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Richard Fernando

Richard Fernando
Richard Fernando
Richard Fernando
 Angles are usually represented in degrees or radians.  One complete revolution comprises 360
 Angles are usually represented in degrees or radians.  One complete revolution comprises 360

Angles are usually represented in degrees or

radians.

One complete revolution comprises 360 degrees or 2π radians. Units in degrees can be converted into radians by using the formula:

radians

1 radian = 57.3 o

o

360

o

2

 Consider the triangle ABC below: C θ A B sin cos tan BC 
 Consider the triangle ABC below: C θ A B sin cos tan BC 

Consider the triangle ABC below:

C θ A B
C
θ
A
B

sin

cos

tan

BC

AC

AB

AC

BC

AB

sin

cos

csc

sec

cot

 

1

 

sin

1

 

cos

1

cos

 

tan

sin

Angle B is a right angle (90 0 ) and θ is measured counterclockwise from A.

θ 0 o 30 o 45 o 60 o 90 o sin  0 1
θ 0 o 30 o 45 o 60 o 90 o sin  0 1
θ 0 o 30 o 45 o 60 o 90 o sin  0 1

θ

0

o

30

o

45

o

60

o

90

o

sin

0

1

2

1

2
2

2

1

3
3

2

1

cos

1

1

3
3

2

1

2
2

2

1

2

0

 

sin

cos

  0

 

1

3
3

3

 
3
3
 

tan

1

y   Quadrant 2 Quadrant 1   90 o  x  180 o  
y   Quadrant 2 Quadrant 1   90 o  x  180 o  

y

 

Quadrant 2

Quadrant 1

 

90

o

x

180

o

 

0

o

x

90

o

x

0 x

2

sin +

ALL +

2

 

tan +

cos+

180

o

x

270

o

 

270

o

x

x

3

 

3

x

 

 
 

2

 

2

Quadrant 3

Quadrant 4

 

360

sin(

)

 

sin

cos(

)

cos

tan(

)



tan

sin(180

o

x cos(180

o

o

tan(180

o

)

sin

)



cos

)



tan

sin( 90

o

cos(90

o

)

)

cos

sin

 Simple trigonometric equations: 1. 2. 3. sin x = sin α x = α
 Simple trigonometric equations: 1. 2. 3. sin x = sin α x = α

Simple trigonometric equations:

1.

2.

3.

sin x = sin α x = α + k.360 o cos x = cos α x = ±α + k.360 o tan x = tan α

OR

x = (180 o – α) + k.360 o

x = α + k.18o o Note: k = integers, 180 o =π radian, 360 o = 2π radian.

 Solve the trigonometric equations below: a. sin (2x - 20) = - cos (3x
 Solve the trigonometric equations below: a. sin (2x - 20) = - cos (3x

Solve the trigonometric equations below:

a.

sin (2x - 20) = - cos (3x + 50), 0 ≤ x ≤ 90

b.

cos (3x - 60) = cos (-300), o ≤ x ≤ 180

c.

tan (x + 45) = - tan 135, o ≤ x ≤ 360

Note: All units are in degrees.

 sin (2x - 20) = - cos (3x + 50) sin (2x – 20)
 sin (2x - 20) = - cos (3x + 50) sin (2x – 20)

sin (2x - 20) = - cos (3x + 50)

sin (2x 20) = - sin (90 (3x +50))

sin (2x 20) = - sin (40 3x)

sin (2x 20) = sin (-(40 3x))

sin (2x 20) = sin (3x 40)

1. 2x 20 = 3x 40 + k.360

x = 20 k.360 k = 0 x = 20 (ANS)

k =- 1 x = 380 (NA)

k = 1 x = -340 (NA)

 2. 2x – 20 = (180 – (3x – 40)) + k.360 2x –
 2. 2x – 20 = (180 – (3x – 40)) + k.360 2x –

2. 2x 20 = (180 (3x 40)) + k.360 2x 20 = (220 3x) + k.360

5x = 240 + k.360 x = 48 + k.72

k = 0 x = 48 (ANS) k = 1 x = 120 (NA) k = -1 x = -24 (NA) Therefore, the feasible solutions are x = 20 and x = 48 (0 ≤ x ≤ 90).

 cos (3x - 60) = cos (-300) cos (3x – 60) = cos (300)
 cos (3x - 60) = cos (-300) cos (3x – 60) = cos (300)

cos (3x - 60) = cos (-300) cos (3x 60) = cos (300)

1. 3x 60 = 300 + k.360 x = 120 + k.120

k = -1 x = 0 (ANS) k = 0 x = 120 (ANS)

k = 1 x = 240 (NA)

2. 3x 60 = -300 + k.360

x = -80 + k.120

 k = 0  x = -80 (NA) k = 1  x =
 k = 0  x = -80 (NA) k = 1  x =

k

= 0 x = -80 (NA)

k = 1 x = 40 (ANS)

k = 2 x = 160 (ANS)

k

= 3 x = 280 (NA)

