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A Aprarea anLllnfec(loas

nespeclflc
8 Aprarea anLllnfec(loas
speclflc
oral
cellar
A Aprarea anLllnfec(loas
nespeclflc
ac(loneaz aspra orlcrl lcroorganls lndlferenL de specle
ecanlse acLlve la prll conLacL
n snL apllflcaLe prln expnerl repeLaLe
snL lnnscLe reprezenLaLe de barlere anLllnfec(loase exLerne ;l lnLerne
18arlere exLerne de aprare nespeclflc
fnc(loneaz la nlvell sprafe(elor de invell; (LegenL ;l coase)
reprezenLaLe de barlere ecanlce chllce ecologlce ;l cellare
Mecan|sme de aprare |a n|ve|u| tegumentu|u|
lnLegrlLaLea anaLolc a invell;ll LegenLar
exfollerea cellelor sperflclale
condl(ll de vle(lre neprlelnlce (keraLlna ldlLaLe sczL concenLra(ll arl de srrl
secre(la de seb pP acld)
llzozl prezenL in secre(la glandelor sdorlpare
barlera ecologlc reprezenLaL de lcroorganlse coensale rezldenLe (predolnenL gra
pozlLlve)
Mecan|sme de aprare |a n|ve|u| mucoase|or
ecanlse anLllcroblene coplexe dar al p(ln eflclenLe ca cele LegenLare
prezenLe la nlvell LLror coaselor sa parLlclare penLr anlLe coase
mecan|sme comune
lnLegrlLaLea coaselor
prezen(a sLraLll de cs care ascheaz recepLorll cellarl penLr llganzll
lcroblenl con(lne llzozl ;l lacLoferln
indeprLarea lcroorganlselor prln splarea sprafe(elor de cLre secre(ll sa
excreLe
barlera blologlc de la nlvell coaselor noral colonlzaLe
mecan|sme part|cu|are
on[unct|v
splarea coasel prln secre(la glandelor lacrlale
indeprLarea lcroorganlselor prln l;crl ale pleoapelor
prezen(a llzozlll in lacrll
@ractus resp|rator
fllLrarea aerodlnalc
sedlenLarea
LransporLl coclllar
acrofage alveolare
@ractus d|gest|v
W oroforinqe
descaarea eplLellll pavlenLos
asLlca(la ;l deglLl(la
prezen(a Lloclana(llor in sallv
W omoc
secre(la de PCl (ph 23)
W inein
l;crl perlsLalLlce
aclzl blllarl enzle dlgesLlve
@ractus ur|nar
splare prln flxl rlnar nldlrec(lonaL
pP acld ;l osolarlLaLe crescL a rlnll
efecL anLlbacLerlan al secre(lel prosLaLlce ;l a glandelor perlreLrale
@ractus gen|ta| |a feme|e
descaarea conLln a coasel vaglnale ;l perlodlc a coasel Lerlne
pP acld vaglnal prln prezen(a florel lacLobacllare
dopl de cs cervlcal
LransporL coclllar la nlvell coasel Lropelor
2 ar|ere |nterne de aprare nespec|f|c
mecan|ce clenL lnLercellar ebrane bazale (esL con[ncLlv fascll
ch|m|ce
W consLlLLlve copleenL ;l llzozl
W ca rspns la lnfec(le lnLerferonl ;l proLelne de faz acL
ce|u|are fagoclLe profeslonale" (Mn ;l acrofage) celle nk
omp|ement ser|c

coplex de sbsLan(e proLelce slnLeLlzaLe de acrofage (C2 ;l C4) flcaL (C3 C ;l C9) splln
(C;l C8) ;l eplLelll lnLesLlnal (C1)
acLlvare prln reac(ll enzlaLlce in cascad (proenzle lnacLlveenzle acLlve)
W pe cale alLernaLlv/alLern (LS cop;l endoLoxlnllke)
W pe cale claslc (proLelna C reacLlv anLlcorpl)
fnc(ll
W clLollza prln coplexl C C6C9
W opsonlzare prln C3b
W sLllarea lnflaa(lel prln C3a ;l Ca
nterferon|
gllcoproLelne c groleclar lc de Llp
W alfa (slnLeLlza(l de lecoclLe)
W beLa (slnLeLlza(l de flbrobla;Ll)
W gaa (slnLeLlza(l de llfoclLe 1 ca llfoklne)
slnLeza lnLerferonll alfa ;l beLa esLe sLllaL de vlrsrl (in speclal A8n)
fnc(ll
W lnhlb repllcarea vlrsrllor prln blocarea slnLezel proLelnelor vlrale
W efecL anLlprollferaLlv
W ac(lne lnoodlaLoare acLlveaz fnc(lonal acrofagele cellele nk ;l
llfoclLele 1 clLoLoxlce favorlzeaz exprlarea MPC de clas l
9rote|ne de faz acut
reprezenLaLe de proLelna C reacLlv (C8) alfa1anLlLrlpslna alfa 2 acroglobllna
flbrlnogen orozocold (lnoodlaLor ce se leaga de edlaLorl al lnflaaLlel) allold A
a[orlLaLea slnLeLlzaLe in flcaL dp efecLl sLllanL al clLoklnelor prolnflaaLorll (lL1 lL6
1nlalfa)
C8 (c keoctlve ltoteloe) cel al blne sLdlaL are efecL opsonlzanL ;l de acLlvare pe cale
claslc a copleenLll
e|u|e fagoc|tare
po||morfonuc|eare neutrof||e (9MN)
prla llnle de aprare cellar
se oblllzeaz in focarl de lnfec(le sb efecLl cheoLacLlc al nor cop;l de orlglne
bacLerlan Llslar sa prln acLlvarea copleenLll
prezlnL recepLorl penLr sLrcLrl de sprafa( ale lcroorganlselor
prezlnL recepLorl penLr C3b ;l lc al lgC

