cosn + 1 x
cos(n + 1)x

cos(nx)cos x sin(nx)sin x cos(nx) sin(nx)


=

=n
.tan x
n +1
n +1
n +1
n
cos x
cos x
cos x
cos x
cos x

sin(nx)

cos(n + 1)x

cos x

cosn +1 x

sin(nx)

cos(n + 1)x

cos x

cosn +1 x

cos(nx) 1
.
n tan x
cos x

cos(nx)
.cot x
n
cos x
Page 198

. Sn =

sin x sin 2x sin 3x


sin(nx)
+
+
+
....
+
cos x cos 2 x cos 3 x
cosn x

Sn =

sin(kx)

k
cos
x

k =1

sin(kx) cos(k + 1)x cos(kx)

.cot x

k
k +1
k
cos x cos
x
cos x
n

Sn cot x
=

cos(k + 1)x cos(kx)


cos(n + 1)x

cot
x
1

k +1
k
n +1
cos
x
cos
x
cos
x

k =1

Sn =

cot x[cos(n + 1)x cosn +1 x]

cosn +1 x

Page 199

cos(n 1)x
cos x cos(nx)

.1 + tan x tan(nx) =

=
Pn
.

[1 + tan x tan(kx)]
k =1

cos(n 1)x
cos xcos(nx)

.1 + tan x tan(nx) =

=
1)x cos(nx)cos x + sin(nx)sin x
cos(n

cos(n 1)x cos(nx)cos x + sin(nx)sin x


=
cos xcos(nx)
cos(nx)cos x
= 1 + tan x tan(nx)

cos(n 1)x
cos xcos(nx)

1 + tan x tan(nx) =

Page 200

.
n

[1 + tan x tan(kx)]

=
Pn

k =1

=
=

=
Pn =

cos(k 1)x
cos x cos(kx)

k =1

1
cos x cos 2x cos(n 1)x
.
.
....
n
cos(nx)
cos x cos x cos 2x cos 3x
1
1

cosn x cos(nx)
1
cosn xcos(nx)

Page 201

1
1
=
tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)]
[
cos(nx).cos(n + 1)x sin x
. Sn =

p =1

1
cos(px) cos(p + 1)x

1
1
=
tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)]
[
cos(nx).cos(n + 1)x sin x
sin(p q)
cos p cos q

tan p tan q =

1
cos p cos q

1
sin(p q)

tan p tan q ) (1)

(n + 1)x , q =
(nx)
x (1)
p =
pq=
1
1
=
tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)]
[

cos(nx).cos(n + 1)x sin x

Page 202

. Sn =

p =1

1
cos(px) cos(p + 1)x

1
1
=
[ tan(p + 1)x tan(px)]
cos(px).cos(p + 1)x sin x
1

S
=

n
sin x

[ tan(p + 1)x tan(px)]

p =1

1
[ tan(n + 1)x tan x]
sin x

sin(nx)
=
sin xcos xcos(n + 1)x
=

Page 203

tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)


= tan x [1 + tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x ]
.

=
Sn tan x tan 2x + tan 2x tan 3x + ..... + tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x

. tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)


= tan x [1 + tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x ]

tan a tan b
1 + tan a tan b

ta(a b) =

tan a tan b = tan(a b) ( 1 + tan a tan b ) (1)

x
(n + 1)x , b =
nx
a =
ab=
(1)

tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)


= tan x [1 + tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x ]

Page 204

=
Sn tan x tan 2x + tan 2x tan 3x + ..... + tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x

=
Sn

[ tan(kx)tan(k + 1)x]

k =1

tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)


= tan x [1 + tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x ]
tan(nx)tan(n + 1)x
=

Sn

Sn
=

[ tan(n + 1)x tan(nx)] cot x

( tan(k + 1)x tan(kx)) cot x 1

k =1

[ tan(n + 1)x tan x] cot x n


sin(nx)
cot x n
cos(n + 1)x cos x
sin(nx)
n
cos(n + 1)xsin x

Page 205

1 + 2cos 2x
1 + 2cos x

. 2cos x 1 =
.

a
a
a
Pn =
(2cos a 1)(2cos 1)(2cos 2 1).....(2cos n 1)
2
2
2

1 + 2cos 2x
1 + 2cos x

. 2cos x 1 =
=
cos 2x 2cos 2 x 1

2cos
=
2x 4cos 2 x 2
2cos 2x
=
+ 1 4cos 2 x 1

2cos 2x=
+ 1 (2cos x + 1)(2cos x 1)

