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Panya Buahombura

School of Metallurgical Engineering


Suranaree University of Technology

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

 (Stress) 
       

 !"#   ! $%
Stress !#%&   # #'
(!" )# pound per square
inch (psi), N/m2 (Pa), N/mm2 (MPa)
Tensile Stress

Compressive Stress

F
=
A

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

Shear Stress

S
=
A

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

 ! (Strain) 


% -.  ! $%
" !"/ 0 

Strain !#%& 
!"%!"/%-1!"-  !
$%# 
 -" )# in./in., mm/mm

Tensile Strain

Compressive Strain

l lo
l
=
=
lo
lo

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

Shear Strain

a
=
= tan
h

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

 .  
(Yield strength, YS)

 3 $ 
(Ultimate tensile strength, TS)

 . 
(Breaking strength)

!
(Ductility)

 $  
#
(Modulus of elasticity or Youngs modulus)

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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  0 3  0)-( 0!" !/


 4 3! gage length !" 0 

"  00!"%(  )-( ()-($3 
53" %& hydraulic loading system 
mechanical
loading system  ")-( 
 !" 0)-(. 0  load cell 53"
  $  !"//%. stress   #
'
(!" -" )-(# / 0 3 
!" !# Engineering
Stress

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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  extensometer !"- $# 0)-( 0


.#!"'-"3(  -"#  3
)-(  strain !"/!(  !# Engineering Strain

"  $ engineering stress (()  engineering strain
( ) !"/$'6 %& 7  '89  ! 7#
# Engineering Stress-Strain Curve
Strain

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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Ductile Materials

Brittle Materials

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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 !" stress  strain '-"3(%&  # (


" stress '-"
strain 6'-"3(/%) ;.!"%&      OP !"
  stress-strain curve 53" ! stress !"'-"3( #%&  #
3 P !(# Proportional Limit

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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" !" -"-  ! $%


(permanent deformation 
plastic deformation) "/% 
! elastic limit $# !"#!/!0# proportional
Elastic limit

%&#

stress

limit

 / 0   


stress "##!( 
" % !" 
 0
 $%-
 / 0   
stress $##!( 
" % !" 
  ! $%/%!" $%/% /#0
 $# $%-

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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#  - Elastic deformation    

 !# #6 6   (Stiffness) /#))#
proportional limit

!#%&

psi

N/m2 (Pa)

E =

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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  (Yield Point) %&!" - %!" $%


#/%
%& %!" $%00 53"#6  .  !(  !# Yield
Strength

 !"  yield point #<#%& ductile materials 53"


  upper  lower yield point 6 #)  .!!(
!" lower yield point %&# Yield strength
 00)-(!"  0   
 !" ) 3( $%
! %!" $%  00/   

yield point 6 

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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.!!"  0% /#  yield point )# non-ferrous


metals  high strength steel 53" 3( $% #!(%&!"
  0 yield strength
 /-8! off-set method   0)#!"%&
proportional limit /% stress-strain curve   OX 53"
/%!" Y  7  53" stress !" Y !( !# Yield
Strength

"/%#

off-set

 $# # 0.10 0.20 %   

gage

length

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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Yield point elongation

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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" )-( 0/ 0  '-" $3( !" stress  strain
'-"3(  YM  stress-strain curve (53"'0 ductile
materials)  stress '-"3( $ 3 M  ! $   
!"  #   !(# Ultimate Strength 
Tensile
Strength

 0 brittle materials !  !


   . !(
.!" ductile materials -   (necking)   

/%/ ! 6 # !"- 

TS

F Max
=
Ao

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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 0 ductile materials   -"-   


necking 
"
/ 03 tensile strength (
"  3)-(# /%

" @ )-(  
# /%/ ! '
(!" /
#  6 .! !") 36"  ")-(
 0   !# stress . !")-(!(#
Breaking Strength

 0 brittle materials   !


 . !" stress
!# $  ( breaking strength !##0 tensile strength

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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!
% -.!"   
/ "- !

 !  2 ;. 

 % 9569 
 
% Elongation
% RA =

Ao A
Ao

100

Lf = final gage length


Lo = original gage length
 % 9569  '
(!"


