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Buildings (PEB's) extends beyond success and profitability.

We desire to make everyone aware of the remarkable features and attributes of the PEB System and what makes it the most affordable and flexible building system to construct any non-residential single storey (or Ground+2) building. We intend to create an environment where every stakeholder of Mabani Steel (be it a Shareholder, an Employee, a Supplier or a Customer) is empowered to think, innovate and contribute to our success. Our vision is to create a great global company that attracts outstanding Employees, Suppliers and Customers. We pledge to exceed the expectations of all who come in contract with us while respecting and supporting the communities in which we conduct business.

At Mabani Steel our passion for Pre-Engineered

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Introduction
About this Manual An Invitation To Our Customers Supply Options Why Pre-Engineered Buildings (PEB's) Why Mabani Steel
1 2 3 4 6

5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Applications of PEB's
Overview Aircraft Hangars Vehicle Parking Sheds Fuel Stations Poultry Farms Bulk Storage Buildings
63 64 70 73 76 77

2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

The PEB Transaction Cycle


The Quotation Process Job Entry and Confirmation The Technical Approval Process Release for Production / Production Release for Shipment / Material Dispatch Post Shipment Services & Issues Erection Turn Key Construction
15 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

6
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Special Design G uidelines


Thermal Insulation Design Building Ventilation Design Roof "Rain Drainage" Design Building Expansion Joint Design Basics of Acoustic Design Natural Light Transmission
79 83 84 85 86 88

3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

References
Industry Terms Abbreviations Unit Conversions Building Material Weights Mabani Steel Country Codes
25 43 45 47 48

7
7.1 7.2 7.3

Corrosion Protection
Surface Preparation Paint Systems Alkyd Primers Versus UniversalEpoxy Primers
89 92 94

4
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

Engineering Practices
Caution to Buyers of PEB's Design Codes Building Codes Design Loads Wind Design Considerations Seismic Design Considerations Deflection Considerations Engineering Output
49 50 51 52 54 57 60 61

8
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9

Foundations & Masonry Walls for PEB's


Soil Bearing Capacity Column Reactions Anchor Bolts Layout Drawings Hairpins for Horizontal Reactions Footings for Pinned Fixed Bases Tie Beams Ground Slabs Masonry Walls References for Concrete Design
95 96 97 98 99 101 102 103 104

THE PEB SYSTEM IS MADE OF TWO DISTINCT SUBSYSTEMS

PEB Steel Structure Panels & Panel Accessories


In chapter 9 of this manual some of the PEB Steel Structure products (such as canopies, fascias, roof monitors, roof extensions, partitions) are shown with single skin panel details for the sake of clarity. If a customer orders the "PEB Steel Structure" only from Mabani Steel and orders the "Panels & Panels Accessories" directly from a Specialized Panel Manufacturer, only the steel framing of these products will be supplied by Mabani Steel.

9
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30

The PEB Steel Structure


Basic Building Parameters Primary Framing Systems Clear Span Buildings Multi Span Buildings Multi Gable Buildings Single Slope Buildings Roof System Buildings Lean to Buildings Low Rise Buildings Endwalls Bracing Expansion Joints Jack Beams Mezzanines Staircases & Handrails Crane Systems Roof Monitors Roof Extensions Canopies Facias & Parapets Partitions Roof Platforms, Catwalk & Walkways Checkered Plates & Grating Cage Ladders Secondary Members (Z's, C's) Framed Openings (Walls) Framed Openings (Roofs) Anchor Bolts Connection Bolts Sag Rods
105 106 109 111 114 117 118 120 121 123 138 142 146 148 153 160 167 169 174 176 181 185 190 192 194 199 202 203 208 211

10
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.25

Panels & Panel Accessories


Overview Panel Profiles & Load Tables Sky Lights and Wall Lights Trims and Flashing Panel Details Curved Eave and Ridge Panels Interior Roof & Wall liner Details Eave Gutters and Downspouts Valley Gutters and Downpipes Masonry Conditions Pre-Cast Panels Fiberglass Insulation & Accessories Gravity Ridge Ventilators Power Vents Roof Curbs Sliding Doors Roll-up Doors Personnel Walk Doors Sandtrap Louvers Windows Panel Fasteners Foam Closures Bead Mastic Flowable Mastic Pop Rivets
213 214 215 216 218 221 222 227 229 235 237 238 241 244 247 249 253 259 263 264 265 267 268 269 270

Introduction

THE PEB MANUAL

Section

Page

1.1 About this Manual 1.2 An Invitation To Our Customers 1.3 Supply Options 1.4 Why Pre-Engineered Buildings (PEB's) 1.5 Why Mabani Steel

1 2 3 4 6

C H A P T E R 1

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.1

: INTRODUCTION
: About this Manual 1 of 1

Mabani Steel welcomes you to the world of Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings (PEB's) and offers you this comprehensive PEB guide with the hope that it will enhance your understanding of this great building system, one that has captured over 80% of the one storey non-residential building construction market in the USA.

To familiarize Customers (potential & existing) with the way Mabani Steel does business.
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Mabani Steel: The new benchmark in PEB


At Mabani Steel we are passionate about PreEngineered Steel Buildings and are determined to become the Benchmark against which all other PEB manufacturers in this region are measured. Mabani Steel is an AI-Rajhi Investment Group company (ARIG); The Al Rajhi Business Group is among the top 5 business groups in Saudi Arabia and the largest Saudi Investor in the UAE.

Superiority of the PEB System


From inquiry to occupancy no other building system matches the Pre-Engineered Steel Building system when it comes to economy, flexibility and speed of construction.

Contents of this Manual The main focus of this manual is on:


The PEB transaction cycle; starting from raising a request for quotation for a project to the completion and acceptance of the erection of all the Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings in the project.
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Pushing the Envelope


Architects and consultants in this region continue to demand the development of more specialized and complex details to meet the increasing aesthetic and functional requirements of their clients. Fortunately the PEB system is infinitely versatile and can be adapted to meet the demands of the most discriminating designers. The Mabani Steel engineering team has the experience, tools and skills to meet these requirements. For a different insight into the PEB system we recommend the following reference which can be ordered from www.amazon.com

Making you aware of the Design Codes and Building Codes that are applicable to PEB engineering and manufacturing.

The general details of the PEB system as practiced by Mabani Steel. We are the first in this region to split the PEB system into two distinct subsystems: The PEB Steel Structure (Chapter 9) and Panels & Panel Accessories (Chapter 10).

Purpose of this Manual


To use as an introductory orientation / training guide for engineers, architects, consultants, quantity surveyors, etc. who are not familiar with the PEB system.
l l To further enhance and widen the knowledge of those who are already familiar with the PEB system.

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.2

: INTRODUCTION
: An Invitation To Our Customers 1 of 1

To Consultants we say if you are familiar with the PEB System but had past negative experiences with regional PEB manufacturers, we invite you to contact us and visit us. You will find us totally different. If you have not yet had any experience with PEB's, we invite you to attend one of our technical seminars. You will learn to appreciate the flexible and economical features of the PEB System. Before you begin work on any low rise (G+2) building project we ask that you contact us at sales@mabanisteel.ae to give you honest, unbiased advise that may reduce your building cost and considerably shorten your overall project construction time without sacrificing functionality and aesthetics. To General Contractors we say if you are not familiar with the PEB System but want to bid on large industrial or warehousing projects, Mabani Steel will work with you to show you how PEB's can save you time and money. Because we undertake the erection of our PEB's, we will assume responsibility for the supply and erection of the PEB's and free you to focus on other aspects of the project. To Government Approval Authorities we say that Mabani Steel cares about the communities in which it conducts business. We believe in safety first, starting with compliance to the latest codes that are applicable to our industry. We invite your technical staff to attend our seminars and visit our Head Office & Factory.

To Specialized PEB Contractors we say that Mabani Steel understands the fast track nature of your work and appreciate the role you play in expanding the PEB business in the region. We know that you want full compliance to your inquiry, competitive prices and on time delivery. We pledge to give you that and more. We invite you to visit our Head Office & Factory and see why Mabani Steel is the new benchmark in PEB. Training Seminars. Mabani Steel conducts frequent training seminars to familiarize Consultants, Contractors and Government Approval Authorities with the PEB System and how it can be used effectively and economically. We will show you how we do things, starting from design to erection, and let you conclude that we are indeed the new benchmark in PEB. For more information contact a Mabani Steel Sales Office or training@mabanisteel.ae. Visits to our Head Office & Factory. Mabani Steel's campus in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE occupies a 125,000 m2 site. Our built-to-purpose facilities (Head Office Building, Factory Buildings and Labor / Supervisory Camp) are the best in the PEB industry, world wide. No other PEB campus, anywhere in the world, is a match to ours when it comes to functionality, efficiency and simple elegance. We are proud of our campus and we invite you to visit it. We promise you a memorable and productive experience. For more information contact a Mabani Steel Sales Office or sales@mabanisteel.ae

Career Opportunities. At Mabani Steel we treat our employees the way we want them to treat our best customers. We recognize that the greatest single competitive advantage in our industry is people and we make our people know it. We are continually seeking outstanding performers to fill vacant positions and to be groomed for higher positions in our ambitions plans for global growth. No other PEB manufacturer in this region is as concerned as we are in providing a well rounded experience for employees or in helping them reach their maximum potential. Contact careers@mabanisteel.ae for more information.

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.3

: INTRODUCTION
: Supply Options 1 of 1

The PEB Product is made of two distinctly different segments: The PEB Steel Structure and Panels & Panel Accessories.
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Specialized Panel Manufacturers

The PEB Steel Structure

This comprises of all primary steel members (such as interior rigid frames, endwall bearing frames, wind columns & bracing systems) including the steel framing of structural additions such as lean-to's, mezzanine systems (inclusive of mezz. deck & fasteners), roof monitors, jack beams, crane runway beams, roof extensions, canopies, fascias & parapets, interior partitions, roof platforms, catwalks, etc.) and structural sundry items (such as anchor bolts, connection bolts and sag rods). It also includes galvanized secondary members (such as Z - section roof purlins & wall girts, C - section eave struts & base channels, framed opening members and base & gable angles).
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Mabani Steel recognizes that the presence of a large numbers of Specialized Panel Manufacturers in this region, all producers of Sandwich Panels, give customers the option to buy the PEB Steel Structure form a PEB manufacturer and the Panel & Panels Accessories from a specialized Panel Manufacturer.

SANDWICH PANELS OPTIONS


Mabani Steel does not produce sandwich panels. Our alliance with several Specialized Panel Manufacturers enables us to include Sandwich Panels within our scope of supply at very competitive prices. When a customer requires sandwich panels he has two options: Buy the Sandwich Panels & Panel Accessories directly from a Specialized Panel Manufacturer When a customer chooses to buy the Panels & Panel Accessories from a Specialized Panel Manufacturer, Mabani Steel's approval drawings will include only its PEB Steel Structure scope. It becomes the customer's responsibility to coordinate the purchase of the Panels & Panel Accessories directly from the specialized Panel Manufacturer. Include the Buyout Sandwich Panels within Mabani Steel's overall supply scope Under certain circumstances we will consider including the sandwich panels and their accessories within our scope of supply. In such cases we will handle the entire coordination of the bought out items with the Specialized Panel Manufacturer and we will pass his warranty to our Customer. In this option we will manufacture the flashing & trims in-house and supply our standard building accessories and panel sundry items.

Panels & Panel Accessories

This comprises of roof & wall panels (whether sandwich panels or single skin panels with fiberglass insulation), flashing and trims (such as eave gutters & downspouts, valley gutter systems, corner trim, gable trim, etc.), panel accessories (such as sky lights, wall lights, rollup doors, double sliding doors, ridge ventilators, personnel doors, sand trap louvers, power ventilators, etc.) and panel sundry items (such as sheeting fasteners, foam closures, bead mast & pop rivets).

THE PEA MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.4

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Pre-Engineered Buildings (PEB's) 1 of 2

Mill section structural steel buildings gained acceptance in the USA during the early half of the 20th century. Engineers were able to design steel buildings using standard published properties and load tables of hot rolled steel mill sections produced by most American steel mills. Contractors preferred steel buildings to wood and concrete buildings because most quality requirements were handled by the fabricator leaving the contractor with the sole responsibility of erecting the steel structure. Developers and Owners favored steel buildings because they were more economical, faster to construct and required less maintenance than reinforced concrete buildings which gave them a better return on investment. As steel construction flourished, additional intermediate size mill sections were produced by steel mills to meet the increased requirements for economy. This wider variety of mill steel sections resulted in less frequent rolling of sections, which delayed projects and eventually led to the development of welded built-up plate sections and the PEB System. PEB's use a pre-determined narrow range of raw material inventory to produce an infinite range of building geometries to satisfy virtually unlimited design requirements, functional considerations and aesthetic tastes.

Galvanized cold-formed "Z", "C" and angle shaped secondary structural members (roof purlins, eave struts, wall girts, base channels, base angles, gable angles, etc.) Structural Sundry Items (Anchor Bolts, Connection Bolts, Expansion Bolts and Sag Rods).

Profiled, mill finish and prepainted, roof & wall panels and trims & flashings which include eave gutters, downspouts, ridge panels, curved eave panels, etc.
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Panel Accessories such as sky lights, wall lights, ridge ventilators, power ventilators, fiberglass insulation, personnel doors, double sliding doors, roll-up doors and sand trap louvers.

Panel Sundry Items (sheeting fasteners, foam closures, bead mastic, pop rivets, etc.)
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REASONS FOR POPULARITY OF PEB'S


Single Source Responsibility
PEB manufacturers have the in-house capability to engineer exact structural designs enabling exact estimates of any ground + 2 building structure in record time, often accompanied with proposal drawings. They supply an entire PEB including panels and trims and stock most panel accessories enabling them to offer the supply of a complete above slab building shell.

COMPONENTS OF A PEB
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Built-up I - Sections (often tapered) which are used to produce the columns, rafters & beams of rigid frames, bearing frames, mezzanine structures, cranes runways, roof monitors, roof platforms, catwalks, fascias, parapets, canopies, roof extensions, etc.)

Low Initial Cost


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l Hot rolled I - Sections, channels, tubes and angles that are used in limited quantities in the PEB Steel Structure.

Tapered built-up primary structural members, used in PEB rigid frame, rafters & columns, are 30 - 40% lighter than hot rolled mill sections used in equivalent applications. Plate scrap rate is less than half the scrap rate of mill sections.

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.4

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Pre-Engineered Buildings (PEB's) 2 of 2

Z shaped secondary structural members, used as roof purlins and wall girts in PEB's, are 20% - 30% lighter than conventional but rolled channels and are produced with almost no scrap.
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Emergence of Specialized PEB Contractors


The emergence of specialized PEB contractors (called Authorized Builders, Certified Builders, Certified Erectors, etc) in the USA during the 1950's was the greatest single contributor to the huge success of PEB's. Specialized PEB contractors in this region, some of whom are design/build contractors, complement the economy of a PEB with a similarly economical substructure to provide the most economical building solution to construct Ground + 2 (floors) steel buildings.

Foundation requirements of PEB's are fewer and lighter due to the greater clear span capability of PEB main rigid frames (up to 90m) and longer bay lengths (up to 10m).
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Faster overall Project Completion


From inquiry to occupancy no building system matches the PEB system when it comes to speed of construction. A typical 2000 m2 one storey building often takes only 110 days from initial inquiry to completion of erection. The electrical, plumbing, air conditioning and interior finishing varies greatly depending on building usage.
Activity Initial inquiry to contract signature Approval drawings submission Return of approval drawings (depends on the customer) Columns reactions & anchor bolts drawings submittal Dispatch of anchor bolts Casting of Foundations & slab (depends on main contractor) Delivery of PEB (55 days from return of approval drawings) Erection of PEB (depends on erector) No. of Days 10 20 5 Cumulative Days 10 30 35

Fast Modular Expandability


The future expandability of a Pre-Engineered Steel Building is both simple and economical, especially if provisions are made at the initial design stage.

10 5

45 50

Engineering Flexibility
Unlike "mill section steel buildings" where raw materials must be ordered long in advance, if the PEB building parameters and the magnitude of loads that are applied on it are changed during the technical approval process it would not adversely impact its delivery schedule. This is because PEB's use a narrow range of raw material inventory that is often stocked in large quantities in anticipation of producing an infinite range of building geometries.

25

75

15 20

90 110

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.5

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 1 of 9

Owners
Mabani Steel is majority owned by the Al Rajhi Business Group (one of the 5 largest business groups in Saudi Arabia and the largest Saudi investor in the UAE) and the Raed Al Mashal Business Group (a prominent and reputable Saudi Business Group). The chairman of the board of Mabani Steel LLC is Engineer Ibrahim Al-Rajhi.

Plant Capacity
Mabani Steel factory has been built, from the start, with all the equipment, material handling systems, office space, shipping yard and labor camp to produce 6000 MT of PEBs per month broken down into 3600 MT of frames (paintable steel members), 1200 MT of secondary "C" & "Z" members and 1200 MT of Panels & Panel Accessories.

Executive Management
Mabani Steel is managed by Muayyad Khudairi (President) and Ken Krieger (Vice President), a team that has worked together in the PEB Industry for over 30 years and had been responsible for the 3 largest and most successful PEB Companies in this region. Facilities. No new PEB facility in the world has ever been built with the features that are incorporated in Mabani Steel's new PEB campus in Ras Al Khaimah nor does any single existing PEB facility have all these features. Every feature has been designed to provide the most efficient production processes and the fastest production cycle time in the PEB industry while ensuring that components' quality surpass competitors' quality by a very wide margin.

Mabani Steel's 125,000 m2 Campus (Head Office, Factory and Camp) in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.5

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 2 of 9

FIVE AREAS THAT DIFFERENTIATE PEB MANUFACTURERS


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ENGINEERING PRACTICES & ETHICS


Using the correct magnitude of applied loads on the PEB Steel Structure.
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Guiding Philosophy (together with the commitment of the executive management in ensuring that its philosophy is disseminated and implemented throughout the organization) Engineering Practices & Ethics Operations Efficiency & Service Product Features & Quality Regional Focus

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GUIDING PHILOSOPHY
At Mabani Steel our passion for PreEngineered Buildings (PEB's) extends beyond success and profitability. We want the whole world to know of the remarkable features and attributes of the PEB System and what makes it the most affordable and flexible building system to construct any non-residential single storey (or Ground + 2) building. The Shareholders and the Executive Management of Mabani Steel intend to create an environment where every stakeholder of Mabani Steel (be it a shareholder, an employee, a supplier or a Customer) is empowered to think, innovate and contribute to our greatness. Our vision is to create a great global company that attracts outstanding employees, suppliers and Customers. In our quest towards our goal we pledge to exceed the expectations of all who come in contact with us while respecting and supporting the communities in which we conduct business.