lcroorganlsele fagoclLaLe snL oorLe ;l dlgeraLe dp fzlonarea fagozoll c llzozoll
prln
explozle resplraLorle" (radlcall Loxlcl de oxlgen)
pollpepLlde bazlce c efecL anLllcroblan (defenslne) llzozl lacLoferln hldrolaze pP acld
Macrofage
celle c vla( lng care se oblllzeaz in focarl de lnfec(le dp Mn
al p(ln eflclenLe in dlsLrgerea lcroorganlselor fagoclLaLe
bacLerllle faclLaLlv lnLracellare (,coboctetlom tobetcolosls llstetlo moooctoqeoes
specll 8tocello eLc) snL oorLe nal dp acLlvarea lor prln llfoklne
e|u|e Nk
prodc perforlne care foreaz canale in ebrana clLoplasaLlc c oarLea cellel prln
llz osoLlc
dlsLrg cellele lnfecLaLe c vlrs (lndependenL de Ac)
acLlvlLaLea lor esLe sLllaL prln lnLerferonl
8 Aprarea anLllnfec(loas speclflc (lnlLaLea)
rspns speclflc dlrl[aL fa( de sLrcLrl recnoscLe ca nonself (Ag) de cLre slsLel
lnocopeLenL
rspnsl prlar (dp n prl conLacL) neceslL al lLe zlle penLr ca efecLorll lnl s
devln operan(l
rspnsl speclflc esLe lnLenslflcaL prln expnerl repeLaLe (rspns secndar)
8 Aprarea anLllnfec(loas speclflc (lnlLaLea)
rspnsl ln poaLe fl
de Llp umora| (sa serlc) aslgraL de Ac speclflcl prod;l de llfoclLe 8
de Llp ce|u|ar fllnd lpllcaLe llfoclLe 1
|as|f|carea |mun|t||
dp odl de ob(lnere
mun|tate act|v
noro/ posLlnfec(le
orificio/ dp vacclnrl
mun|tate pas|v
noro/ Ac aLernl Lransl;l la nonscL
LransplacenLar (lgC)
prln lapLe (lgA)
orificio/ seroLeraple sa seroprofllaxle
1 spunsu| |mun umora|
esLe aslgraL de c ser|c| spec|f|c| penLr n anlL Llp de eplLopl anLlgenlcl ( lgM lgC lgA
lgL lgu) prod;l de plasoclLe
llfoclLe 8 recnosc ;l se leag de n anlL Ag aLrarea in plasoclLe ;l prollferarea
acesLora fllnd a[LaL de llfoclLe 1 (rspns ln 1dependenL)
lgM apar prlele in cadrl rspnsll ln prlar
nele llfoclLe 8 devln celle c eorle responsablle de rspns ln secndar
nele Ag pollzaharldlce (Ag capslare LS) poL acLlva llfoclLele 8 fr lnLerven(la
llfoclLelor 1 (rspns ln 1lndependenL)
c|unea ant|m|crob|an a c
neLrallzeaz Loxlne ;l exoenzle (in speclal lgC1)
blocheaz aLa;ara bacLerlllor ;l vlrsrllor la recepLorll cellarl
efecL opsonlzanL (favorlzeaz fagoclLoza bacLerlllor capslaLe prln legare la recepLorl penLr
lc de pe sprafa(a Mn)
efecL lcroblcld prln acLlvarea copleenLll pe cale claslc lgM fllnd de aprox 1000 x
al eflclenLe decL lgC
Ac flxa(l pe deLerlnan(l Ag de pe sprafa(a cellelor lnfecLaLe le Lransfor in (lnLe penLr
copleenL ;l celle nk c recepLorl penLr lgC (clLoLoxlclLaLe dependenL de Ac)
q4 oiqr oproreo onimicrobion o mcooe/or

spunsu| |mun ce|u|ar
||mfoc|te|e @ [oac un ro| ma[or |n aprarea |mun fa de patogen|| |ntrace|u|ar|
sunt |mp||cate dou subpopu|a|| ce|u|are
||mfoc|te @ c|totox|ce (@c cytotox|c k|||er) care |dent|f|c ce|u|e |nfectate care
expr|m pe suprafaa |or g v|ra|e asoc|ate Mn c|as | |e omoar pr|n perfor|ne
sau |nducerea apoptoze|
||mfoc|te @ a[uttoare (@h @ he|per)
9art|cu|ar|t| a|e aprr|| |mune |a nounscut
nounscutu| are capac|tatea de a dezvo|ta rspuns |mun dar nu are exper|en ant|gen|c
aprarea spec|f|c |n pr|me|e |un| este as|gurat de gG materne transm|se transp|acentar
rata catabo||smu|u| c matern| depete rata de s|ntez a c propr|| ceea ce exp||c
h|pogamag|obu||nem|a f|z|o|og|c |ntre |un||e 24 de v|a extrauter|n (fereastr
|muno|og|c)
consec|ne
recept|v|tatea crescut |a |nfec|| cu bac||| gramnegat|v| sau cu bacter||
|ntrace|u|are
preven|rea unor |nfec|| |a nn pr|n vacc|narea mame|
programarea corect a vacc|nr||or
d|agnost|cu| sero|og|c |a nn a unor |nfec|| congen|ta|e (gM |nfec|a a nn gG
transm|| transp|acentar)