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Richard Fernando

Angles are usually represented in degrees or

One complete revolution comprises 360 degrees or 2π radians. Units in degrees can be converted into radians by using the formula:

o

360

o

2

Consider the triangle ABC below:

C
θ
A
B

sin

cos

tan

BC

AC

AB

AC

BC

AB

sin

cos

csc

sec

cot

 1  sin  1  cos  1 cos    tan  sin 

Angle B is a right angle (90 0 ) and θ is measured counterclockwise from A.

 θ 0 o 30 o 45 o 60 o 90 o sin  0 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 cos  1 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 0 sin cos   0 1 3 3 3  tan  1 

y

 Quadrant 2 Quadrant 1 90 o  x  180 o 0 o  x  90 o   x   0  x   2 sin + ALL + 2 tan + cos+ 180 o  x  270 o 270 o  x    x  3  3 x   2 2 Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4

360

sin(

)

 

sin

cos(

)

cos

tan(

)



tan

sin(180

o

x cos(180

o

o

tan(180

o

)

sin

   )  cos    )  tan 

sin( 90

o

cos(90

o

)

)

cos

sin

Simple trigonometric equations:

1.

2.

3.

sin x = sin α x = α + k.360 o cos x = cos α x = ±α + k.360 o tan x = tan α

OR

x = (180 o – α) + k.360 o

x = α + k.18o o Note: k = integers, 180 o =π radian, 360 o = 2π radian.

Solve the trigonometric equations below:

 a. sin (2x - 20) = - cos (3x + 50), 0 ≤ x ≤ 90 b. cos (3x - 60) = cos (-300), o ≤ x ≤ 180 c. tan (x + 45) = - tan 135, o ≤ x ≤ 360

Note: All units are in degrees.

sin (2x - 20) = - cos (3x + 50)

sin (2x 20) = - sin (90 (3x +50))

sin (2x 20) = - sin (40 3x)

sin (2x 20) = sin (-(40 3x))

sin (2x 20) = sin (3x 40)

1. 2x 20 = 3x 40 + k.360

x = 20 k.360 k = 0 x = 20 (ANS)

k =- 1 x = 380 (NA)

k = 1 x = -340 (NA)

2. 2x 20 = (180 (3x 40)) + k.360 2x 20 = (220 3x) + k.360

5x = 240 + k.360 x = 48 + k.72

k = 0 x = 48 (ANS) k = 1 x = 120 (NA) k = -1 x = -24 (NA) Therefore, the feasible solutions are x = 20 and x = 48 (0 ≤ x ≤ 90).

cos (3x - 60) = cos (-300) cos (3x 60) = cos (300)

1. 3x 60 = 300 + k.360 x = 120 + k.120

k = -1 x = 0 (ANS) k = 0 x = 120 (ANS)

k = 1 x = 240 (NA)

2. 3x 60 = -300 + k.360

x = -80 + k.120

  k = 0  x = -80 (NA) k = 1  x = 40 (ANS) k = 2  x = 160 (ANS) k = 3  x = 280 (NA)  Therefore, the feasible solutions are x = 0, x =

40, x = 120, and x = 160 (o ≤ x ≤ 180).

tan (x + 45) = - tan 135

tan (x + 45) = tan (-135)

x + 45 = -135 + k.180 x = -180 + k.180

k = 0 x = = -180 (NA)

k = 1 x = 0 (ANS)

k = 2 x = 180 (ANS) k = 3 x = 360 (ANS) Therefore, the feasible solutions are x = 0, x = 180, and x = 360 (o ≤ x ≤ 360).

Basic identities of trigonometry:

sin

sec

csc

2

2

2

cos

tan

cot

2

2

2

1

1

1

 sin( A  B )  cos( A  B )  tan( A  B ) 

sin

A

cos

B

cos

A

sin

B

 cos A cos B  sin A sin B tan A  tan B

1

tan

A

tan

B

Double-angle formulae:

sin 2

A

cos 2

A

tan 2 A

2 sin

A

2 cos

2

cos

A

A

1

1

  

2 tan A

1

tan

2

A

2 sin

2

A

cos

2

A

sin

2

A

Half-angle formulae:

1
1
cos A
sin
A 
2
2
1
1
cos A
cos
A 
2
2
1
1 cos A
1
cos A
sin A
tan
A 
2
1 cos A
sin A
1
cos A

Sum-to-product formulae:

sin

sin

A

A

sin

sin

B

B

2 sin

2 cos

1

2

1

2

(

A

(

A

B

) cos

B

) sin

1

2

(

1
(
2

A

A

B

)

B )

cos

A

cos

B

2 cos

1

2

(

A

B

) cos

1

2

(

A

B

)

cos

A

cos

B



2 sin

1 1

(

A

B

) sin

2 2

(

A

B

)

Product-to-sum formulae:

2

2

2

 sin A cos B  sin( A  B ) cos A sin B  sin( A  B ) cos A cos B  cos( A  B

sin(

sin(

A

A

B

B

)

)

)

cos(

A

B

)

2 sin

A

sin

B

cos(

A

B

)

cos(

A

B

)

a. From the half angle formula, we know that

1

tan A 

2

1  cos A
1  cos A

Prove that

1 cos A

sin A

1 cos A

sin A

sin A

1 cos A

sin A

1 cos A

b. Prove that

sin(

x y

)

sin sin

x

y

sin(

y z

)

sin sin

y

z

sin(

z x

)

sin sin

z

x

0

 LHS  1  cos A sin A 1  cos A 1  cos A   sin A 1  cos A  1  cos 2 A sin A (1  cos A )  sin 2 A  sin A sin (1 A  cos A )  RHS PROVEN 1  cos ( A

)

sin(

y

)

sin(

z

)

  sin( z  x ) sin z sin x y cos z  cos

x

y

LHS

sin

sin

y

y

sin

z

sin

 sin x sin y sin x cos y  cos

sin

x

y

z

  sin x sin y  (cot y  cot x )  (cot z   0 (  RHS PROVEN )

y

)

sin

y

sin

(cot

x

z

cot

z

)

cot

sin

z

cos

x

cos

z

sin

x

sin

z

sin

x

Using trigonometric identities formulae, determine:

 a. sin 3A (in terms of sin A) b. cos 3A (in terms of cos A) c. tan 3A (in terms of tan A)