The dead load, live load, collateral load, wind load, seismic load, crane load, mezzanine load, etc. that are applied on a steel structure greatly influence the cost of that structure. A PEB manufacturer can quote a lower price for a PEB Steel Structure if the structure is designed for lower than recommended/specified applied loads. Unfortunately this is a common practice by many PEB manufacturers in this region in order to quote an artificially lower price. Mabani Steel will not compromise safety to quote a lower price.
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Compliance with the latest design and building codes that are applicable to the PEB industry.

The codes that are used in the design and manufacture of a PEB Steel Structure greatly impact its cost. Codes specify minimum design loads, load combinations, allowable deflections, manufacturing tolerances, fit up tolerances, etc. Use of less recognized codes or out of date codes often results in cheaper, but potentially unsafe, building structures. The PEB industry originated in the USA, where over one million PEB's are produced each year. American code authorities continuously update their codes as a result of empirical data on the performance of PEB's. When sending a request for quotation to PEB manufacturers insist that they use the latest USA codes that are applicable to PEB's. Refer to Section 3.2 of this Manual for contact information of all USA Code Authorities. Mabani Steel pledges to use the latest codes that are applicable to PEB's with no price disadvantage to the Customer.

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.4

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 3 of 9

Section 1.5

Mabani Steel will be able to produce such a job in 2 weeks giving you a substantial lead over all competitors.
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Accurate Phased Shipments

OPERATIONS EFFICIENCY & SERVICE


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Engineering Cycle Time

Mabani Steel is proud to be using the latest edition of the engineering software developed and sold by Metal Buildings Software, a U.S. based company that specializes in one product only: software for the design and drafting of PEB's. More than 100 PEB manufacturers in the USA, South America, Europe and Asia use this software and vet it everyday. MBS software incorporates the latest US Codes applicable to the design of PEB's. This is important to both the PEB manufacturer that uses it and to buyers of his PEB's, both of whom appreciate that their buildings are safely designed with this software. MBS software is a comprehensive design & detailing software. It produces the design, shop drawings, erection drawings and BOM (Bill of Materials) of a PEB (i.e. The PEB Steel Structure and The Panels & Panel Accessories). Its efficiency far exceeds stand alone software that produces either design output or detailing output but not both.
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The overland shipment of a PEB Steel Structure job is often phased into convoys of 810 trailers (approx. 150 MT per convoy) in order to help the erector to erect a phase before another phased shipment arrives at the site. Often, PEB manufacturers do not deliver a completely erectable phased shipment, leaving the erector helpless without all the necessary components to complete the erection of a phase. Mabani Steel has devised a system that prepacks and stores all the components of a PEB Steel Structure phase in our factory in a way that enables its loading on trailers within 24 hours of its release for shipment. When the Panels & Panel Accessories are included in Mabani Steel's scope they are shipped at a later date than the PEB Steel Structure, in one phase or in several phases, as and when they are needed by the erector.
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Ease of Identifying shipped material

Most PEB manufacturers in this region load materials loosely on trailers without site organization in mind forcing the erector to spend countless hours to sort and identify shipped components. This practice results in additional costs to the erector; costs that are often passed to the Customer. Our packing methods enable erectors to quickly check our material upon its receipt at the jobsite and to easily sort and stage components for fast erection, greatly reducing the likelihood of coating damage and material loss that results from multiple handling of materials at the jobsite.

Production cycle time

This is the time it takes to produce, for example, a 150 MT (metric ton) PEB Steel Structure. The region's typical cycle time for such a job is 3-4 weeks excluding the application of special paint systems.

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.5

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 4 of 9

Response to Requests for Quotations

Mabani Steel has the fastest response to Requests for Quotation (RFQ's) in this region for two reasons. The first reason is that we are the only PEB manufacturer in this region that has a dedicated Head Office based Estimating Department staffed with senior design/estimating engineers and draftsman. Unlike other PEB manufacturers who engage the engineers in their Engineering Departments on a part time basis to handle the estimating of quotations, Mabani Steel's design/estimating engineers are exclusively focused on Pre-Contract activities (quotations). The second reason is that we maintain a sales office in most major cities within the GCC countries. Each sales office is staffed with sales professionals. Each sales professional is backed by a technical sales support person who is located at the sales office. Our sales office staff is fully devoted to Pre-Contract activities. Unlike other PEB manufacturers who burden their sales office staff with PostContact activities, Mabani Steel jobs are managed directly through our Head Office based Customer Service Department/Erection Department. This leaves our sales office staff totally focused on working with you to finalize all the technical and commercial matters related to the supply and/or erection of your PEB's.
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engineer managing the job becomes the link between Mabani Steel and the Customer. He works with the Customer to complete the technical approval, to facilitate the fulfillment of the Customer's payment terms towards Mabani Steel and to arrange for the release of anchor bolts/column reactions drawings and the dispatch of anchor bolts. He liaises with Mabani Steel's Finance Department to release the job for production and, eventually, for shipment. He ensures that the Customer is notified of his job's shipping schedule at least one week prior to dispatch and monitors the erection of the PEB's through Mabani Steel's territory based erection specialist. Mabani Steel employs one erection specialist in each of its sales offices who reports to Mabani Steel's Customer Service Department and is an extension of the project engineer who manages jobs in that territory. His focus is on jobs that are not erected by Mabani Steel. The services of our erection specialist are available upon the request of the Customer. These services include coordinating the delivery of anchor bolts to the site, assisting in the setting of anchor bolts and providing the Customer's erector with Mabani Steel's recommended erection techniques to ensure that the quality features of our PEB's are not compromised during the erection process. Our erection specialist makes periodic inspection reports of the erection of the PEB's to the project engineer. In the event that a Customer's erector is not adhering to proper erection techniques or sequencing, our project engineer will notify the Customer in writing and request his intervention to pressure his erector to take the necessary corrective action. Our erection specialist visits the jobsite periodically until the completion of the erection of all PEB's in the job. He submits a final erection inspection report for the job to our customer service manager which can be made available to the Customer upon request.

Processing of jobs (erection by others)

Jobs whose erection is by others are managed by project engineers at our head Office based Customer Service Department. Each Mabani Steel sales office is backed by one Head Office based project engineer. After a job is entered in Mabani Steel's sales register the responsibility for managing the job is transferred from the sales office to the Customer Service Department. The project

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.4

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 5 of 9

Section 1.5

Processing of Mabani Steel)


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jobs

(erection

by

Roll Formed Products

Jobs whose erection is by Mabani Steel are managed by project engineers at our Head Office based Erection Department. When the erection of a job is within our contract scope we will be fully responsible for all aspects of the erection. These include the supervision of setting the anchor bolts in the concrete pedestals, the unloading of our material at the jobsite, the checking of all materials at time of unloading, the proper site storage of the materials, the proper staging of materials for erection and the erection of all components in accordance with Mabani Steel's erection drawings and erection procedures. When erection is by Mabani Steel, we use either our inhouse erection staff to execute the erection or we subcontract the erection to a reputable specialized PEB erection company. In both cases we guarantee the erection for one year from completion.

To produce quality components you need high quality machinery and pride in producing quality components. At Mabani Steel we purchased the roll forming machinery for the production of secondary Z & C members and single skin panels from the USA where the most reliable roll forming equipment is manufactured. We designed our own custombuilt blast and paint machinery. The improved product quality from these innovative machines surpasses the quality of all other PEB manufacturers in this region.
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Built-up Sections

Built-up sections are the heart of the PEB system. The PEB system is based on efficiently producing economical "tapered web" and "constant depth web" I-sections from high strength (50 KSI) hot rolled plates. All regional PEB manufacturers use a minimum web plate thickness of 3.5mm, 4mm or 5mm which, without the latest welding technology, produce noticeable waviness in the plate webs. Mabani Steel has invested in the most innovative application of welding technology and distortion control to produce the highest quality built-up sections in the industry.
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Quantity of Loose Items

All PEB manufactures in the region include a large number of loose items in their supply. This is economical for the PEB manufacturers but it is a nightmare for erectors. Mabani Steel has considerably reduced the quantity of loose items, especially clips. Clips for fixing purlins & girts are shop welded to the columns & rafters. Bearing endwalls are constructed of hot rolled / built-up sections rather than C-Sections. Clips for attaching lean-to's, Canopies & fascias are eliminated by extending their rafters all the way to the main frame.

PRODUCT FEATURES & QUALITY


The definition of components quality in the PEB industry includes integrity of welds, field fit of components, quality of cleaning of the steel, quality of paint application and ease of field erection of components.

10

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.5

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 6 of 9

Cleaning of Primary Structural Members

All PEB manufacturers in this region use either solvent cleaning or mechanical brushing to clean primary structural members (built-up Isections, hot rolled I-sections, hot rolled channels, hot rolled angles, etc.) prior to painting. Because the surface is not thoroughly cleaned their primers and paints often flake or chip requiring extensive touch up or repainting at the jobsite, a hidden cost that is eventually borne by the Customer. Mabani Steel is the only PEB manufacturer in this region that blast cleans all its primary structural members in accordance with Swedish Standard Sa-2, even when blast cleaning is not specified. Our custom designed/custom built blasting machine makes us the only PEB manufacture in this region that is capable of achieving online Swedish Standard Sa-2.5 when specified.
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with an even coating thickness throughout. They are oven dried immediately after the paint application to prevent damage due to handling.
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Endwall bearing frames/wind columns

Most PEB manufacturers in this region produce their endwall bearing frames and endwall wind columns from light weight cold formed steel channels which require a vast number of loose channels and clips that often get lost on a jobsite not to mention the lengthy time it takes to erect them. Mabani Steel's endwall bearing frames and endwall wind columns are produced from heavier & sturdier built-up sections or hot rolled sections, the same materials that are used for the production of main rigid frames. Mabani Steel endwalls are available in both by-pass and flush conditions.

Standard Shop Primer

All PEB manufacturers in this region use an alkyd red oxide or gray oxide shop primer on steel members. Mabani Steel is the only PEB manufacturer in this region that uses a red/gray universal epoxy primer, a more expensive shop primer that provides considerably more protection than alkyd primers. Customers who later may decide to apply a finish paint coat at the site will appreciate that our universal epoxy primer is compatible with all site applied finish coats; unlike alkyd primers which are incompatible with most finish coats.
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Secondary C & Z Members, Clips & Flanges Braces

Multi-Coat Paint Systems

Most PEB companies in this region manually spray paint their primary structural members, a practice that usually results in uneven paint thicknesses that often leads to paint sagging. Mabani Steel owns two world class automated painting systems. Primary structural members are placed on moving conveyors and painted

Regional PEB manufacturers use a combination of painted or galvanized "Z" and "C" sections as secondary members. They all paint clips and flange braces. Paint on secondary members often fails either because the black coils are not blasted or because the paint is not properly applied or cured. Mabani Steel uses only galvanized secondary "Z" and "C" members, clips, and flange braces lowering maintenance costs by providing additional years of resistance to rusting.

THE PEB MANUAL

11

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.4

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 7 of 9

Section 1.5

A note on Interior Valley Gutter Systems


Mabani Steel alerts customers to the costly considerations that have to be made in Multi Gable Buildings for draining rain water. We strongly recommend that valley conditions be avoided even if this means paying a higher initial price for equivalent Multi Span Buildings. This is because experience has taught us that almost all buyers fail to properly maintain their valley gutters, a situation that often leads to persistent leakages inside buildings. Customers should factor the high cost of constructing concrete channels in slabs and/or installing an under slab piping system to drain rain water to an outside location, into the overall building cost.
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Interior Valley Gutter Downpipes

Most PEB manufacturers in this region exclude the supply of interior valley gutter downpipes from their standard valley gutter system supply. Customers have bought Multi Gable Buildings only to discover that no interior downpipes have been supplied nor were they alerted or advised to provide drainage channels in the concrete slab or piping under the slab to carry rain water outside the building. When valley gutters are required Mabani Steel includes PVC downpipes as part of its valley gutter system.
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Eave Gutters

Interior Valley Gutters

Interior valley gutters are required in Multi Gable Buildings. All PEB manufacturers in this region produce their valley gutters from 0.7mm thick galvanized steel (often in lengths as short as 4.5m) without applying any protective coating on their inside surfaces. Mabani Steel produces its valley gutters from 0.9mm thick galvanized steel and in full bay lengths: 6m, 7.5m, 9m, etc greatly reducing the number of pieces and joints that need to be erected. The inside surfaces of our valley gutters are factory coated with epoxy paint resulting in more years of protection from rusting.

PEB manufacturers in this Region generally produce eave gutters from 0.5 mm polyester pre-painted AluZinc Coated Steel or G-90 Galvanized Steel, when AluZinc Coated Steel panels are specified and from 0.7 mm polyester pre-painted Aluminum when Aluminum panels are specified. Mabani Steel's standard eave gutters are produced from 0.7 mm polyester pre-painted AluZinc Coated Steel irrespective of the metal that is used in the roof and wall panels, because they are sturdier and less prone to damage during shipping, handling and erection. They are usually produced in full bay lengths instead of the usual 3m lengths resulting in considerably fewer pieces to handle, ship and erect and in a much neater appearance.

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THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.5

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 8 of 9

Exterior Metal Downspouts


Most PEB manufacturers in this region press brake their downspouts into a dull looking box section shape with a small free flow area. Their downspouts are shipped in 3m-6m pieces that are spliced to produce eave height lengths. They are spaced 12m-15m apart because their design is based on published average rainfall statistics for this region which is exceeded at least once every 2-3 years by 200 - 300% resulting in gutter overflow and leaks at the eave area. Mabani Steel roll forms its downspouts from 0.7mm pre-painted AluZinc Coated Steel into an attractive sculptured shape with over twice the free flow area of others. Downspouts are located at each rigid frame column (approx. 8m apart). They are shipped in up to 12m lengths giving them a neater appearance and making them easier to install.

Self Drilling Fasteners

PEB manufacturers in this region use "cheap" self tapping fasteners to fix roof and wall cladding to secondary members. This requires two separate operations: The use of a drill to make the hole followed by the use of another drill to install the fastener. Mabani Steel uses self drilling fasteners because they drill a hole and seal it in one step ensuring that no oversized gaps develop between the fasteners and the drilled surfaces that may allow water condensation to seep through the roof. For fixing AluZinc Coated Steel panels Mabani Steel uses self drilling carbon steel fasteners that are tuff coated to withstand a 1500 hours Salt Spray Test, making them durable and rust resistant especially in humid regions. For fixing Aluminum panels Mabani Steel uses self drilling S.S 304 stainless steel fasteners with carbon steel drill tips. Mabani Steel's self drilling fasteners have 19mm washer diameters instead of the 14mm washer diameters that are commonly used by other PEB manufacturers in this region. The washer is integrated with a 3mm thick EPDM seal. A 19mm diameter washer provides considerably more protection against leakage and is often specified in areas of heavy rainfall such as East Asia.

Flashings & Trims

Flashings & Trims give a PEB its neat finished appearance. PEB manufacturers in this region produce flashings and trims from 0.5 mm polyester pre-painted G-90 Galvanized or AluZinc Coated Steel or from 0.7mm polyester pre-painted Aluminum, often in short lengths of 3m. These thicknesses often result in waviness that is not pleasing to the eye. They must be handled extremely carefully or they would bend easily during erection. Mabani Steel's standard flashings and trims are produced from heavier 0.7 mm polyester pre-painted AluZinc Coated Steel. These stronger trims can be produced in lengths of 6m because the higher thicknesses and Mabani Steel's more robust design makes them sturdier and less prone to waviness or site handling damage.

THE PEB MANUAL

13

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.4

: INTRODUCTION
: Why Mabani Steel 9 of 9

Section 1.5

REGIONAL FOCUS
Unlike other PEB manufacturers that are thinly spread all over Asia and Africa, Mabani Steel is totally focused on the GCC region and is committed to providing a level of service for GCC based Customers that is not matched by any other GCC based PEB manufacturer.

Certified Builders
In the PEB industry the term Certified Builder refers to a Specialized PEB Contractor that is committed to working exclusively with a single specific PEB manufacturer. The certified builder is expected to be loyal to that specific PEB manufacturer by not seeking quotations from other PEB manufacturers nor buying any of his PEB requirements from any other PEB manufacturer. This loyalty generally entitles him to more favorable treatment from the PEB manufacturer in the form of better pricing and priority delivery. Mabani Steel plans to develop a network of certified builders in this region that can extend Mabani Steel's values and product economy & quality into the turnkey construction of PEB projects to ensure that end users receive the highest level of value for their PEB construction spending.

Area Sales Offices


Mabani Steel is committed to having 3 sales offices in each of the UAE and Saudi Arabia and one sales office in each of the other GCC countries (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). For a list of currently operating Mabani Steel sales offices visit our website at www.mabanisteel.ae or contact sales@mabanisteel.ae.

Specialized PEB Contractors


Mabani Steel recognizes the contribution that Specialized PEB Contractors have made to the PEB industry in this region. Their specialization in industrial & commercial construction projects and their commitment to using Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings in their projects have greatly expanded the PEB market size and increased the awareness of the PEB system among Consultants and Owners. We invite Specialized PEB Contractors to work with us, experience our efficiencies, our ethics and our high level of service and hope that after some time they would choose to become our Certified Builders. For more information contact sales@mabanisteel.ae.

Erection Services
Within the UAE Mabani Steel is committed to offering erection services for select projects to ensure that our PEB's are erected with the same level of care that we have put into the engineering and manufacturing of our PEB components. Mabani Steel maintains 3 erection organizations within the UAE (Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Ras Al Khaimah). Each is headed by an Erection Manager.

Certified Erectors
In areas where Mabani Steel is not engaged in direct erection services we will recommend to our customers to use the services of Specialized PEB Erectors to undertake the erection of our PEB's. Companies that are interested in becoming Certified Erectors of Mabani Steel should contact sales@mabanisteel.ae.