1 + 2cos 2x
1 + 2cos x

2cos x 1 =

Page 206

a
a
a
Pn =
(2cos a 1)(2cos 1)(2cos 2 1).....(2cos n 1)
2
2
2

2cos
1

k
2

k =0

1 + 2cos 2x
2cos x 1 =
1 + 2cos x

+
1
2cos(
)

k 1 1 + 2cos 2a
2
=

a
a

)
1 + 2cos n
k = 0 1 + 2cos(
k

2
2

Pn

Pn =

1 + 2cos 2a

a
1 + 2cos n
2

Page 207

tan 3 x
1
. =
( tan 3x 3tan x)
2
8
1 3tan x
. Sn =

k =0

k
3 a
3
tan

k
3

1 3tan 2 a

3k

tan 3 x
1
. =
( tan 3x 3tan x)
2
1 3tan x 8
tan 3x =

3tan x tan 3 x
1 3tan 2 x

tan 3x =
3tan x

3tan x tan 3 x
1 3tan x
2

=
3tan x

8tan 3 x
1 3tan 2 x

tan 3 x
1
=
( tan 3x 3tan x)
2
1 3tan x 8

Page 208

. Sn =

k =0

k
3 a
3
tan

k
3

1 3tan 2 a

3k

tan 3 x
1
=
( tan 3x 3tan x)
2
8
1 3tan x

x = k
3
a
n
1
a
a
3k
= ( t ak 1 n3 t a k )n
1 3 t a2 an 8
3
3
k
3
t a3

1
Sn =
8

(3k tan

k =0

a
3k 1

3k +1 tan

1
a
n +1
=

)
tan
3a
3
tan

8
3k
3n
a

tan 3a 3n +1
a

Sn
tan n
=

8
8
3

Page 209

, ,
ABC a , b , c

= 3 (a b)(a 2 b 2 ) =
bc 2

(a b)(a 2 b 2 ) =
bc 2

=
a 2R sin , b
= 2R sin , =
c 2R sin
(a b)(a 2 b 2 ) =(a b)2 (a + b)

a b 2R(sin sin )
=
= 2R(sin 3 sin )
= 4R sin cos 2

a + b 2R(sin + sin )

=
= 2R ( s i 3n + s i n )
= 4R s i n2 c o s
= 8R s i n c o2 s

Page 210

(a b)(a 2 =
b 2 ) 16R 2 sin 2 cos 2 2.8R sin cos 2

= 8R 3 s i 2n4 s i
n
= 8R 3 s i 2n( 4 ) s i
n
= 8R 3 s i 2n s i
n
bc 2
(a b)(a 2 b 2 ) =

Page 211

ABC a , b , c
A , B , C
p

cos

A
p(p a)
=

2
bc

bc .cos 2

A
B
C
+ ac.cos 2 + ab.cos 2 =
p2
2
2
2

cos 2

A 1 + cos A
=
2
2

ABC

b 2 + c2 a2
a = b + c 2bccos A cos A =
2bc
2

Page 212

b 2 + c2 a2
1+
2
2
2
2bc
+
b
+
c

a
2A
2bc
cos
=
=
2
2
4bc
A (b + c)2 a 2 (b + c + a)(b + c a)
=
cos
=
2
4bc
4bc
2

2p b + c =
a 2 (p a)
a + b + c =

2p . 2(p a) p(p a)
2A
=
cos
=

2
4bc
bc
cos

A
p(p a)
=


2
bc

p(p b)
C
=
, cos
ac
2

B
cos
2

p(p c)
ab

A
2B
2C
bc .cos
+ ac.cos
+ ab.cos
=
p2
2
2
2
2

Page 213

cos

cos

B
2

p(p b)
C
=
, cos
ac
2

A
p(p a)
=
2
bc
p(p c)
ab

A
2
bc
cos
=
p(p

a)
=
p
p .a

2
2

B
ac cos
= p(p b) = p 2 p .b
2
C
ab cos 2 = p(p c) = p 2 p .c
2
2

bc .cos 2

A
B
C
+ ac.cos 2 + ab.cos 2 = 3p 2 p (a + b + c)
2
2
2
= 3p 2 2p 2 = p 2

bc .cos 2

A
B
C
+ ac.cos 2 + ab.cos 2 =
p2
2
2
2

Page 214

ABC

tan A.tan B.tan C


tan A + tan B + tan C =

tan A + tan B + tan C 3 3

tan A.tan B.tan C


tan A + tan B + tan C =
A+B+C=
A + B = C

B) tan( C)
tan(A + =
tan A + tan B
= tan C
1 tan A tan B
tan A + tan B =
tan C + tan A tan B tan C