%

Reduction of Area

l lo
% EL =
100
lo
Af = final cross-sectional area
Ao = original cross-sectional area
School of Metallurgical Engineering,
SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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 !/ ! #3"# flow curve 


" .  0
 3 
" B# yield point /% '
(!" )-( 0
  !"'-"3(  "- necking !" ultimate tensile strength
53" !") 3.!"'
(!")-( 06 #  6
)#
  True stress ./ !" # )-( 0 
'
(!" )-( . .(
  True strain ./!"%!"%/% 
 )-(!"$
3 . .(
53"  '89;.  True stress-strain curve

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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6%&  -  ! $% (permanent


or plastic deformation) 
#  - 0C/ 
(resistance to identation) 53"6   ) 
!" !653"! $% ##@ )# ball, pyramid 
cone %&
/%0B-)-(
-8! 6"/%! $#-8! !(
Brinell hardness
test, Rockwell hardness test, Vickers hardness test 
Microhardness test

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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%&  06)$0 96


  9/09!"!
 B#1$9 10 mm 0)-( 0

 0#6)( 3,000 kg %& 10 -!


 0 #6)( 500 kg %& 30 -!
(  B#1$9 0C !"- ) 
 19 #  '
" ) . Brinell hardness number (BHN
or HB)   . !")    '
(!" 0
C
School of Metallurgical Engineering,
SUT

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!"

 !") , test load (kg)


D =  B#1$90 9, diameter of ball (mm)
d =  B#1$9 0C, diameter of impression (mm)
"/%60 -9//#- 500 HB  0!"%&$
0 96 //#- 650 HB  0!"%&$0 9  9/09
 #6 /#  . #  # B#
1$9 0C !"//% % !0!0# % !0!0
P=

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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%& #6#3!"/%0)-(  0


# ))$0 9  06)')    #
#6/%G!"- $#0
"  0
  ! $# 2 (  
  )  (minor load)
'
"  B 0)-( 53" !(!"%G ##%&1$9
('-"  (major load) '
" 3/%0
( 
 "/#  3/%/ !  3 % major load 
 ##6!"/0%G
#6%& 003( $#0 !") )- 

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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!  0 6000 -9 ) 


 $# # 1-120 kg     
 # $  19 53"  .#
Vickers hardness number (HV) / 

HV


1 . 854 P
=
d 2

P = applied load (kg)


d = diagonal length of square impression (mm)

 #/ % !0!0 


School of Metallurgical Engineering,
SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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) 6'
(!"6@ !"   6  )-(
 
"  !"- !6 "/%)  $#!" 11,000 g 53"   ) filar
micrometer eyepiece   .# Knoop hardness
number (KHN or HK) / 



P = applied load (kg)


d = length of long diagonal (mm)

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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% -.'!"    absorb / (energy absorb) # !"-


 !//  !. 0-!(# Toughness 53"#0'
(!"
7  stress-strain curve
-8!#@  # toughness 
  0   
Impact
test

)-(!")  0$ ! 0 # ! !"


 4  0! $# 2 ;. 
keyhole notch  Vnotch

)-( 00# %& 2 % @ 


Charpy

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT



Izod

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 # (Toughness) 53"#0'


(!" 7  stress-strain curve
 !"!! ! # (toughness) # !"% 

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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  0   )-(0#53" $## $


(pedulum) 53"!(#3"$3(/%!" $ 4
 0 (.  $!"  -# pendulum ! potential energy
$##3") ( %#  pendulum !/ )-( 0!"
 $#'
" !")-( (
"  %#  pendulum 
'%!"/% $# $%  kinetic energy) 53"  #
energy absorbed /## # $ -"0 $
$!/ (  pendulum

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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 %!" '!%&%  (Ductile to Brittle Transition)


 Ductile materials  %!"'H- !%&%  (ductile
to brittle) /!" .$
- ", high stress rate  fast loading rate
  ! .$-!"
 ! %!"'H-  ductile %& brittle #
Impact Transition Temperature (ITT) 
Ductile to Brittle
Transition (DBT) Temperature


 %!"'H- !%&%  %&%G 


) !"
  $# ' # I' )!" .$-"

-0 )# 
-  !" #0 -.!"%&(6 4 #(

# #( 
# #J5!" $#0 -.(

  9- %&
School of Metallurgical Engineering,
SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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)-(00% 

)-(00!
.$-

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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(Effect of temperature on energy absorbed)

Impact Transition Temperature (ITT)

School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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School of Metallurgical Engineering,


SUT

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