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THE PEB MANUAL

The PEB Transaction Cycle

THE PEB MANUAL

Section

Page

2.1 The Quotation Process 2.2 Job Entry and Confirmation 2.3 The Tcehnical Approval Process 2.4 Release for Production / Production 2.6 Post Shipment Services & Issues 2.7 Erection 2.8 Turn Key Construction

15 18 19 20 22 23 24

2.5 Release for Shipment / Material Dispatch 21

C H A P T E R 2

CHAPTER 2
Section 2.1

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: The Quotation Process 1 of 3

Request for Quotation "RFQ"

PEB Offer Comparison Template

The quotation process begins with the Customer sending a request for quotation (RFQ) to Mabani Steel. In areas where Mabani Steel maintains a sales presence, RFQ's should be sent to the sales office. In areas where Mabani Steel does not maintain sales presence, RFQ's should be sent directly to sales @mabnisteel.ae
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Mabani Steel has prepared a PEB comparison template to help buyers of PEB's make a fair and unbiased comparison of offers from different PEB manufacturers. Templates can be obtained from sales@mabanisteel.ae
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Our Quotation Numbering System

Proposal Drawings

Mabani Steel provides proposal drawings for all serious inquiries. Our proposal drawings consist of a column layout plan, main frame cross-sections and four exterior wall elevations for each building in the RFQ. Panel accessories such as double sliding doors, roll-up doors, personnel doors, sandtrap louvers, windows, framed openings, etc., will be shown on our proposal drawings if their locations are known. If their locations are unknown, we will list the accessories and their quantities on our proposal drawings and add a note requesting the Customer to mark their locations and advise us so we can revise our proposal drawings and re-issue them to the Customer.
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Each of Mabani Steel quotation offers has a unique quotation no. that should be referred to when communicating with us. Mabani Steel's quotation number is made of a prefix (that identifies the sales office from which a quotation originated), a 2 digit no. (representing the last 2 digits of the calendar year during which the inquiry, for a quotation, was received), and a 3 digit no. which begins at 001 and progresses upwards (001 being the quotation no. for the first inquiry received by the specific Sales office, during a calendar year). Prefixes in this region include AE (Arab Emirates), SA (Saudi Arabia), QA (Qatar), OM (Oman), KT (Kuwait), BH (Bahrain), YE (Yemen), PK (Pakistan), BD (Bangladesh), etc

Proposal Offer

The UAE is split into 3 sales territories:


AE1 = Abu Dhabi AE2 = Dubai AE3 = Northern Emirates

Mabani Steel has the most comprehensive proposal offer in the PEB industry in this region. Our intention is to make our offer as transparent as possible so that you can easily compare our offer with the offers of our competitors.

Saudi Arabia is split into 3 sales territories:


SA1 = Riyadh (Central Region) SA2 = Jeddah (Western Region) SA3 = Dammam (Eastern Region) Thus Mabani Steel's quote no. AE2-07-001 refers to the first inquiry received by Dubai Office during 2007. Mabani Steel's initial quotation for a project is marked as Revision "0" (Rev. 0). Later revisions are marked as Rev. 1, Rev. 2, etc.

THE PEB MANUAL

15

CHAPTER 2
Section 1.4

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: The Quotation Process 2 of 3

Section 2.1

TYPES OF QUOTATION INPUT


There are two distinctly different inputs for requesting a quotation for a PEB.
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Customer provides Consultant Drawings and Specifications

Customer Provides Basic Building Data

Mabani Steel prefers this method as it gives us the flexibility to propose to the customer the most economical solution for his functional and aesthetic requirements. Basic building data includes the following:
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Mabani Steel recognizes the importance of consultants in this region in protecting the interest of owners from rogue manufacturers/suppliers/ contractors who offer low quality products and workmanship at unrealistically low prices in order to secure a contract. Mabani Steel invites consultants to contact our Head Office at sales@mabanisteel@ae prior to issuing specifications and drawings for projects that include PEB's. We will ensure that sufficient resources are assigned to the consultant to develop the appropriate specification for the PEB's in a way that satisfies the consultant's requirements economically. In the absence of prior involvement of the PEB manufacturer with the consultant this type of input requires our staff to make a comprehensive review and thorough analysis of the consultant's drawings and specifications, a very time consuming undertaking. Because this input is not necessarily PEB specific, it often requires that we make assumptions and propose deviations or exclusions in our quotation offer. One section of Mabani Steel's quotation offer deals specifically with assumptions, deviations and exclusions. When this type of quotation input is used it is in the interest of all parties (Owner, Contractor, Consultant and Mabani Steel) to hold a joint technical meeting to give Mabani Steel's technical personnel the opportunity to propose an economical solution satisfying both the functional and aesthetic requirements of the project. Often an agreement can be reached promptly to the satisfaction of both the consultant and the owner.

Building width, length and eave height. Building frame profile & roof slope

Structural Additions such as roof monitors, roof extensions, canopies, fascias, parapets, interior, partitions, mezzanines, roof platforms, catwalks, cranes, etc
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Type and magnitude of applied loads (roof live load, wind load, collateral loads, seismic load, etc.
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Structural blast cleaning specification, if any. Structural painting specification, if any. Special Design Criteria, if any. Exterior wall conditions (openings, etc..)

Roof accessories such as insulation, skylights, ridge vents, framed openings, etc

Wall accessories such as insulation, doors, windows, framed openings, etc


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Based on the above input Mabani Steel can submit a comprehensive proposal/quotation with proposal drawings within 7 days. In the absence of the above information Mabani Steel's experienced technical staff is prepared to guide you and give you honest advice on all inputs.

16

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 2
Section 2.1

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: The Quotation Process 3 of 3

BEWARE OF VERY LOW PRICED INITIAL PROPOSALS


Mabani Steel proposal offer is the most comprehensive and transparent in the PEB industry in this region. It is always accompanied with proposal drawings. Its aim is to make our Customer aware of every facet of our offer. We are unlike some regional PEB manufacturers who offer low initial prices by using lower than acceptable material specifications, outdated design & building codes and omitting important features from their supply with the intent of imposing variation orders during the technical approval process when it is too late for Customers to back out of a bad deal. Customers end up paying more and getting less than they would have, had they analyzed and compared proposal offers more carefully. Mabani Steel warns you against these predator companies and offers you a free service to make apple to apple comparisons of PEB proposal offers. Revision "0" of Mabani Steel's proposal offer is usually submitted in a spiral bound format which includes double sided printed proposal offer, proposal drawings and our general brochure.

Sample of the front and back covers of Mabani Steel's Proposal Offer

THE PEB MANUAL

17

CHAPTER 2
Section 2.2

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: Job Entry and Confirmation 1 of 1

Once a contract is signed between a Customer and Mabani Steel, a unique job number is allocated to the order. To ensure a fast response from Mabani Steel all future correspondence between the Customer and Mabani Steel should refer to this job no.

Mabani Steel Job Numbering System


Mabani Steel's job no. is made of a prefix (that identifies the sales territory or country where the jobsite is located) and a 4 digit number that begins at 0001 and progress upwards (0001 being the first job entered in Mabani Steel's sales register). Refer to section to 2.1 of this manual for some of the prefixes in this region.

Order Documents
After our offer is accepted by the Customer we forward all job documents to our Head Office to the attention of the Customer Service Manager (If erection is not within our scope) and to the attention of the Erection Manager (if erection is in our scope). A project engineer is assigned to manage the job from the date of its entry in Mabani Steel's Head Office sales register, to the time when all the buildings in that job are erected. From job entry onwards, all communications between the Customer and Mabani Steel should be funneled only through this project engineer. If problems arise between a Customer and the project engineer, the Customer is requested to make direct contact with our Customer Service Manager or Erection Manager. Note: Mabani Steel strongly recommends that Customers communicate with Mabani Steel in writing (email or fax) rather than verbally in order to maintain proper communication records and to preserve traceability and transparency. Customers will receive the same written record from Mabani Steel's project engineer.

confirmation advice to the Customer. This is addressed to the person in the Customer's organization whose name appears in our proposal contract. This advice includes the following: Mabani Steel's job number reference (to be used on all future correspondence) Confirmation that the job documents (a list will be included) have been received at Mabani Steel's Head Office and that the job has been entered in the Mabani Steel's sales register. Assurance that after all the job documents are reviewed, Mabani Steel's project engineer will send a query to the Customer identifying any unclear and/or missing information. A request for the Customer to identify to Mabani Steel the person within the Customer's organization with whom Mabani Steel's project engineer should communicate on all future matters. A request for the Customer to identify the consultant for the project and, in cases where the customer is the owner, to identify the main contractor for the project.

Order Confirmation Advice


Immediately after assigning a job no. our project engineer sends a written job

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THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 2
Section 2.3

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: The Technical Approval Process 1 of 1

Pursuant to our written job confirmation advice, our project engineer will review the job documents with the relevant departments at Mabani Steel to ensure that the information contained in the job documents is clear and sufficient to process the job.

Mabani Steel's approval drawings stamp


Mabani Steel's stamp on each drawing of the approval drawings has 3 options: "Approved As Is", "Approved As Noted" and "Resubmit As Noted". Approved As Is means that by signing this option, the Customer confirms that the information on the drawing is complete and accurately reflects his needs. Approved As Noted means that Mabani Steel will incorporate the noted comments in its final erection drawings. Resubmit As Noted means that a second required submission of the drawing is required by the Customer. Resubmittal is required when the changes "noted" on a specific drawing are too many or they are complicated. When this occurs the above cycle is repeated until final approval; i.e. until both the Customer and Mabani Steel are comfortable that all technical issues are clear.

The importance of our first query


Upon the receipt of input from other Mabani Steel Departments, our project engineer will send a query to the Customer requesting clarifications/additional information that are required to process the job. The Customer is requested to respond quickly (in writing) with the answers to expedite our approval drawings submission date.

Submission of our approval drawings


Once all information is complete approval drawings are prepared by our Engineering Department and sent to the Customer via the project engineer. The Customer is encouraged to ask our project engineer for assistance if he needs further clarifications on our approval drawings or if he wants someone to assist him in understanding the approval drawings.

Price Change Advice


The original contract price at time of job entry is based on the scope and specifications that are defined in the signed proposal contract. If during the approval process, the Customer increases the scope of the job (by introducing new requirements) or upgrades the specifications of the job, a price change advice will be raised by Mabani Steel that requires the signature of the Customer. A Mabani Steel price change advice itemizes each change made during the approval stage and assigns it a price impact enabling the Customer to clearly see what changed since the job was entered at Mabani Steel's sales register. The Customer is required to sign, stamp and return (by fax or e-mail) the price change advice to Mabani Steel's project engineer as soon as possible. If no response is received by Mabani Steel's project engineer within 7 days of the date of communicating the price change advice, the job is put on hold. Work on the job will resume only after the price change issues are finalized.

Return of our approval drawings


If the Customer is satisfied with the details in our approval drawings, he is required to sign and date each drawing and return all the drawings, for a specific building, to our project engineer. In fast track jobs, the Customer is advised to courier the approval drawings directly to Mabani Steel's Head Office to save time. In general the return of approval drawings is the longest activity in the job fulfillment process.
Issued by Mabani Steel "For Approval" by Customer Customer is required to Approved As Is Approved As Noted Resubmit As Noted

check ( ) one box only

Date: Customer Signature Please return all drawings for the complete building, signed and dated, to Mabani Steel's Head Office

THE PEB MANUAL

19

CHAPTER 2
Section 1.4

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: Release for Production / Production 1 of 1

Section 2.4

Requirements for Release for Production


A job will be released for production if it meets all of the following requirements: Technical approval has been received from the Customer.
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The Production Cycle


The production cycle includes the fabrication of all components in a job (or a phase of a job), the quality inspection of these components as per the approved quality plan, and the prestaging of finished goods for dispatch. Mabani Steel does not object to Customer visits during the fabrication period of jobs so long as these visits are coordinated through our project engineers and provided that the purpose of such visits are clearly defined in advance.

Price change advice resulting from changes that occurred after job entry at Mabani Steel's sales register have been finalized.
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Mabani Steel's Finance Department has formally released the job for production. This is done only after the Customer has satisfied all the payment obligations stated in the signed proposal contract.
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Quality Plan
Mabani Steel uses only first quality raw materials and production consumables ordered to the latest ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials) specifications (or equivalents). Our manufacturing processes are designed to ensure conformance to AWS (American Welding Society) welding procedures, MBMA (Metal Buildings Manufacturers Association) and AISC (American Society for Steel Construction) fabrication tolerances and SSPC (The Society for Protective Coatings) blasting and painting practices. Mabani Steel has developed a Standard Quality Plan to ensure that materials and processes are inspected properly and that proof of this inspection exists. Our Standard Quality Plan is presented to a Customer at the contract signing stage of the job cycle. It should be read carefully to ensure that it meets the needs of the Customer for the specific job. If additional inspection, testing, or documentation is required beyond that contained in Mabani Steel's Standard Quality Plan, these must be noted and agreed to in advance of the release of a job for production. Similarly, if a Customer requires that the production be observed or monitored by a 3rd party inspector, special provisions must be made and agreed to with our project engineer in advance of actual production, to ensure that the intended inspections are achieved.

Production Engineering
The first task following the release of a job for production is performed by our Engineering Department. It includes the preparation of shop drawings, erection drawings and Bills of Materials (BOM's) for each building (or a phase of a building) in a job.

Production Control Department


Production engineering output is sent to our Production Control Department which schedules the production of all jobs. Our Production Control Department creates a production schedule and sends it to the project engineer who will advise the Customer of the expected job completion date and the tentative shipment date.

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THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 2
Section 2.5

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: Release for Shipment/Material Dispatch 1 of 1

Release for Shipment


No material is shipped from Mabani Steel without clearance by our Finance Department. This ensures that all payment commitments by the Customer are fulfilled in accordance with the signed proposal contract.

A building no. is comprised of a 2 digit no. after the job no. Thus, if job no. AE1-0011 consists of 2 buildings, these buildings will be identified as AE1-0011-01 and AE1-0011-02. A phase no. is comprised of a 3 digit no. after the building no. Thus:

Customer Contact Person at the Jobsite


Before we dispatch a job we will formaly request the Customer to nominate a person (usually his project manager or the contractor's project manager) who will serve as his representative at the jobsite. We will contact this person for shipping advice and other site related issues including making sure that he has the craneage and necessary equipment to unload our material on time in order to avoid demurrage to the trucking company.

Anchor Bolts shipping phases begin with the no. 001. PEB Steel Structure shipping phases begin with the no. 101. Panels & Panel Accessories shipping phases begin with the no. 201.

Thus, if the PEB Steel Structure of building no. 2 of job no. AE1-0011 is broken into 3 shipping phases, they will be designated as: AE1-0011-02-101 AE1-0011-02-102 AE1-0011-02-103

Shipment Advice
1-2 days prior to the actual dispatch of our materials, we will send a written Shipment Advice to the Customer informing him of the date when materials for his job will be dispatched from our factory. The Shipment Advice includes the no. of trailers that will be dispatched on a particular day and a shipping list of the materials that are on each trailer. This advice is copied to our sales territory based erection specialist.

Phased Overland Shipments


For large jobs that are shipped on trailers to GCC destinations Mabani Steel breaks the shipment of the PEB Steel Structure in several phases, followed by the full shipment of the Panels & Panel Accessories. This is because Customers often need to erect the PEB Steel Structure but they do not want the Panels & Panel Accessories (which are more susceptible to damage) to be delivered to the jobsite until they are ready to be erected.

Phasing of PEB Steel Structure


Mabani Steel usually limits a PEB Steel Structure shipping phase to 150 MT (approx. 8 trailers) in order to avoid overloading the erector with the task of unloading and storing a large quantity of components at one time. The period between phased dispatches is usually 7 days but can be changed by informing our project engineer.

Understanding Shipping Phases Designations


A job no. is comprised of a prefix and a 4 digit number. Thus job no. AE1-0011 is the 11th job no. in Mabani Steel's sales register. It is located in Abu Dhabi Emirate (AE1).

Phasing of Panels & Panel Accessories


For most jobs the Panels & Panel Accessories are dispatched from our factory at one time. They may also be phased if requested by the Customer.

THE PEB MANUAL

21

CHAPTER 2
Section 1.4

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: Post Shipment Services & Issues 1 of 1

Section 2.6

This section applies to jobs which are not erected by Mabani Steel. A Customer really needs our service after the shipment of materials to site. This is why Mabani Steel employs one erection specialist in each territory where we maintain a sales office. If and when assistance with the erection of our buildings is required by a Customer or a problem arises that requires our immediate attention, the erection specialist may be contacted directly or through our project engineer. Often he can be at your jobsite on the same day of your call.

Checking of Material upon Delivery Each trailer containing our material has a separate shipping list (that lists each component on the trailer and its respective quantity). It is important that the erector checks these materials against the shipping list at time of unloading to confirm receipt of all materials on the trailer.

Site Reporting of Material Shortages


Occasionally an erector reports a shortage of material only to discover that the material is already on the jobsite. If a verified shortage occurs, our erection specialist can assist the erector in raising a claim to Mabani Steel through our project engineer. Shortages are shipped on the basis of an Urgent Material Request, normally within 1 day of the approval of our Customer Service Manager.

Unloading of Material at Jobsite


The unloading of our material at the jobsite is the responsibility of the Customer. The Customer is allowed a specific period to unload our materials. Exceeding that period will subject the Customer to payment of demurrage to our trucking company. If the erector/contractor is not experienced in PEB's it is recommended that they ask our erection specialist to be at the jobsite during the unloading of our first shipment.

Site Reporting of Conforming Material

Quality

Non-

Storing of Material at Jobsite


The proper storage of materials at the jobsite is necessary to avoid damage. This responsibility falls on the Customer or his erector. The way our materials are stored affects both their physical safety (material damage control) and the efficiency of the erection. Inexperienced erectors should contact our erection specialist for advice to avoid common pitfalls

Occasionally there are problems related to the proper fit of some of our components whereby some components may require rectification or replacement. The decision to rectify or replace faulty components is within Mabani Steel's scope and it will be made in a fair and honest way following a review by our erection specialist, our Customer Service Manager, Engineering Department and Quality Control Department.

Final Erection Inspection Report


After the erection of a building is completed our erection specialist submits a report on the quality of the erection of the different components of the building. This report is submitted to our Customer Service and Quality Control Departments. It is also sent to the Customer for his information.

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THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 2
Section 2.7

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: Erection 1 of 1

Erection Quality
The final quality of a PEB is often dependent on the manner in which it is erected. The erection process includes the unloading of materials at jobsite, the proper storage of these materials at the jobsite, the manner in which the material is staged for erection, the equipment and staff employed in the erection task and the sequence of the erection activities. Mabani Steel cautions Customers against contracting the erection with low end erection companies. Although these companies offer low erection prices they often fall short in quality. For a list of recommended erectors contact sales@mabanisteel.ae.

Erection by Mabani Steel


If erection is within the contract scope of Mabani Steel we will execute it using our inhouse erection staff or we will subcontract the erection to a Specialized Erection Company but supervise it using our own supervisory staff. When erection is the responsibility of Mabani Steel, we are fully responsible for the quality of the erection whether it is executed directly by our own erection staff or it is subcontracted by us to a Specialized Erection Company and supervised by our erection department.

Erection Options
A Mabani Steel Supply Only Contract means that the erection will be handled by the Customer ( refer to Section 2.6). A Mabani Steel Supply & Erection Contract means that the erection is within the scope of Mabani Steel.