tan A.tan B.tan C


tan A + tan B + tan C =

Page 215

tan A + tan B + tan C 3 3

A , B , C

tan A > 0 , tan B > 0 , tan C > 0

tan A + tan B + tan C 3

tan A.tan B.tan C

tan A.tan B.tan C


tan A + tan B + tan C =
tan A + tan B + tan B 3 3 tan A + tan B + tan C

(tan A + tan B + tan C)3 27 (tan A + tan B + tan C)


(tan A + tan B + tan C)2 27
tan A + tan B + tan C 3 3

Page 216

ABC
cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C < 1

T = cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C


1 + cos 2A 1 + cos 2B
+
+ cos 2 C
2
2
cos 2A + cos 2B
=
+ cos 2 C
1+
2
=

=1 + cos(A + B)cos(A B) + cos 2 C


= 1 + cos( C)cos(A B) + cos 2 C
=1 cos C cos(A B) + cos 2 C
=1 cos C [ cos(A B) cos C

=1 cos C [ cos(A B) + cos( A + B) ] =1 2cos A cos B cos C

cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C =


1 2cos A cos B cos C
A , B , C cos A > 0 , cos B > 0 , cos C > 0
cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C < 1

Page 217

ABC
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C > 2

T = sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C

1 cos 2A 1 cos 2B
+
+ 1 cos 2 C
2
2
cos 2A + cos 2B
=
cos 2 C
2
2

=2 cos(A + B)cos(A B) cos 2 C


=2 + cosC cos(A B) cosC
=2 + cosC [ cos(A B) + cos(A + B)

= 2 + 2cos A cos B cosC


A , B , C cos A > 0 , cos B > 0 , cos C > 0
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C > 2

Page 218

ABC

1
. cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot Ccot A =

. cot 2 A 1 =
2cot 2A cot A
. A ; B ; C

q = 2

1
2

sin A

1
2

sin B

1
2

sin C

=
8

1
. cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot Ccot A =
A+B+C=
A + B = C

B) tan( C)
tan(A + =

Page 219

tan A + tan B
= tan C
1 tan A tan B
1
1
+
cot A cot B = 1
1
1
cot C
1
.
cot A cot B
cot A + cot B
1
=
cot A cot B 1
cot C
cot A cot C + cot B cot C =
cot A cot B + 1

1
cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot Ccot A =
. cot 2 A 1 =
2cot 2A cot A

tan 2A =

2tan A
1 tan 2 A

2
1
2cot A
cot A
= =
cot 2A 1 1
cot 2 A 1
cot 2 A
cot 2 A 1 =
2cot 2A cot A

Page 220

.
T =

1
sin 2 A

sin A

sin B

sin 2 B

1
2

=
8

sin C

sin 2 C

= (1 + cot 2 A) + (1 + cot 2 B) + (1 + cot 2 C)


= (cot 2 A 1) + (cot 2 B 1) + (cot 2 C 1) + 6
= 2cot 2A cot A + 2cot B cot 2B + 2cot 2Ccot C + 6 (1)
A ; B ; C

B 2A , =
C 2B
= 4A
q = 2 =

A + B + C =


=
A
A + 2A + 4A =

2
4
=
, B
=
,C
7
7
7

(1) T = 2cot 2 cot + 2cot 2 cot 4 + cot 8 cot 4 + 6


7

cot

= cot

7
7

Page 221

2
2
4

4
T = 2cot cot
+ 2cot cot
+ 2cot cot
+6
7
7
7
7
7
7
= 2(cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot A cot C) + 6
= 2(1) + 6= 8

1
2

sin A

1
2

sin B

1
2

sin C

=
8

Page 222

P(x) = tan 2 x + cot 2 x 2(tan x + cot x) + 27


Q(x) = tan 2 x + cot 2 x 8(tan x + cot x) + 87

0 < x <

P(x) = tan 2 x + cot 2 x 2(tan x + cot x) + 27


0 < x <

=
z tan x + cot x z 2
z 2 = (tan x + cot x)2 = tan 2 x + cot 2 x + 2
tan 2 x + cot 2 x =
z2 2
P(z) = z 2 2 2z + 27 = (z 1)2 + 24