Therefore, the feasible solutions are x = 0, x =

40, x = 120, and x = 160 (o ≤ x ≤ 180).

 tan (x + 45) = - tan 135 tan (x + 45) = tan
 tan (x + 45) = - tan 135 tan (x + 45) = tan

tan (x + 45) = - tan 135

tan (x + 45) = tan (-135)

x + 45 = -135 + k.180 x = -180 + k.180

k = 0 x = = -180 (NA)

k = 1 x = 0 (ANS)

k = 2 x = 180 (ANS) k = 3 x = 360 (ANS) Therefore, the feasible solutions are x = 0, x = 180, and x = 360 (o ≤ x ≤ 360).

 Basic identities of trigonometry: sin sec csc 2 2 2    
 Basic identities of trigonometry: sin sec csc 2 2 2    

Basic identities of trigonometry:

sin

sec

csc

2

2

2

cos

tan

cot

2

2

2

1

1

1

Addition and subtraction formulae:

sin(

A

B

)

cos(

A

B

)

tan(

A

B

)

sin

A

cos

B

cos

A

sin

B

cos

A

cos

B

sin

A

sin

B

tan

A

tan

B

1

tan

A

tan

B

 Double-angle formulae: sin 2 A cos 2 A   tan 2 A 
 Double-angle formulae: sin 2 A cos 2 A   tan 2 A 

Double-angle formulae:

sin 2

A

cos 2

A

tan 2 A

2 sin

A

2 cos

2

cos

A

A

1

1

  

2 tan A

1

tan

2

A

2 sin

2

A

cos

2

A

sin

2

A

Half-angle formulae:

1 1  cos A sin A  2 2 1 1  cos A
1
1
cos A
sin
A 
2
2
1
1
cos A
cos
A 
2
2
1
1 cos A
1
cos A
sin A
tan
A 
2
1 cos A
sin A
1
cos A
 Sum-to-product formulae: sin sin A A   sin sin B B  
 Sum-to-product formulae: sin sin A A   sin sin B B  

Sum-to-product formulae:

sin

sin

A

A

sin

sin

B

B

2 sin

2 cos

1

2

1

2

(

A

(

A

B

) cos

B

) sin

1

2

(

1
(
2

A

A

B

)

B )

cos

A

cos

B

2 cos

1

2

(

A

B

) cos

1

2

(

A

B

)

cos

A

cos

B



2 sin

1 1

(

A

B

) sin

2 2

(

A

B

)

Product-to-sum formulae:

2

2

2

sin

A

cos

B

sin(

A

B

)

cos

A

sin

B

sin(

A

B

)

cos

A

cos

B

cos(

A

B

sin(

sin(

A

A

B

B

)

)

)

cos(

A

B

)

2 sin

A

sin

B

cos(

A

B

)

cos(

A

B

)

 a. From the half angle formula, we know that 1 tan A  2
 a. From the half angle formula, we know that 1 tan A  2

a. From the half angle formula, we know that

1

tan A 

2

1  cos A 1  cos A
1  cos A
1  cos A

Prove that

1 cos A

sin A

1 cos A

sin A

sin A

1 cos A

sin A

1 cos A

b. Prove that

sin(

x y

)

sin sin

x

y

sin(

y z

)

sin sin

y

z

sin(

z x

)

sin sin

z

x

0

LHS  1  cos A       sin A   1  cos
LHS  1  cos A       sin A   1  cos

LHS

1

cos

A

 
 
 

sin

A

 

1

cos

A

 

1

cos

A

 

 

 
   
 

sin

A

1

cos

A

 

1

cos

2

A

 

sin

A

(1

cos

A

)

 

sin

2

A

sin

A

sin

(1

A

cos

A

)

RHS

PROVEN

1

cos

(
A

)

sin( y ) sin( z )  sin( z  x ) sin z sin
sin( y ) sin( z )  sin( z  x ) sin z sin

sin(

y

)

sin(

z

)

sin(

z

x

)

sin

z

sin

x

 

y

cos

z

cos

x

y

LHS

sin

sin

y

y

sin

z

sin

 

sin

x

sin

y

sin

x

cos

y

cos

sin

x

y

z

 

sin

x

sin

y

 

(cot

y

cot

x

)

(cot

z

0

(

RHS PROVEN

)

 

y

)

sin

y

sin

(cot

x

z

cot

z

)

cot

sin

z

cos

x

cos

z

sin

x

sin

z

sin

x

 Using trigonometric identities formulae, determine: a. sin 3A (in terms of sin A) b.
 Using trigonometric identities formulae, determine: a. sin 3A (in terms of sin A) b.

Using trigonometric identities formulae, determine:

a.

sin 3A (in terms of sin A)

b.

cos 3A (in terms of cos A)

c.

tan 3A (in terms of tan A)