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Permanent Magnet

DC Motor
Construction
Field
-Permanent
magnet

-Continuous
ring
Operation

Supply
6V,12 V or 24 V Bt.
or rectified ac

T α ØI
B-H curve
- top left quadrant
segment is referred
to as the
“demagnetizing curve”
Demagnetizing Curve
Permanent Magnetic Materials
Alnico - good properties but too low a
coercive force and too square a B-H loop =>
permanent demagnetization occurs easily
Ferrites (Barium and Strontium) - low cost,
moderately high service temperature (400°
C), and straight line demagnetization curve.
However, Br is low => machine volume and
size needs to be large.
Permanent Magnet Materials…
Samarium-Cobalt (Sm-Co) - very good
properties but very expensive
(because Samarium is rare)

Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) -
very good properties except the Curie
temperature is only 150°C
Performance Characteristics
N-T
I-T
ŋ
Performance Characteristics…
Efficiency

Torque

Power Input Power output

Current

Speed (rpm)
Speed Control
The speed-torque characteristic of a PM motor can be
controlled by changing the supply voltage or the
effective resistance of the armature circuit.

The change in the supply voltage varies the no-load


speed of the motor without affecting the slope of the
characteristics.
Speed Control...
with the change in the effective resistance of
the armature circuit, the slope of the curve is
controlled and the no-load speed of the motor
remains the same
Advantages

Lower manufacturing cost


Smaller in size
Higher efficiency (no field Cu loss)
Less noise
Little radio and TV interference
Disadvantages
Heating effect
(magnetic shielding)
Can be demagnetized by armature reaction due
to
i . Improper design
ii. Excessive Ia by fault or
transient
iii. Improper brush shift
iv. Temperature effects
Limited in size (large magnets are expensive)
Applications
12 V PM DC motor
Automobiles

Windshield Wipers

Door locks

Window lifts
 Seat adjust
 Mirror adjust
 Anti-lock Braking System
 Fans
Toys
Electric
Toothbrush
http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11e/electricmotor.htm

http://www.freescale.com/files/microcontrollers/doc/train_ref_material/MOTORDC