Erection by Customer
If erection is the responsibility of the Customer it can be executed using his in-house resources (If the Customer is a Contractor) or the services of a Specialized Erection Company. When a Customer chooses to undertake the responsibility for the erection, the Customer (or his erector) is encouraged to contact our erection specialist to provide him with the guidelines necessary to erect our buildings properly and safely. If the erector does not follow our guidelines we will inform the Customer in writing about his erector's disregard to our recommendations. It is up to the Customer to ensure that corrective action is taken by his erector. We do not have the legal authority to force erectors, who are contracted directly by the Customer, to take corrective action.

Recommended Erection Companies


The PEB manufacturing industry in this region began in 1975. Since then many Specialized Erection Companies have been established throughout this region. The level of erection competency in these Companies varies widely. These Companies are referred to by many names such as Authorized Erector, Certified Erector, Authorized Builder, Certified Builder, etc. The word Builder is borrowed from the USA Metal Building Industry which refers to PEB Contractors as Builders. At Mabani Steel we differentiate erectors from contractors. We also differentiate Erectors of PEB Steel Structure from Erectors of Panel & Panels Accessories. For more information on our recommended erectors in this region contact Mabani Steel's Erection Department at erection@mabanisteel.ae.

THE PEB MANUAL

23

CHAPTER 2
Section 1.4

: THE "PEB" TRANSACTION CYCLE


: Turn Key Construction 1 of 1

Section 2.8

General Contractors
The turn key construction of PEB's can be executed by any competent general contractor. Contractors who have had no previous experience in the erection of PEB's are advised to either subcontract the erection of the PEB's to Mabani Steel or to a Specialized Erection Company.

Design/Build Contractors often employ consultants who are recognized by local Governmental Approval Authorities. The consultant reviews the design, ensures that it complies with the local rules and regulations, and submits it to the Local Authority for approval and for building permit issuance. Design/Build Contracts are often negotiated (versus tendered) and tend to be favored by Customers whose projects are on a fast track basis and who have developed a trust in the Design/Build Contractor. Because Design/Build Contracts are supervised by a consultant on a limited basis (only some milestones are required by the local authority to be signed by a consultant) it is important that a Customer establishes trust in the Design/Build Contractor prior to entering into a contract with him. Conventional Contracts that are designed by consultants and constructed by General Contractors or Specialized PEB Contractors. The process begins with the Customer appointing a consultant, who takes into consideration all the Customer's requirements, and produces tender documents for the turnkey contract. The tender documents are then issued to several General Contractors including few Specialized PEB Contractors. Based on an unbiased comparison the contractor with the lowest price is normally selected. The contractor's work is checked by site resident consultant staff throughout the construction period to ensure compliance with the tender documents. In general, Conventional Contacts are less risky for inexperienced Customers than Design/Build Contracts. Their possible downside is higher prices and longer construction periods. For a list of recommended Specialized PEB Contractors in this region contact sales@mabanisteel.ae.

SPECIALIZED PEB CONTRACTORS


Since 1975 this region has seen the emergence of contractors who specialize in the construction of PEB's. Turnkey projects utilizing PEB's often constitute over 80% of the annual turnkey construction revenue of these Specialized PEB Contractors.

TWO TYPES OF TURNKEY PEB CONTRACTS


Design/Build Contracts that are designed & constructed by Specialized PEB Contractors. These are focused on value engineering and fast track construction. Design/Build Contractors have in-house engineering departments that have sufficient resources to design most of the PEB project, including the Substructure (foundations, etc.), Electrical, Mechanical, Air-conditioning, Fire Prevention/Fighting, etc.. When they lack an in-house resource in a specific field they usually resort to a consultant or they subcontract that portion to a specialist subcontractor. The Design/Build Contractor usually begins with an outline of the project requirements from the Customer and proceeds to propose the complete full turnkey design.

24

THE PEB MANUAL

References

THE PEB MANUAL

Section

Page

3.1 Industry Terms 3.2 Abbreviations 3.3 Unit Conversions 3.4 Building Material Weights 3.5 Mabani Steel Country Codes

25 43 45 47 48

C H A P T E R 3

CHAPTER 3
Section 3.2

: REFERENCES
: Abbreviations 1 of 2

Standard Abbreviations and Symbols


AB ASSY BE Btu C C.O. C/C CIF CL CONC. COL. COLL. CPU CS DET dB DIM. DSD DWG EH ES EW F FFL FO FNB GALV HSB INT KD K kg/cm2 kg/m3 km/h kN kN/m2 L L/C or LC LG LT m M. T. MAX. MG : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Anchor bolts Assembly Bearing Endwall British thermal unit Celcius Change order Center to center Contract information form Center line Concrete Column Collateral Customer pick-up Clear Span Detail Decibel Dimension Double sliding door Drawing Eave height Eave strut Endwall Fahrenheit Finished floor level Framed opening Fin neck bolt Galvanized High strength bolt (ASTM A325) Internal or interior Knocked-down Kelvin Kilogram per square centimeter Kilogram per cubic meter Kilometer per hour Kilonewton Kilonewton per square meter Length Letter of credit Long Lean-To Meter Metric Ton Maximum Multi Gable MIN. mm MR MBS MS MSB N NS/FS OA OC O/O OHC PEB PEBEST PL REV. RF RUD SBO SDS SI SS SSD STD. STS SV SW THK or T TRC TYP TYP UN UHC W W/ W/O Wt. @ # % > < = : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Minimum Millimeter Monorail crane Metal Building Software Multi Span Mild steel bolt or machine bolt Newton Near side / Far side Overall On center Out-to-out Overhead crane Pre-Engineered Building PEB Estimating Software Plate Revision Rigid frame Roll up door Special buyout Self drilling screw International System of Units Single Slope Single sliding door Standard Self tapping screw Space Saver Sidewall Thickness Top running crane Typical Typical unless noted Underhung crane Watt or width With Without Weight Diameter At Number Percentage Greater than Less than Equal

THE PEB MANUAL

43

CHAPTER 3
Section 3.2

: REFERENCES
: Abbreviations 2 of 2

Standard Panel Colors


AB CG FW SB : : : : Arabian Beige Cactus Green Frost White Shasta Blue AZ AL GI BMT TCT TCT-P

Panel Related Terms


: : : : : : Aluzinc Coated Steel Aluminium Galvanized Base Metal Thickness Total Coated Thickness Total Coated Thickness-Painted

Standard Panel Profiles

Profile M 32-333 :

Mabani Steel Standard Panel with 32mm rib depth spaced at 333mm c/c

Codes, Specifications and Standards


AISC AISI ANSI AS ASCE ASTM AWS BS DIN EN IBC ISO JIS MBMA MBSM SSPC UBC UL : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : American Concrete Institute American Institute of Steel Construction American Iron and Steel Institute American National Standard Institute Australian Standard American Society of Civil Engineers American Society for Testing and Materials American Welding Society British Standards .. Deutsches Institut fur Normung e. V. (German Institute for Standardization) Europe Standards International Building Code International Organization for Standardization Japanese Industrial Standards Metal Building Manufacturers Association Metal Building System Manual Steel Structures Painting Council Uniform Building Code Underwriters Laboratories Inc.

44

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 3
Section 3.3

: REFERENCES
: Unit Conversions 1 of 2

The table below contains some of the most commonly used conversion factors.
Convert From
1.609 kilometer (km) 0.914 meter (m) Mile (mi) Yard (yd) Foot (ft)

To

Length

0.304 meter (m) 304.8 millimeter (mm) 25.4 millimeter (mm) 25.4 microns (m) 2.590 square kilometer (km2) 4047 square meter (m2)

Inch (in) Mil (mil) Square mile (mi2) Acre (ar) Square yard (yd2) Square foot (ft2) Square inch (in2) Cubic yard (yd3) Cubic foot (ft3)

Area

0.836 square meter (m2) 0.093 square meter (m2) 645.2 square millimeter (mm2) 0.765 cubic meter (m3) 0.028 cubic meter (m3)

Volume

16390 cubic millimeter (mm3) 16.39 milliliter (ml) 3.785 liters (l) 0.305 meter per second (m/s) Cubic inch (in3)
U.S. gallon (gal) Foot per second (ft/s)

Velocity (Speed)

1.609 kilometer per hour (km/h) 0.447 meter per second (m/s)

Mile per hour (mi/h)

THE PEB MANUAL

45

CHAPTER 3
Section 3.3

: REFERENCES
: Unit Conversions 2 of 2

Convert

From
0.907 metric ton ( .) or 907.2 kilogram (kg)

To
Short ton (2000 lb) Pound (lb) Ounce (oz) Pound per square foot (lb/ft2) Pound per cubic foot (lb/ft3) Ton per cubic yard (ton/yd3) Ton-force (tonf) KIPS (KIP) Pound-force (lbf) Pound-foot (lbf.ft) Pound-inch (lbf.in) KIPS-foot (KIPft) Pound per foot (lb/ft) psf KIPS per square inch (ksi) Pounds per square inch (psi) British thermal unit (Btu) Pound-foot (lbf.ft) British thermal unit per square foot hour degree fahrenheit (Btu/ft2 hr. 0F) British thermal unit per foot hour degree fahrenheit (Btu/ft. hr. 0F) 28 gage 26 gage 24 gage 22 gage 20 gage 18 gage 16 gage 14 gage 12 gage 10 gage 8 gage

Mass

0.454 kilogram (kg) 28.35 gram (g) 4.883 kilogram per square meter (kg/m2) 47.88 newton per square meter (N/m2) 16.02 kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3) 1.187 metric ton per cubic meter (M.T./m3) 8.896 kilonewton (kN) 4.448 kilonewton (kN) 4.448 newton (N) 1.356 newton-meter (N.m) 0.113 newton-meter (N.m) 1.356 kilonewton-meter (kN.m) 14.59 newton per meter (N/m) 0.04788 (kN/m2)

Pressure Density

Force

Moment or Torque Force per Unit Length Stress Work, Energy & Heat Heat Transfer Thermal Conductivity

0.690 kilonewton per square centimeter (kN/cm2) 0.690 Newton per Square centimeter (N/cm2) 1055 joules (J) 1.356 joules (J) 5.678 watt per square meter kelvin (W/m2.K) 1.731 watt per meter kelvin (W/m.K) 0.475 mm 0.5512 mm 0.7010 mm 0.8534 mm 1.0058 mm 1.3106 mm 1.6129 mm 1.9939 mm 2.7534 mm 3.5103 mm 4.2697 mm

Sheet Metal Thickness

46

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 3
Section 3.4

: REFERENCES
: Building Material Weights 1 of 1

The weights of the most common building materials are given in the table below:
Category
Terrazzo tile Ceramic or quarry tile Linoleum or vinyl Mastic Hardwood Softwood

Material
25 mm thick 20 mm thick 6 mm thick 20 mm thick 20 mm thick 20 mm thick 75 mm thick 100 mm thick 150 mm thick 200 mm thick 250 mm thick 50 mm thick 75 mm thick 100 mm thick 125 mm thick 150 mm thick 3-ply ready roofing 3-ply felt and gravel 5-ply felt and gravel Wood Asphalt Clay tile Slate (6 mm thick) Wood (20 mm thick) Gypsum (25 mm thick) Loose Poured-in-place Rigid 100 mm thick 200 mm thick 300 mm thick 100 mm thick 150 mm thick 200 mm thick 300 mm thick 100 mm thick 150 mm thick 200 mm thick 300 mm thick 100 mm thick 150 mm thick 200 mm thick 300 mm thick Cement Gypsum (100 mm thick) (25 mm thick) (6 mm thick)

Weight (kg/m2)
65 50 5 45 18 12.5 85 90 140 170 200 47.5 52.5 62.5 70 92.5 5 27.5 30 10 15 45 - 70 50 15 20 2.5 10 7.5 200 400 600 150 215 275 400 105 150 190 275 125 150 165 225 50 25 275 75 15

Floors

Clay tile

Partitions
Gypsum board

Built-up

Shingles

Roofs
Sheathing Insulation (per 25 mm thickness)

Bricks

Hollow concrete block (heavy aggregate)

Walls

Hollow concrete block (light aggregate)

Clay tile Load Bearing Plastering (25 mm thick) Stone Structural glass Corrugated asbestos

THE PEB MANUAL

47

CHAPTER 3
Section 3.5

: REFERENCES
: Mabani Steel Country Codes 1 of 1

The Country Codes in the following table are used as prefixes for Mabani Steel job numbers. Example: A job that is located in Afghanistan is given the Job no. AF - xxxx, where xxxx is a chronological number that begins at 0001 (for the first job entered in Mabani Steel's sales register) and continues up to 9999.
Name Code A Afghanistan AF Aland Islands AX Albania AL Algeria DZ American Samoa AS Andorra AD Angola AO Anguilla AI Antarctica AQ Antigua and Barbuda AG Argentina AR Armenia AM Aruba AW Australia AU Austria AT Azerbaijan AZ B Bahamas BS Bahrain BH Bangladesh BD Barbados BB Belarus BY Belgium BE Belize BZ Benin BJ Bermuda BM Bhutan BT Bolivia BO Bosnia and Herzegovina BA Botswana BW Bouvet Island BV Brazil BR British Indian Ocean Territory IO Brunie Darussalam BN Bulgaria BG Burkina Faso BF Burundi BI C Cambodia KH Cameroon CM Canada CA Cape Verde CV Cayman Islands KY Central African Republic CF Chad TD Chile CL China CN Christmas Island CX Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC Colombia CO Comoros KM Congo CG Congo, The Democratic Republic of the CD Cook Islands CK Costa Rica CR Cote D'ivoire CI Croatia HR Cuba CU Cyprus CY Czech Republic CZ D Denmark DK Djibouti DJ Dominica DM Dominican Republic DO E Ecuador EC Egypt EG El Salvador SV Name Code Equatorial Guinea GQ Eritrea ER Estonia EE Ethiopia ET F Falkland Islands (Malvinas) FK Faroe Islands FO Fiji FJ Finland FI France FR French Guiana GF French Polynesia PF French Southern Territories TF G Gabon GA Gambia GM Georgia GE Germany DE Ghana GH Gibraltar GI Greece GR Greenland GL Grenada GD Guadeloupe GP Guam GU Guatemala GT Guernsey GG Guinea GN Guinea-Bissau GW Guyana GY H Haiti HT Heard Island and McDonald Islands HM Holy See (Vatican City State) VA Honduras HN Hong Kong HK Hungary HU I Iceland IS India IN Indonesia ID Iran, Islamic Republic of IR Iraq IQ Ireland IE Isle of Man IM Israel IL Italy IT J Jamaica JM Japan JP Jersey JE Jordan JO K Kazakhstan KZ Kenya KE Kiribati KI Korea, Democratic People's Republic of KP Korea, Republic of KR Kuwait KW Kyrgyzstan KG L Lao People's Democratic Republic LA Latvia LV Lebanon LB Lesotho LS Liberia LR Lubyan Arab Jamahiriya LY Liechtenstein LI Lithuania LT Luxembourg LU Name Code M Macao MO Macedonia, The Foremer Yugoslav Republic of MK Madagascar MG Malawi MW Malaysia MY Maldives MV Mali ML Malta MT Marshall MH Martinique MQ Mauritania MR Mauritius MU Mayotte YT Mexico MX Micronesia, Federated States of FM Moldova, Republic of MD Monaco MC Mongolia MN Montserrat MS Morocco MA Mozambique MZ Myanmar MM N Namibia NA Nauru NR Nepal NP Netherlands NL Netherlands Antilles AN New Caledonia NC New Zealand NZ Nicaragua NI Niger NE Nigeria NG Niue NU Norfolk Island NF Northern Mariana Islands MP Norway NO O Oman OM P Pakistan PK Palau PW Palestinian Territory, Occupied PS Panama PA Papua New Guinea PG Paraguay PY Peru PE Philippines PH Pitcairn PN Poland PL Portugal PT Puerto Rico PR Q Qatar QA R Reunion RE Romana RO Russian Federation RU Rwanda RW S Saint Helena SH Saint Ktts and Nevis KN Saint Lucia LC Saint Pierre and Miquelon PM Saint Vincnet and The Grenadines VC Samoa WS San Marino SM Sao Tome and Principe ST Saudi Arabia SA Name Code Senegal SN Serbia and Montenegro CS Seychelles SC Sierra Leone SL Singapore SG Slovakia SK Slovenia SI Solomon Islands SB Somalia SO South Africa ZA South Georgia and The South Sandwich islands GS Spain ES Sri Lanka LK Sudan SD Suriname SR Svalbard and Jan Mayen SJ Swaziland SZ Sweden SE Switzerland CH Syrian Arab Republic SY T Taiwan, Province of China TW Tajikistan TJ Tanzania, United Republic of TZ Thailand TH Timor-Leste TL Togo TG Tokelau TK Tonga TO Trinidad and Tobago TT Tunisia TN Turkey TR Turkmenistan TM Turks and Caicos Islands TC Tuvalu TV U Uganda UG Ukraine UA United Arab Emirates AE United Kingdom GB United States US United States Minor Outlying Islands UM Uruguay UY Uzbekistan UZ V Vanuatu VU Vatican City State see holy See Venezuela VE Viet Nam VN Virgin Islands, British VG Virgin Islands, U.S. VI W Wallis and Futuna WF Western Sahara EH Y Yemen YE Z Zaire see Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Zambia ZM Zimbabwe ZW

48

THE PEB MANUAL

Engineering Practices

THE PEB MANUAL

Section

Page

4.1 Caution to Buyers of PEB's 4.2 Design Codes 4.3 Building Codes 4.4 Design Loads 4.5 Wind Design Considerations 4.6 Seismic Design Considerations 4.7 Deflection Considerations 4.8 Engineering Output

49 50 51 52 54 57 60 61

C H A P T E R 4

CHAPTER 4
Section 4.1

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Caution to Buyers of PEBs 1 of 1

Beware of omissions
The greatest challenge in an environment of stiff competition is to maintain integrity. Our 30 years experience in the PEB industry in this region has exposed us to many unethical practices by regional PEB manufacturers. These range from simple intentional omissions to serious misleading statements relating to design codes. Trickery often results in a "lower price" at the risk of non compliance with stated codes and/or with Customer requirements.

accompanied with proposal drawings to help you understand our offer. We urge you to read it and use it to compare what others are offering. If in doubt about an issue call us; we pledge to give you honest unbiased advice.

Our Pledge to you


At Mabani Steel we listen to you and we give you sincere advice. Our Staff are trained to perceive your interests as equally important to us as our own interests. We believe that when a Customer (whether he is nave or shrewd) approaches us for a quotation we have a moral responsibility to be truthful and transparent in our advice. When we are unable to comply with a specific requirement we note our noncompliance clearly in our quotation offer to alert you to take alternative action. The real competitive challenge lies not in cheating (using inferior or outdated codes) but in having the engineering judgement to convert complex non-economical steel structures to simple and economical PEB's to the benefit of all involved parties. If requested by a Customer, Mabani Steel will match a competitor's exact scope of supply. For that we need to receive a copy of the competitor's complete quotation offer excluding prices.