Page 223

25
z 2 P(z) 1 + 24 =
P(x) m = 25
Q(x) = tan 2 x + cot 2 x 8(tan x + cot x) + 87
Q(z) = z 2 2 8z + 87 = (z 4)2 + 69
z 2 Q z = 4
Q(x) m = 69

Page 224

ABC
tan

A
B
C
, tan , tan

3
3
3

(E) : x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c =
0 3 + a=

3b + c

tan(

A B C
A B C
) tan[( + ) + ]
+ +=
3 3 3
3 3
3

A B
C
+
+
)
tan
A+B+C
3 3
3
tan(
)=
A B
C
3
1 tan( + )tan
3 3
3
A
B
tan + tan
3
3 + tan C
A
B
3
1 tan tan

3
3
tan =
A
B
3
tan + tan
3
3 .tan C
1
A
B
3
1 tan tan
3
3
tan(

Page 225

A
B
C
A
B
C
+ tan + tan tan tan tan
3
3
3
3
3
3 (1)
3=
A
B
A
C
B
C
1 (tan tan + tan tan + tan tan )
3
3
3
3
3
3
tan

A
B
C
, tan , tan
tan
(E)
3
3
3

tan

A
B
C
+ tan + tan =
a (2)
3
3
3

A
B
B
C
A
C
tan + tan tan + tan tan =
b (3)
2
2
2
2
2
2
A
B
C
tan .tan .tan = c
(4)
2
2
2

tan

(2) , (3)
(4) (1)
3 =

a + c
1 b

3 3 b = a + c

Page 226

ABC sin

A
a

=
2 2 bc

ABC ?

sin

A
a
=
2 2 bc

b 2 + c2 a2
cos A =
2bc
cos A= 1 2sin 2

A

2

b 2 + c2 a2
a2
= 1 2
2bc
4bc
b 2 + c2 a2
2bc a 2
=
2bc
2bc
b 2 + c2 a 2 = 2bc a 2
b 2 2bc + c2 =(b c)2 =0 b = c
ABC b = c

Page 227

=
BC a=
, AC b=
, AB c
ABC

ABC
R
S

cos A cos B cos C R(sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C)


+
+
=

a
b
c
4S

cos A cos B cos C R(sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C)


+
+
=

a
b
c
4S

ABC
cos A b 2 + c 2 a 2
=
a = b + c 2bccos A
a
2abc
2

a = 2R sin A
a
b
c
abc

= = = 2R b = 2R sin B
S
=

sin A sin B sin C


4R
c = 2R sin C

cos A 4R 2 (sin 2 B + sin 2 C sin 2 A)


=

a
8RS
cos A R(sin 2 B + sin 2 C sin 2 A)
=
(1)

a
4S

Page 228

cos B R(sin 2 A + sin 2 C sin 2 B)


=
(2)

b
4S
cos C R(sin 2 A + sin 2 B sin 2 C)
=
(3)

c
4S

(1),(2) &(3)
cos A cos B cosC R(sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C)
+
+
=


a
b
c
4S

Page 229

ABC
(sin A + sin B + sin C)2
/ (1 + cos A)(1 + cos B)(1 + cosC) =
2
cos A + cos B + cos C
sin A + sin B + sin C

/ 1 +

3
2

/
(sin A + sin B + sin C)2
(1 + cos A)(1 + cos B)(1 + cosC) =

2

=
BC a=
, AC b=
, AB c

p=

a+b+c

R S ABC
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bccos A
2
2
2
a = (b + 2bc + c ) 2bc(1 + cos A)

(b + c)2 a 2 (b + c + a)(b + c a)
A
=
=
1 + cos
2bc
2bc

Page 230

p =

a+b+c
2p
a + b + c =
b + c a= 2(p a)
2

A
1 + cos=

4p(p a) 2p(p a)
=
2bc
bc

cos B
1 + =

2p(p b)
2p(p c)
, 1 +=
cos C
ac
ab

8p 2 .p(p a)(p b)(p c)


(1 + cos A)(1 + cos B)(1 + cosC) =
(1)
2
(abc)

S=

p(p a)(p b)(p c)=

abc
4R

p(p a)(p b)(p c)


1
=
(2)