Check Compliance with Codes


All PEB manufacturers in this region claim to be using the relevant US codes that are applicable to the design of PEB's. Unfortunately most of them do not mention the specific edition of the codes they are using. US Codes are revised periodically as a result of empirical data and more practical insight into the performance of structural elements in reallife conditions. Using an outdated code is like using an outdated law. Recent editions of US codes are more stringent than older editions.

Insist on Latest Applicable Codes


At Mabani Steel we believe that regional PEB manufacturers have a moral responsibility to use the latest US codes that are applicable to PEB's. We use US codes because it was in the USA that the the PEB system first originated and where more than a million PEB's are sold annually.

Collateral loads
When a collateral load has been specified by you ensure that the PEB manufacturer shows it in his quotation offer and that he has used the correct magnitude for the load.

Read PEB Quotations Thoroughly


Mabani Steel's quotation offer is thorough, comprehensive and transparent. It is intended to widen your knowledge of PEB's. It is always

THE PEB MANUAL

49

CHAPTER 4
Section 4.2

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Design Codes 1 of 1

The PEB system was originally developed in the USA. The US design codes that are applicable to the design of PEB's are noted below. Mabani Steel is committed to using the latest editions, supplements and addenda of the following codes in the analysis, design and fabrication of its PEB's.

American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) 1 East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100 Chicago, Illinois 60601- 1802, USA Phone: (1-312) 670-2400; Fax: (1-312) 670-5403 Website: www.aisc.org Steel Construction Manual: 13th Edition 2005 Latest Edition: 2005. Previous Editions: 1989, 1974

American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 1000 16th Street NW Washington, DC 20036, USA Phone: (1-202) 452-7100; Fax: (1-202) 466-7052 Website: www.steel.org Cold Formed Steel Design Manual: 2002 Edition Latest Edition: 2002. Previous Editions: 1996, 1986, 1980

American Welding Society (AWS) 550 N.W. LeJeune Road Miami, FL 33126, USA Phone: (1-305) 826-6193; Fax: (1-305) 826-6195); Website: www.awspubs.com Structural Welding Code - Steel, AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2006 Edition Latest Edition: 2006. Previous Editions: Updated annually

50

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 4
Section 4.3

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Building Codes 1 of 1

The Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA) of the USA, although not technically a building code, is the woldwide recognized PEB Standard. MBMA has done more research into the functionality and performance of PEB's than any other organization in the world. It constantly monitors the performance of PEB's in the USA (where over a million are sold annually) and issues regular updates on guidelines for acceptable manufacturing tolerances, wind design, seismic design, acceptable load combinations, deflection recommendations, etc). The result is a collation of design guides and practices called the Metal Building Systems Manual (MBSM), a manual that is totally devoted to PEB's. The 2002 edition of this manual (The latest edition) follows the wind load application standard and the seismic load application standard of the International Building Code or "IBC".

Metal Building Manufacturer's Association (MBMA) 1300 Summer Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44115-2851, USA Phone: (1-216) 241-7333; Fax: (1-216) 241-0105 Website: mbma.org Metal Building Systems Manual (MBSM) - 2002 Edition Latest Edition: 2002. Previous Editions: 1996 and 1986

The International Building Code is a universal American code that applies to all structures (Steel, concrete & wooden) and to all disciplines such as Plumbing, Electrical Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning, Fire, Sewage, Energy Conservation, etc. Interested readers should log in to the IBC website (noted below) to view the extensive number of publications that are offered. IBC is the most widely recognized code by US based consultants and Federal Construction Authorities such as the US Corps of Engineers.

International Code Council, Inc. - 2006 Edition 4051 West Flossmoor Road Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795, USA Phone: (1-888) 422-7233; Fax: (1-703) 379-1546 Website: iccsafe.org International Building Code "IBC" Latest Edition: IBC 2006. Previous Editions: 2003, 2000 and UBC 1997. Before to1997 IBS was referred to as "UBC,"

THE PEB MANUAL

51

CHAPTER 4
Section 4.4

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Design Loads 1 of 2

Normally a building is designed to support its own dead load, a specified live load and a specified wind load. Other loads such as collateral loads, crane loads, seismic loads, mezzanine loads or thermal loads are considered only when specified by a Customer or when they are called for in the applicable building code. The following is a list of the different loads that are applied on structures. Dead load is defined as the total weight of the building and its components. It includes the weight of main frames, purlins, girts, cladding, bracing, connections, etc. Live load includes all loads that the structure is subjected to during erection, maintenance and usage throughout its lifetime. It is specified by the applicable codes according to which the structure is designed or by the consultant.
MBMA Recommended Live Loads Type of Building Assembly Halls Gymnasiums Libraries Type of Occupancy With Fixed Seats With Movable Seats Stage Floor Main Floor Reading Rooms Stack Rooms Light Heavy Maintenance Platforms Offices Lobbies Computer Rooms Corridors above first floor Class Rooms Corridors Recreation Rooms Light Heavy Retail Wholesale Live Load (kN/m2) 2.50 5.00 7.50 5.00 3.00 7.50 5.00 7.50 3.00 2.50 5.00 5.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 3.75 6.25 12.50 3.75 5.00 5.00

Unless otherwise specified, Mabani Steel designs its buildings for a minimum roof live load of 0.57 kN/m2 applied on roof frames and roof purlins. In the absence of specified live loads from a Customer Mabani Steel uses the live loads recommended in MBMA's MBSM - 2002. Refer to the table on this page. Snow load is the load resulting from the accumulation of snow on the roof. Snow loads depend on the geographic area where the building is located and the intensity of snow fall in that area. Ground Snow load must be converted to roof snow load. Snow load and roof live load need not be combined together. Wind load. The severity of wind load on a structure depends greatly on the applicable design code. Mabani Steel complies with the wind load design guidelines of the "Metal Building Systems Manual - 2002 edition" of the Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA) which follows the ASCE 7-98 (Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures) standard that is published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). For a more detailed explanation of this standard refer to section 4.5 of this manual. Seismic loads are caused by earthquake forces and are generally applied as horizontal forces at the center of mass of the main structure. In PEB's that do not contain heavy internal structural subsystems (such as mezzanines and crane systems) the horizontal seismic force is normally applied at the eave of these buildings. In PEB's with mezzanines and/or crane systems, the horizontal seismic force resulting from each system will be applied at the center of mass of that system. For a more detailed explanation of seismic loads refer to section 4.6 of this manual.

Office Buildings

Schools Warehouses Shopping Stores Stairs and Exit ways

52

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 4
Section 4.4

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Design Loads 2 of 2

materials permanently fixed to the building (other than the dead load and the live load of the building). Collateral load should be applied only to purlins and main frames. Collateral loads can be uniformly distributed or concentrated. Collateral loads result from permanent installations inside the building that are planned and used to provide the functions of the building. These include loads from false ceiling, lighting, ventilation, AC ducting, piping, electrical installations, etc. It is recommended to plan the attachment of such installations so that they result in uniformly distributed loads and minimize the concentrated loads. This is because distributed loads impose a more uniform effect on frames and thereby provide greater flexibility in locating suspension points. The following table states the most common collateral loads normally applied to PreEngineered Steel building as per MBMA's MBSM-2002:
Description Suspended ceiling (framing and tiles) Roof metal liner panel Heating/air conditioning Lighting Fire sprinkler system (wet) Minimum Uniform Load (kN/m2) 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.15

Collateral load is the weight of additional

Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST) 186 Thorn Hill Road Warrendable, PA. 15086 Phone: +(1-724) 776-6040, Fax: +(1-724) 776-1880 Website: www. aist.org

Mezzanine load includes the applied self weight of the mezzanine structure (main beams, joists, steel deck, concrete slab, floor finishes, suspended ceiling, etc..) plus the specified live load on the mezzanine.
When partitions are installed on a mezzanine it is important to specify their type, weight (inclusive of finishes) and exact location.

Temperature load is the load introduced

Crane loads are calculated in accordance

with the "Metal Building Systems Manual (MBSM) - 2002 edition" of the Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA). Crane loads and their corresponding vertical, lateral and longitudinal impacts and crane combinations are applied in accordance with the guidelines in that Manual. The Design of crane beams for mill buildings is more specialized and is well covered in AIST Technical Report No. 13.

into structural members as a result of temperature variations. Thermal loads increase the unit stresses in the members. This increase in unit stress is calculated from the following formula: Changes in unit stress = E * e * t, where E = Modulus of elasticity of steel = 20340 kN/cm2

e = Coefficient of thermal expansion = 0.0000117 for each degree Celsius t = Difference in temperature in degrees Celsius.

THE PEB MANUAL

53

CHAPTER 2
Section 4.5

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Wind Design Considerations

1 of 3

ASCE 7: The USA's authority on wind loads


The wind design calculation in MBMA 2002 is extracted from IBC 2000 which in turn is extracted from ASCE 7- 98. ASCE 7- 98 adopts a new concept for calculating velocity pressure that is based on the 3 second gust wind speed instead of the fastest mile wind speed.

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, Virginia 20191-4400, U.S.A.

Phone: +(1-800) 548-2723 Website: www.asce.org

ASCE-7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other sketches Latest Edition: 2005. Previous Editions: 2002, 1998 and 1995 Guide to the use of the Wind Load Provisions of ASCE-7 Latest Edition: 2002. Previous Editions: 2002, 1998 and 1995

The velocity pressure "q" in ASCE 7- 98 is determined as follows: Velocity Pressure, q = 0.613 Kt Kz Kd V I (N/ m2), where Kt = Topographic Factor = 1.0 for reasonably flat topographies. Kz = Velocity pressure exposure coefficient. This coefficient is dependent on the height of the structure and the exposure category. This coefficient ranges from 0.68 (least severe) to 1.89 (most severe). Kd= Wind directionality Factor = 0.85 V = Basic Wind Speed (m/sec), which is a 3 second gust speed at a height of 10 m above ground. This is to be obtained from the Meteorological authority in your region. Mabani steel recommends a minimum basic wind speed of 130 km/ hr. I = Importance Factor, determined from the following table:
2

54

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 4
Section 4.5

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Wind Design Considerations 2 of 3

Type of Building
Temporary Standard Schools, Colleges, Power stations, Utility facilities, Jail, buildings where more than 300 people gather in one area Hospitals, Emergency vehicle garages, Emergency aircraft hangars, Defense buildings

Importance factor "I"


0.87 1.00 1.15

1.15

Exposure Categories
The exposure category reflects the characteristics of ground surface of the site at which the building is constructed.
Exposure Category
A B C D

Category Description
Large city centers with building height > 21 m Urban and suburban areas and terrains with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single family dwellings or larger Open terrains with scattered obstructions having heights < 9.1 m Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to wind flowing over open water

Height "h"
Height in PEB's = eave height for roof slopes that are less than or equal to 10 degrees (1.76/10). For single slope roofs the lower eave height is used if roof slope is less than or equal to 10 degrees. For roofs with slopes greater than 10 degrees use the mean roof height above ground.

Deflection
Deflection is a serviceability criteria rather than a strength consideration and poses less hazard and risk to life and property. IBC 2000 recognizes this and allows the wind load to be reduced to 70% of its value in the design of members for deflection. MBMA 2002 allows the calculated deflection to be based upon a 10- year return period (occurance interval) and proposes a conversion factor of 0.70 from a 50 years return period.to 10 years return period.

THE PEB MANUAL

55

CHAPTER 2
Section 4.5

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Wind Design Considerations

3 of 3

Comparison of "3 second gust" wind speed with "Fastest Mile" wind speed
Older US codes such as UBC 1997, and MBMA 1996 used the fastest mile wind speed for determining the velocity pressure (as per the guidelines of ASCE 7-93). The latest US building codes such as IBC 2000 (2003 & 2006) MBMA 2002 use the 3 second gust wind speed for determining the velocity pressure (as per the guidelines of ASCE 7-98). A comparison between the two concepts is shown in the table below using fastest mile wind speed of 135.6 km/hr, that is specified by the Emirate of Dubai.

IBC 2000 section 1609.4 allows designers to use exposure category B when site location information is not available. Parameter 3 second gust wind speed Fastest mile wind speed
For 135.6 km/hr wind speed, a mile (1609 m) long strip of air will take 43 seconds to Definition Speed is measured over a 3 seconds period of time. pass through a point i.e., the speed is calculated at the end of 43 Seconds 1609 m = 43 seconds (135600 m/hr. / 3600 seconds) Codes Annual Probability of occurrence Conversion Factor Wind directionality Factor Eave Height (m) IBC 2000, MBMA 2002 (Based on ASCE 7-98) 50 years Divide basic wind speed by 1.18 to get fastest mile wind speed Addressed and it is always 0.85 Calculated 3 second gust wind speed (km/hr) Velocity Pressure q (kN/m2) UBC 1997, MBMA 1996 (Based on ASCE 7-93) 50 years Multiply basic wind speed by 1.18 to get 3 seconds gust wind speed Not addressed Calculated Wind stagnation Pressure q (kN/m2)

Fastest mile wind speed (km/hr)

Exposure B Exposure C 0.72 0.83 0.85 1.0 1.12 1.14

9.0 15.0 15.9

160 160 160

135.60 135.60 135.60

0.851 0.985 1.000

56

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 4
Section 4.6

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Seismic Design Considerations 1 of 3

MBMA 2002 refers to IBC 2000 totally for the calculation and application of seismic loads on metal buildings (i.e. PEB's).

Determination of Seismic Loads


IBC 2000 (and IBC 2003 & 2006) uses the following parameters to determine the seismic loads that must be applied on a structure.

Site class

This is a classification that is assigned to a site based on the type of soils present. When the soil data is not known, site class D can be assumed and used.
Site Class A B C D E

Description Hard rock Rock Very dense soil and soft rock Stiff soil profile Soft soil profile

Occupancy Importance Factor


Occupancy Category Category I Category II Category III Seismic Use Group I I II Occupancy Importance Factor 1.00 1.00 1.25

Type of Building Temporary buildings Standard buildings Schools, Colleges, Power generating stations, Public utility buildings, buildings where more than 300 people gather in one area Hospitals, Emergency buildings, Emergency aircraft hangars, Defense buildings

Category IV

III

1.50

Mapped Spectral acceleration for short periods (Ss)

Ss is the ground motion acceleration that is specified by the local authorities of respective countries. Ss can be one of 5 values: 0.25 (least severe), 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 or 1.25 (most severe). In Iraq and Afghanistan, the US army specifies an Ss value of 1.25.

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Section 4.6

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Seismic Design Considerations 2 of 3

Site coefficient "Fa". Fa depends on site class and the value of Ss.
Site Class A B C D E _ Ss > 1.00 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.5 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7 Fa values for different Ss values Ss = 0.50 Ss = 0.75 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 Ss = 1.00 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9 _ Ss > 1.25 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9

Maximum spectral response acceleration for short periods (Sms) Sms = Fa x Ss Design spectral response acceleration for short periods (Sds) Sds = (2 x Sms)/3 Response modification factor (R) For moment resisting frames R = 3.5

Effective seismic weight of the structure (W)

W includes the dead load, 25% of live load in storage areas (such as mezzanines), partition wall loads (if any), weight of permanent operating equipments (if any) and 20% of blanket snow load (if snow load is >1.44 kN/m2)

Seismic base shear (V)

This is the horizontal load that is applied on the structure. V= (1.2 Sds I W)/ R For site class D, assuming I = 1.0 and Fa = 1.0, Base shear V is calculated below, for various values of Ss, using the above formula.
Ss Base shear V (kN) 0.25 0.056 W 0.5 0.113 W 0.75 0.17 W 1.0 0.23 W 1.25 0.29 W

58

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Section 4.6

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Seismic Design Considerations 3 of 3

Older Methods of determining Base Shear


UBC 1997. Prior to IBC 2000 (i.e. in UBC 1997 and in earlier editions of UBC), seismic loads were calculated on the basis of 5 seismic zones, namely zones 1, 2a, 2b, 3 and 4. UBC 1997 determined Base Shear using the formula: V = (3 Ca W)/ R, where Ca = Seismic coefficient which depends on soil profile type and seismic zone. R = Coefficient representing the strength and ductility of the lateral force resisting system = 4.50 W = Effective seismic weight of the structure. Assuming soil profile type D (i.e. stiff soil profile) the seismic load was calculated for the various zones using the following table:
Zone Base shear V (kN) 1 0.08 W 2a 0.14 W 2b 0.18 W 3 0.24 W 4 0.29 W

MBMA 1996 calculated Base Shear using the formula: V = (2.5 Ca W)/ R Where, Ca = Seismic coefficient which depends on Aa, the effective peak acceleration. R= Response modification factor = 4.50 W= Effective seismic weight of the structure. The seismic load (Base Shear) for various values of seismic coefficient (Aa) is shown below:
Aa Base shear V (kN) 0.05 0.044 W 0.10 0.088 W 0.20 0.16 W 0.30 0.20 W 0.40 0.25 W

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CHAPTER 4
Section 4.7

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Deflection Considerations 1 of 1

When designing buildings, due consideration should be given to serviceability, which is often manifested in deflections. Some codes do not impose deflection limits on the various structural members of structures. They leave this to the judgment of the designing engineer.

Mabani Steel adopts a conservative approach to controlling deflections based upon its extensive experience, and uses the serviceability considerations recommended in MBMA's MSBM-2002, a summary of which is reproduced below.

VERTICAL DEFLECTIONS: Vertical deflections due to wind loads can be taken as the limit given below multiplied by 0.75. Maximum Allowable Limit Followed in Design Span / 150 Span / 150 Span /240 Span /150 Span / 360 Span / 240 Span / 360 Span / 240 Load Cases DL=Dead Load LL=Live Load CL=Collateral Load SL=Snow Load DL+ LL or DL + SL + LL or DL + SL LL or SL DL +LL or DL+ SL LL or SL DL+ LL LL DL + LL or DL +SL

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

For Member (or) Element

Rigid frame rafters & purlins without false ceiling Rigid frame rafters& purlins with non-plastered False ceiling Rigid frame rafters & purlins with plastered False ceiling Mezzanine beams & joists Jack beams Crane runway beams (as per CMAA) Relative deflection of adjacent frames Under hung / monorail crane loads

Span / x, where x= 600 for crane class A, B & C, 800 for D, and 1000 for E & F Bay spacing / 225 Crane vertical loads

MBMA & IBC require the use of a 50 years return period for stress design but only a 10 years return period for deflection design. The WL in the table below is based on a 10 years return period.
HORIZONTAL DEFLECTIONS: CBH = Crane Runway Beam Height from FFL; EH = Eave Height Maximum Allowable Limit Followed in Design EH/60 EH/75 EH/100 EH/250 CBH/100 CBH/240 Span /120 Span /240 Load Cases WL=Wind Load SL=Seismic Load CLS=Crane Lateral Surge WL or SL WL or SL WL or SL WL or SL WL or SL or CLS WL or SL or CLS WL CLS

No.