(abc)2
16R 2

(2) (1)
2

8p 2
1 p
=
(1 + cos A)(1 + cos B)(1 + cosC) =
.
(3)
16R 2 2 R
a
b
c
=
=
=
2R

sin A sin B sin C


a + b + c 2p p
= = (4)
2R
2R R

sin A + sin B + sin C =

Page 231

(3)
(4)
(sin A + sin B + sin C)2
(1 + cos A)(1 + cos B)(1 + cosC) =


2

/
cos A + cos B + cos C
sin A + sin B + sin C

3
2


1 + cos A + 1 + cos B + 1 + cos C
(1 + cos A)(1 + cos B)(1 + cos C)

cos A + cos B + cos C

(1
+
cos
A)(1
+
cos
B)(1
+
cos
C)

1
+

(sin A + sin B + sin C)2


(1 + cos A)(1 + cos B)(1 + cosC) =

2
2

cos A + cos B + cos C


sin A + sin B + sin C

1 +



3
2

Page 232

ABC
a2
. 1 cos A
2bc

a , b , c ABC
. (1 cos A)(1 cos B)(1 cos C)

1

8

a2

. 1 cos A
2bc

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bccos A
2
2
b + c 2bc
2
a 2bc 2bccos A = 2bc(1 cos A)

a2

1 cos A
2bc

Page 233

. (1 cos A)(1 cos B)(1 cos C)

1
8

a2
(1)
1 cos A
2bc
b2
c2
(2)
1 cos B
1 cos C 2ab (3)
2ac

(1) , (2) , (3)

(1 cos A)(1 cos B)(1 cos C)

1


8

Page 234

ABC
. sin 2 A = sin 2 B + sin 2 C 2sin B sin Ccos A
.
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C
cot A + cot B + cot C =

2sin A sin B sin C

2
2
2
. sin A = sin B + sin C 2sin B sin Ccos A

a , b , c ABC R

a
sin A

b
c
= = 2R
sin B sin C

a = 2R sin A

b = 2r sin B (1)
c = 2R sin C

Page 235


2
2
2
a = b + c 2bccos A (2)

(1) (2)
2
4R 2 sin =
A 4R 2 (sin 2 B + sin 2 C 2sin B sin Ccos A)

4R 2
sin 2 A = sin 2 B + sin 2 C 2sin B sin Ccos A

2
2
2
sin A = sin B + sin C 2sin B sin Ccos A

.
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C
cot A + cot B + cot C =
2sin A sin B sin C

sin 2 A = sin 2 B + sin 2 C 2sin B sin Ccos A


cos A
sin 2 B + sin 2 C sin 2 A
cot A =
cos A =
sin A
2sin B sin C

sin 2 B + sin 2 C sin 2 A


(i)
cot A =
2sin A sin B sin C

Page 236

sin 2 A + sin 2 C sin 2 B


(ii)
cot B =
2sin A sin B sin C
sin 2 A + sin 2 B sin 2 C
(iii)

cot C = 2sin A sin B sin C

(i) , (ii) & (iii)

sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C


cot A + cot B + cot C =

2sin A sin B sin C


sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C
cot A + cot B + cot C =

2sin A sin B sin C

Page 237

ABC A ,B ,C

cot A + cot B + cot=


C

1 1
1
1
+
+

2 sin A sin B sin C

ABC ?

ABC
a , b , c S ABC
S
=

1
1
1
bcsin A =
acsin B
ab sin C
=
2
2
2

=
sin A

2S
2S
2S
=
, sin B =
, sibC
bc
ac
ab

b 2 + c2 a2
cos A
b 2 + c2 a2
2bc
A =
=
=
cot
2S
sin A
4S
bc

Page 238

a2 + c2 b 2
a2 + b 2 c2
=
, cot C

cot B =
4S
4S
a2 + b 2 + c2
(1)
cot A + cot B + cot C =
4S
1
1
1
bc + ca + ab
+
+
=
(2)

sin A sin B sin C


2S

C
cot A + cot B + cot=

1 1
1
1
+
+
(3)
2 sin A sin B sin C

(3)
(1) & (2)
a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ab + bc + ca
=

4S
4S
2
2
2
a + b + c = ab + bc + ca
2
2
2
0
(a b) + (b c) + (c a) =

0
a b =

0 a= b= c
b c =
c a =
0

ABC

Page 239


sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C

cot A + cot B + cot C =
2sin A sin B sin C

cot A + cot B + cot=

1 1
1
1
+
+
2 sin A sin B sin C


sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C 1 1
1
1
=
+
+
2sin A sin B sin C
2 sin A sin B sin C
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2=
C sin A sin B + sin B sin C + sin Csin A
(sin A sin B)2 + (sin B sin C)2 + (sin C sin A)2 =
0

0
sin A sin B =

0 sin
=
A sin
=
B sin C
sin B sin C =
sin C sin A =
0

A= B= C ABC

Page 240

R S ABC
2R 2
. (cot A + cot B)(cot B + cot C)(cot C + cot A) =
S
1
cos
A
cos
B
cos
C

ABC
.

2R 2
(cot A + cot B)(cot B + cot C)(cot C + cot A) =
S

A'

AA' = ha ABC
=
BC a=
, AC b=
, AB c

Page 241

ABA' & AA'C


=
cot B

BA'
A'C
=
; cot C
AA'
AA'

BA'+ A'C a
a2
=
cot B + cot C = AA' =
ha 2S

S ABC
b2
c2
A
, cot A + cot
B
=
cot C + cot=
2S
2S
a 2b 2c 2
(cot A + cot B)(cot B + cot C)(cot C + cot A) =
8S 3

S =

abc
abc = 4RS
4R

16R 2S 2
(cot A + cot B)(cot B + cot C)(cot C + cot A) =
8S 3
2R 2
(cot A + cot B)(cot B + cot C)(cot C + cot A) =

S

Page 242

. cos A cos B cos C

1
8

2R 2
(cot A + cot B)(cot B + cot C)(cot C + cot A) = (i)
S

ABC cot A > 0 , cot B > 0 , cot C > 0



cot A + cot B 2 cot A cot B , cot B + cot C 2 cot B cot C
cot C + cot A 2 cot Ccot A

(cot A + cot B)(cot B + cot C)(cot C + cot A) 8cot A cot B cot C (ii)
2
2R
(i)&(ii) 8cot A cot B cot C
S

abc 8R 3 sin A sin B sin C


=
S =
= 2R 2 sin A sin B sin C

4R
4R
2R 2
8cot A cot B cot C
2R 2 sin A sin B sin C
1
8

cos A cos B cos C

Page 243

n I N Sn = c
. cos

12


sin

o +ss
1 2

i n
1

12

. 4 Sn + 2 2 6 Sn + 1 + Sn = 0

. cos

12

12

sin

12



3 4

c o s = c o s ( )
1 2
3 4

=c o sc o s +s i n s i n
3
4
3
4
1 2
3 2
6+ 2
= .
+
.
=
2 2
2 2
4

Page 244

s i n = s i n ( )
1 2
3 4

=s in c o s s in c o s
3
4
4
3
3 2
2 1
6 2
=
.

. =
2 2
2 2
4
c

6+ 2
6 2
s ; s
i= n

21
2
1
21

o=

. 4 Sn + 2 2 6 Sn + 1 + Sn = 0
Sn = c
x1 = c

o +ss
1 2

i n
1

o ; xs 2 = s i Sn = x1n + x2 n
1
2
1

x1 + x2 =

x1 . x2 =

6+ 2
6 2
6
+
=
4
4
2
6 + 2 6 2 62 1
.
=
=
4
4
1
46

2
x1
x2 x

6
1
x+ =0
2
4

Page 245

4 x 2 2 6 x + 1 = 0

4 x12 2 6 x1 + 1 = 0

4 x2 2 2 6 x2 + 1 = 0
4 x1n + 2 2 6 x1n + 1 + x1n = 0 ( i )

4 x2 n + 2 2 6 x2 n + 1 + x2 n = 0 ( i )
(i ) (ii )