For Member (or) Element

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Rigid frame columns with fully sheeted walls Rigid frame columns with block wall & sheeting of equal heights Rigid frame columns with full height block wall Rigid frame columns with full height glazing Rigid frame columns with pendant operated crane Rigid frame columns with cab operated crane Wall girts & wind columns Crane runway beams

60

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CHAPTER 4
Section 4.8

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Engineering Output
1 of 2

Mabani Steel's Engineering Department produces all the documents required for the approval, fabrication and erection of our PEB's. Those documents may be provided in a hard printed format or in soft electronic format according to a Customer's request. Our engineering output comprises of the following:

Approval drawings Design calculations Anchor bolt plans Shop drawings. Erection drawings Bills of materials

The Customer is responsible for thoroughly checking all the information and adding his comments (if any) on the drawing. Notes on returned approval drawings must be specific and legible. Non specific and open ended remarks such as "what", "why", question marks, exclamation marks, etc. should be avoided as they do not contribute to the resolution of the intended query and often cause delays to the final approval. When the Customer's notes are accepted by Mabani Steel the approval package becomes binding on both parties. Approval drawings should not be used for construction especially for the setting up of anchor bolts and for foundation design.

Mabani Steels "For Approval" Stamp


Issued by Mabani Steel "For Approval" by Customer Customer is required to Approved As Is Approved As Noted Resubmit As Noted

Shop drawings are internal documents intended for our factory use only and hence they are not provided to anyone outside Mabani Steel.

check ( ) one box only

Approval Drawings
The approval drawings package consists of the following (for each building):

Date: Customer Signature Please return all drawings for the complete building, signed and dated, to Mabani Steel's Head Office

Anchor bolt plans Main Frames cross-sections Roof and wall framing Roof and wall elevations Location of building accessories Important notes and index sheet

Each drawing in Mabani Steel's "approval drawings" package is stamped. The stamp on each drawing must be signed and dated by the Customer or his authorized representative (be it a consultant, a contractor or an erector). Prior to signing and dating each drawing the Customer must check ( ) only one of the 3 boxes on the stamp. Ex: Approved As Is After signing and dating all the drawings for a complete building, the drawings for that building must be returned to Mabani Steel's Head Office in order to release it for final engineering and eventually for production. Mabani Steel requires an average of 3 weeks for completing the final engineering and producing the shop drawings, which are a prerequisite to commencement of production.

Approval drawings are only submitted upon request. If approval drawings for a building are requested, fabrication of that building will not start until one set of the approval drawings has been signed and dated by the Customer or his representative either "Approved As Is" or "Approved As Noted" and returned to Mabani Steel's Head Office.

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Section 4.8

: ENGINEERING PRACTICES
: Engineering Output 2 of 2

Design Calculations
Design calculations consist of the structural analysis and design of all the primary and secondary structural members of a building and are submitted only when specifically requested by the Customer. Design calculations are for reference only and Customer approval of design calculations is not required by Mabani Steel.

Erection Drawings
Erection drawings are final "Issued For Construction" drawings. They show the installed location of every component of a building. Erection drawings identify the part marks (usually factory stamped on the steel members) of all the components of the preengineered building. Like anchor bolts plans erection drawings must be followed precisely by the erector in order to have a quality building.

Anchor Bolt Plans and Column Reactions


Anchor bolt plans are submitted after all technical matters are finalized. They are "Issued For Construction" drawings and are intended to enable the Customer to proceed with the casting of foundations in preparation for the delivery of the pre-engineered steel building. Anchor bolt plans are part of the erection drawings but may be requested earlier. Anchor bolt plans contain :

Bill of Materials (BOM)


This is a list of all the components used in a building and their respective quantities. It is used to verify the quantities received in the shipping lists and corresponds to the quantities shown on the erection drawings.

ENGINEERING SOFTWARE
Mabani Steel is proud to be using design and detailing software that is developed and sold by Metal Buildings Software, a USA based company that specializes in one product only: softwre for the design and drafting of PEB's. More than 100 PEB manufacturers in the USA, South America, Europe and Asia use this software and vet it everyday. MBS softwre incorporates the latest USA Codes that are applicable to the design and manufacture of PEB's providing peace of mind to both the PEB manufacturer that uses it and buyers of his PEB's, both of whom appreciate that their buildings are safly designed with this softwre.

Size and quantity of anchor bolts and their exact locations (critical distances). Dimensions of all column bases. Base reactions for all main and secondary columns and wind bracing. Doors (sliding, roll up, personnel, etc.) fixing details. Recommended drainage outlet locations. Braced bay locations. Any note that needs to be confirmed by the Customer during approval process.

Shipping (Packing) Lists


Although shipping lists are not generated by our Engineering Department they are important documents which must be read and reconciled against our BOM's. Shipping Lists are emailed or faxed to the Customer with our Shipment Advices. A physical copy accompanies the trailer that carries our materials.

During the casting of foundations anchor bolts must be located exactly as shown in the anchor bolt plans in order to avoid fitting problems during erection.

62

THE PEB MANUAL

Applications of PEB's

THE PEB MANUAL

Section

Page

5.1 Overview 5.2 Aircraft Hangars 5.3 Vehicle Parking Sheds 5.4 Fuel Stations 5.5 Poultry Farms 5.6 Bulk Storage Buildings

63 64 70 73 76 77

C H A P T E R 5

Special Design Guidelines

THE PEB MANUAL

Section

Page

6.1 Thermal Insulation Design 6.2 Building Ventilation Design 6.3 Roof "Rain Drainage" Design 6.4 Building Expansion Joint Design 6.5 Basics of Acoustic Design 6.6 Natural Light Transmission

79 83 84 85 86 88

C H A P T E R 6

CHAPTER 6
Section 6.1

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Thermal Insulation Design 1 of 4

Basics of Insulation design


Heat loss or gain in a building can occur through Radiation, Conduction and Convection. Conduction through the building envelope accounts for most heat transfer. Heat gain due to conduction can be reduced (but not eliminated) by adding insulation. Convection by air leaks can and should be prevented by "tightening" the building. Radiation affects mostly glass surfaces and can be reduced by the use of reflective glass coatings.

Fiberglass Insulation
The most practical & economical type of insulation for Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings is fiberglass insulation. It is recommended that the roofs and walls of Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings be insulated with fiberglass insulation that meets the following specifications: 1. Fire safety properties comply with the following standard codes:

Condensation
Heat transfer is often accompanied by moisture movement, since warmer air contains more water vapour than cold air. The movement of vapour does not coincide with the actual movement of the air containing it. When warm air cools down or meets a cool surface, it loses some of its moisture, producing condensation. The air temperature at which condensation starts to occur is the dew point. Condensation may lead to metal corrosion, growth of mold and mildew, loss of insulating properties, and ruined finishes. It can be minimized by installing a vapour retarder on the warm side of a surface (the side with the higher vapour pressure). Vapour retarders slow down moisture transfer towards a cooler surface. In winter months, the warm side is the inner surface of the wall. During hot summer months the warm side is the outside surface. Metal panels are virtually vapour impermeable and are excellent vapour barriers in hot weather conditions. It is cold weather condensation protection that is normally needed for interior surfaces.

BS 476 Part 4 - non combustible; ASTM E84 (via UL 723); ASTM E 136 BS 476 Part 6 - Fire Propagation BS 476 Part 7 - Surface spread of flame

2. Fiberglass insulation be available in densities of 10, 12, 16 and 20 kg/m3 in order to meet high thermal resistance "R" values. 3. The underside of the fiberglass blanket be laminated with a functional facing that can serve as an effective vapour barrier and a flame retardant. The two most recommended laminates are white metalized scrim kraft (WMSK) and fiber reinforced kraft (FRK). 4. The underside laminate extends 50mm on each side of the fiberglass insulation in order to achieve neat joints between insulation runs.

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Section 6.1

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Thermal Insulation Design

2 of 4

5. The moisture absorption is less than one percent by weight when tested in accordance with ASTM C 553, BS 2972 or BS 6676. The fiberglass insulation does not absorb moisture from the ambient air nor water by capillary action. Only water under pressure moistens the insulation, which will quickly dry out due to the material's open cell structure. 6. Be non corrosive and chemically inert so it will not cause or accelerate corrosion of steel, stainless steel, copper or aluminium, due to its inorganic and mineral composition (as per ASTM C 665). 7. Be able to perform in temperatures that range from -4 C to 240 C. 8. Be non - toxic, rot proof, odorless, nonhygroscopic and does not breed or sustain mold, fungus, bacteria or rodents. Mold growth test as per ASTM C 991. 9. Thermal conductivity (K-values) at 25 C:
Insulation K Value (W/m/K) at densities of Thickness 10 kg/m3 12 kg/m3 16 kg/m3 20 kg/m3 (mm) 50 to 150 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.036
o o o

Sound Transmission losses for single metallic sheet wall plus insulation (as per ASTM E 90)
Density Thickness Kg/m3 (mm) 50 10 75 100 150 50 12 75 100 150 50 16 75 100 150 50 20 75 100 150 Sound Transmission Loss (dB) Sound Frequencies (Hz) 125 12 12 12 13 12 12 12 13 12 12 12 13 12 12 12 13 250 15 16 17 19 15 16 17 19 15 16 17 19 15 16 17 19 500 1000 2000 4000 STC 16 18 21 26 16 18 21 26 16 19 22 27 16 19 22 27 29 31 34 41 29 31 34 41 31 33 36 42 31 33 36 42 31 32 36 42 31 32 36 42 33 34 38 43 33 34 38 43 37 39 42 48 37 39 42 48 39 41 43 49 39 41 43 49 24 25 27 30 24 25 27 30 24 26 28 32 24 26 28 32

Sound Absorption Coefficients (as per ASTM C 423)


Density Thickness Kg/m (mm) 50 10 75 100 150 50 75 100 150 50 16 75 100 150 50 20 75 100 150 Coefficients of sound absorption Sound Frequencies (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 NRC 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.95 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.90 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.95 1.00 1.00 0.85 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.95 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.85 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.85 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.85 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.00 0.70 0.85 1.00 1.00 0.70 0.90 1.00 1.00 0.75 0.95 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.95 1.00 1.00 0.25 0.45 0.32 0.70 0.45 1.00 0.60 1.00 0.27 0.45 0.35 0.75 0.47 1.00 0.62 1.00 0.30 0.50 0.40 0.75 0.50 1.00 0.65 1.00 0.35 0.50 0.45 0.85 0.55 1.00 0.70 1.00

10. Performance can be measured in terms of thermal resistance (R - values) of materials expressed in m2K/W, from the equation. R = T / K where, T = Thickness in meters K = Thermal conductivity in W/m.K. Thermal Resistance (R-values) at 25 C:
Insulation R Value (m2 K/W) at densities of Thickness 10 kg/m3 12 kg/m3 16 kg/m3 20 kg/m3 (mm) 1.190 1.250 1.282 1.389 50 1.786 1.875 1.923 2.083 75 2.381 2.500 2.564 2.778 100 3.571 3.750 3.846 4.167 150
o

12

11. Acoustic insulation values are listed in the following two tables:

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CHAPTER 6
Section 6.1

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Thermal Insulation Design

3 of 4

Thermal Transmission (U value) is the rate of heat transfer under steady conditions through a unit area of a roof or wall when one unit of temperature difference exists between the air on both sides of that roof or wall. The installed U value is the reciprocal of the sum of the resistance of the component parts of the structure plus the resistance of the surfaces and any cavities within the structure. The installed U value for roof and walls can be calculated from the following equation:

ROOF

Roof Construction: Summer Condition


Element Construction Resistance (R) ft2h.oF/Btu m2.K/w 0.250 0.000 12.72 0.920 0.000 0.920 14.81 0.044 0.000 2.240 0.162 0.000 0.162 2.608

U=

1 RT

RT = RSO +RES +RIN +RAG +RIS + RSI , where RT = Total heat resistance RSO = External surface resistance RES = External sheeting resistance RIN = Insulation resistance RAG = Air gap resistance (if any) RIS = Internal sheeting or lining resistance RSI = Internal surface resistance The following table shows the installed thermal Transmission (U value) for roof and walls of PEB's using different thicknesses of fiberglass blankets, a density of 10 kg/m3, and based on summer conditions:
Insulation Thickness (mm) 50 75 100 150 U Value Roof (W/m2.K) 0.642 0.464 0.364 0.254 Wall (W/m2.K) 0.678 0.483 0.375 0.259

Outside Surface (wind speed=7.5mph) RSO Roof Sheeting RES 100mm fiberglass insulation at 24oC=75oF RIN RAG Air Gap (200mm) RIS Liner RSI Inside Surface(Still air) TOTAL HEAT RESISTANCE (RT)

Wall Construction: Summer Condition


Element Construction Resistance (R) ft2h.oF/Btu m2.K/w 0.250 0.000 12.72 0.920 0.000 0.920 14.81 0.044 0.000 2.240 0.162 0.000 0.162 2.608

The following examples illustrate the calculations of the installed R value for roof and wall constructions using fiberglass insulation. Note that the resistances in horizontal constructions may differ from resistances for vertical constructions.

Outside Surface (wind speed=7.5mph) RSO Roof Sheeting RES 100mm fiberglass insulation at 24oC=75oF RIN RAG Air Gap (200mm) RIS Liner RSI Inside Surface(Still air) TOTAL HEAT RESISTANCE (RT)

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Section 6.1

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Thermal Insulation Design

4 of 4

Fiberglass versus Polyurethane Insulation: A value engineering comparison


No one doubts the superiority of polyurethane over fiberglass as an insulating material. Per thickness of material polyurethane is a much better insulator than fiberglass. The question is whether the substantially higher price of polyurethane injected sandwich panels versus single skin metal panels over fiberglass blanket insulation is really worth it! As stated earlier in this section the performance of an insulating material is determined by its thermal resistance "R value". The higher the "R value" the better is the insulation. The "R value" is directly proportional to the thickness of the insulating material. The thicker the insulating material, the higher is its "R value".

In the table below the cost of using a polyurethane injected sandwich panel is 61% (58/36) higher than using fiberglass insulation with the same "R value".
Polyurethane injected sandwich panel Core Thickness : 50 mm Polyurethane Density : 35 kg/m3 Outside Skin : 0.5 Painted AluZinc Coated Steel Inside Ski : Aluminum Foil Cost (AED/m2): 58 Fiberglass Insulation Thickness : 100 mm Glass Fiber Density : 12 kg/m3 Outside Skin : 0.5 Painted Aluzinc Coated Steel Inside Skin : Aluminum Foil Cost (AED/m2): 36

Optional wire mesh below fiberglass insulation


The fiberglass insulation that is supplied by Mabani Steel use a fiber reinforced aluminum foil laminate that gives it sufficient strength to stretch into a tight neat looking finish surface. It does not require under laid galvanized steel mesh to support it. The cost of the galvanized steel wire mesh that is supplied by Mabani Steel (if and when it is specified) is AED 3/m2. If this cost is added to the fiberglass option, the cost of using a polyurethane injected sandwich panel becomes 49% higher than using fiberglass insulation with the same "R value".

Thermal Resistance Comparison


The table below compares the "R value" of a 50 mm thick polyurethane injected sandwich panel (having a density of 38 kg/m3) with that of a 100 mm thick fiberglass insulation (having a density of 12 kg/m3). For the most practical purpose, 100 mm thick fiberglass blanket insulation has the same thermal resistance as that of 50 mm polyurethane.
R Value (m2 ko/w) 2.50 35 kg/m3 Polyurethane Core Thickness (mm) 50 12 kg/m3 Fiberglass Blanket (mm) 100

Our Recommendation
Without bias we believe that using polyurethane (PU) injected sandwich panels for the sole purpose of insulating a building is both wasteful and extravagant, especially if the core thickness of the PU is 50 mm or less. Over 90% of non air conditioned industrial and warehousing buildings in the USA use some form of fiberglass insulation. We believe that it was the poor quality of field installation of fiberglass insulation that led to the popularity of PU sandwich panels in the UAE unlike the case in Saudi Arabia which always had excellent PEB erectors and where to this day over 80% of PEB's use fiberglass insulation.

Price Comparison
Noted below are the current (January 2007) costs of the two above noted insulation systems. It should be noted that the price of the outside painted metal skin (be it AluZinc Coated Steel, Aluminum or G-90 Galvanized) fluctuates widely from quarter to quarter. However because the same outside skin is used in both insulation systems the relative cost difference between the two insulation systems remains the same.

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CHAPTER 6
Section 6.2

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Building Ventilation Design 1 of 1

All buildings require some level of ventilation. Good ventilation creates a comfortable working condition. Ventilation is not to be understood as air conditioning. Ventilation can best be represented by the number of times per hour the building air is replaced with outside air. This is referred to as air changes per hour. The number of recommended air changes per hour varies widely depending on building use.
Type of Building Warehouses Light manufacturing Heavy manufacturing Recommended air changes per hour (N) 3 to 5 5 to 10 10 to 20

The exhaust capacity of Mabani Steel's standard 600 mm ventilator is listed in the table below with respect to the stack height (which is the average of eave height and ridge height) and the temperature difference (oC) between the inside and the outside of the building. The exhaust capacity value for 300 mm ventilators (that is used by other competitors) in also shown for the sake of comparison.
R = Exhaust Capacity (m3/sec) Ridge Vent Throat width (mm) 300 3 6 5 5 10 5 9 10 15 12 15 10 15 10 15 0.779 0.916 1.109 1.021 1.257 1.438 1.382 1.591 1.492 1.726 600 1.559 1.832 2.218 2.041 2.514 2.876 2.763 3.182 2.983 3.452

Stack Height (m)

Temp. Difference (oC)

Ventilation Design using the Air change Method


For any PEB first determine building volume V (m3). Based on the required air changes per hour (N) determine the total airflow per second: Airflow = The typical method of moving air in a building is by using wall openings and/or louvers. The typical method of moving air out of the building is by using roof monitors, roof mounted gravity ridge ventilators and roof mounted power ventilators.

Quantity of ridge ventilators required,

Where, V = Building Volume (m3) N = Air changes per hour R = Ventilator exhaust capacity (m3/sec)

Gravity Ridge Ventilators


The most economical method for moving air out of a building is by using gravity ridge ventilators. Mabani Steel's gravity ridge ventilators have a throat opening of 600 mm and are supplied with a damper mechanism that can shut the throat opening during sandy storms.