4( x1n + 2 + x2 n + 2 ) 2 6 ( x1n + 1 + x2 n + 1 ) + ( x1n + x2 n ) = 0


4 Sn + 2 2 6 Sn + 1 + Sn = 0

Page 246

A B C
r
R

c

Ao+ c

sBo+ c

r
C
s o= 1 + s
R

c
c

Ao+ c

A +oc

sBo+ c

B =o
s2 c

r
C
s o= 1 + s
R

A+ B
so c
2

A B
s o
2

C
A B
= 2 c o s ( ) c o s
2 2
2

C
A B
= 2s i n c o s
2
2

c

C
C
o = s1 2 s 2i n
2

A + c o B + c o C s= 1 o 2 ss

C
C
A B
( si s cn
i o)
2
2
2

Page 247

A B
n o =c
2

C
i c
2

A+ B
s o c
2

A B
s o
2

A
B
= 2 s i ns i n
2
2
c

A + co B + co C
s = 1o+ 4s s

A
B
C
ss i s n
i
( in
i)
2
2
2

B
( p a ) p( c )
i =n
2
a c

A
( p b ) p( c ) ;
s
i =
n
2
b c

C
( p a ) p( b )
i =n
2
a b

A + co B + co C
s = 1o+ 4s

( p a ) p b() p c ()
s
a
b

S=

p( p a ) p (b ) p (c ) = p =

a
r
4R

S2
=p
( p a ) p ( b ) p ( c ) =
p

= rrS

a b= c4 p r

Page 248

A +oc

rS
r
B +osc C =os1 + 4. s = 1 +
r R
4p

Ao+ c

sBo+ c

r
C
s o= 1 + s
R

Page 249

A , B ,C ABC

y cot A +
=

2sin A

cos A + cos(B C)

=
y cot A +

2sin A
cos A + cos(B C)

A + B + C =

cos A = cos( B C) = cos(B + C)

Page 250

=
y cot A +

2sin A
cos(B C) cos(B + C)

= cot A +

sin A
sin B sin C

cos A sin B sin C + sin 2 A


=
sin A sin B sin C

a , b , c

a = 2R sin A
a
b
c

= = = 2R b = 2R sin B ( 1)
sin A sin B sin C
c = 2R sin C

a 2 = b 2 + c2 2bccos A

( 2)

(1) (2)
4R 2 sin 2=
A 4R 2 (sin 2 B + sin 2 C 2sin B sin Ccos A)

Page 251

sin 2 B + sin 2 C sin 2 A


sin B sin Ccos A =
2

y
sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C
y=
2sin A sin B sin B

AM GM
3

sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C 3 (sin A sin B sin C)2

3 3 (sin A sin B sin C)2


y
2sin A sin B sin C
y

3
2

1
sin A sin B sin C

f (x) = sin x 0 < x <


f ''(x) = sin x < 0 , x (0; )
f (x)
Jensen

Page 252

f (A) + f (B) + f (C)


A+B+C
f(
)
3
3

sin A + sin B + sin C


A+B+C
3
)=
sin(
3
3
2


AM GM

sin A + sin B + sin C

sin A sin B sin C

3 sin A sin B sin C


sin A sin B sin C
y

3
2

3 3
8

33
1
3 2
3
.
=
2 sin A sin B sin C 2 3
2sin A
3
cos A + cos(B C)

y =
cot A +

Page 253

ABC r
R


sin

A
B
B
C
C
A 5 r
sin + sin sin + sin sin +
2
2
2
2
2
2 8 4R

sin

A
B
B
C
C
A 5 r
sin + sin sin + sin sin +
2
2
2
2
2
2 8 4R

a , b , c ABC

p=

a+b+c
2

sin

A
(p b )(p c)
B
(p a )(p c)
=
; sin =
2
bc
2
ac

sin

C
(p a )(p b )
=
2
ab

Page 254

cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + 4 sin

= 1+ 4

A
B
C
sin sin
2
2
2

(p a )(p b )(p c)
abc

S2
S
p
= 1 + 4
= 1+
4RS
pR
pr
r
= 1+
= 1+
pR
R

cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 +

r
R

C
r
A
B
+ 1 2 sin 2 + 1 2 sin 2 = 1 +
2
R
2
2
A
B
C
r
3 2(sin 2 + sin 2 + sin 2 ) = 1 +
2
2
2
R
A
B
C
r
(1)
sin 2 + sin 2 + sin 2 = 1
2
2
2
2R

1 2 sin 2

Jensen

A
B
C
A+B+C

) = 3 sin
+ sin + sin 3 sin(
6
6
2
2
2
A
B
C 3
sin + sin + sin
2
2
2 2
sin

Page 255

A
B
C
9

( 2)
sin + sin + sin
2
2
2
4

(x + y + z)2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx


(1) (2)
1

A
B
B
C
C
A
9
r
+ 2(sin sin + sin sin + sin sin )
2R
2
2
2
2
2
2
4

2(sin

A
B
B
C
C
A
5 r
sin + sin sin + sin sin ) +
2
2
2
2
2
2
4 2R

sin

A
B
B
C
C
A 5 r

sin + sin sin + sin sin +


2
2
2
2
2
2 8 4R

Page 256