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CHAPTER 6
Section 6.3

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Roof "Rain Drainage" Design 1 of 1

The design of a roof drainage system is determined by two factors:


Calculating "Ds" for Eave Gutters


Consider a 36m clear span building having a roof slope of 0.5 / 10. Assume I = 150 mm/hour. For Mabani Steel's standard eave gutter and downspout. M = 154/170 = 0.91; A = 7.310.5 = 76.65 cm2. Based on Gutter capacity: D s = 19 x 0.17 = 15.2 m Based on Downspout capacity: Ds = 440 x 76 .65 (1 x (36 2 ) x 150 ) = 12.5 m (use)
28 13 10

Gutter water carrying capacity Downspout water discharge capacity.

The following formulae determine the downspout spacing (Ds) in a building based on either the gutter capacity or the downspout capacity. The smaller computed value of Ds should be used in the final design. Based on Gutter Capacity, the following formula is used to calculate the downspout spacing (Ds). D s = 19 x B
28 13

0.91

16

13

334500 (1x ( 36/2 ) x 150 )

13

16

13

334500 (C x W x I )

10

13

where,

Ds = Maximum Downspout spacing (m) B = Average width of gutter (m) M = Depth / Width ratio of gutter W = Width of building area being drained (m) A = Area of downspout (cm2) I = Maximum rainfall intensity (mm/hour) C = Roof slope constant = 1.00 for roof slope from 0.0/10 to 2.0/10 = 1.10 for roof slope from 2.1/10 to 5.4/10 = 1.20 for roof slope from 5.5/10 to 8.2/10 = 1.30 for roof slope from 8.3/10 and higher Based on Downspout Capacity, the following formula is used to calculate the downspout spacing (Ds). Ds = 440 A (C x W x I )
154

Calculating "Ds" for Valley Gutters


Consider a 72m multi gable building comprised of two 36 m clear spans having a roof slope of 0.5 / 10. Assume I = 150 mm/hour. For Mabani Steel standard valley gutter and a 150mm diameter PVC downspout. M=190/400 = 0.475; A = 3.143(7.5) = 176.79 cm2. Based on Gutter capacity: D s = 19 x 0 .4 = 25.25 m Based on Downspout capacity: Ds = 440 x 176 .79 (1 x (36 ) x 150 ) = 14.41 m (use)
28 13 10 2

0 .475

16

13

334500 (1 x (36 ) x 150 )

13

STANDARD EAVE GUTTER

125

STEEL DOWNSPOUT

STANDARD VALLEY GUTTER

STANDARD DOWNPIPE

84

THE PEB MANUAL

CHAPTER 6
Section 6.4

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Building Expansion Joint Design 1 of 1

Expansion joints are often required for very long and very wide buildings. The maximum distance between expansion joints is dependent on the coefficient of linear expansion of the steel, thermal condition of inside of the building and the temperature difference between the lowest and highest recorded temperatures. The 1974 US Federal Construction Council provides guidance based on the design temperature change to determine the maximum spacing of expansion joints in beam-column framed buildings with pinned bases and heated interiors.
Recommended spacing between expansion joints in rectangular multi framed buildings with symmetrical stiffness (Feet) 600 600 574 541 492 443 394 394 394 (m) 183 183 175 165 150 135 120 120 120

If the building has fixed column bases, decrease the maximum spacing, shown in the above table, by 15%.

If the building will have substantially greater stiffness against lateral displacement in one of the plan dimensions decrease the maximum spacing, shown in the above table, by 25%.

The information in this section is extracted from AISC 2005, Part 2 (General design considerations). An alternative method for calculating the spacing between expansion joints is based on "Engineer's guide to Solar Energy" by Yvonne Howell & Justin A. Bereny. It is based on the difference between the temperature when the steel was erected and the most extreme outside temperature. Based on a maximum practical expansion slot of 30 mm (in a typical PEB expansion joint) and based on a T of 40oC (which is the maximum difference between the lowest recorded and highest recorded temperatures in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) the maximum spacing between expansion joints is: L= Expansion Slot length K x T x Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (Steel)

Maximum Temperature Difference (oF) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 and above (oC) -12 -7 -1 +4 +10 +15 +21 +26 +32 and above

For buildings without AC, K=1 L= 3 .0 1 x 40 x 0 .0000117 = 6409 cm 64 m

Notes that are related to the above table: If the building is heated and has pinned column bases, use the number shown in the above table. If the building is air-conditioned as well as heated, increase the maximum spacing, shown in the above table, by 15%. If the building is unheated, decrease the maximum spacing, shown in the above table, by 33%.

For buildings with AC, K=0.7 L= 6409 0 .70 = 9156 cm 92 m

For buildings with heating & AC,K=0.55 L= 6409 0 .55 = 11653 cm 117 m L=

max KE T

THE PEB MANUAL

85

CHAPTER 6
Section 6.5

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Basics of Acoustic Design 1 of 2

Acoustics deals with the production, control, transmission, reception and eects of sound. Sound is a form of mechanical radiant energy (pressure) transmied through a medium, such as air. The intensity of sound (loudness) is objectively measured by the decibel (dB) scale. dB ratings are based on a logarithmic scale measuring was per square meter. Example: 0dB translates to 110-12 w/m2, 10dB (10 times more intense) translates to 110-11 w/m2 and 20dB (100 times more intense) translates to l10-10 w/m2. The following chart outlines a range of sounds and their corresponding sound levels:
Source of Sound Threshold of hearing (TOH) Pin Dropping Whisper Quiet Conversation Normal Conversation Street trac Vacuum Cleaner Fire Cracker Front rows of rock concert Threshold of pain Air raid siren Instant perforation of ear drum Decibel (dB) 0 10 20 40 60 70 80 100 110 130 140 160

STC measures an assembly's ability to block airborne sound transmission and is reported by a single number rating. Higher ratings indicate beer ability to block airborne sound. This "single number" can be produced two ways: in a laboratory (ASTM E 90) and in the eld (ASTM E 413). The two standards are necessary due to the variations that occur between lab models and actual assemblies. A eld assembly does not perform as well as the same assembly constructed in a lab. Design professionals should take precautions to ensure that the actual eld assembly meets the requirements of their client. An assembly will typically be weakest at the points where two materials meet, such as at the joints between gypsum panels or at mechanical penetrations. Care should be taken with these details because these "sound leaks" are the easiest way for airborne sound to transfer from one side of the partition to the other. STC numbers focus on sounds in the range of human speech frequencies; they do not evaluate lower frequencies such as musical bass and mechanical equipment noise. Even if the partition has a high STC, an occupant on the other side may still be able to hear music and become irritated. Code requirements for sound transmission are covered in section 1207 of the International Building Code, which states that the minimum requirement between dwellings and/or public service areas is not less than STC 50 (45 if eld tested). IIC measures how an assembly can block impact sound (such as a footfall) and does not separate lab from eld values. It also uses a single number; a higher number indicates beer assemblies. The procedure and sound measurement for this test are dened in ASTM E 492 and E989.

The level of perception of sound by humans is subjective and is made up of three main items:

Loudness (based on physical response to pressure and intensity) Pitch (based on frequency) Discrimination of the human senses

When you are measuring an assembly (a oor or ceiling) there are two main testing procedures: Sound Transmission Class (STC) and Impact Insulation Class (IIC).

86

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CHAPTER 6
Section 6.5

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Basics of Acoustic Design 2 of 2

Challenge of Acoustic Design


Acoustic performance is very difficult to simplify, and "minor" details affected by construction practice, field fit-up and the like will greatly affect performance. A nail in the wrong place, or a mere 1mm open joint can seriously degrade acoustic isolation. As a broad generalization, you could reasonably expect that a 75mm Steel deck system with 100mm of concrete cover would exhibit an STC rating of 53 and an IIC rating of 21. STC ratings can be increased by blocking airborne transmission paths so consider sealing all utility penetrations with gaskets or the like. IIC ratings are enhanced by adding soundabsorbing materials at the interfaces between surfaces so that sound vibrations aren't transmitted from one to the other. With careful attention you can address both ratings with the same fix. For example, sealing a pipe penetration with a gasket will improve STC performance, but if you make sure that the gasket is suitably flexible and isolates the pipe from the surrounding floor you can reduce pipe-to-floor transmission and increase your IIC rating at the same time. Several products aim to fix acoustic problems many of which are intended to reduce noise within a space rather than between spaces. They are: Sound absorbing panels. Typically made of porous expanded polypropylene (or an equivalent) and applied to a surface. 25 mm of this material can improve STC by 9; 50mm may improve STC by 13. These are most commonly used to control sound reflection within a space, but some versions are useful for controlling sound transmission between spaces.

Floor underlayments. Although carpeting and floor underlayments are relatively ineffective at blocking airborne noise and won't contribute much to STC ratings, they can be very effective at increasing IIC ratings. Carpet and a suitable pad will add up to 40 points to IIC; hard-surfaced floors can be installed with specialized underlayments (both roll and poured) that improve their IIC by around 20 points. They generally require about 25mm of depth. Unfaced fiberglass acoustic insulation. Depending on the specifics of a project and the installation details, putting acoustic fiberglass in a ceiling assembly will raise the STC rating of that assembly by 4 to 10 points. You must take care not to compress the batt. Acoustic sheet rock. Used in place of normal sheetrock, this can yield an STC that is 4 to 12 points better. Isolation hangers. These are often used to suspend ceiling finishes, decoupling them from the structure and minimizing vibration. Depending on type and installation, these can increase the STC rating of a ceiling by 12 to 16 points. Care must be taken to ensure that each hanger is carrying a suitable load; excessive loads can impair their effectiveness. Resilient channel. Generally used to mount gypsum board, these raise STC by 3 to 5 points, with higher-end types increasing STC by up to 7. You must not nail through the channel except in approved places or the channel will be rendered useless. In many cases products can be combined for further benefits. Using acoustic batt above sheetrock that's suspended with isolation hangers will yield better results than any one of those products used alone. More information at www.acoustics.org.

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CHAPTER 6
Section 6.6

: SPECIAL DESIGN GUIDELINES


: Natural Light Transmission 1 of 1

Table (1) Recommended Levels of Illumination


Percentage of hours between 9:00 and 17:00 which levels of illuminance will be available exceeded.
95% 90% 85% 80%

Building Type AIRCRAFT HANGARS Repair Service Inspection WAREHOUSES Rough, Bulky Material Medium Size Material Fine Size Material GARAGES Repair Services Parking Garages OFFICES Fine Operations Regular Work FACTORIES Inspection Fine Medium EXHIBITION HALLS
40

15.000 14.000 13.000 12.00 11.00

Recommended Levels of Illumination(Lux) 1100 2200 110 220 550 1100 550 2200 1100 2200 1100 550 1100

External Illuminance (lux)

10.00 9.500 9.000 8.500 8.000 7.500 7.000 6.500 6.000 5.500 5.000 4.500 4.000 3.800 3.600

10

20

30

Latitude

( 1/ 2

N or

1/ 2

S)

Figure (1) External Illuminance that will be met or exceeded for various percentages of the day between 9.00 AM to 5 PM. Note. To ensure that the uniformity of illuminance will not exceed a ratio of 2:1, the distance between the centres of rows (or continuous runs) of skylights and also between the individual skylights in rows should not exceed twice the height of the skylights above the working plane.
0.40 0.36 0.32
In all cases building width must be greater than 1 x wall height but not greater than building length.

Table (2) Typical Light Loss Factor for Daylighting Design

Locations Clean areas Industrial areas Very Dirty areas

Light loss factor glazing position Vertical 0.9 0.8 0.7 Sloped 0.8 0.7 0.6 Horizontal 0.7 0.6 0.5

1.5 2.0
Ratio of building length / Height of walls above working plane

Ratio Glass Area/Floor Area

0.28 0.24 0.20 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.04

4.0 10.0

REFERENCES:
1. Helms, R.N. and Blecher, M.C., 'Lighting for EnergyEfficient Luminous Environment', Prentice Hall, 1991. 2.Pritchard, D.C.,'Lighting', Longman Scientific and Technical, Fourth Edition, 1990.
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

3. Illuminating

Engineering

Society,

'IES

Lighting

Average daylight factor (%)


Figure (2) Daylight Factor for Skylight in a Flat Roof

Handbook', Third Edition, 1959. 4. Lynes, J.A., 'Principles of Natural Lighting', Elsvier Publishing Company Ltd., 1968

88

THE PEB MANUAL

Corrosion Protection

THE PEB MANUAL

Section

Page

7.1 Surface Preparation 7.2 Paint Systems 7.3 Alkyd Primers versus Universal Epoxy Primers

89 92 94

C H A P T E R 7

CHAPTER 7
Section 7.1

: CORROSION PROTECTION
: Surface Preparation 1 of 3

Introduction
Substrate surface preparation is essential before the application of any paint system. The performance of a paint system is significantly influenced by proper adhesion to the substrate material. The presence of even small amounts of surface contaminants such as oil, grease, oxides, etc. can physically impair and reduce coating adhesion to the substrate. Chemical contaminants that are not readily visible such as chlorides and sulphates attract moisture through coating systems resulting in premature failure.

Methods of Preparation
The standard grades of cleanliness for abrasive blast cleaning are:

Sa 1 : Light blast cleaning Sa 2 : Thorough blast cleaning Sa 2.5 : Very thorough blast cleaning Sa 3 : Blast cleaning to visually clean steel
The particle size of the abrasive is an important factor affecting the rate and efficiency of cleaning. Sa 1, Sa 2, Sa 2.5 and Sa 3 are the surface preparation specifications as per Swedish 815 05 5900 standard. The following table gives equivalent finishing Grade as per British and American Standards.
Swedish 815 05 5900 Sa 3 Sa 2.5 Sa 2 British BS 4232 1 st quality 100 % whole surface II nd quality 95 % whole surface IIIrd quality 80% whole surface American SSPC White metal Near white Commercial

Why Surface Preparation is required


Hot rolled structural steel plate leaves the last rolling pass at a temperature of 1000o C. As it cools, the surface reacts with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce mill scale. Mill scale is unstable. After some time water in the atmosphere penetrates fissures in the scale and rusting of the steel occurs. The corrosion process progressively detaches the mill scale and produces a variable surface that is generally unsuitable for over coating. The amount of rusting is dependant upon the length of time that the steel has been exposed to a damp or wet environment.

SSPC is the U.S Authority on Surface Preparation and Protective Coatings.

SSPC, The Structural Society for Protective Coatings


40, 24th street, 6th floor, Pittsburg PA, USA. Phone : + (1- 412) 281- 2331 Fax : + (1- 412) 281- 9992 Website: www.sspc.org

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Section 1.4

: CORROSION PROTECTION
: Surface Preparation 2 of 3

Section 7.1

American codes specify the surface preparation for various cleaning methods with a unique SSPC number. They are listed in the Table below (Refer to table 2.7 of AISC 2005).
Summary of SSPC Surface Preparation Specifications SSPC Specification No. SP 1 SP 2 SP 3 SP 5 SP 6 SP 7 SP 8 SP 10 Title Solvent Cleaning Hand Tool Cleaning Power tool Cleaning Metal Blast cleaning Commercial Blast Cleaning Brush-off Blast Cleaning Pickling Near White Blast Cleaning Power tool cleaning to Bare Metal Description Removal of oil, dirt, grease, soil, salts, and contaminants by cleaning with solvent, vapor, alkali, emulsion or steam. Removal of all loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint to degree specified, by hand chipping, scraping, sanding and wire brushing. Removal of all loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint to degree specified, by power tool chipping, descaling, scraping, sanding, wire brushing and grinding. Removal of all visible rust, mill scale, paint and foreign matter by blast cleaning by wheel or nozzle (dry or wet) using sand, grit or shot. (For very corrosive atmospheres where high cost of cleaning is warranted) Blast cleaning until at least two-thirds of the surface area is free of all visible residues. (For conditions where thoroughly cleaned surface is required) Blast cleaning of all except tightly adhering residues of mill scale, rust and coatings, exposing numerous evenly distributed flecks of underlying metal. Complete removal of rust and mill scale by acid pickling, duplex pickling, or electrolytic pickling. Blast cleaning to nearly white metal cleanliness, until at least 95 % of the surface area is free of all visible residues. (For high humidity, chemical atmosphere, marine, or other corrosive environments) Complete removal of all rust, scale and paint by power tools, with resultant surface profile.

SP 11

Environmentally related Surface Preparation Guidelines


Exposure Condition Atmosphere: uncontaminated; interior Atmosphere: uncontaminated; exterior and interior Atmosphere: uncontaminated; humid Atmosphere: industrial; humid; marine SSPC Surface Preparation Solvent Cleaner: SP 1 Power tool and hand tool: SP 3,7 Power tool or brush blast: SP 2,3 Commercial Blast: SP 6 Minimum required for Oil base, water base, alkyds. Oil base, water base, alkyds, bituminous. Oil base, alkyds, epoxy esters. Epoxy esters, phenolic varnishes.

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CHAPTER 7
Section 7.1

: CORROSION PROTECTION
: Surface Preparation 3 of 3

Abrasive Blast Cleaning (Sa Grades)


The method used for the thorough cleaning of mill scaled and rusted surfaces is abrasive blast cleaning. This method involves mechanical cleaning by the continuous impact of abrasive particles at high velocities onto the steel surface either in a jet stream of compressed air or by any other mechanical processing. At Mabani Steel, we use state of the art shot blasting equipment designed for abrasive cleaning of steel sections that are up to 1800 mm deep.

Surface Profile/ Amplitude


The type and size of the abrasive used in blast cleaning has a significant effect on the profile or amplitude produced. In addition to the degree of cleanliness, surface preparation specifications consider 'roughness' relative to the coating to be applied. Roughness (profile anchor pattern) is the average depth (or height) from peak to valley caused by the impact of the abrasive onto the substrate. Excessive roughness should be avoided since corrosion can easily occur on peaks where the paint coating is thinner. The deeper the anchor profile, the more paint is required to achieve a desired dry film thickness.
Surface of coating This dimension determines the corrosion resistance coating Coating a R Ra Center line of distance between maximum peak and deepest Valley

Maximum Peak

Deepest Valley

R = Distance between maximum peak to deepest valley Ra = Average Depth (distance off centre line) = (a ) . Ra is usually 1/6 of R n a = Height of individual peak from centre line N = Number of peaks measured Mabani Steel uses steel shots for surface preparation. Steel shot is made from high carbon steel whose size can vary from 0.185mm to 2.0mm. Steel grits whose size varies from 0.125 mm to 2.40 mm are used only when specified.

Surface Condition immediately before coating


After the preparation of the surface to an acceptable standard of cleanliness and profile, it is important that the steel work is not allowed to deteriorate. Re- rusting can occur very quickly in a damp environment. At Mabani Steel, the automatic painting line is positioned immediately after the shot blasting equipment and the operating speeds of both the paint line and shot blast line are synchronized to work efficiently.

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91

CHAPTER 7
Section 1.4

: CORROSION PROTECTION
: Paint Systems 1 of 2

Section 7.2

Painting is the principle method of protecting structural steel work from corrosion.

COMPOSITION OF PAINTS AND FILM FORMATION


Paints are made by mixing and blending three main components: Pigment, Binder and Solvent.

cohesion and sometimes corrosion inhibition.

Pigments are finely ground inorganic or organic powders which provide colour, opacity, film

Binders are usually resins or oils but can be inorganic compounds such as soluble silicates. The binder is the film forming component in the paint.

Solvents are used to dissolve the binder and to facilitate application of the paint. Solvents are usually organic liquids or water.

Paints are applied to steel surfaces by many methods but in all cases the application produces a 'wet film'. The thickness of the 'wet film' can be measured, before the solvent evaporates, using a comb gauge. As the solvent evaporates, film formation occurs, leaving the binder and the pigments on the surface as a 'dry film'. The thickness of the dry film can be measured, usually with an electro magnetic induction gauge. The relationship between the applied 'wet film' thickness and the final 'dry film' thickness (dft) is determined by the percentage volume of solids in the paint as follows: Dry film thickness (dft) = wet film thickness x % Volume of Solids In general, the corrosion protection afforded by a paint film is directly proportional to its dry film thickness.

CLASSIFICATION OF PAINTS
Paints are commonly classified by their pigmentation or by their binder type. Primers for steel are usually classified according to the main corrosion inhibitive pigments used in their formulation, e.g. zinc phosphate primers, metallic zinc primers, etc. Intermediate and finish coats are usually classified according to their binders, e.g. epoxies, vinyls, urethanes, etc.

PAINTING SYSTEMS
Paints are usually applied one coat on top of another and each coat has a specific functional purpose. The primer is applied directly onto the cleaned steel surface. Its purpose is to wet the surface and to provide good adhesion for subsequently applied coats. In the case of primers for steel surfaces, these are also usually required to provide corrosion inhibition.

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Section 7.2

: CORROSION PROTECTION
: Paint Systems 2 of 2

An intermediate coat may be applied to 'build' the total film thickness of the system. Generally, the thicker the coating, the longer the life. The finishing coat provides the first line of defence against the environment and also determines the final appearance in terms of gloss, colour, etc. The various superimposed coats within a painting system must be compatible with one another.
Paint Types (and their properties) that are most common for PEB's Binder System Coat Low Medium Tolerance of poor surface Chemical Resistance Solvent resistance Water Resistance Over coating after aging Comments Good Decorative Properties. High solvent levels. Can be applied to a range of surfaces and coatings. Can be more decorative than epoxies.

Alkyd

Moderate

Poor

Poor Moderate

Moderate

Good

Epoxy

Medium High

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

Polyurethane

High

Very Poor

Very Good

Good

Very Good

Poor

Mabani Steel Standard Primer.


Shop applied primers reduce the risk of corrosion of steel by preventing direct contact between the moisture in the air and the surface of the steel. Mabani Steel applies shop primer to all built up and hot rolled sections after shot blasting them to Sa 2. Our standard shop applied primer is a universal epoxy primer available in red or gray color. It does more than protect the steel against rusting during transport from our factory to the jobsite, and during the erection. It is also compatible with all site applied paints in the event that site paint is applied at a later stage. This is in contrast to the cheaper alkyd primer that is used by all other PEB's manufacturers in this region and that often results in rusting before the erection begins and is incompatible with the majority of site applied paints.

Multi Coat Paint Systems


Increasingly specifiers in this region are specifying more sophisticated, multi coat paint systems. Mabani Steel, uniquely, has designed its paint lines to specifically address this trend to higher performance coatings.

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Section 1.4

: CORROSION PROTECTION
: Alkyd Primers Versus Universal Epoxy Primers 1 of 1

Section 7.3

Mabani Steel is the only PEB manufacturer in this region that uses a red or gray color universal epoxy primer as its standard primer. In the absence of a cleaning specification Mabani Steel is the only PEP manufacturer in this region that blast cleans (to Sa 2 Swedish Standard) all its paintable structural components prior to applying its standard primer. All other PEB manufacturer clean their paintable steel components using solvents or mechanical brushing both of which are inferior steel cleaning methods. The above two practices give Mabani Steel's prime painted steel components the most superior finish in this region, another example of quality superiority that is embedded in all Mabani Steel's products, services and processes. The following table gives a true comparison of Mabani Steel standard universal epoxy primer versus the alkyd primer that is used by other PEB manufacturers in this region.
Alkyd Primer Versus Universal Epoxy Primer Property Drying Time Abrasion Resistance Toughness Resistance to Dilute Acids Resistance to Concentrated Acids Resistance to Alkali Water Resistance Solvent Resistance Heat Resistance (Max Temp C)
o

Alkyd Moderate Fair Good Fair Poor Poor Poor Poor 107

Epoxy (2 pack system) Moderate Excellent Excellent Excellent Fair Excellent Excellent Excellent 120

Sa 2.5 and Multi Coat Paint Systems


Mabani Steel is the only PEB manufacturer in this region that can truly meet Sa 2.5 Swedish Standard blasting specification. We are also the only PEB manufacturer in this region that is capable of applying 2-3 paint coats on line without ever having to unload & reload steel members. Our superior painting equipment, including our high end material handling system, were custom designed by us to meet and exceed the stringent standards that are often specified by Consultants in this region.

94

THE PEB MANUAL

Foundations & Masonry Walls for PEB's

THE PEB MANUAL

Section

Page

8.1 Soil Bearing Capacity 8.2 Column Reactions 8.3 Anchor Bolts Layout Drawings 8.4 Hairpins for Horizontal Reactions 8.5 Footings for Pinned Fixed Bases 8.6 Tie Beams 8.7 Ground Slabs 8.8 Masonry Walls 8.9 References for Concrete Design

95 96 97 98 99 101 102 103 104

C H A P T E R 8

CHAPTER 8
Section 8.1

: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: Soil Bearing Capacity 1 of 1

Before starting the design of the substructure of a PEB it is necessary that the customer provides the foundation designer with a soil test report. The most important information in this report is the determination of the allowable bearing capacity (kN/m2) of the soil at different locations on the site and at different depths.

The type and size of foundations are often determined from this report. In this chapter we assume that the soil type allows the use of spread footings as foundations. However, in poor soils, more expensive foundations (such as piling, mat, etc.) may need to be used.

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CHAPTER 8
Section 1.4

: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: Column Reactions 1 of 1

Section 8.2

Column reactions are included in Mabani Steel's design calculations and anchor bolt drawings. Our software generates column reactions for each type of load. It is the responsibility of the foundation designer to combine the column base reactions in a way that satisfies the codes that are applicable to the design of the foundations. In the absence of a code Mabani Steel

recommends that the foundation designer use the column reactions resulting from the same load combinations that are used for designing the PEB Steel Structure. These load combinations are shown on our anchor bolt drawings. Recommended load combinations can also be obtained from MBMA 2002 (which complies with ASCE 7-98). The sketches below show one typical column reactions page extracted from our design calculations or anchor bolts drawings.

Frame Reactions (kN) CRAV1 -Crane with max. load on Column at GL-A CRAV2 -Crane with max. load on Column at GL-C CRAH1 -Frame with positive lateral kick CRAH2 -Frame with negative lateral kick Wind left 1, wind right 1 & Wind End 1 are winds with internal pressure. Wind left 2, wind right 2 & Wind End 2 are winds with internal suction. Load Cases Dead Load Collateral Load Live Load Wind Left 1 Wind Right 1 Wind Left 2 Wind Right 2 Wind End1 Wind End 2 CRAV1 CRAV2 CRAH1 CRAH2 H1 5 9 20 -40 8 -42 7 -6 -6 13 13 -5 5 V1 15 23 55 -73 -40 -46 -13 -75 -75 166 70 -3 3 H5 -5 -9 -20 -8 40 -7 42 6 6 -13 -13 -5 5 V5 15 23 55 -40 -73 -13 -46 -75 -75 70 166 3 -3 Grid Lines 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10

96

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CHAPTER 8
Section 8.3

: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: Anchor Bolts Layout Drawings 1 of 1

The anchor bolt layout drawing for a typical medium sized building is composed of one drawing only. It shows the following: Exact location of all anchor bolts and embedments (such as sliding door guides, etc.) in the concrete substructure.

The size, shape and quantity of each anchor bolt.


Braced bay locations and framed opening locations. Base plate sizes.

Critical distances between individual anchor bolts and between anchor bolts & steel lines.

Notes on the right side of the page are important and must be read and followed during the anchor bolts setting activity.

500

20

204

RIGID FRAME WITH BY-PASS GIRTS

BEARING FRAME WITH BY-PASS GIRTS

ANCHOR BOLT DRAWING

306

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97

CHAPTER 8
Section 1.4

: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: HairPins for Horizontal Reactions 1 of 1

Section 8.4

In the PEB industry it is a standard practice to transfer the horizontal reactions of pinned column bases into the ground slabs through the use of steel hair pins wrapped around the outer anchor bolts. These horizontal forces are transferred in to the ground slab and then dissipated into the soil below the concrete slab through the frictional forces between the slab and the underlying soil. Hair pins should extend into the slab at 450 angles and should be long enough to intersect as large an area of slab reinforcement as possible to avoid cracks in the slab. Hair pins are bent solid round bars that may be smooth or deformed. The diameter of the hair pin is determined from the following formula, where 16.536 is the allowable tensile stress of Grade 60 reinforcing bars in kN/cm2.

The length of hair pins is calculated by determining the development length that is required to transfer the horizontal reaction to the ground slab. This length is generally a minimum of 2m on each side of the anchor bolts. The development length Ld is calculated using the formula, , where fy = yield strength of reinforcement (psi) fc1 = compressive strength of concrete (psi) db = nominal diameter of hair pin (inches) For more information refer to chapter 12 of the American Concrete Institute: ACI 318-05 or to the book "Metal Building Systems" which appears in section 1.1 of this Manual.

Hairpins for different horizontal reactions Horizontal Reaction (kN) 10 25 35 45 60 75 125 140 190 Hair Pin Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 Diameter (mm) 10 13 16 19 22 16 22 19 25

Foundation Design software


Many practicing foundation designers use STAAD.Pro software for footing design. STAAD.Pro is a Structural Analysis and Design Software which can perform analysis and design in accordance with the American Concrete Institute (ACI): Code of Standard Practice or as per British and Euro codes. All types of foundations such as isolated spread footings, combined footings, mat foundations and pile foundations can be analyzed and designed using STAAD. Pro.

98

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CHAPTER 8
Section 8.5

: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: Footings for Pinned Fixed Bases 1 of 2

Pinned Column Bases


Pinned bases are universally used in PEB's. Customers should insist that the PEB Steel Structure manufacturer declare the type of base fixity of main frame columns in its proposal offer (standard procedure at Mabani Steel). Using fixed column bases slightly reduces the cost of a PEB Steel Structure but substantially increases the cost of the PEB foundation. This undisclosed "false economy" is used by some PEB Manufacturers to disguise their lower PEB Steel Structure supply cost. In the PEB industry, spread footings for pinned column bases are designed for vertical loads only. Horizontal reactions are transferred into the ground slabs and dissipated into the soil. Please refer to section 8.4 of this manual. An important consideration in the design of footings is the uplift forces that are caused by wind loads/seismic loads. High uplift wind forces require heavy footings or heavy soil back fill over the footings to prevent the pull out of the footings. The following table provides guidelines for sizing spread footings and steel reinforcement for pinned column bases.
Footing Size Length (mm) 800 1000 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200

Footing Reinforcement Depth (mm) 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 Steel Grade 60 AS1 AS2 Diameter Diameter Qty. Qty. (mm) (mm) 14 4 4 14 5 5 14 14 5 6 14 14 6 7 14 14 7 8 14 14 7 9 14 14 9 10 14 14

Soil Bearing Capacity (MT/m2) 7.5 15 Vertical reaction (kN) 40 60 70 110 140 175 250 90 140 190 280 360 440 500

Width (mm) 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Uplift Capacity (kN) 4 6 11 14 24 33 36

The use of hair pins transfers horizontal reactions into the ground slab. They are dissipated into the subsoil by the frictional forces between the slab and the subsoil. Minimum concrete compressive strength = 3000 psi (210 kg/cm2) Minimum tensile strength of the reinforcement shall be 23,959 psi (Grade 60 Steel) Minimum concrete cover for reinforcement is 75 mm. AS1 is the rebar in long direction of the footing slab. AS2 is the rebar in short direction of the footing slab. Uplift capacity is based on weight of concrete footing. It may be increased if soil overburden is provided.

Fixed Column Bases


In less than 1% of PEB's it is necessary to fix the bases of the main frame columns. This is necessitated because a stringent deflection requirement on the horizontal sway of these columns is imposed. Customers should be careful in dealing with PEB manufacturers who deliberately design their buildings with fixed main frame column bases in order transfer cost from the steel structure to the foundations. Foundations of fixed base main frame columns are substantially costlier because they are bigger and require additional steel reinforcement. Often the Customer does not discover this high foundation cost until after he has purchased the PEB.

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Section 8.5

: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: Footings for Pinned Fixed Bases 2 of 2

100

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CHAPTER 8
Section 8.6

: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: Tie Beams 1 of 1

The use of tie beams to connect the exterior footings of PEB's is a common practice that is used to: Distribute the longitudinal horizontal wind (and seismic) forces among the various individual footings.

Retain the soil under the ground slab and prevent it from shifting away from the slab. The width of tie beams in PEB's is often 200mm with depths ranging from 600 mm to 900 mm. In this region a common practice is to have the tie beam supported by layers of solid masonry block extending to the level of the bottom of the footing slab. This is done to prevent the soil under the slab from drifting outside the foot print of the slab especially if, at a later date, excavations are made just outside the foot print of the ground slab.

Support full or partial masonry walls along the exterior of buildings.

Tie the footings in a way that minimizes the vertical differential settlement between the footings. This is especially relevant for buildings with one or more crane systems.

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: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: Ground Slabs 1 of 1

Section 8.7

A typical slab on grade in this region comprises of a well compacted sub grade, a vapor barrier (polythene sheet) and a cast-in-situ slab with reinforcement.
Minimum slab thickness (mm) 100 125 150 150 200 250 Reinforcement No. of layers One One One Two Two Two Welded Wire Mesh Size 150x150-4/4 150x150-5/5 150x150-6/6 150x150-6/6 200x200-8/8 200x200-10/10

Type of Occupancy

Load (kN/m2) <5 10 20 35 70-100 100-120

Residential or light commercial Commercial, Institutional, Barns Light industrial Medium industrial Heavy industrial Extra heavy industrial

Above table is based on a concrete compressive strength of 3000 psi (210 kg/ cm2). Reinforcements are placed at 1/3 rd of slab thickness from the surface of the slab.

Construction joints
Construction joints are placed from 4.5m to 7.6m apart in each direction. The joint spacing determines the steel reinforcement required for shrinkage as per drag formula in American Concrete Institute ACI 302. Construction joints using dowels results in a better load transfer between adjacent slab sections

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CHAPTER 8
Section 8.8

: FOUNDATIONS & MASONRY WALLS FOR PEB'S


: Masonry Walls 1 of 1

Masonry walls are commonly used as exterior walls of PEB's up to a level ranging from 2.25m to 3.0m above finished floor level, especially in factories and warehouses. The reasons for constructing a partial block wall are:

Forklifts often hit the sidewalls and cause damage to metal panels. Masonry resists this damage.

Most wall accessories such as louvers, windows and personnel doors are located in the lower 2.25m - 3m height of a PEB. Often their final locations are unknown until after the PEB has been purchased. Site location of these accessories in masonry walls is preferable to delaying final steel fabrication drawings. Masonry walls are easiest to construct when the steel columns have by pass girts. The most common practice is to connect a concrete column to the perimeter tie beam and extend it up to the top of the masonry wall within the 200 mm girt depth as shown in the sketches below.

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: References for Concrete Design 1 of 1

Section 8.9

For guidance regarding Concrete Design Mabani Steel recommends to follow the 2006 aci Manual of Concrete Practice that is published by the American Concrete Institute.

1
ACI 104-71(97) to ACI 223-98

2
ACI 224R-01 to ACI 313R-97

3
ACI 315-99 to ACI 343R-95

4
ACI 345R-91(05) to ACI 355.2R-04

5
ACI 357R-84(97) to ACI 503.6R-97(03)

6
ACI 504R-90 (97) to ACI ITG-3-04

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THE PEB MANUAL

The PEB Steel Structure


Section Page

THE PEB MANUAL

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30

105 Primary Framing Systems 106 Clear Span Buildings 109 Multi Span Buildings 111 Multi Gable Buildings 114 Single Slope Buildings 117 Roof System Buildings 118 Lean to Buildings 120 Low Rise Buildings 121 Endwalls 123 Bracing 138 Expansion Joints 142 Jack Beams 146 Mezzanines 148 Staircases & Handrails 153 Crane Systems 160 Roof Monitors 167 Roof Extensions 169 Canopies 174 Facias & Parapets 176 Partitions 181 Roof Platforms, Catwalk & Walkways 185 Checkered Plates & Grating 190 Cage Ladders 192 Secondary Members (Z's, C's) 194 Framed Openings (Walls) 199 Framed Openings (Roofs) 202 Anchor Bolts 203 Connection Bolts 208 Sag Rods 211
Basic Building Parameters

C H A P T E R 9

Panels & Panel Accessories


Section Page

THE PEB MANUAL

10.1 Overview 10.2 Panel Profiles & Load Tables 10.3 Sky Lights and Wall Lights 10.4 Trims and Flashing 10.5 Panel Details 10.6 Curved Eave and Ridge Panels 10.7 Interior Roof & Wall Liner Details 10.8 Eave Gutters and Downspouts 10.9 Valley Gutters and Downpipes 10.10 Masonry Conditions 10.11 Pre-Cast Panels 10.12 Fiberglass Insulation & Accessories 10.13 Gravity Ridge Ventilators 10.14 Power Vents 10.15 Roof Curbs 10.16 Sliding Doors 10.17 Roll-up Doors 10.18 Personnel Walk Doors 10.19 Sandtrap Louvers 10.20 Windows 10.21 Panel Fasteners 10.22 Foam Closures 10.23 Bead Mastic 10.24 Flowable Mastic 10.25 Pop Rivets

213 214 215 216 218 221 222 227 229 235 237 238 241 244 247 249 253 259 263 264 265 267 268 269 270

C H A P T E R 10